A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 3, December 1654 - August 1655. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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June (3 of 7)
A letter of intelligence to secretary Thurloe.
This inclosed mr. Palmer had from Cullen; and because they in pollese alter thare names, I humbly consaved it is my duetie to make it oute as well as I could; but considering the badness of scribe and pen, I hope your honor will accept of my poor endeavours. Mr. Palmer knows one mr. Awdwin, a little man, and brown hair; another called Bab May, much like the first; the third called Charles May, a middle sized man, slender, lean, and brown hair; the fourth a tall black man, formerly related to the duke of Buckingham. This last he consaves the most considerable for business, but at present knows none of their lodgings, but will endeavour it, if by your honor commanded. If you please to have him to speak with you, or send me any aurder or directions to him, you may, I humbly consave, with much safety do it, by mr. Reves his hyhnes shew maker, who lives next door to the Three Pidgeons in the Coveen Garden, near Longaker. Allsoe mr. Gallmer is much troubled at the puplishing those horrid plotts, for he sath by that means they are now soe frightid, that five is allriddy gone. Agane he verrely thinks others is soe exseding fly and cunning, that it's hard to gane there lodgings. He furder sath, if you would please to allter but that cummission he hath, and let him be nomynatid collonall, insteade of lefetennant collonall, he should by that meanes be inabled to culler the bisnes; and he is consydent all the hole gang would flock to him, and communycate any thing to him, by which means he should, as he is consydent, doe much more servis. But praying the God, who is perfectly wise, to give you all that you neede, and make you strong for himselfe, as in dutie bound, take leave, and in all fathfullnes, as in duetie bound, remane your verre humbell servant,
Secretary Caillet to Barriere, the prince of Conde's agent.
The two armies of Turenne and de la Ferte are joined. They have not yet undertaken any thing, and their troops are round about Guise, where they make great preparations. Some say they have a design upon Landrecy, others Rocroy. But to tell you the truth, we cannot yet certainly tell their design, till we see them upon their march. The two forementioned are very well provided both with men and ammunition. We do persuade ourselves, that they are very much troubled to resolve what place they had best set upon, else they would not have delayed thus long before something had been done by them. And we are not like to do any thing but defend ourselves this campagne, to which end we have strongly manned and fortified all our garrisons.
The prince of Condé to Rookeby.
I have seen by your letter of the 25th of May the continuation of your good will and affection, whereof I desire you to believe that I do make a very good esteem, as I ought; and that I am very much obliged to you for it. I have not at present wherewithall to give you for the levy of a regiment. When I have any means to do it, I will do it with all my heart; and I do promise you to keep all the prisoners, that shall fall into my hands, for your exchange. In the mean time assure yourself, there is not any body that doth respect or love you more than I do.
A letter of intelligence from Holland.
Since my last of the 11th I have not any from you. The last money I charged on mr. Upton is come to my handes, for which I humbly thanke you. These are now preparinge both by land and water to oppose the Sweads, in case they come uppon their frontiers. They have issued out orders for 100 foote companys, and 30 troopes of. horse, to reinforce their garrisons in Groenningen-land, in Overissel, and the land of Cleave. There are also 16 shipps makinge ready, which shall goe under the commaund of Tromp for the Sound, and 20 preparinge for de Ruyter to commaund, which they give out shall goe into the Streights; but I am informed they are all designed for the Sound, to keep that passage cleare, in case the Sweed makes any attempt on Dantzick; whereupon they wayte, and shall receave their commissions accordingly. There is a great feare in these parts, least the Sweed should march this waye; and the more because the provinces are at great differences one with the other, and the townes disagree; neither doe they knowe whoe to cheuse to commaund their forces, for Breedroode is very ill of the dropsie, yet will not subceed to any other. Count Maurice of Nassawe their liestenant general of horse and made prince by the emperor, will not be commanded by Breedroode; nor will the lord of Beverwaert their major general submitt to him; and Holland will not consent, that prince William of Friesland commaund in chief, lest he should seduce the armye, and declare for the young prince of Orange. Indeed these countryes are sick of discontents, and apparently will be ruined by them. Trade, which is the only prop that upholdes them, growes every day worse and worse, whereof I heare all men complayne. Here is arrived 4 shipps from the East Indyes, and 9 more expected, the which revives them. They fear we shall gett the trade of the West Indies from them, from whence is expected great newes concerning general Penn's fleet. Sir Richard Malleverer is gone to Ceullen, to make his report to C. S. He sayes, that he hopes to gett most of his estate againe out of your handes; to which purpose his lady is now solicitinge at London. He hath brought letters of creddit for 400 l. and expects 6 horsses from Ingland, 2 of which are in the handes of lord Willoughby of Parham, which still gives mee a jealousie, that he was acquainted with the last plott. I presume 'tis he, that is to desire a pass for his horsses, whereof you may make use, as you see occasion. He sayeth, that if they had gone to York with those few men, they might have had the towne delivered, where laye 40 thousand poundes ready for the prosecutinge of the desingne. He left Armorer in London, and Darcy within 10 myles coming up, where they make their rendezvous. There is a great fault in your officers at Dover; for the cavaliers saye, any of them can pass there for 20 s. but must take the opportunitye, when Dutch shipps come over. Therefore if strict search wear made in them, you would meet with our enemyes. I am at a place at present, where I can neyther get good papers or pen; therefore you will please to excuse my scribblinge. This is what I have to advise you this tyme; only shall ad, that I am
Your most faythfull humble servant,
Mr. Richard Heneage to the protector.
May it please your highnes,
I Humbly acknowledge my unworthines, I should presume to withdrawe your highnes thoughts from your farre more waihty considerations, to take notice of any thinge my weake apprehensions can meete withall. Yet in case of but a suspicion of the least dainger to the publique welfare soe happily setled under your highnes protection, (the present condition of this county standinge as it doth,) I thought it my duty to give your highnes information of some late transactions, which have within these sewe days come to my knowledge neere the place where I live. Allthough it hath pleased the Lord in mercy in such an unexpected manner to discover the late plotts of the common enemie, for which the hand of juistice in some mesure hath light upon them; yet it's feered they will not yet cease. Upon thursday last (beinge but two dayes since) a meetinge (to the number of aboute 20 persons) was taken notice of at the house of one mr. Kinaston's of Oatley (an esq; of this country of considerable meanes and command in his neighbourhood, having bine in armes for the late king, and lately secured (though since enlarged) as one of sir Thomas Harrys his confederacys in the late plott) amongst which company was one major Cole, who was present with sir Thomas Harrys at the tyme of his apprehension, and fled, yet nowe presumes againe to shew himselfe. Allsoe one Hurleston, whoe, as is informed, was a coll. for the late kinge, and of the Hurlestons of Chester, in one of whose howses sir William Malevory was taken, and afterwards escaped from Chester. The names of the rest I cannot yet lerne; but by their associates suspected to be of the same fether. Whether there hath been any the like meetinges in other places in this county, a shorte tyme will produce. This meeting putts many well affected persons here into suspition of some new designe in hatchinge; it beinge taken notice of in the county of Mountgomery (as I am credibly informed) that divers disaffected persons of quallity in that county, whoe at the tyme, when Kinaston shewed himself there, weere seene abroad in armes, ready to have joyned with that party, and have beene never yet questioned. These things cominge to my knowledge, beinge in my owne neighbourhood, in regard informations of this nature (which should be of the speediest passage) are sometyme slowe paced, if conveyed through many hands, I thought it my duty to present from my owne immediate, though soe meane a hand, to your highnes consideration; and doe humbly and sincerely prosesse my selfe,
One of the faithfull, though unworthiest of your highnes late comissioned officers in the county of Salop,
Mr. Samuel Morland to secretary Thurloe.
I Gave your honour an account in my last, of the good successe wee had at the court of France, which I sent with all the expedition I possiblie could, together with the king and cardinall's letters to his highnesse, and count Brienne's to your selfe, by the messenger, that I tooke up at Dover; which I hope is arrived e're this at London; as also of that respect, which was shewn us by his majestie at our departure, by sending with us a convoy, consisting of the captaine and 5 others of his majestie's own guard, 21 English miles; and besides that one of the chiefe courriers of his cabinett to conduct us throughout the whole journey, in case wee found it necessary. Hee has already accompany'd us to the court of Paris, which place I entered in a disguise, and where we are very privatly; and where wee have provided our cloths and other necessaryes for our journey. And indeed I doe plainly find upon enquiry and serious consideration, that as hitherto wee could hardly have passed so much as one stage, for want of horses, without him; so neither can wee proceed on in our journey, if we want his assistance. For my own particular, since first setting out, I have seen such remarkable providences, not onely in our successe at the court of France, but also in our manie deliverances from very eminent daingers (the particulars whereof to recite would bee too tedious) that I doubt not but his highnesse and your honour will in the issue receive abundant satisfaction in all things, save onely in the expedition and expence of our journey. As for the first of these, I am afraid your honour expects wee should have been further onwards in our journey; but I trust, when your honour shall consider the impossibilitie of getting posthorses between Calais and the court, and our avoyding the common road, with those other accidents, which usually attend such a voyage, it will bee some satisfaction. And as to the other, namely, the expence hitherto, although it has been much more then the council or your honour did expect, yet when the particulars, which I have here inclosed, shall bee considered, with their circumstances, both of the increase and almost the doubling of our number allotted us, and that necessarily; together with those gratuities, which wee apprehend unavoyable in all ingenuity, and having respect to the honour of my lord protector, I trust also that our behaviour may admitt of a favourable construction; at least the excesse thereof may be imputed to our weaknesse, rather then any wilfull negligence, prodigalitie, or dishonest dealing. As to that part, which followes of our journey, wee find upon enquiry, that it is from Paris to Turin 164 leagues, which is 82 stages, at every of which wee must pay for every horse, according to the king's own order, (which is a known and constant price) 20 sols, which is in English money 1 s. 8 d. Now wee being six in companie, must bee forced to take 2 guides (according to the custom of the country) for so many horses, which will bee therefore 8 in number; and so every stage will amount to 13 s. 4 d. for horse-hire, besides, the two guides must have ten sols apiece, which is 1 s. 8 d. which being added to 13 s. 4 d. makes 15 s. the whole horse-hire for one stage; so that for 82 stages, according to this account, our horse-hire from Paris to Turin will amount to 61 l. 10 s. And supposing that wee shall be 10 dayes (which will bee the least) in riding it, wee finding dyet extraordinary deare in this country, and even double to what it is in England; and having with us a servant of the king's, cannot think to come of for lesse than 25 s. and sometimes much more; which will come to 12 or 14 l. more at the least. Besides all this, wee heare wee must have a convoy, when wee come into Savoy, being the French army is thereabouts. Upon the whole it appears by our bills wee have but 50 l. 3 s. 9 d. lest of 300 l. which wee have already received; and wee have but 100 l. more allowed to take up; which in all is 150 l. whereof 75 l. or 80 l. will be spent ere wee arrive at the court of Turin. Where fore wee doe earnestly entreat your honour, to the end that wee may not run the hazard of any extremitie or inconvenience, to send us so soon as possible bills of credit, with such reserves, that wee may take up what moneyes wee shall find necessary, to mr. Heusch; and I have taken order with him to convey them to us at Turin; as also wee intreate your particular orders concerning what gratuity my lord protector will bee pleased to give the king of France his gentleman. I suppose hee expects, if he goe through with us and back againe, no lesse then 100 pistolls. However that I leave wholly to my lord protector and your honour's order; which I shall endeavour to follow precisely, as in all things else. I have wrote a duplicat of this letter, but least they should both miscarry, I have entreated my merchant mr. Heusch to give us a bill of credit for 50 pistolls more, besides what you ordered by exchange to receive at Turin; for which he has engaged mee, to entreat your honor to give order for the payment of those 50 pistolls to mr. Lucas Luce at London. Wee are now hastning our journey. I trust the Lord is with us. I am willing to hazard all that is deare to mee in the cause.
An abstract of a letter from Cologne, sent by mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg.
Wee expect here daily the lord Belcarres, who is in the way, and when he comes, something will be attempted. He comes with instructions for a full reconciliation 'twixt the queen and 194. The lord Wentworth is now returned hither, where he hath but little credit. Wilmot is yet in England, and Middleton is now at Munster, coming hither. His great crony sir Edward Hyde hath sent thither the lord Newburgh, sir William Fleming, sir George Hamilton, and William Armorer the engineer, and Genhos the trumpet to convey him, as if he had deserved a triumph. The lord Gerard is gone to Heidelburg to make his condition with prince Rupert to go into Italy. Just now mr. Brienne, formerly a captain in France under lord Digby, and mr. Williams, one of mr. Ascham's murderers in Spain, are come hither from England.
A letter of intelligence.
I came hither but this morning, and in post from Presburg; but one is come in two days less than I, who brings for certain, that the young archduke Ignatio Leopoldo is elected king of Hungary by universal applause the 16th instant, which is the great news of those parts, and welcome hither. This is of great concernment, and much difficulty was to bring it to the pass. Many will be drunk before night about it.
The king of Swedeland assures the emperor, that he will not undertake any thing against him or the empire, but perform the treaties of peace made, notwithstanding the emperor arms and recruits daily his old standing regiments. The empress was crowned the 6th of this month.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours I received by this post, by which I see all is quiet with the protector and his government. I have not writ to you last week being indisposed, and having little matter. For news, we have not much. This little court lives still in some splendor; and I protest I wonder by what means, for it cannot be the stipend which France allows, that supports it; and the monies given by the empire are long since exhausted; so that certainly they have some other secret ways to get monies; and what they be I know not.
Here has been lately from France (as I am told by a good author) one monsieur Fontanelles, sent very secretly by Mazarin to conser with R. C. and take it from me, at present they have some treaty in hand; my authors assure me of it, and that the principal part is for R. C. to marry one of the cardinal's nieces. Some more of this matter you may shortly hear by some other way. It is no new matter, for it was contrived in Paris before the late rising in England betwixt R. C. and Mazarin; but the little queen gave interruption to it. Now it is freshly retreated. They talk here of a new design in England. R. C. and his brother Gloucester are very well, and their whole court. I believe the princess royal will be soon here; to which end her brother has taken the whole house where he lived, when your friend was here; and the lady of that house has taken another for her own dwelling near it. General Middleton came to Munster in Westphalia yesterday or the day before. The lord Newbury, sir George Hamilton, and several others are gone thither to conduct him hither. I hear the noble cavalier came over in a low condition. Ormond, Daniel O Neil, young Belinge, secretary Lane, with one or two more did lately visit the duke of Newburg by R. C.'s orders. They made no longer stay than for one dinner.
Mr. Talbot parted from hence, but whither, I do not know; he has some officious business præmanibus, one blind plot or other; but sure they are wiser now in England, than further to ruin themselves for a known cursed generation, or else they are equally cursed.
Heinsius, the Dutch resident in Sweden, to Ruysch.
Nobilissime et amplissime vir,
Non semel jam per literas te monui, quam magnos per hanc civitatem strepitus excitarit apparatus Belgarum fœderatorum navalis. In aulâ quoque iis exceptus est vulgo sermonibus, qui pacati nihil præsagiant aut expectent; quo magis doleo, vix quicquam ad me perscribi eorum, quæ huc spectantia celsissimus nuper senatus decrevisse dicitur, cum ad Suecos omnia tam minima quam maxima accurate perscribantur. Mandatis certe instruendus eram, si non luculentis solidisque, at iis tamen, quæ rumoris pertinaciam coercerent nonnihil ac frænarent. Nunc fit, ut regis procerumque congressu sedulus me subducam, ne pertractus ab iis in hujus argumenti colloquia, in quæ pertrahendum me fore prævideo, parum ad rem respondeam, & imprudens quid peccem ex rerum gestarum ignorantiâ, quam illos, pro subdolâ ac malignâ ignorantiæ simulatione interpretaturos, atque hoc ipso suspicionibus constantius indulturos, certum est. Auguror tamen ea proxime adfutura mandata, quibus tuto imposterum adquiescam, quæque omnem prorsus sluctuationem animo meo evellant. Ex Belgarum classe Balticum mare aditurâ jam solvisse quinæ naves nunciantur; secuturas septem aut octo alias, idque sine morâ, fert rumor, nescio an verè. Præstaret tamen, si quid judico, nullas omnino mitti, quam mitti adeo paucas, quæ nec præsidio possint esse, et si quid in onerarias hostile Sueci tentent, facili negotio cedant, si onerarias tueantur irrito conatu. Viginti sex aut triginta ad minimum mittendæ videntur, quæ in omnem eventum paratæ adcurrant, ac sint præsto. Sed confido sapientissimum senatum huic rei, ut par est, abunde prospecturum. Interim persuadearis velim, ut credas, hoc tam exiguo numero non minus offendendum regem sore, quam si classem ex Belgio validissimam adfore intelligat. De re exploratâ loqui me arbitrare jam ter quaterve in meis, . . . . quæ classem regiam spectarent, ejusque indicem ad te dedi satis accuratum, daturus paulo accuratiorem hodie, si potero; sin minus, proxime. Ex quadraginta navibus eam constitutam Sueci audacter adfirmant; sed non persuadent; habeo enim compertum vix posse per totam Sueciam corradi tot naves bello idoneas. Vicenas possident, duabus fortaffis additis, egregias omnino, firmissimasque. Cæteræ aut invalidæ ac cariosæ sunt, aut minutæ. Omnes tamen, tam hæ quam illæ, tormentis bellicis iisque magnæ molis probe instructæ. Navalium sociorum quinque millia conscripta esse dicuntur; classis ipsa rebus necessariis necedum plene est instructa, ut tricenas naves vix sit exhibitura, nisi mense integro, etiamnum in hoc portu hæreat. Tres ex iis jam altum tenent, quarum prima Wittenbergium, secunda Ulefeldium vexit; utrumque in Pomeraniam, tertia Lenenhoofdium in Livoniam. Quarta etiam parata est, quæ comitem Magnum codem perferat. Rex profectionem differre pergit. Alii peractis comitus mox abiturum serunt; alii hic moraturum, dum certius intelligat, quid sibi sit expectandum de nostra republica. Orator Gallicus, qui sequi castra decreverat, necdum cogitationes istas projecit, etsi rex quodam modo præ se ferat non fore sibi valde acceptum publicorum ministrorum comitatum. Missus est legatus in Daniam, qui agat cum rege Daniæ de arcendis mari Baltico exteris navibus. Id jam communicavit is illi cum cancellario, nam rex Daniæ abest, idque studio fortassis et datâ: operâ: qua de re plura proximis. De electore Brandeburgico quæ sparguntur, tam hic quam apud vos, falsa esse ac temerè conficta opinor. Aliquam adhibui diligentiam, ut in rem inquirerem; non est tam bono in hac aulâ loco, quam jactatur esse. Vale, vir nobilissime, amplissime, et savorem celsissimi senatûs conciliare mihi perge. Dabam Holmiæ 9/19 Junii 1655.
Heinsius, the Dutch resident at Sweden to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, these four following holidays have rendered this week altogether fruitless, there having been nothing transacted of moment in regard of publick affairs; wherewith the court is still very busy. The thanksgiving day, which was said should have been yesterday, is deferred till next week. Courland is resolved to accept of the protection of this state and crown. Whether Lithuania will do the same, is still expected, whereof is doubtfully spoken. The lord Christiern Bonde, who is designed for ambassador extraordinary for England, is still in this court, but doth intend to depart hence very suddenly. The lord treasurer, count Magnus Gabriel de la Garde, doth intend to imbark himself within few days to be transported for Lysland, there to officiate the charge of governor general. Concerning his majesty's departure there do still pass several discourses; and some are of opinion, that the same is deferred for a while longer, in regard the general assembly doth draw to a conclusion, whereof he doth intend to see an end before he departs.
Vicle, president of Brussels, to Barriere.
I Have received your letter of the 10th, whereby I perceive, that your affairs are still in the same condition. Ours here do not advance much neither. His highness sent me word, that the enemy was quartered near Guise; and that Turenne and la Ferte were joined; but had not undertaken any siege, neither could he well tell what place they aimed at. His highness hath also writ to you to send back mr. de Chastemesle, with orders for the receiving of the fifty thousand crowns at Antwerp; and he hath writ to me to confirm the same thing unto you. I make no doubt, but you will do it punctually. I send you a cypher, which you are to make use of. The marquis of Cugnac is going to serve under his highness in the army, who hath provided a place for him.
A letter of intelligence.
Cardinal de Retz hath written to his chapter at Nostredame, nominating two priests to be his vicars general, others than those whom the court appointed. The letter was brought by a stranger, and delivered when the chapter were met together; and being opened before it was known from whence it came, it was read by the Greffier; and after wards two of the canons went to the chancellor to acquaint him with it. He blamed them for reading of it, for the king had forbidden any letters to be received from the cardinal de Retz; but he gave no further answer, till he should know the king's pleasure. But the cardinal de Retz's pleasure and command is now known. The men appointed for vicars by him, as well as those whom the king formerly appointed, have notice thereof; they are all sworn to canonical obedience to their archbishop. What will be hereupon done, we look after, as much as some in London do after Coney's cause. By that time you let me know the issue of the one, I may be able to tell you the event of the other. The news, which I most look after, is the proceedings of the treaty with monsieur de Bordeaux, for the consequence thereof will concern some of your friends.
A letter of intelligence.
Our army on the frontiers of the Spanish Low Countries lies as yet without action, and Paris without news from those parts. You have perhaps already heard, that the king, queen, and duke of Anjou were all in the same danger, as well as in the same coach. The two first horses had already precipitated themselves beside the bridge; the rest were following; but several of the footmen leaping suddenly to the wheels, held the coach till the traces were cut, and so the diaster prevented. The king's countenance not so much as changed; for though his person was nigh the danger, his courage was above the fear. In Catalonia the prince of Conti hath done something, a town called Cap de Quiers rendered after some six days siege. Victories are still represented with advantage. It is reported, that this town, though little, is of great importance, as facilitating much the commerce between Languedock and Catalonia.
Brienne to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
I could have been easily persuaded not to have returned any answer to your letter of the 9th of this month, which was delivered me yesterday in this town, because in my foregoing the king had sufficiently declared himself, what were his intentions, and how gladly he had received what was proposed to him on the behalf of the protector, which both his letter and the reception shewn to the gentleman will bear witness thereof; so that we may have cause to believe that the treaty is signed.
My lord embassador Servien hath writ me word, that the duke of Savoy having taken into consideration the counsels of his majesty, had graciously answered to the commissioners of the protestant cantons, who had been to speak with him about that business; to whom he made it appear, that it was not out of hatred to their religion that he caused his subjects to be punished, but for rebelling against his commands, and breaking his laws several times; and for coming into those places, where he had not given them leave to inhabit; and had they kept in their bounds, he would not have assaulted those miserable creatures; but they would not be contented with what they had, but came and made inroads into his country, which he was resolved not to suffer. If this being said will advance the signing of the treaty, you may do it.
We do believe here, that the marquis of Leda hath already taken his leave, and is upon his way home, having received orders to that purpose. We are certainly informed, the enemy is resolved to stand upon their defensive this summer. This is enough to justify their weakness. We are ready to go upon some design; our generals are already gone upon it; but I cannot yet assure you, what it is; but we intend to make war in the heart of the country, they having no forces on foot sufficient to withstand us. It doth highly concern the interest of his majesty's affairs at present to see an end of your treaty.
Cardinal Mazarin to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
You will be informed of the intentions of the king by the letters of the earl of Brienne, to which I refer my self. I am persuaded that at present the people in England do begin to see the wrong they have been in, by giving too much credit to the reports of the business of Lucerne; since they will have heard, that as soon as his majesty had been advertised of what had past in those parts against the protestants, he sent presently thither to intercede for them; and gave his orders to monsieur Lesdiguieres, to receive them in Dauphiné, which is altogether publick, and long before the arrival of the envoy of the lord protector. In short and in truth, he is a sovereign prince, and no ways depending upon the king, who would chastise some of his subjects, whom he had declared rebels, and who without explaining his designs to the troops of the king, who were marching over the mountains to go to the relief of the duke of Modena, did only assign them their quarters in the vallies of Lucerne, and Angrogne, whose inhabitants making profession of the protestant religion refused to receive the said troops. This denial having caused the soldiers to quarrel with the said inhabitants, there were some fifty of them killed, without any other cruelty exercised upon them, unless they were those which they exercised themselves; for they committed a hundred times worse cruelties upon the catholicks. This is the true matter of fact.
By the committee of officers at commissary general Whalley's house.
In pursuance of your order of the 7th instant, we have informed our selves of the matters of fact concerning the stopping of 9 pence per week out of the pay of the Irish foot now in England; and do find, that since October 1653, the foot soldiers in Ireland have been paid 5 s. 3 d. to each per week, of which they receive weekly three shillings and six pence in money, one brown George valued at 12 d. and the remaining 9 d. per week hath been stopped to buy for each of them one suit of cloaths yearly. That the Irish foot now in England were so paid from the said month of October 1653, untill the day of their landing in England, being the 15th of January last; and each of them in October last had one suit of cloaths delivered to him.
That by an order of his highness and the council, bearing date the 2d day of March following, the foot forces, that came out of Ireland, are ordered to be paid from the 15th of January (the time of their landing in England) equally with the forces in England; that since that time they have received for each foot soldier five shillings and one penny per week; and the remaining nine pence hath been respited for clothes; so that there remaineth due to each foot soldier of them, that have been in the service since October last unto this day, for the said time, being 8 months, at the rate of 9 d. per week, twenty four shillings; and so proportionably to each of them that hath been listed since.
A letter of intelligence.
It is no new thing in me to desire, that occasions should offer, when I may serve you, and to desire to know of your health, and to advise you (as I now do) of the estate, which things seem to have at present betwixt this kingdom, and that commonwealth. I wrote you days past by sea twice, and depending on the favour you always shew me, I desire you to put an end unto my business; for the fears, which we have at present, do rather promise discord than agreement, by reason of the coming of Blake's fleet (about thirty fail) when we were with much confidence sending of an advice to the Havanna, that the galleons might securely come without fear of any hurt from the English, which, 'tis said, are gone thither. Then Blake came again to the Canvelo's, and was there about eight days, where having refreshed himself, and the general holding worse correspon dencies than he ought with such a gentleman as the duke of Medina Celi, who lives at the port, and offered him the port freely; but having provided all he would, he put to sea again, leaving two ships behind him to bring his reverage which he wanted, and carried with him James Wilson, who was agent in Cadiz for the parliament, besides others, which he brought along with him from Malaga, who were employed in making some provisions for the English fleet; and as it appears this fleet is come from the Levant, with a design to wait for our galleons, and to carry them; for very often they repart themselves in three squadrons, and the English merchants of these parts procure to embark themselves for England. The duke of Medina Celi hath been in the bay of Cadiz, seeking ships of war to put to sea about fourteen or sixteen sail; and hath sent to Seville for artillery, and hath ordered, that the fleet for new Spain do not proceed, but to retire to Puntall, where it is ordered, that a claim may be made for security, until new order shall come from the council.
There came three Flemish ships into Cadiz six days past, who brought a Turkish prize; and they told for news, that they met the aviso, which came from Carthagena; but in chasing their Turkish prize, they lost the aviso; and this day it is reported, that the said aviso is arrived at Ayamonte (with many dead Turks, which they killed out of three Turkish ships that they encountered) and it is said, that the English fleet arrived at Carthagena, where the galleons were in assault. The English lost three thousand men, by which means the galleons will stay until a fleet go for them. This news I cannot affirm, being uncertain, in regard I have not talked with, nor seen any that came in the ship.
A letter of intelligence to mr. Petit.
It is thought that the bargain made by mr. Scotti of cardinal Montalto's country-house will be ineffectual, by reason his holiness will not, because of the judgment every one would make, that this acquisition was bought for his holiness's family, which makes us conjecture, that his holiness is not yet disposed to call for any of his kindred, what necessities soever be represented unto him thereupon.
The Venetian embassador continues his instances to obtain from his holiness the forces, which have been raised a while since for the security of the ecclesiastical state; but his holiness cannot give it this campagne, by reason of the war with Modena, which obligeth him to maintain some troops.
The Spaniards here are something astonished at the taking of Cap de Quieres in Catalonia, as also at the marriage of cardinal Mazarin's niece with the prince of Modena, which makes them think the French will succour the duke of Modena. A great disorder was like to happen some days since in the datary; and to make an exemplary punishment thereof upon all the guilty they have sent for all the soldiers, and serjeants, and ushers; but it hath been only a mistake made of an old custom, which is, that in all the expedition of the coadjutories of benefices, situated beyond the mountains, they are used to antedate the bulls of two months, for fear that, in the length of the time there must be to obtain them, the possessor of the benesice should come to die, as it happeneth very often.
An intercepted letter.
On saturday last were committed to the Tower, lord Will, of Parham, lord Franc. Newport and his brother mr. Harry Seymour, mr. Jeffry Palmer, and sir Orlando Bridgman must follow thither as soone as gout will give him leave; besides, multitudes more taken in London, sir Frederick Cornwallis, &c. and in Oxonshire lord Lovelace, lord Faulkland, sir John Burlacy, earl of Lindsy, cum multis aliis, lord Cambden, and God knowes who else in other parts; hundreds more (they say) are in his highnesse pockett. And none that I can meet with can so much as guesse the businesse.
The honest clergy are in a most tottering condition; so that your friend mr. Williams
will scarce be able to serve you any longer in that measure he desires to do. At present
he willed me to tell you, he will make that little he has up to 10 l. and returne it you this
week; only he sayes he is sorry he must reckon in this summe the bookes he lately sent
you. God prepare us for worse times, if worse can come. But come what times will, I
cannot be altered from being yours everlastingly,
Wee shall suddenly have greate offices, lord Richard Cromwell, admirall and lieutenant of the Tower; lord Harry lieutenant of Ireland; Fleetwood lord treasurer. And now— we are accountable for our actions to none but God.
An extract of a letter from Geneva, June 12, 1655. [N. S.]
Gallus negat factum esse jusio suo, quod milites Galli carnificinæ Pedemontanoram intersuerunt, sed authoritate principis Thomæ Sabaudi, qui copiis Gallicis præfectus est. Excusat tamen illum aliquatenus, quia nempe, cum deducturus esset exercitum Gallicum, Mutinam versus iter faciens, existimavit se posse rebelles subditos domare, neque enim, ait, polemarchis præsiguntur limites augusti adeò. Scio tamen mandatum regimentis aliquibus datum ab iis, qui principis locum tenebant, ut fratres Pedemontanos aggrederentur, non suisse executioni mandatum, quia renuerunt id præstare; atque idcirco electi fuerunt aliqui ex singulis regimentis, qui id operæ vellent suscipere. Audimus abinde regem Galliæ protectionem suam offerre ac conferre fratribus nostris Pedemontanis, sed (in cauda venenum) prohibet, ne quispiam actus hostilis extat adversus ducem Sabaudiæ et subditos ejus. Venit ad nos nudius tertius pastor nomine fratrum Pedemontanorum renuncius, deputatum ab Helvertiis nocuisse, non profuisse, quia dum colloqueretur cum nostris, quos advocaverat in regionem proximam, Sabaudi milites fratrum milites propulerunt Lucernâ, non sine jacturâ. Deinde deputatus suasit duci suspensionem armorum per semestre, quam promisit ei se persuasurum sratribus Pedemontanis. Nostri verò videntes in eo positum esse certum exitium suum recusarunt, ac meritò quidem; quod dux illis vitio vertit, ansamque inde arripit pertensam eorum ambitionem exaggerandi. Conceperant Sabaudi verendum esse, ne Helvetii arma sumerent hac occasione; at metum ilium ut abjicerent secit deputatio postrema, non vitio et culpa deputantium, sed deputati. Vix ulla spes assulget aliunde quàm à D. D, protectore, potentissimo Dei organo ad gloriæ ipsius promotionem. Deus O. M. et pietati ejus, et zelo, et copiis bene omnia succedere jubeat. Galli omnes Helvetiique Germani non pauci collectas eleemosynarias iis parant, at homines vix possunt ministrare, ni adsunt hortamenta prægnantiora. Deus ex alto velit animos et zelum addere. Si nostri, quorum exercitus est mille hominum audaciâ leoninâ, melius dixerim, heroicâ, instructorem ducem aliquem, ac præfectum haberent experientissimum; si homines aliquot supervenirent armati, vel inermes facilè in ipsa regione armandi, res eorum in tuto esse posita; alias sanè vix sufficere possunt tot conflictibus contra bis aut ter mille homines. Imò et si forent validiores, dux promptiùs et faciliùs adduceretur ad pacem aliquam cum iis ineundam, Quantum erit Deo gratum, domino protectoris serenissimi præsidium et opera, quam ministraturus est afflictissimis fratribus! quam bene merebitur de nostris ecclesiis! protector ille regum & protectorum velit illi Nestoreos annos, populos felices, successus exoptatos largiri, &c.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
Though I have not received any from you theise two last posts, yet I may not omit my respects to you, though I have nothinge to ad to this inclosed paper, theise parts affourding very little at present, save onely that the Swedes are at last upon their march towards Pomerania, at least the resident hath sent me such word, that yesterday and to day they were by express commanded to move.
I waite your answer to my last and former weekes letters, hopeinge it will come in tyme
for my direction against midsomer, the tyme of the election, which is all the truble I shall
give you at present, subscribinge,
Sir, your humble servant,
News little. Our whole time spent in putting the old news in execution, Count Gustavus Lyenhost feld-marshal of the Liesland army, being to depart within two or three days to his command there. Count Magnus to follow in few days. The whole body of foot and horse here are to be imbarked the beginning of the next week for Pomerania; and the general opinion is, that his majesty will follow about 14 days hence.
The coronation of our young prince Leopold remains still deferred, and it's believed, will not be solemnized untill the emperor (who resuseth to give satisfaction to the states of Hungaria in those things as are most just and reasonable) be brought to another pass, and something more tractable than he is at present. In the mean time, his majesty endeavours as much as in him lyes, to compleat his intended army, with all speed, against the Turks and Muscovites, whom we still suspect, the extraordinary delay of the Swedish design, having in a manner assured us, that by them there is no ill intended against us.
There is nothing as yet of what the parliament in Poland hath concluded. This day two embassadors are expected thence, bound for Sweden, with instructions for accommodation; the one a Pole, Lessensky by name (one of the greatest families in Poland) and the other a Littower, from Riga. They write, the Muscovites are beaten from Dimenberg, and that the Swedes march that way, to free that stream, which would be good for Riga. The sickness continues still amongst the Muscovites, who have not yet took the field.
The Swedish forces do not stir yet. Some say, they will not stir this fortnight yet. Most are of a contrary opinion; and that within two or three days, they will all leave the Stift of Breme, by reason of its insufficiency to maintain them any longer.
Mr. Aldworth, English consul at Marseilles, to mr. Petit.
The present is to let you know, that, according unto the order past in the king's council, to release in all the French ports, the ships of our nation, which have been arrested there, the duke of Vendome having released all those, which were kept from us here, he hath two days after caused them to be of new arrested; and hath told me, that he would release none, untill the articles of the peace with our commonwealth be signed; so that we must wait for that good news, before any of them can go out; although I have to that purpose, besides the publick order, a particular one of his majesty, which the said duke would not look upon, having told me, that he would answer unto the king for his actions. In all likelihood the fleet of Toulon is going either to Naples or to Barcelona. Eight ships are preparing to carry foot soldiers to Barcelona.
A letter of intelligence.
Since the putting of the eight Latin verses mentioned in my last from the picture, which was distributed here of his highness the lord protector, to gratify the desire of the people to hear the explication of the same, they have been turned into French verses. a copy whereof I do send you here inclosed; that if you think it sit, you might get them printed there, none daring do it here. But if you send them hither afterwards, you will greatly oblige all honest men here. For I can assure you as of a most real truth, that his highness's picture and his praises thereto adjoined have caused here a very great terror to all the enemies of the truth. All good men, and especially the godly, that are under the oppression, do bless him and look upon his highness as upon their deliverer sent by God to deliver his people from the hard yoke of the Babylonian captivity. They pray incessantly to God, that he would please to preserve and protect his highness, that he might be instrumental in the preserving and advancing of God's work as gloriously as by his divine grace he hath begun. A great many here do revere his highness with their very heart, even his enemies are forced to confess, that he is an extraordinary person. I could have matter enough to enlarge this letter with many particulars concerning our poor prosecuted brethren in Savoy and Piedmont; but I was so prolix the last time, that I forbear further to trouble you at this time; only I shall desire you to take notice of this passage, that I am informed from a very good hand, that the queen mother to the king hath engaged and promised to assist the duke of Savoy against our party; and that if he will but continue the course he hath taken against them, and go on, he will not only receive assistance from France in that particular, but further this crown will furnish him with such forces and means as may enable him to take Geneva itself; which as it cannot be effected but by treachery, so it behooves that place to be watchful; and we have a great interest to prevent it, &c.
Lord chief baron Steele to secretary Thurloe.
This day sending to enquire of mr. Southerne, I finde that being fitter for another, hee is translated out of this world, which till this day I remember not was ever made knowne to mee. I thought good upon notice hereof to signifie the same, for prevention any trouble his highnes might bee at in enquiring after him, because I perceived him yesterday rejoyced at the news of such a person. Having revolved in my thoughts since I sawe you what others there might bee, who are fitt in one capacity or other to supply the vacancyes, that are or may bee in severall places, I have thought on mr. Martin of Lincolnes-Inne, and one mr. Taylor of Grays-Inne. The first, I suppose, is knowne to you; the other also is a person eminently religious, and I thinke was of mr. Lockyer's congregation, who can give a good accompt of him, if neede bee, and of the present posture of his spirit, which I so well knowe not. I mention these in reference to the places of mr. of requests, in cas those already in your eye should either declyne, or not bee judged so fitt. Mr. Graves I neede not tell you of. As the great busines lately communicated to mee by yourselfe, being assured, I blesse God, that the result will be for the best, I am in some good measure prepared for the issue, hoping that upon what I have declared to his highnes and yourselfe, noe alteration will bee made as to my condition; but upon the necessity of service to the glory of God, and good of the people, which yet I have noe reason to thinke, may not bee otherwise farre better provided for; but if it should otherwise happen, then this expectation is, I beg it of you, that I may first come alone to yourselfe before any other come, that shall bee therein concerned, or before any thing else bee done therein. Pardon this trouble from,
Sir, your very affectionate freind and servant,
General Blake to the protector.
[Paragraph contains cyphered content - see page image 541]
May it please your highnes,
The secret instructions sentbyyour highnes reserringmeeto aformer instr. touchhingthe silver fleet of Spay. coming from America I have received and shall care fully observe the same Wee had inform. at Cadiz that the fleet was expected abouta monethor five week eshence. Wee are now of Cape Maries intending to spread with the fleet what wee can and to range this sea according to the wind and the inform, we cange tplyingover like wise towards Cape Sprat it being theire most likely and u suall cour se They of Cadiz arevery distrust fullofus and therebe ing'fou regallion es designed forth e Mediter. and sixsor New Spayne itisdoutfulhowthey maybe imployed Weshalluse our be stindeavorstoput the inst. inexecution as Godshall afforde us anopport unity desiring your highnes to rest assured ofourdiligence and
of the integrity of
Your most humble and faithfull servant,
Sir Benjamin Wright to secretary Thurloe.
My laste unto your honour was of the 16th present, giveing notice, that generall Blake was with his fleete before Cadiz, and had demanded leave to enter into the porte, to give careen unto some of his shipes, the which was granted him by order from hence; but then he would not enter, but wayed anchor the 14th of this month, and wente to sea carrying with him mr. James Willson, your agent ther, who embarkeinge without takeinge leave of any man, maketh all men to say, that your said fleete is gone to meete with our plate fleete, who wee dayly expect; for the ship of advize, that is last come, reporteth, that it was departed from Portovelo to the Havana. This ship bringeth noe newes of generall Penn, yet shee came from the Havana the begininge of Aprill. Wee are heere in extreame great feare, and it may be with reason; for some write from Cadiz, that generall Blake did tell some English merchants, that his designe was for the plate fleete. I have seene a letter that sayeth it, and both the duque de Medina Celi, and the condé de Molina, governor of Cadiz, writeth it to the kinge. Yet I cannot beleeve it, and so I tell them heere to comfort them; for I assure your honor, that they are mightely cast doune, and if you should take their fleete, they are quite gone; and all the English in this kingdome will suffer, yet none more than myselfe. God's will be done: my hope is to obtayne some imployment from his highnesse, by your honor's intercession, the which I beseech you to let me have, and a letter from you to encourage me to goe for England, for these people will looke ill upon me, yf you doe them any harme either in ther Indias, or in ther fleete; for they know, that I correspond with your honor. Yf your fleete meddleth not with ther plate fleete, then I presume henceforwards they will looke with different eyes and attention upon his highnesse letters of recomendation. I have bin a litle free with them in that particular some four dayes since, and I hope your honor wil be pleased to lett the embassadour know what I writt you in my laste, that they may write hether, otherwayes I see little hopes to obtayne any satisfaction. Sir, the subject of my writeing to your honor now, is only to lett you know the care wee are in for our plate fleete, and so I beg to remayne
Your honor's most humble servant,
Rogationes are made in all convents of fryers and nunnes by command of the king for the safe arrivall of the plate fleete. The men of warre, that are in Cadiz and should have gone for Barcelona, as in my former I advized your honor, are now makeinge redy with all speede with some other shipes, that the comercio of Sevill setteth forth, to goe meete the plate fleete, as also some 8 shipes of warre that are in passage neere San Sevastian. They may be in all some 16 to 20 shipes, and yf those they expect from Naples come in time, they shall goe alsoe, for our feare is farr greater then I can expresse it. There is come into Cadiz a Holland ship of warre, that sayeth the 6th of this month he mett of the Cape San Vinzente with a shipe of advize, that came out of the Havana the first of May, and loste her by meanes of fowle weather in the night; and beinge shee is not arrived at Cadiz, they heere imagen that generall Blake hath mett with her, and deteyneth her; but I beleeve shee hath bin mett with by some Argier man of warre, for soe one mr. Marston writeth me from Sevill of the 15th present. The Holland man of warre sayeth nothing of haveinge met with generall Blake, who went forth but the day before; soe I comforte up those people, tellinge them, that Blake is gone for Salley, as one writt me from Alicante some dayes since. This I have understood since I writt my letter; what else I shall heare I will advize your honor, though I know I endanger myselfe in soe doeinge; whereof I beseech you take notice.
Caillet, the prince of Condé's secretary, to Barriere.
The enemy hath at last resolved to invest Landrecy, which they have besieged for these five days. Their lines are finished, but we do not yet hear, that they have opened the trenches. As soon as the prince of Condé had notice thereof, he presently put in relief into Landrecy, being a regiment of horse of 600 men. All our troops both Spanish and others are marching to their relief.