A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 3, December 1654 - August 1655. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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June (5 of 7)
An intercepted letter design'd for Paris.
I come just now from seeing the merchant, who is resolved to make use of you for the merchandizes, which he doth desire from Paris. I pray send him such as are good, and you may be assured he will not fail to requite your pains. In the mean time he made me judge of the provision, which he is to send you every month. I set it at 200 francs per mensem. I know very well it is too little; but I did on purpose set it for your own advantage. Besides you may assure yourself, that you will be very well paid for the merchandizes which you shall send, especially if they be such as will sell well. You may send him word, if you please, whether you will come to that rate, which I desire you to do; assuring you, that if your commodities be good, and they find you active, it will make very much for the sale of them. By the next you shall hear further from me.
Mr. J. Aldworth, consul at Marseilles, to secretary Thurloe.
My last unto you was of the 22d currant, since which nothing hath heare offered worth your notice; only that the 8 ships I formerly gave you notice was preparing att Naples to carry soldiers to Barcelona, 4 dayes past passed this coast in company of 14 gallyes; so that said place in all probability will have small cause to fear the French this sommer, unless should be overpowerd by land. My last advice from Genoa gives me notice, that about 20 dayes past general Blake with his fleete was mett goeing out of the Streights mouth, and making towards Cadiz. The admiral Vandoisme's fleet at Thollon cannott be ready under a month at least, for want of mony and marriners, and in all will not have above 20 ships bigg and small, and 8 gallyes. Two dayes past arrived heare 2 Genoa gallyes, that are come to fetch the cardinal Mazarin's niece, that is marryed to the duke of Modena in Italy. The ambassador Vandoisme in 3 dayes will be heare to give a visitt to the cardinal's niece, in regard it is his son's Merkures wife's sister. Att his being heare, I shall againe presse him for the releasement of our English ships, which are yet detayned, although I am little hopes to obtayne it, in regard his absolute answer was, hee would not release them, till hee had certaine advice the treaty was signed 'twixt the two states. The protestants in the province of Languadock are on theire guard, and ready to assist those in Savoy, if need requires it. This being what the present affordeth, soe doe must humbly take leave, and remayne
Your honor's servant,
Copie d'une lettre de monsieur de St. André Montbrun, lieutenant general de l'armée du roy en Piedmont, escrite a monsieur d'Ize, pasteur a Grenoble, en date du 29 Juin, 1655. [N. S.]
J'ay receu vostre lettre tres-obligeante, a laquelle je ne puis respondre, que par les tres humbles remerciements des sentiments, que vous tesmoignes d'avoir pour moy. Les miens seront toutjours d'employer tout ce que j'auray de bien & de vie, quand il s'agira de l'interest de la religion. Je souhaitteray en pouvoir donner des preuves en cette rencontre. Le bruit estoit icy, qu'a mon arrivée on me parleroit de moyener cest accommodement, & a monsieur le marquis de Pienne. On n'en a parlé ny a l'un ny a l'autre, parce qu'ils traittent desja avec des mediateurs, qui leur font a mon opinion plus agreables, qu'a ceux des Vallées. Madame S. A. R. & ses ministres ne m'en parlent point. Je n'ay pas voulu aussy leur en parler, & sur tout ne pouvant demeurer en ce pais que deux jours, a cause du depart de l'armée, qui va traverser le Milaneze. J'ay pourtant dit en plusieurs lieux, que cest affaire estoit de plus de consequence, qu'on ne pensoit; & que ces peuples ne seront pas abandonnés. Ils se mocquent des efforts d'Angleterre, & n'apprehendent que les Suisses. Mais ils se flattent de l'opinion, que la republique des Suisses estant composée d'une & d'autre religion, les protestants ne peuvent declarer une guerre sans le consentiment des catholicques, qui ne le donneront point en cette rencontre. Je n'ay pas manqué de leur representer la puissance des protestants en ce pais là, au prix de celle des catholiques Romains; & que le zele de la religion fera passer par dessus les voyes ordinaires. De plus qu'il semble, que Dieu, qui tire du mal le bien, ait permis cette affaire, pour eveiller touts ceux, qui font profession de nostre religion, a faire une union pour leur conservation avec touts les protestants de l'Europe: que c'est un dessein du protecteur d'Angleterre: que le roy de Suede & les princes d'Allemand sont armés, fans qu'on scache leur dessein: qu'on pourroit employer partie de ces forces pour venger cette action. Que les Suiffes protestants donnerent le passage, apres quoy il ne se fera point de paix: que le duc de Savoye ne paye les frais de la guerre: & qu'ils se devroient souvenir, que Henry IV. le leur a fait payer, ayant donné les balliages des Bugoy, Veronnes, & Gex, pour les frais de la guerre, qu'il fit en Savoye. Monsieur le prince Thomas desapreuve l'action; & dit, qu'on la fait sans son conseil, & qu'on luy avoit demandé les regiments pour loger en ces quartiers là, & non pas pour faire la guerre. La proposition d'une treve, pour laisser faire la recolte, a esté faite à ceste cour, qui n'y veut point entendre. Its veulent, que les biens acquis par ceux des vallées hors des anciennes limites soyent vendus, & qu'ils ne les puissent outre passer. Toutes les propositions, que j'ay veu faire, je les trouve assez desadvantageux pour ces gens là; & il est a souhaiter, que messieurs les cantons protestants prenent leur cause en main; & ne se relaschent point, moyenant quoy ils auront contentement. C'est la seule chose, qu'on apprehende en cette cour. Je prie Dieu, que cest affaire se termine pour sa glorie, & pour le bien de ses eglises; & que je puisse rencontrer l'occasion de vous faire connoistre, que je suis veritablement,
A Turin le 29 Juin,
1655. [N. S.]
A letter of intelligence.
From hence you may understand, that this court does increase daily by the arrivall of divers. Wilmot is at length come hither a few dayes since. So is general Middleton, with some Scotish officers; soe that nowe this court is full of English, Scotts, and some fewe Irish forces. Their number encreaseth not. The princess royal, they say, will come hether soone, but I have noe certaintie of it. They still boast here of greate designes yet on foot, which cannot sayle; but wee are never without them; alwayes doeinge, and yet wee doe noethinge.
I writt to you before, that Fontanel, a French gentleman, was sent from cardinal Mazarin to R. C. who was with R. C. in treaty; but I cannot penetrate what it is about, but a marriage betwixt C. R. and Mazarin's neece.
It is nowe believed, the Swedes intende against Prussia and Dantzick. Some of the elector of Brandenburgh's forces march, as tis sayd, to assist the king of Poland; but I believe it not, as shortlie you may heare.
The duke of Newborg is well, and agreed with his states here to returne to his dukedome of Newborg, where he shall reside for 3 yeares, upon condition these states shall punctualie sende to him all his revenues; and the first yeare's revenue he is to receive in hande, to putt him in equipadg for his journey.
Several collonels were here rayseinge men for France, Spaine, and others; but there
came commissioners from the emperor to rayse 50000, which caused all the other officers
to be goeinge away, their labours beinge in vaine. This is this week's collection from,
A paper of the states of Zealand.
The lords the states of Zealand, taking into their deliberation for the second time, the proposition of the lords of Overyssel, made lately in their noble mightinesses assembly; and taking a particular observation of their request, contained in five articles; and considering on one side, that the gentlemen of Deventer being the opposing and adverse party, have not been heard upon it; and on the other side observing and considering, that the province of Overyssel is miserably and grievously divided, and that by thus disagreeing from one another, an entire anarchy and abolition of government is observed there, good policy for the greatest part being dormant, the finances in confusion, and the militia keeping their garrisons there without laws and discipline; and that all this by continuance and delay of time must grow from worse to worse, and might at last prove very easily the total subversion of that good province: For this reason it is, that the said lords the states of Zealand, being moved with bowels of compassion at the deplorable state of their faithful allies, and consulting such means of remedy, which might not be prejudicial to the one or the other party in their assertions, after mature deliberation have thought good, that the rents and breaches of the said province must be healed, and the regency consolidated and united without any delay; and in order to obtain this salutary aim and purpose, their noble mightinesses judge it to be best (every thing for as yet remaining in the same condition it is now) that both parties in the character of states, and under a due act of security, should meet together at Deventer, or in any other neutral place in the same province within the term of one month at furthest, where at the same time shall appear a deputation of their high mightinesses, one out of each province, to endeavour, by all suitable means, to accommodate the depending differences, and to bring over the parties to a mutual good harmony and unity; and in case the same could not be brought about within a term of fourteen days or a month at furthest, they shall do all possible endeavours, that the differences may be compromised and left to the arbitration of their noble mightinesses, who in such a case shall be likewise obliged, within the term of two or at farthest four weeks, to bring in their final and peremptory award and decision, and after the same is published, to procure an amnesty of all reciprocal offences. And if against expectation it should happen, that the one or the other party should be averse to appear there, or make exceptions or præ-conditions, or appearing there should shew any unwillingness in the opinion of the lords commissaries, to contribute to an accommodation and composition of differences, or refuse to submit, the same shall be taken as an aversion and dissatisfaction to peace. And having made their report in the assembly of their high mightinesses, the said deputies shall declare, that the sovereignty of the province of Overyssel shall provisionally be represented by those members, that have the legal majority of votes on their side. Thus done in the assembly of the said lords the states in the court of Middleburg, June 29, 1655. [N. S.]
A letter of intelligence.
Since my former, last saturday here was a council held touching the business of cardinal de Retz, where were the chancellor, mr. Gard de Sçeaux, mr. Bignon advocate general, and mr. L'Abbe Ondedei. The first president was not there, though he was sent for. We hear all was about the courier sent by mr. de Lionne, who passed here to court last monday was sev'nnight, as I writ before, for the harsh words the pope has given to cardinal de Este and mr. de Lionne about the wars of duke de Modena, of which they spoke in that council; as also of cardinal de Retz's business concerning the Jubilee; but they resolved nothing yet, only to begin again that assembly, which will be this day or to morrow. Both the businesses are troublesom at these times, and especially that of cardinal de Retz, for fear the people should remove for having not the Jubilee in due time; of which more by the next, God willing.
The letters from la Fere of the 26th instant bring, that the day before prince Condé was at Fort-Somme with 13000 horse, and 8000 foot; upon which we, seeing him so near and considerable, we sent into Guise 1200 men, and 1600 into St. Quintin, to defend those places, in case of any accident. As besides that mr. Roncerolles lieutenant general came and posted himself on this side of the river Somme, to mark the situations of our garrisons about the said rivers, the prince being in the other side. Those of Corbie were much afraid, but now we fear Montreuil more than any other place. However the grand convoy, that was near Guise, of which in my former, arrived at our camp before Landrecy without any resistance; and because all the horses and mules of the court were employed by the said convoy, they expect but their return to la Fere for to depart and come to Soissons, where yesterday the court was expected, they being not well provided for at la Fere, by reason of the courses of the army about the place. But be sure of it, if the prince had come to le Fere, he might have before this time. both king, queen, and court together, and that in one day's time; for they had only four companies of the guard in all to oppose any enemy; and all here wonder much, the prince not come to la Fere, he knowing well how things were disposed there. But we do much admire at the council to hazard our king in that manner, at which many friends here are not well pleased. We have from Guise of the 27th instant, that the garrison of Landrecy sallied out 2000 of them with two pieces of artillery, their drums beating; and in that manner made bold upon a party of ours, where they killed 300, among which mr. Magalotti, lieutenant in the regiment of the guard. They say some of the enemies are prisoners with ours, but yet it is not certain. An Irish regiment is there within, and we may have some of them very soon. Some other encounters a party of ours had with the enemies in another place, where (as some say) marquis de Sucerac, son to mr. de Harpajon, was taken prisoner, and brought to Rocroy. Mr. count de Vivonne, son and heir to the duke of Mortemart, and first gentleman of the king's chamber, met another party of the enemies, where he hazarded himself most of all; and it was reported he was killed; but it is not so, as we have by fresh letters, but that he is retired wisely without any harm, of which the king is very glad, he being one of his favourites.
The court sent of late an express to England to our embassador mr. de Bordeaux, that he might declare to the protector, he had orders from the king to return, if the treaty were not signed within the latter end of this present month.
It is written from Vitray in Bretagne, that the states do well in all affairs, having
already offered to the king 1,200,000 livres, mr. Grand Maistre of the artillery being
parted to come to court. Also that the said states, and the parliament of the province
were not yet agreed upon their differeut points. The trenches of Landrecy were opened
two days ago, and mr. Turenne hopes to be master of Landrecy within twenty days,
though strong it be, which is all the news known at present to,
Sir, your faithful servant, &c.
A letter of intelligence to mr. Petit.
Since the king's army has laid siege to Landrecy, it being impossible for the prince of Condé to cast any relief in the place, he had posted his army between Landrecy and Guise, thinking to hinder several convoys, which were sent to our camp; but after some little hindrance, they have passed by very happily by the vigilancy of the duke of Grammont, who has at his return cast 1500 men into St. Quintin, and two regiments into Corbie, this last being threatened a siege by the enemies, which are strong chiefly in horse. And if the Spaniards phlegm doth not stop mr. le prince's courage, there is no doubt but he will undertake some considerable thing. In the interim, the court hath not thought good to stay longer at la Fere, and was yesterday to go to Soissons for greater security. The queen and the duke of Anjou are gone first, and are to be followed within a day or two by the king and his eminency, unless the prince should attempt upon some place; in which case the king will stay at la Fere, to be nearer his army. The lines of Landrecy being ended, the trench was opened the night of the 26/16, 27/17, where few were killed, and none of quality, save mr. de Bogemare, captain of the guards. The rumour was yesterday, that mr. le prince had defeated a little convoy, in which several gentlemen had been killed; but that news is not true; for the last letter from la Fere and from Guise make no mention thereof. The besieged make several sallies of little consequence. That which I write unto you is that, which is the most constant and the most certain.
The news from Catalonia advise, that the prince of Conti hath besieged Castillon, and that he was very near being taken by the enemies in making the approach of that place; his horse fell in a ditch, out of which he could hardly be got. That prince had received some harm thereby. 'Tis thought our armado of Toulon is designed against Barcelona. It is shortly to go laden with many foot soldiers.
The opening of the states of Bretagne was the 14th instant. The mareschal de Meilleraye and the great master his son made a very fine speech, to persuade that assembly to grant unto the king the sums he hath demanded. They have offered fifteen hundred thousand livres; but the court understands, that they should give a great deal more. The deputies of the parliament did not meet there, because of the misunderstanding between those two bodies. The next day was represented the importance of the edicts sent by the said parliament unto the states, concerning the seal of the king's domain, the imposition of 32 sols upon each piece of cloth of one hundred yards, and such other moneybusinesses.
The keeper of the great seal of France sent some days ago for a certain preacher in controversy, chiding him for having, against his majesty's will and edicts, held some discourse tending to sedition against those of the religion; and for representing in a picture one of the most famous persons of christendom hanged; with threatnings to send him to the Bastille, if ever he did so again.
The lieutenant civil, upon the complaints made unto him by several protestants, that there was in this city a certain man clothed in blue, who went preaching along the streets, only to stir up the people against the said protestants, and make a sedition through Paris; the said lieutenant has ordered the commissaries of the quarters to seize upon that person, and in case they do it not, when he shall preach, that they shall answer for it in their own persons.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours by this post I received of the 24th instant, by which I see the old cavaliers are destined to be ruined. Cannot they yet be quiet, after all they have seen and suffered? The protector cannot be too severe to such continued disturbers; and here the indifferent much blame the cavaliers for being so turbulent, when they may live quietly.
The court is impatient, that the protector will not permit the articles concluded upon for a peace betwixt France and England to be signed, and much talk there is of it; so that at court (as my best intelligence gives me, and to be free with you) the most part would have no peace with you. They say you are too insolent and unworthy of an alliance with France, being upstarts, and many such reviling speeches. They say, they shall get more by a war with you than a peace. Marquis de Leda's negotiation is not now so much suspected to them; the reason I do not know.
There has been long since, as I writ to you, a treaty betwixt R. C. and cardinal Mazazin, that the first should be married to one of Mazarin's nieces, for he has yet two in
store; the one for Rex Galliæ, and the other for R. C. You may be assured, there is at
present a treaty betwixt R. C. and cardinal Mazarin to this purpose, which is renewed,
being begun in Paris when R. C. was there; for you may judge, what otherwise Mazarin
projects, whilst he dissembles a peace with his highness. As time will let us see in the
particulars, more of this you may have by next. I have no more, but what you have in
the occurrents from,
Sir, yours, &c.
A letter of intelligence.
Since my last I received two of yours, but they were too long by the way. I am come hither from the leaguer, being indisposed. Our lines are finished about Landrecy, and indeed the best that ever I did see. There are twenty thousand foot within the line actually doing duty, and six thousand horse. The rest of the horse are attending the enemy's motion, and to cope with marquis de Castelneau upon any occasion. The enemy is encamped within two leagues of our camp in Chateau Cambresis. Yesterday morning they took in a place called Bolme, midway betwixt this town and Landrecy.
This day we expect this place to be besieged. Marshal Grammont has here 4000 foot and 1000 horse. A world of the gentry are flocking hither to defend it. The court is at la Fere five leagues hence; only the queen went to Soissons yesterday, and with her the duke of Anjou. President Linie, prince Condé's confident, is taken by some one of the garrison of Quesnoy.
We are confident yet of our peace with the protector, notwithstanding marquis de
Lede's negotiation, and what passed in Savoy. If this place be not suddenly besieged
(as we much fear it) you shall again soon hear from
A letter from mr. Muddiford at Barbados.
Since my last the scene is much changed, we having been lately advertised, that a panick fear seized upon our soldiers at their first attempt upon Hispaniola, whereby 300 men drove 9000 to retreat; which took so deep an impression in them, that no exhortations could make them approach that place again, where they received their affront; so that they took up resolution for Jamaica as a place more suitable to their courage, though no way answerable to their number. If God hath given them their hearts again, you will hear they are settled there, sooner from themselves than we shall. The great Charity arrived here but three days since, and is now going down to them, by whom are also sent two Dutch men loaden with manatee, which were seized on for trading contrary to the account of the 30th of October 1650, which was sent by us, for fear the natives will drive away their cattle, and that victualls will be their great (pray God it be not their mortal) want. I fear nothing will prejudice the design but that. It would have grieved your soul to see how lamely and scatteringly their supplies came. Certainly had the king of Spain but half the intelligence in our councils, which by his pensioners he had in the time of former princes, he might easily have surprized them all; but (God be praised) they are all (though late) safely past this island, the first going hence the 26th of April, but was not with them the third of May, which was the time (we are advised) they deserted Hispaniola. And though I was much troubled at that unexpected affront we received there; yet I am not at all sorry they are gone to Jamaica, but could heartily have wisht it had been their first attempt, that it might have seemed rather choice than necessity. It is apparently (seeing they would have an island) far more proper for their purposes than the other or Porto Rico, as the situation in the maps will make more visible. It hath an excellent harbour, and is accounted the most healthful and plentiful of them all. It will be sooner filled, and is far more convenient for attempts on the Spanish fleet, and more especially the Carthagena fleet, which must halt within sight of it, as they go to the Havanna. And believe it, this will more trouble the court of Spain than ten of the other; and therefore it must be expected more attempts will be by the Spaniards to supplant them. If therefore you have an opportunity, press his highness and the council to send speedy and great supplies of men, arms, ammunition, and clothes; among which be sure not to forget the long pikes and good corselets, that security of an army, which I doubt was the want at Hispaniola; and also saddles and compleat arms for a good proportion of cuirassiers. I hope our nation will not draw back, having thus far entered; for I am most confident, that if this place be fully planted, which in three or four years may with ease be done, his highness may do what he will in the Indies. Truly if the men on shore be well armed, and a handsome number of frigats be kept at sea, with God's blessing, there is no fear of success. I had gotten near one hundred families, that would have gone from hence to Hispaniola, and do hope still to induce them for the other place, when we shall have advice of their settlement. All men must strive to settle and fill the places with speed; and his highness must order the commissioners to encourage what possible.
A letter from mr. Muddiford at Barbados.
We hear by a letter from Middleton, that the king of Spain is gone to St. Lucar, and is forming a great army and fleet for these parts. Truly, if he should attempt Barbados, he will find us in an unsettled condition; for though we have men enough, and some number of horse, and they pretty well armed, yet they want conduct, and a mind to reduce us to unity; for such uggly divisions are nourisht and underhand so mented amongst us, that you would, were you here, wonder at it; and all grounded upon that malicious apprehension they have against this settlement in the Indies, fearing (forsooth) it will make sugar cheap, and thin this island of people, which when the wood is gone (and that cannot be long first) must fall of itself. From hence the militia fixt and settled by the commissioners is opposed, the levies and perfection of it infinitely impeded, upon pretence that none but their own governor must appoint their militia, and that not without consent of the assembly, that his power and authority is eclipsed by this way. These have a party in the assembly, and there voted Bayes (the old firebrand) to go home with a petition to his highness, chiefly desiring that our governor may receive orders from no man but immediately from his highness, against which Francis Raynes, William Vassall, Peter Kent, and myself have drawn our diffent, and shewed our reasons, and do hope they will prevail. The party is so much countenanced, that the governor's council have joined with them. One of them told John Colliton, the reason was, because general Venables said, they were a company of geese. I know no way to help this evil, but some smart orders from his highness, confirming what his commissioners have done, requiring a strict obedience to it.
Since the writing of the above we have met at the assembly; and being they could not carry their petition and desires as they would, they made a motion, that the assembly had sat long enough, being twenty two months, and therefore desired the governor would dissolve it, which (every man being willing of ease) was consented to, and the desire allowed of by the governor; so that now there is no assembly in the Barbados. I thought good to enclose a copy of our reasons.
Reasons why we, whose names are underwritten, cannot consent to the instruction and desire, whereby his highness is to be requested, that no commands should be laid on our governors, but such as come immediately from himself.
1. Because they think it unfit to circumscribe or limit the supreme magistrate in a matter of so great a consequence, and so high a nature as this is, viz. to confine him to a single person, seeing his liberty and undoubted prerogative is to employ whom God shall please to direct him.
2. It seems very disconsonant to reason, to tye him up from employing men under his command of parts, tempers, and dispositions suitable to the present occasion; which time, and place, and other circumstances may offer.
3. It is impossible his highness can dispatch all business himself, or indeed take notice or account of all dispatches; and therefore must of necessity do it by second persons, or else leave the business undone, which may prove very prejudicial to the country.
4. The subscribers conceive, that this will be looked on rather as a bold capitulation, than an humble request; and so may be a means to give his highness displeasure, whereby a jealousy may be begot to the bringing of some curb on this place.
5. This will be a great hinderance to his highness's affairs in these parts, in begetting some difficulties in procuring the assistance, which we may without prejudice yield to his highness's ministers; and therefore to prevent the great prejudice, which this desire may bring on this country, they, according to the trust reposed in them, utterly dissent from the same; thereby desiring to be adjudged free of the ill consequences of the same. In witness whereof they have hereunto set their hands.
The dissolving the assembly hindred the progress of this debate; but I believe they will find such an one as will agree to send it; for I find them so much inclined, that I am resolved not to be of it.
Fleetwood, lord deputy of Ireland, to the protector.
May it please your highnes,
I HAVE now, through the good hand of the Lord, bine through the most considerable parts of Lemster, Munster, and Connaught, and may acquaint your highnes, that the Lord is pleased to give these parts very much peace and quietnes, and doth begin, beyond all expectation, to grow up into a settlement and plantation. A very goodly country it is; and if the Lord please, that it were but better peopled, it would not be inferior to England. There is great plentie of all things, beyond what can be immagined, considering what devastations there have bine. The work of transplantation, which I have chiefelye in my eye, about which I made four or five dayes stay at Athlone, I am now in more hopes that it wil effectually be carryed on then it hath; and I hope thorough mercy the way of settlement and incouragement, which I trust the Lord did there direct us unto, will prove of happy advantage to so necessary a worke, which if the Lord please to blesse and prosper, will make this nation of much happynes to future generations. The earle of Westmeath and most of the considerable gentry of Lemster were there; and that done by us in order to theire settlement will, I hope, (for the future, as well as it seemed to doe for the present) give them satisfaction. I find there is three or four places, that would be of singular concernment and advantage to your highness's affaires, if they were settled in such hands as might answer the duty of what importance those places call for; and therefore I shall presume humbly to present your highness with my own thought and intentions: to make collonel Clerk governor of Corke; his discreet management of affaires would, through the Lord's blessing, give a happy settlement to all those parts. Lieutenant collonel Brafield, who is a singular deserving person, and a faithfull servant unto your highness, I intend to dispose of to Galloway and Athlone, where now he is, it being a place most apt for business, where the authority of this nation must sometimes reside. I doe intend to have my own company brought thither. I do most humbly sue, that lieutenant collonel Kelsey may have Londonderry and Carrickfergus, whose valour and discreet courage will prove of happy consequence to these parts. There are many professors, and therefore one throughly principled in the things of God must be there. Indeed if your highness can but spare these two persons, I doubt not by the Lord's blessed presence with your highness, you will have no just ground of reports for any, but this nation will prove a comfortable place of habitation, and will be alwayes kept in faithfull obedience to your highness, as at present through mercy they are, and no dissatisfaction doe I find in any. I confess I doe not know of what more importance these persons can be imployed about then in being thus disposed off; and therefore must again most humbly sue that I may not be denyed, who am
June 20, 1655.
Since the above written I have considered to tender unto your highnes, whether it was not better to have collonel Clarke amongst the Scots, and collonel Kelsey at Corke; whose sober Christian tender spirit may be very serviceable to those in the county of Corke, where there are many professors of different persuasions, and some under, as we call it, of a low dispensation, whose forbearance towards them will be necessary. Let none prevayle to put into thos places any persons but sober, gracious persons.
R. Parker, &c. to secretary Thurloe.
Wee beinge prisoners att present under the custodie of sir John Lenthall, and heareinge his highnes soe much abused by his servant, viz. one Symon Thompson, who called his highnes rogue, villaine, and murtherer; and John Attkinson his turnkey, when he had a banisht person within the prison, was commanded to stop him, for he had the kinge of Scotts his commission about him; and instead of detaineinge him, untill wee had sent to a justice for a warrentt, he presently with the assistance of Thompson conveyed him away, though both of them were charged in the name of his highnes to secure him upon treason. Wee all haveinge from the beginninge served under his highnes, could not with silence see and heare his highnes soe much wronged by such persons; and therefore wee humbly address ourselves to your honor, and crave your assistance in bringinge these persons to a speedy punishmentt suitable to their high offences. Wee shall prove what wee charge them with; and if your honor will be pleased to send a warrentt for the seizeinge them, we shall ever remaine
Upper Bench, this 20th June, 1655.
Col. Charles Howard to the protector.
May it please your highnes,
Since my comming downe, I have donne my endeavours to putt your commands in execution. Thos, whoe you intrusted with me, to secure the malignants, I have mett with, and we have imprisoned all the most dangerous, and taken bond off the rest of the disaffected in these northerne parts. Thear are severall, whoe I wish might be sentt to the Barbadoes, both men off fortunes and others, beying such, whoes principles and temper fitt them for disturbance upon any opportunity. The militia troopes are in a forwardnes, the captaynes and lieutenants goyng cheerfully on in thear work; but the cornetts, that is to say, Babingdon for Northumberland, and Langhorne for Cumberland, have both refused: the first I beleeve thinks the place below him, the other will not undertake any souldiers imployment, though active in your highnes service otherways. I doe therfore humbly offer capt. Atkinson, who is apoynted quarter-master to the Cumberland troop, that he may be cornett to it, beyng unwilling to accept the other place, and one capt. Bewly, whoe hath been always a faythfull man, that he may be quarter-master. Besides thes I have sent names to mr. secretary for the Northumberland troop, and desire your highnes pleasure concerning them all by the next post, by reason it will be some obstruction in the work, if the officers be not settled against the day of muster. I hope I need not say any thing to make your highnes beleeve, that I am and shall be diligent to serve you; though whatt your highnes tould me touching an information might have given me ground to speak aboutt itt, which through forgetfullnes I did nott, before my comming out of towne; but I have since repented I did not, least iff any doubt remaine in your highnes thoughts, I might have better cleered it, then I can at this distance; butt my owne heart doth witness soe much cleernes to me off all my thoughts of you and towards you, that it occasioned my not reflecting upon whatt you said then. I shall conclude with this, thatt besides the great tyes off conscience, honour, and gratitude, I have a particular one, which is due to your person, and that I can say with bouldnes is soe hearty, thatt noe man that serves hath more; and itt will apear in cases of greatest difficulty, thatt he speaks truth, whoe subscribes himself your highnes
Newark, June 20, [1655.]
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to count Brienne.
The secretary of state defended himself for a week, through the absence of my commissioners; and since their return I have been delayed from day to day, without any pretence, which hath forced me to ask audience to take my leave; for I must confess, I dare not stay any longer, having received precise order not to admit of any further delays, nor continue my abode any longer in England; for if I should venture to stay a while longer without effect, I might be justly blamed. Besides, it is a very hard matter to get to understand the secrets of this government. The said secretary and my commissioners do only excuse themselves, that they have no order; and I was informed by one not long since, that the secretary of state told him, that the treaty would be signed within a few days, without any delay; and he likewise declared unto me, that he was well informed, that my lord protector did expect no other thing from the Duke of Savoy, than he would give his protestant subjects leave to live according to the edicts, which have been formerly agreed unto them; but I believe this is not all, I do mistrust something else. The collection, which is made here for them, will amount to a very considerable sum, sufficient to maintain several troops: the certain sum which hath been gathered is not yet known, but must needs amount to a vast sum; for every body gave something to seem charitable, and the ministers have plaid their parts to some purpose, to stir up the people to assist their persecuted brethren. Coll. Fiennes, one of my commissioners, was sent for out of the country, not to sign my treaty, but rather to receive the oath for his establishment of one of the lords commissioners of the great seal, there having been lately a very great alteration made in the courts of judicature, there being several judges that have delivered up their commissions, because they would not act against the laws of the country.
Mr. Greenhill's certificate in behalf of major Manley.
Being informed, that major Manley lyeth under some aspersions of cavalerisme and malignancie, and desired to testifie my knowledge of him, these are to certifie, whomsoever it maye concerne, that I doe conceive the Lord through his grace hath wrought of late yeares a great and gratious alteration in him, and sanctifyed those rich abilitys of nature, with which he is indowed; and from what I both have observed in him, and heard also from others, doe judge him fitt, not only for civill imployment, but also for church communion, beeing faithfull and gratious.
A letter of mr. H. Daubne at Cadiz.
I Writt you a hasty letter some few days since, giving you notice of the suddayn and great confusion, that fell among all my fellow-merchants heer upon the apprehension of the imminent danger of theyr persons and estates in this country, which seemed to be threatned by general Blake's manner of appearing and demeanour uppon this coast; but most of all confirmed by the over hasty goeing away of the ridiculous pretended agent James Willson, after whome most of our nation fledd abord likewise. But seeing afterwards the civil deportment of this people heer towards them, and that the danger was not so neere theyr dores as they imagined, they most of them returned agayn, and emptying all theyr warehouses have so disposed of theyr estates, that now they have nothing to doe but to secure theyr persons, which they are now all resolved to doe by this shipping, that lyes off ready to receive them, which are the very shipps, that brought general Blake his provisions so lately from England. Now whether our state have any hostil intentions against this nation or no, mr. Willson's so suddayn and uncivil goeing away can never, in my opinion, be excused by himself or any man els, not onely for exposeing the lives and estates of all his countrymen heer to unnecessary danger, but allso the very designe itself (which it is manifest his highness there would have had carryed on with all secrecy) to an over early discovery; and so if any prevention be made heer, it will be playn who is to be thankt for it, as now they are very busy about setting forth of an armada of 50 sayle, which they say themselves (but I beleeve it is but talke) by the middle of this month shall be ready to sett sayle to guard theyr coast, and secure home theyr galleons. They have in the mean time dispatched divers avisos, which are likewise to goe severall ways, if possible to meet them, and direct them to putt into some other ports. Certayn it is, that imediately uppon Willson's goeing away, the Nova Hispania fleet, that was lading ready to goe out, are now unlading, and all shipping of trade putt into a warlike posture; nor did this man's folly or knavery (chuse you which) content himself with bare running away, but soe soon as he was abord, writt a letter to the governor heer, wherein he acquainted him, that he was commanded to doe what he did by the generall, and advis'd a weeke before they came hither by captain Bodilo from Gibraltar, that he should prepare for a speedy escape; assuring him, that there was a suddayn breach intended to be made with Spayn, as allso giving sufficient intimations in good time to guard theyr galleons, and throwing durt in divers particulars uppon the government in England; but that is no newes to those, that knowe his conversation heer, howsoever for his own ends he pretended publick imployment heer, being wholly animated with a parliamentarian and presbyterian spirit. Thus I have made bold to trouble you with a long story of an idle person, not that he is worth it, but because you and the whole exchange may know how things have been carryd heer. It would be a more endless peece of impertinence to trouble your patience yet further with the recitall of all the obloquys and opprobrious languadge, that this people in theyr passion cast uppon our nation in generall, taxing the whole state with infidelity and ingratitude, to returne their courtesys with such injurys, and in the very time, when they are treating of a more firme peace, and coming hether to furnish themselves with beveridge and other necessarys, to imploy their provisions to theyr own punishment; moreover paying constantly, as they say, such great sumes of money into England to purchase our protectour's frendshipp. But this is but the languadge of the gentlemen heer only; for it is sayd, that the king and his counsell will not yet be perswaded, that the English have any ill intentions towards them; and though the commercio of Sevill, St. Lucar, and this place have offered at theyr own cost and charges to sett out this great armado, as yet they have no peremptory orders for it from the court, but only a letter from the king; if they needs will, they may, if they please, imploy his shipping that lys heer in theyr service, though for his own part he declares himself thoroughly satisfyd in the reality of the English friendshipp. The people heer doe likewise tax general Blake in this particular of very much discourtesy and uncivillity in his carriage heer towards the duke of Medina at Port, and Condé our governor heer in not answering theyr love, as they call it, though but complement, with equal kindenesse, and weighing anchor from hence without giving them notice, or taking a civil, at least ceremonious leave: but they lay the highest imputation of all uppon him in giving shelter to the Turks of Algier, who sayling by, through, and sometimes in his fleet, are so imboldned to ly heer uppon theyr coast, and have effectually taken divers vessells of theyrs, and doe put all the shipping of other nations in so great a feare, that they dare not stirr forth. Some there are, and none of the meanest of this place, that will not be perswaded, that the generall does any thing of this by order from my lord protector, but that he does intend to revolt from him, and having ceized the riches of the galleons into his hands, means to make a present of it with his whole navy to the pretended king of England, theyr declared enemy and his. But thees are some particular men's fancys only, and which they are the more easyly induced to, being formerly possest with so favourable an opinion of our state, and so honourable a confidence they had in the friendshipp of his highness in England. And truly I thinke there was never in the world visible so strange and suddayn a change of faces and affections, as now is to be seen throughout this towne and country. All this I thought necessary to give you notice of, that you may not onely knowe how things pass heer, but that you may likewise acquaynt all your freinds there with it, and alltogether joyne to seek the Lord, to turne all this present tumult and confusion of our trade to the best advantage of his own glory, and the good of our whole state; and if the whole be a gayner, wee may be sure particular men cannot be loosers, there being such conscience and integrity in those that fitt at the sterne. But in the mean time my case is like to be the most miserable of any man's heer, for whilst all others can dispose of themselves into some security, I onely ame bound to abide the brunt of the storme ensueing in an open boat, and yet have neyther anchor, rudder, or ragg of sayle to help myself withall. Certaynly I need say no more to you of this particular, for you must needs be as knoweing of my condition as myself; and now I must confess I am at a stand to imagine how you will be able to releeve me, unless by getting your freind there to make use of some forreign merchants assistance to conveigh both letters, &c. hither. So with a something sadd and a litle distracted, but a truely dutyfull, and never despayring hart, I remayn still heer, as I must, till you shall otherwise command and dispose of,
Sir, your most humble, faythfull, and affectionate poore factor to serve you,
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, on saturday last, June 26, the lord Nathaniel Fiennes, and the lord commissary Lisle, took session in the court of chancery, and after that the first named had mentioned the reasons, which had induced the lord protector and the council to draw up a new regulation and order touching the proceedings in the said court of chancery, he caused the said regulation to be read openly; and after the reading he commanded every one, sollicitors as well as others, that for the future they should in every respect regulate themselves accordingly. The fees and profits of the judges and council are greatly lessened thereby. The great seal itself; as I am informed by a good hand, is not yet altered, though it is known that another was making. On monday last the lord marquis of Leda, accompanied by two lords of the council, and attended by a vast many coaches, was conducted to the Tower wharf, and accompanied from thence by sir Oliver Flemming and some other gentlemen went in seven barges down to Gravesend, from whence in his own coaches he went to Dover. In the last visit I received from that lord, he told me again, that he was come over only to make a compliment, and having done this, he had no reason to stay here any longer. And that don Alonzo de Cardenas was and remained instructed and authorised for those affairs, that were to be negotiated between both. The collection for the oppressed Waldenses was finished last sunday, according to the regulation, I heretofore acquainted your high mightinesses with; and as I am informed of this affair, a very considerable sum of money has been gathered, and a good regulation is making to have the same safe brought hither to London out of the provinces and far distant places. The officers of the army in Scotland have drawn up a paper to general Monck, wherein they mention, that having understood the bloody persecution carried on against those of the reformed religion in the Dutchy of Savoy, it went very much to their heart, and therefore they could not help declaring their deep and sad resentment at those barbarous and inhuman cruelties, as also their hearty compassion. And therefore they had thought fit to assure his excellency, that in case it should please God to come to an account of the blood that has been spilt, and to revenge there the cause of his people, and his excellency should call them or any one of them for that purpose, they were ready in such a cause to hazard their lives and fortunes with all chearfulness and willingness. The last advices from Scotland bring likewise, that Glengary has at last accepted also the propositions, which were made to his commissaries; so that at present no body in Scotland appears any more in arms against this government. In Ireland the soldiers of the respective regiments are put into possession of such lands, which fall to them by lot, and they take vast pains to bring that country again under a good culture. This week we have had no news from the fleets; in the mean while they continue here with great application to get several ships and frigats ready. There are also at Chatham and other places several new ships and frigats building. The new cavalry in all the counties of England upon such pay and regulation, as I have heretofore mentioned to your high mightinesses, is entirely compleat, as also the militia of foot soldiers under such officers as are appointed by the lord protector himself. The marquiss of Hertford and several other noblemen in the country have been secured since my last, but they say, will soon be released again, and that it was done only to prevent new troubles.
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, just now I am informed by a person of distinction in the government, that the lord protector has acquainted the council about an hour ago, that a merchant, mr. Noel, who is a great trader to the English plantations in the West Indies, had received news from St. Christopher's, that general Venables, on the 28th of May old style, with 10000 foot soldiers, besides sailors, had landed in Hispaniola, and that he had made himself master of the town of St. Domingo. The said merchant is very well known, and therefore this news is believed to be true, by those that have any knowledge of the design. The same gentleman told me likewise, that the lord protector had received letters, that the fleet under admiral Blake was arrived in the road of Cadiz; but whether the same was to remain there or thereabouts, or whether she was to come home, was as yet kept a secret. The lord protector, after he had communicated the said news as aforementioned in council, is gone with the lord president and mr. secretary Thurloe to Hampton-court.
A letter of intelligence.
Yours I received of the 25th of last month, for which I have not much from hence to return at present. Landrecy is strictly besieged. Our army must suddenly relieve it, or 'tis lost. Some say, the prince of Condé, with the flower of our army, will besiege some of the enemies garrisons, and not attempt the relief; which shall be done, or what, we shall shortly know.
I am afraid the town will be lost. There is one Irish regiment within it, colonel Murphy's. There were in the town above 2000 foot and some 400 horse; but I doubt they are now short of that number; and for all other things the town is very well furnished with all sorts of martial provision.
Prince de Ligne doth as yet exercise the office of count Garzias deceased, as I wrote to you in my last but this. The French boast their king, queen, and cardinal are very desirous to see Brussels this year, and to kiss the queen of Swedeland's hands. Let them do, if they can.
The archbishop of Mechlin died here the last of the last month: his corps were translated to Mechlin. We do not like here of marquis de Leda's sudden return; and the English merchants upon it are packing. We long to hear of your fleet in the West Indies. Here passed an express from the emperor to the archduke Leopold; his business I do not yet know.
We have here strange news, that in England three showers fell lately, the first of stones, the second of blood, and the third of dogs. This you wrote nothing of, as you had reason, being I am sure lyes.
The protector to Fleetwood, lord deputy of Ireland.
I Write not often. At once I desire thee to know, I most dearly love thee, and indeed my heart is plaine to thee, as thy heart can well desire; let nothing shake thee in this. The wretched jelosies that are amongst us, and the spirit of calumny turns all into gall and wormwood. My hart is for the people of God; that the Lord knows, and I trust will (in due time) manifest; yet thence are my wounds, which, though it greives me, yet (through the grace of God) doth not discourage me totally. Many good men are repining at every thing, though indeed very many good well satisfyed and satisfying daily. The will of the Lord will bring forth good in due time.
It's reported, that you are to be sent for, and Harry to be deputy, which truely never entred into my heart. The Lord knows, my desire was for him and his brother to have liv'd private lives in the country; and Harry knows this very well, and how difficultly I was perswaded to give him his commission for his present place. This I say was from a simple and sincere heart. The noyse of my being crown'd, &c. are like malitious figments.
Use this bearer, mr. Brewster, kindly; let him be neare you; indeed he is a very holy able man, trust me, you will find him so; he was a bosome friend of mr. Tillinghurst; ask him of him, you will thereby know mr. Tillinghurst's spirit. This gentleman brought him to me a little before he died, and mr. Cradock, mr. Throughton, a godly minister, being by, with himselfe, who cried shame. Dear Charles, my dear love to thee, to my dear Biddie, who is a joy to my hart, for what I hear of the Lord in her. Bid her be cheerfull and rejoice in the Lord once and again; if she knows the covenant thoroughly she cannot but doe; for that transaction is without her sure and steadfast between the father and the mediator in his blood; therefore leaning upon the son, or looking to him, thirsting after him, imbracing him, we are his seed, and the covenant is sure to all the seed; the compact is for the seed; God is bound in faithfulness to Christ, and in him to us; the covenant is without us (a transaction between God and Christ) look up to it; God ingageth in it to pardon us, to write his law in our heart, to plant his fear, that we shall never depart from him. Wee under all our sins and infirmities can dayly offer a perfect Christ, and thus we have peace, and safety, and apprehension of love, from a father in covenant, who cannot deny himself: and truly in this is all my salvation; and this helps me to bear my great burthens.
If you have a mind to come over with your dear wife, &c. take your best opportunity
for the good of the publick and your own convenience. The lord bless you all. Pray
for me, that the Lord would direct and keep me his servant. I bless the Lord, I am not
my own, but my condition to flesh and blood is very hard. Pray for me, I do for you all;
commend me to all friends. I rest,
June 22, 1655.