A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 3, December 1654 - August 1655. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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July (3 of 6)
An intercepted letter to mr. Thomas Brookes, under the name of mr. William Matthews.
Though this place affords not any news at present, yet I could not omit writing, to certify you, that all our friends through mercy are in reasonable good health. The lieutenant is out of town. Mr. Rich telleth me there is not any news. He with the rest present their love to you, and think it needless to write till they hear from you; however, I knowing how acceptable a line is from friends at such a distance, have writ, though of business can say no more than was in my last, unto which I refer you.
Fleetwood, lord deputy of Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
My brother Cromwell being thorough mercye safely arrived, I find he hath his military commission bearing date about September last; but though I had the three pounds a day formerly, yett by the last establishment it was reduced, and only the ten pounds a day continued; and therefore I desire you will procure the councell's orders, that his pay may be established from the date of his commission, otherwise the tresurors at warr will not allow thereof, but money at present issued only on account. I could wish (if his highnes intends any thing shal be done, either as to the armye's reducement, or setting up the courts of justice before I goe for England) it might be suddenly sent, for after the middle of September my wife will not be fitt for travell. I beleave it wil be expected, that an issue wil be put to both these things, before I leave this place. My time in regard to my wife's condition being but short, makes me the more to presse for a resolution, who am
A Letter of intelligence from the Hague.
There was none but Holland alone almost, that was against the orders of the council of state, for making retorsion against the country of Limburgh. Holland did conclude very well, that the retroacts should be perused; and that in the mean time all things should remain in the same condition, but the orders of the council of state are already sent; and they do presuppose that those orders are gone far, yea that they are already put in execution.
They will finally resolve this day in the assembly of Holland concerning the alliance with Brandenburgh; and fearing left that might give offence to the protector, they have resolved to write to the lord embassador Nieuport to communicate the same to the protector, and to let him know, that they were sain to do it to countermine the design of Sweden, and to invite him to join in the alliance to be made with Denmark against the designs of Sweden.
Those of Holland (although sunday) did resolve or rather conclude in the assembly of the states general, (although almost all alone without the consent of the other provinces) that the retorsion against those of Limburgh shall be suspended, and this resolution was insinuated yesterday, without resumption, to the president of the council of state. But the said council do but laugh at it, having sent away their orders already to do the same.
There hath not been yet any thing mentioned to day in the assembly concerning the treaty with Brandenburgh, although the same was prest in the behalf of the elector. Now there is advice come, that captain Tromp hath five ships under him at sea, sailing towards the North and towards the Sound.
From the college of the admiralty at Amsterdam are come three commissioners Vander Houve, Herberts, and secretary de Wilde: they have had audience of the states general, and made complaint, that they do not receive any money to finish the building of the new ships, demanding 252,000 guilders. They have begun to debate about the present to be given to the young prince of Tarante. They have proposed a present of 2000 (fn. 1) guilders, in a silver bason, and 1000 guilders per ann. Holland spoke of 500 (fn. 2) guilders per ann.
The treaty with Brandenburgh will be at present in the hands of those of Amsterdam. The taking of St. Domingo doth not please those of Amsterdam. Most do hold it for a tale; and if it be taken, that the English will not be able to keep it.
The council of state being required to advise upon the memorandum of the lord embassador of Spain, hath drawn up, and this day exhibited a very long writing, containing a whole narrative and deduction or reasoning of what and for what they have ordered to make retorsion against those of Limburgh; although that yet the same is only a summons. The substance of the narration is, that before God and men they are obliged to vindicate the right of this state by the retorsion. The time failed to day to read it, but to morrow it will be produced to be read.
Concerning the education of the young prince of Orange, those of Zealand did exhibitlately a writing. Upon that those of Holland did answer, that therein was already provided, and that that care belonged to the tutor and governesses. Item, to his council ordinary and extraordinary; and when they failed of their duty, that there were godfathers, who, according to Christian duty, would take care.
The difference of Gorcum is as good as accommodated. There are certain satisfactions (in effect ceremonious and imaginary) given to the court; the rest is in the hands of the gentlemen, Cant, Moons, and de Raet, to accommodate the same.
The lord Beverning hath again seen the lord Rosenvinge, communicating unto him, that the state had writ to the lord Nieuport, to found the protector concerning the preparations of the Swedes, and that they did still desire to know what the king of Denmark had answered to the Swedish minister, in regard he had admonished the king not to suffer any foreign ships in the Sound; whereupon the lord Rosenvinge did reiterate, not to know properly any thing; but that the king his master hath great cause to look after his own business, and his preservation; and that upon this state there is so little ground to be made, in regard, that having resolved to send 10 or 12 men of war at the beginning of April and May, there are hardly five ready at present; and that it were better to keep those five where they are, than to suffer them to be beaten by the Swedes.
Yer I know very well, that the Danes do incite Holland very much to set forth a great fleet to maintain Prussia, or otherwise that the Swedes will drive all the trade of Holland to the English and others, in giving great exemption to others, and by laying the burthen upon the Hollanders.
Bordeaux to his son, the French embassador in England.
I Cannot satisfy myself with your abode any longer in London after such positive orders for your retreat; but not knowing any certain news of the intentions of the court, which I suppose may be altered since your last orders, I cannot give you any counsel, you must take it according to the knowledge of the state of all things, and I conceive that you ought to consider the silence of the king, to be a sufficient ground of distaste against you for not following directly the orders which are sent you, so that you do pass in their opinions for a man too young and uncapable of the management of so great a business. In short you are generally blamed here to suffer such delays in the signing of your treaty; and it is ridiculous for you to give so much credit to their discourse, wherein they have so often sailed you. I can add no more at present, having been from home these five or six weeks.
An intercepted letter from R. Whitehouse to mr. Brookes.
I Received yours, and delivered the enclosed. The parties concerned seemed to be satisfied; and I doubt not, but that the instrument is in much better tune than it was. It hath and shall be my endeavour to hinder any breaking out to the hurt of our neighbours. I have acquainted the merchant with your intentions. Mr. K. hath been out of town these three weeks, but by the next you will hear of him. There is order taken about the H. it shall come up with all speed. I shall not further trouble you, but to let you know, &c.
The examination of Thomas and Edward Carter, of Enford, in the county of Wilts.
Thomas and Edward Carter, of Enford, in the county of Wilts, inform, that on sunday before the rebellion at Sarum, there met at mr. Clarke's of the said Enford, who was engaged in the said rebellion, one mr. Henry Mills of Netherhaven, and mr. Scardivill of Feilding in the said county, both which persons stayed at the said mr. Clarke's till it was late in the evening that day, but their business there these informers know not. This information was taken July 12, 1655. per me,
The said persons, namely mr. Mills and mr. Scardivill, were taken up by the sheriff of Wilts as suspected upon the insurrection, and have given in bond to him to appear before his highness or council when called.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
I THINK I omitted in my former letters to giv you notis, that I sent hom alongst with his highnes horses a couple of Napollitan groomes to dres, govern, and look to them by the way, for which they ar to hav nyn Naples duccats a man per month, so long as they shal bi deteyned in attendance of the said horses. When you discharge them, theyr passage is to bi given them fre for Naples. Thes ar mere fallary men, and in no other manner you may please to look upon them. The duccat of Naples is worth about 5 s. and 6 d. by exchange.
The Spanish affairs in the duchy of Millan grow worse and worse. The French and Modenes ar now joined, and mak up nere 25,000 fyhting men. They ar within 3 myles of the citty of Millan. The Spanyard, that could mak ten thousand, now cannot fynd six thousand soldiors at his command. 'Tis said they hav given armes to about 30 thousand cittisens and fryers, who 'tis thoht, if the French will let them mak an Itallian prince of their own choosing, wil be the first to dryv out the Spanyard from Naples. 'Tis advysed 20 ships and 16 gallyes ar on departure towards Porto Longone, wher they ar to meet 10 sail of other ships from Spayn, who ar to join together, and wait the motion of the French fleet; others say they ar to go for Cattalonia. I believ the exigency of the Spanish affaires hav need of theyr help in more places then one. The suden los of Landresi, a town of so great import in Flanders, doth much lessen the Spanish credit in Itally. 'Tis most certain, that the syv French gallyes, which carryed soldiers latly for Cattalonia, wer al lost in theyr coming back, many peeces of theyr wrack being daily taken up about Sardinia. Ther could not be les then 400 men in each gally.
An intercepted letter.
Yesterday there came to this town a cousin of your nephew's, and I have already received a summons to remove from hence: however I conclude not to stir till monday come fev'night. If I see you not by that time, you shall understand by the master of the house at the sign of the Ship, whither you are to steer your course, which will not be much further than this place. I suppose my sunday's friend is returned to your parts; if so, desire him to let your master, if occasion be, know where to find him. I would desire you how to contrive a course to write to Stephen: desire your nephew not wholly to credit the gentleman, who presented me with a cheese. I should be glad to see your nephew. Good cousin, God send us a good meeting.
The prince of Condé to monsieur Barriere, his agent in England.
I have nothing news to send you, but the siege of Capelle; there are 1000 foot in the place, and besides monsieur de Bouteville, who is at Avesne with a flying camp, hath slung into it two regiments of dragoons, under which are fifty French officers. This is enough for so small a place as Capelle. The governor whereof is monsieur de Chamilly, a gallant man, who defended Stenay the least year, whereof the counterscarp alone lasted 21 days, having but a handful of men to defend it.
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
My lord Nieuport, in his letter of the 16th to the states general, hath writ, that he knew that the lord protector had taken the resolution, and likewise had caused an order to be made for the calling in of all letters of marque, from whence they do conclude here that our treaty is infallible. First, I consider that mr. de Nieuport knew this particular (if it be true) and it had not been communicated unto you. In the second place, I perceive the trouble you have had to agree the article, which doth concern those of the religion in France, and the servency which the lord protector doth declare in the business of Savoy, and in the end that the English assaulting the Spaniards in the Indies doth cause men to believe that they will have a peace with us. And of all this I do frame an imagination, that the lord protector removing the difficulty, which did trouble us, by causing the letters of marque to cease, and being assured that if he take no more of our ships, that we will not declare open war with him, according to the opinion which he hath of it, he will defer henceforward, more and more, the signing of the treaty, and will not be angry that you withdraw, without concluding at present, and tell you, that you may return to make an end when those businesses, which do hinder it at present, will be more clear. But my lord, I wish the contrary, and that you may finish your treaty without making any return.
Count Brienne to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Your letter of the 15th, which came to hand but late last night, I shall have answered in few words, having only to tell you, that by my last I gave you to understand, that his majesty doth very much long to have you make an end of your negotiation, and cannot suffer any longer delays without prejudice to his honour, nor can we think of any provisoes than what we have already made known unto you. I do very much wonder, that the lord protector hath not yet had any news of his envoy into Piedmont. He hath been very well received there, likewise he did speak very civilly, and it is likely, that the business that brought him thither will be accommodated, if the Hugonots of the Vallies, who are driven from thence, will be contented with reason.
The king goes for Guise within a day or two. We shall know what will be resolved on at the council of war, which is to be held in his presence. I pray do me the favour to obtain the freedom of monsieur Lauviliers Poincy, cousin to the general de Poincy, of the island of St. Christopher, who was taken aboard a French ship, and is brought into Plymouth.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to Lionne, the French embassador at Rome.
I WILL assure you likewise, that on my part there shall happen no interruption in our correspondence; and to the end that it may be the freer, although my abode here in England is very uncertain, I will not fail to send you a character by the next post. I can in the mean time tell you, that my negotiation is still in the same condition, and hindred by the same considerations, which my foregoing have signisied unto you. And that the protector doth pretend to send into Switzerland to confer with the protestant cantons, about the means to re-establish with security the inhabitants of the Vallies of Angrogne, &c. before he will come to a conclusion. It may be his offices will be prevented by those of his majesty, and the accommodation will be made, if the said inhabitants do become obedient.
We have here yet no certain news of the landing of admiral Penn. The reports thereof are various; some say, that he is beaten, others, that he hath taken St. Domingo. Blake's being upon the coast of Cadiz doth likewise give jealousy there.
As for the affairs of England, here do still appear some small agitations, the chiefest of the nobility being imprisoned, the meaner sort are sent out of the town 20 miles from hence. These precautions are attributed to some conspiracy discovered against the government. In the mean time, men do expect with impatience to know the intentions of the protector. He hath seemed to recall the private letters of marque against the French, and this in favour of the lords of Holland. It were to be wished, that this revocation were general.
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, since my last several lords and gentlemen, who were secured in sundry places, are dismissed to their houses and habitations; and in the beginning of this week came out the inclosed proclamation or ordinance of the lord protector, whereby it is ordered, that those that have headed the party of the king, or his sons, or have assisted them willingly and knowingly, shall withdraw themselves from London and Westminster, and all places that are 20 miles round about the same, and repair to those places where they are born, except those that are used to live constantly with their families in the said places and districts. And all officers are earnestly commanded to keep constant search, and to make a strict enquiry, if the said ordinance be contravened, and those that afterwards shall be apprehended, shall be punished as disturbers of the publick authority. I am informed, that letters from Tunis, of the 2d of July, import, that the dey and bashaw have at length settled affairs with some English merchants, after the departure of admiral Blake; and that one mr. Woodhouse is again admitted there as consul of the English nation. I am told further, that the East India company here has got letters from Persia, intimating, that a certain person was arrived at the court of the king of Persia, who pretends to be an embassador of king Charles, to demand, as it is said, the duties of the toll at Ormus. The same was called formerly sir Henry Band, but now he is titled lord Bellamont. Among the merchants here at the Exchange, there is news, that the stay of admiral Blake upon the coast of Spain causes great jealousy; and some are afraid, that the effects of the merchants of this nation will be seized; but they are already forewarned, a great while ago, that they should not hazard much money in those parts. Concerning the taking of St. Domingo in Hispaniola, or any other enterprises in the Spanish West Indies, there is no further news nor confirmation arrived here since my last. The governor of Hull has written to the lord protector, that a Swedish ship, having on board fifteen or sixteen horses, and some of the baggage of the lord embassador Bonde, had been forced by storm to make that harbour.
I am informed, that the quarter-master-general of the camp, mr. Downing, is to set out one of these days for Savoy, to settle a certain regulation, concerning the distribution of the money collected here for the poor Waldenses; and that doctor Whistler will be sent to the king of France.
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, doctor Godofridus Snellius, counsellor and magistrate of the city of Alckmaer, has delivered me your high mightinesses letter of the 7th instant on the 20th following; and whereas I had heard nothing at all of the seizure of the ship called the House of Shuyden, which is mentioned at large in your high mightinesses said letter, I enquired immediately, whether notice touching the same was given to the government or the court of admiralty here, and found, that by way of notification only, in the court of admiralty it was reported, some days ago, that captain Thomas Amyes, being a private ship with a commission, had carried into Guernsey a ship belonging to the subjects of France, called, les trois Marchands, without any thing further being heard of it: but, upon nearer application, I was informed, that one captain Philips here was the chief owner of the said commissioned vessel, and that a certain young man, who has been super-cargo of the aforesaid ship, the House of Shuyden, was arrived here. That the same person had told, that the master of the said ship had pacified the said captor with a sum of money; and that he with the said ship and cargo was released, and sailed to pursue his voyage. And, in order to get the better information of what has happened, yesterday a particular friend has written to St. Malo. I have enquired, for two days running, after the said captain Philips, to hear what advice or information he might have received, or what pretension he can make against the said ship and cargo; but hitherto I have not been able to find him out. In the mean while, I assure your high mightinesses, that I will assist the said interressed to the utmost of my abilities.
An intercepted letter from mr. Leo. Williams to mr. Thomas Brooks.
Although I have no very great hopes, that this shall come to your hands, yet I had rather be thought impertinent than negligent, especially by yourself, who have done so many favours for me, and from whom I expect so much constant employment from you abroad, if God send you and your estate well home. Your promise, I hope, you will not forget, any more than I do to pray for our prosperity. And now I have no business, I must crave pardon, if I trouble you with a little of our country news, some of which is very good, as the banishment of all cavaliers from the city for three months, and the securing the chiefest of them in the countries; so as 'tis hoped now, we shall have all peace at home, and with our next neighbours the French; but the Spaniard will be cozened, if he thinks, there is no more to do, but to go to the Indies, and fetch home gold. I have no more to present you with at present, but the good news of all your friends health.
An intercepted letter from mr. Thomas Somes to mr. Thomas Brooks.
I Received yours, that told us, you were just going your intended voyage for the perfecting all accompts with your creditors in Spain, which I do very well approve of, and shall be very glad to hear you end well there; for 'tis much doubted, the breach will be so wide there, as it will not long be hid. The treaty with France is in a very good forwardness, and expected suddenly to end in peace: therefore if you think fit, you may order your trade accordingly. I have little more to inform you than what I wrote the last week. We hope our trade will be good, because we are quiet, and like to be so: for his highness takes a short way to prevent all disturbances; all the old malignants being either in custody, or confined not to come within 20 miles of London. And sure all others will be in time satisfied; for if we thrive in the West Indies, as it is much hoped, there will be enough for every man.
The Venetian resident to the protector.
La serenissima republica di Venetia, che hà sempre conservata sincera l'intencione per la buona corrispondenza sempre havuta con l'Inghilterra, et che sempre con particolar contento hà inteso i prosperi successi di questo stato, ne quali il gran valor dell altezza vostra hà havuto la parte principale, et meritevolmente l'hà habilità nel grado di suprema stima, et auttorità nella quale è universalmto riconosciuta; mi hà ultimamente commesso di dover riconfermare all'altezza vostra, questi suoi sinceri sentimenti, et di più aggiongerle, che à testimonio conspicuo della perseverante volontà della ferenissima republica di nudrire, et di augummentare una buona perfetta amicitia, con l'altezza vostra li haveva destinato per suo ambasciator extraordinario l'eccellentissimo signor cavalier Sagredo che di Francia doverà passare all'altezza vostra accioche nella vicinanza, & nel commodo d'essequirsi dall' eccellenza sua gl' ordini publici resti con la prontezza maggiore comprobata la stima della serenissima republica, verso il merito sublime dell' altezza vostra, la quale persuasa dal suo zelo pietoso, e generoso confida l'eccellentissimo senato, mostrerà dispositione, e rissolutioni affettuosa per giovare a gl. interressi della sua giusta guerra contro turchi nemici communi, il che come servirà al bene di tutta cristianità, cosi per l'operato di già dall'armi di vostra altezza sono, e seranno all' Inghilterra presente eterne li glorie, et al gran nome dell'altezza vostra continui gl. applausi, e le benedittioni.
The Venetian embassador to the protector.
Principal commissione impartitami dalla serenissima republica di Venetia, è quella di rappresentar a vostra altezza, come piace à Dio, che doppo undeci anni d'ostinatissima guerra, ella faccia scudo à tutta la Christianite, è sola resista alla prepotenza de Turchi. Questi infedelissimi barbari, che non hanno per fine, che l'oppressione del christianesimo moltiplicano, i, sforzi per soggiogare interamente il regno di Candia, Antemurale dell' Italia, è porta, per dove l'infidiosa forza Turchesca può spingerzi all' oppressione della miglior parte dell' Europa.
Per anco quella principal isola combatte, è resiste, ma il total' abbandono, nel quale viene lasciata da prencipi Christiani; la forza potente de' Turchi, è la lunghezza della guerra, che infiachisce sempre più il vigore della republica, dano gran foggetto à dubitare, che anco quel regno Christiano non habbia, dà, sinalmente aggiungersi à tanti altri, che gemono fotto il pesante giogo Turchesco, che la forza, per altro, grande, è vasto dell' Ottomano, non divenga per questo nuovo considerabil' acquisto formidabile, et insuperabile.
La disesa costante, che la sola serenissima republica hà fatto sin' hora, contro un monarca cosi potente, è un lume posto da Dio inanzi à gl'ochi della Christianità, per che conoscano i prencipi, esser questo il vero tempo di liberar dal giogo tanti migliara de Christiani, è di riscatar le più belle provincie del mondo dalla schiavitù, che le incatena.
Il zelo, che vostra altezza, tiene per la fede Christiana, quella pietà, è quella religione, che sono, i più belli freggi, che adornino ii suo generosissimo animo, allumeranno quel santo fuoco, che accenderà il suo gran coraggio, è che darà il fillo alla fua valorossima spada, che non può combatter più gloriosamente, quanto à favore dell' evangelo.
Non verrà mai congiuntura piu propitia per abbatere l'impero Ottomano, mentre stanco sotto il peso d'undeci anni di guerra, diretto dal consiglio di femine; essausto di soldati, di denaro, se malamente può resistere alla sola republica, è argomento infallibile, che converrebbe cedere alla forza, et all' armi vittoriose di vostra Altezza.
Ella non può render immortale il suo nome, ne coronare di maggior gloria, le ultime attioni della sua vita, quanto col inviar una slotta de vascelli di questo stato, che unita all' armata della republica, accorri à far scudo alla fede Christiana violentemente insidiata dalla prepotenza Turchesca. Una piccolia parte delle gran forze maritime, che Dio hà date all' Inghilterra, può aggiunger tanto vigore al Christianesimo, che trionsi dell' Ottomana impietà. Et una attione cosi illustre, è cosi eroica, come quella di dimostrarsi l'unico difensore dell' evangelo, è loppugnatore dell' infedeltà, porterebbe il nome di vostra altezza, al posto più rillevato di gloria, è d'applauso, è coronerebbe la sua spada d'immortal glori.
The Venetian embassador to the protector.
Mi è stata à mesi passati consignata una raccommandatione di vostra altezza à favore d'un capitano di nave Inglese. Ne scrissi con efficacia, e non ostante le angustie, che per ordinario accompagnano una lunga guerra, hà egli di già conseguita una parte del suo credito in testimonio della stima, che la Republica fà delle raccomandamenti di vostra altezza, e del desiderio ch' ella tiene di dargli ogni più aperto argomento di sua affettuosa dispositione verso di lei.
Si terminò pure la campagna in Levante con disuantaggio de Turchi, et oltre gli acquistr fatti nel combattimento all' imboccatura de Dardanelli; la presa, et il sacheggiamto della Piazza del volo, se gli son prese due galere con apprestamenti di guerra, e diversi altri vascelli, che solcavano il mare, non lasciando sua divina maestà di far spiccare la sua divina clemenza, col dar modo alla republica di far scudo à tutta la forza Ottomana, e di fostener sola le ragioni del Christianesimo tutto. Piaccia a Dio, che altre volte istillo nel coraggio di vostra altezza, la distruttione de corsari gloriosamente battuti dalle di lei flotte in Algeri, di valersi altra volta della sua spada, a difesa dell' evangelo, et ad' oppressione della Turchesca barbarie.
E folito che gl' ambasri portano le doglianze de mercanti sudditti del prencipe, che rappresentano, per le perdite fatte, sopra le navi Olandesi prese nella passata guerra. A me tocca rappresentare a vostra altezza che il carattere d' ambasre non hà potuto essentarmi dalla perdita di due colli di mobili da uso caricati sopra una nave Olandese, et incaminati in Amsterdam per parigi dove mi trovavo ambasre, qual restò preda delle flotte di questo stato, come vostra altezza refterà pienamento informata dalla lettera scritta da me al parlamento in data 7 Febraro 1653. e dalla risposta dello stesso parlamento 23 Marzo che faranno in copia.
La prima, che se sono stati divisi, e venduti, non è meraviglia, che non si siano ritrovati, certa cosa essendo, come per fede del mercante, che li hà caricati, e del suo corrispondente d'Amsterdam ch' hebbe l'ordine di riceverli, che si trovavano nella nave, quando fù presa; e come si può vedere dal libro del Carico, che si trova appresso l'amiralità di Londra. E quando anco si desiderassero prove maggiori, assicuro vostra altezza, che una parte delli sodetti miei beni si trova in qualche casa di Londra; effendovi testimonii di questa natione, che sanno, cosa à stato fatto de fodetti miei colli.
La seconda, che non v'era pur' un' huomo in tutta la Francia, che non credesse, ch' io dovessi esser il primo ad' ottener la restitutione del mio, trattandosi di cose da uso appartenenti ad' un ambasre, che secondo la prattica del mondo, sono tenute per sacre, e trattandofi di valsente di poca consideratione, mentre le mie perdite non ascendono, che al valore di cento cinquanta lire sterline, quali mi premono molto più per l'effempio, è per il torto fatto al carattere di ministro publico, che per il poco valore, che contengono.
La terra ch' hò sempre creduto, che li particolari sodetti non siano mai pervenuti all' orecchie di vostra altezza notami per altro, la sua infinita bontà, è la cortesia pratticata da lei co ministri de' prencipi.
Lord chief justice St. John to secretary Thurloe.
I Spoke to his highnes about the Custos brevium office. He likte the motion; he likewise gave way for your running to grasse a fortnight or 3 weekes in August, which I beseech you make use of. I shall, God willing, bee about Thorp about the middle of August; and if your circuite be that way, it would be great contentment to me to meete you in those parts. Sir, I am even now going out of towne. If I had libertie to have seene you, I should have sayd somthing more. Sir, I rest
Mr. O. B. to secretary Thurloe.
Havinge considered of what you proposed to me, concerning the matter of trade, I shall render you the results of my thoughts, forbearing to mention the reasons, which were too tedious to insert. Therefore I have drawne up and doe send you hear inclossed a paper, wheareby you may see, what I doe conceave your best waye, to fett one worke some able persons to offerr theire thoughts unto you, which they may conveniently doe in three monthes after they are heare mett. But fearinge I am too longe and troublsome, I shall refer the enlardgement to some other oppertunity. I cannot omit to acquainte you, that your fleet (wherin coll. Homphris is) went from Waymothe saterday the 7th of this month.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Doctor Bayly is com hither from Rom, purposly for credit in my hands, which he faith you promist to send him. He has been very free with me in informing me of thos great commands, which you have layd upon him at Rom. To acquaint you fully therewith, he has taken som paynes this day to giv you a large account in wryting, which he would hav me send yow for Ingland by a man expresse, which I should hav bin very forward to do, had I had but the left intimation from yourself, that this gentleman wer employed by you. However I now send away a man to Genoa, with thes letters, to overtak the French ordinary ther: so I hope they wil com as saf to your hands, as if they went by a man a purpos. I shal lykewys furnish this gentleman with 20 or 30 l. upon that score, that by his own relation, only he belongs to you; and if he proves not the man he pretends to be, I must hav patience. However pray be plesed to giv me answer to this bisnes, that I may know how to carry myself hereafter therein; for to improv my weak endevours to the ful in your servis is the ernest desyre of,
Nicholas Heinsius, the Dutch resident in Sweden, to the states general.
High and Mighty lords,
My lords, upon the 9/19 of this month in the morning the king set fail out of the Dalers: the fleet divided into squadrons; and in regard that the wind hath blown very fair ever since, here is no doubt made, but that the king is safely landed ere now. It is thought he will either land at Wolgas or Stetin in Pomerania.
Some few days since great damage hath happened to the copper mines of this kingdom, which will be no small loss both to the king, and particular men. It seems that the works are fallen down, the damage is not well to be known.
President Viole to Barriere.
Since the taking of Landrecy, the French army hath spent some time to victual the place and to fill the lines. It is said that the king hath been there. On wednesday last the enemy laid siege to the Capelle, and it is said that the Mareschal of la Ferte is to manage that siege, and the mareschal Turenne hath another design, which I do not believe, for the one or the other would run the hazard of being beaten.
H. Willemsen, Rosenwinge, and Petrus Charisius, to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
Upon the special command of his majesty our most gracious king and sovereign, we the underwritten on the 18/28 of April last past, in a publick audience made a report to your high mightinesses by word of mouth, and afterwards delivered also in writing a certain proposition with sundry circumstances, relating to that known seizure and detention of the English ships at Copenhagen, coming from the Baltick, granted in the year 1652, at the repeated request of the respective deputies and resident of your high mightinesses, Nanning Keyser, and Frederick de Vries, out of which said ships and their cargo thus seized, and out of the produce thereof, according to the proposition and approbation of the said mr. Keyser himself, was made payment and brought over to account for the loss and damage suffered by the subjects of his royal majesty of Denmark and Norway, &c. by the reprisals of the English, during the war between the two republicks. We were in confident hopes, that your high mightinesses would have granted us a favourable answer in writing, upon our said proposition, for a final liquidation of the said pretensions, and in order to prevent all misunderstanding, and what further may result therefrom, to the disturbance of the mutual good understanding and neighbourly friendship and correspondence between his said majesty our most gracious sovereign and this state: nevertheless we observe not without surprise and sorrow the contrary, and seeing that in the last conference with their high mightinesses deputies, the lords Beverning, the counsellor pensionary de Witt and Vierssen, were delivered to us certain copies and extracts out of sundry documents and former acts, consisting in a number of fifteen pieces, whereby their lordships intended to demonstrate, that his said majesty could not form by law nor under any colour of reason, any pretension on the said English ships and goods, nor on the produce thereof, nor on what is out of the same delivered to his majesty's subjects, in payment, but on the contrary, that his majesty was obliged to make a full and punctual restitution of the same, without making the least reflection how and from whom his majesty was to take his satisfaction, for the losses his subjects have suffered, and other things which the said lords deputies endeavoured to prove by the said documents. But every thing being well examined and considered by impartial arbitrators, such an uncharitable construction can never be inforced from thence, which is but now only started, after the conclusion of the peace with England, contrary to all foregoing promises, protestations, and at several times reiterated, and even by their high mightinesses themselves ratified acts of guaranty and indemnity, endeavouring at present to lessen and extenuate such an act of friendship and considerable service, shewed and done by his said majesty, by such a resolute step, even to the hazard of his own kingdoms, and with the utmost ruin and destruction of innumerable subjects and their commerce.
However in order to demonstrate, though there be no need for it, by particular refutations, that the said respective retroacta and documents are intirely irrelevant, the same, as they are especially and orderly distinguished, to the number of 15 articles, shall be answered, and the insufficiency thereof plainly proved, be it that they are considered either separately or jointly.
The contents therefore of number 1, 2, and 3, may be intirely applied in favour and behalf of his royal majesty, since thereby their high mightinesses do expresly confirm, and by a special resolution approve and ratify the promises and protestations of the said mr. Nanning de Keyser, that their high mightinesses, with all their power and forces, shall and will assist his said majesty, and avert all that any ways may happen to his said majesty of Denmark, for and on account of what he shall do in the premisses. And that their high mightinesses at all occurrences will endeavour to shew themselves grateful to his said majesty for that service.
Wherein respectively are repeated, and ought to be minded, the words, all that any ways, which naturally and properly contain a general sense, nothing in the world excepted, but comprehending all emergencies, without distinction, especially such cases, which after the said seizure which was desired, must unavoidably follow, and which already happened, and were effectually existent, by the detention of the Danish ships.
So that the feriousness and earnestness of their high mightinesses request being expresly declared and manifested by their guaranty and indemnification, the pretended allegation, that in behalf of his majesty nothing could be produced in writing, for the justification of his demands and desire of liquidation, doth intirely fall of itself.
It being likewise far from all appearance or likelihood, that his royal majesty, without assurance of guaranty, would or could have acted thus only and merely in consideration of their high mightinesses, since the appearance of the ruin of many merchants and subjects of his majesty could inevitably be foreseen.
Besides this, the said intervening promise of indemnity, as being grounded upon reason, justice, and equity, even without any previous express stipulation, ought to have been made good by their high mightinesses since it cannot be presumed, that any body to his own great prejudice and loss, would promote the advantage and profit of another, especially because natural equity itself dictates to the contrary, that no body ought to be a loser by his kindness and good actions, but that the loss must be borne by him, to whom the advantage doth devolve, since loss and profit are relatively reciprocal.
So that it can no ways be sustained, that the offence given to the republick of England, and the law of retorsion or reprisals was an unforeseen accident, because the same in the treaty of guaranty I produced under numb. 4. was not mentioned, nor any sufficient obligation entered into; on the contrary, it is evident, that the affirmative promise of indemnity was the only fundamental cause of the guaranty, and therefore it is presupposed, that a preceding assurance of indemnity, with all circumstances and accidental incidents, is tacitly comprehended in the said treaty, at least the efficacy of such reiterated and formal promises cannot be made illusive or frustrated by any following confederation, extended generaliter & per modum relationis, for otherwise the said promise of guaranty would be intirely fruitless and without force, which would involve a notorious absurdity. And the reason why the said point of indemnity is not repeated, or expresly inserted, in the said treaty, was, because the said mr. de Keyser, for want of further instructions, was pleased to draw up the said act in such, and no other form, and because his majesty (confiding in the usual sincerity, uprightness and gratitude of their high mightinesses, and being assured of their praiseworthy punctuality in making good their promises) did, præcipitanter & bonâ fide, because the said de Keyser urged this affair so very pressingly, proceed to the conclusion of the said treaty. And by a plain consequence the pretended allegation of their high mightinesses can no ways stand good; that they by virtue thereof are not obliged to indemnify the subjects of his majesty, and to make any satisfaction for the intolerable and excessive losses, which they have suffered and sustained, only for the interest of their high mightinesses; but that their high mightinesses were only obliged thereby to help with all their power to avert any hostilities, which on that account might have been undertaken, against his majesty and his subjects. For besides that such a construction and interpretation is contradictory to the true meaning of the contractants, and the good faith required among allies, it is likewise repugnant against the very sense of the words thereof, being extended quàm gener alissimè & universaliter, and does not except any case whatsoever, nor admits of any limitation or restriction. Moreover the indemnity which is claimed, is not only and solely grounded on the said treaty of guaranty, but also particularly, on the said repeated and ratified promises of their high mightinesses, seeing that, without an effectual indemnity, the preceding protestations and assurances of guaranty, made in favour of his majesty's subjects, would be needless. For the averting of hostitilies, claims and pretensions, is really but one point, properly relating to the state of Denmark, and a consequence and obligation, reciprocally resulting from the said treaty, since it cannot in any ways be applied to the particular interest of the suffering subjects, without the same are indemnified thereby.
From the memorial delivered by the said mr. de Keyser in the year 1653, exhibited under number 5, nothing can be inferred to the prejudice of the said just pretensions, because the said mr. de Keyser could draw up the said memorial according to his own will and likeing, and the same being a private and particular draught, can in no manner be interpreted in præjudicium tertii, yet the recommendation of communication and inclusion, as also the request (to avert all pretensions of losses and interest on account of the detained English hemp ships) which are respectively mentioned therein, doth not contradict, much less suppresses it the right of indemnification, which by the foregoing respective acts and promises was settled and consented to, so that it was needless to insist farther upon it. Therefore the offer of his majesty, relating to the restitution of the said English hemp ships and effects, or otherwise the produce thereof, which is likewise mentioned therein, must be understood to be made with that view and proviso, to receive the like satisfaction for such ships and effects detained by reprisal, and this ex identitate rationis. Moreover the intention of their high mightinesses, in conformity thereunto, will plainly appear by the letter of the said mr. de Keyser to their high mightinesses, bearing date, Copenhagen, January 13, 1653. for therein is mentioned expressly: That now his majesty and his subjects had got that security where they could lay a claim to, of which else, by the relaxation of these hemp ships, they should be destitute. So that it would be intirely unequitable, that his majesty, without a preceding liquidation, and a like satisfaction, should make restitution of such money, which according to the evident intention and cession of their high mightinesses, made by the said mr. de Keyser (whose act their high mightinesses are obliged to stand to; and to whom, as to the extension and force of the said promises of indemnity, full credit ought to be given) is already distributed among his majesty's suffering subjects.
Which is likewise evidently to be seen out of the letter of the said mr. de Keyser, written to your high mightinesses on the 13th of August, exhibited sub num. 6. for in that said letter is repeated the request of his royal majesty, to be secured against the English pretensions, besides what the said mr. de Keyser informs your high mightinesses thereby, that his majesty also insisted to be freed from all further pretensions, (note the words further pretensions;) and whereas the said words comprehend some separate and special matters, so that besides the beforementioned pretensions, something else must needs be understood, (for else the same would have been superfluous and of no signification;) the said words can be only applied to this subject, viz. upon the pretensions what the English should happen to form, in order to refuse to make restitution of and satisfaction for the Danish ships, which by reprisal might be consiscated, against which his majesty and the subjects of his kingdoms must be effectually guarantied by their high mightinesses, pursuant to their reiterated and ratisied promises of indemnity. And according thereunto, the said mr. de Keyser recommends in his said letter, that the said just and reasonable request may be agreed to, to the satisfaction of his majesty, and in compliance with the former treaties and acts that are passed.
The resolution of your high mightinesses of the 7th of September 1653. delivered sub num. 7. deserves not only no answer, but on the contrary may very well be accepted in favour of his majesty, since thereby the respective requests of his majesty, mentioned in the abovesaid letter of the said mr. de Keyser, inserted in the said resolution, are agreed to without any limitation or protestation.
From the memorial of the resident mr. Charisius presented to your high mightinesses on the 25th of October 1653, as also from the resolution of your high mightinesses, which passed the same day, relating to the same, which respectively are exhibited sub num. 8 and 9; not the least argument can be inserred against the said just petition and request of liquidation, so that thereon no particular debates are required.
The resolution of your high mightinesses of the 7th of November 1653, produced sub num. 10. comprehends among other things some further assurances in conformity of the former promises of indemnity, viz. That their high mightinesses at all times, and with all their strength and power, will help to avert all whatsoever should happen to his said majesty, or his kingdom, dominions, and people, in relation to the said seizure or sale, or any other pretensions; (note the words, other pretensions) that might be formed on that account. And whereas the English for that reason have made a pretension upon the Danish ships, for which they will neither give nor make the least satisfaction, their high mightinesses are especially obliged, even according to the said resolution, to guaranty his majesty and his kingdoms, and subjects, against the same, and to indemnisy them. However, what concerns the offer and assurance of his majesty in relation to the restitution of the hemp ships, which is likewise mentioned therein, that same must be taken and understood under such a proviso and restriction, as above in the debates on num. 5. is set forth, to which for brevity's sake we refer.
And thus proceeding to the report of the notification made by the lords Beverninge, van Nieuport, and Jongestal, to the said resident Charisius, delivered January 26, 1654, and exhibited sub num. 12. we reply, that we cannot imagine, what from the same can be inferred, to the prejudice of the reiterated promises of guaranty.
By the proposition made by mr. Rosenvinge to their high mightinesses on the 27th of February 1654, produced sub num. 13. it was recommended, upon just grounds, that the lords embassadors of their high mightinesses then in England might be charged to procure, that a reasonable restitution and satisfaction might be obtained concerning the ships and goods of the Danish subjects, taken from them by the English, for the abovesaid reason. But from thence it doth not follow any ways, that their high mightinesses were thereby freed from their obligation, ad præstationem indemnitatis, wherewith their high mightinesses, according to their respective promises and assurances, are and remain still privative, and especially charged, and could have been solely called upon as being accountable. But the reason why at that time their high mightinesses were not directly required to make good their obligation was, because the Danish ships were detained by the English, and consequently could not be effectually restored by their high mightinesses. But whereas their high mightinesses, be it out of some particular view, or any other considerations and interest of state, did not insist on the said point of satisfaction, and omitted to have the same inserted, together with the inclusion, (in conformity to the said request of his majesty) in the treaty with England, therefore the same obligation is still owing by their high mightinesses, who proprio facto have obliged themselves to the necessity, according to their repeated promises, to indemnify the subjects of his majesty for all the losses they have sustained.
And afterwards by a special resolution, bearing date March 2, 1654. (quoted num. 14.) their high mightinesses have renewed their reiterated protestations and assurances of indemnity, and declared in case of necessity, that they would effectually perform and punctually make good their said promises, which is an evident sign, that their high mightinesses never have called into question or disputed the said promise of indemnity by any contrary disapprobation or protestation against the same; but on the contrary have always acknowledged the same by divers acts of approbation, and with a solemn declaration, that their high mightinesses at all times with due gratitude will remember the friendship, which his said majesty had done them at that opportunity, and in such dangerous conjunctures of time, out of a sincere affection; and that they in all occurrences that might happen would readily acknowledge the same with the like reciprocal services, so that the said resolution doth not at all contradict, but rather justifies the said required indemnity.
And lastly, examining the serious letter of their high mightinesses to his majesty, written on the 23d of September 1654, produced sub num. 15. and made also use of to destroy thereby the respective acts of guaranty that are passed, we only say, that from such letters (which may be extended pro lubitu, and according to the intention of the writer) nothing can be inferred to the prejudice of him, to whom the same may be directed, since the same, being particular and wilful extensions, cannot demerit any credit in favour of the writer, to the effect of a sufficient obligation. Besides the centrum thereof, concerning the general terms of the promise of indemnity and guaranty, and the presentation of restitution made by his majesty so as therein mentioned, doth sufficiently fall away by what is mentioned here before. At least the pretended contradictions, which from thence are fancied to result, are sufficiently and absolutely resuted and interpreted by salutary distinctions, and under such modifications and conditions as above set forth.
We therefore do not doubt, but whereas their high mightinesses are now fundamentally informed, by all the abovementioned and alledged reasons, of the true state and situation of this affair, and of all that depends on it, they will grant us a favourable resolution, (whereof your usual sincerity assures us) in full satisfaction of our pretensions, which are grounded upon equity and justice, and in punctual compliance with their high mightinesses reiterated promises given and made as well by resolutions and acts of guaranty, as also by letters and reports of their high mightinesses deputies extraordinary, made and dated January 13, 1653. humbly requesting to take all these motives and considerations into due deliberation, to the end that we may speedily obtain such a favourable resolution during the present illustrious session of their noble and great mightinesses the lords the states of Holland and West Friesland; remaining in the mean while your high mightinesses most humble, &c.