A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 3, December 1654 - August 1655. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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August (3 of 4)
A letter of intelligence.
The fiege of Pavia, of whose good success none doubts here, and the marching of the person of the king into Flanders at the head of his army, did afford the fullest assembly, that was ever seen upon a day of St. Lewis, where not one cardinal was missing; and monsieur the cardinal de Retz himself came also uninvited.
The picture of the king armed and crowned with laurel on horseback, which I had received out of France a few days before, and which was set over the gate of the church, gave so much admiration and affection to all the people of Rome, that the like was never seen. Now that the treaty of peace of those of the Vallies hath been signed, the lord protector must find out some other pretence, if he will defer the signing of yours.
The Spanish fleet, consisting of 18 men of war, and 15 gallies, set sail a while since from the gulph of la Spetie, where it had lain a fortnight, with an intention to have landed the men at San Pier d'Arena, and to have marched from thence for Milan; but arriving at Porto Fino, and understanding, that our fleet was at sea, those that commanded the Spanish did not think fit to proceed any further, although they were not far from the place they were bound to, yet they returned back to the said gulph of Spetie from whence they came. In the mean time they write from Genoa, that the duke of Vendosme is arrived at Caplorio, where he may easily hinder the landing of their men, and obtain some further advantage upon the enemy.
Servien, the French embassador in Savoy, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
The peace of those of the pretended protestant religion of the Vallies of Piedmont, which I writ you word last week to be concluded and signed by his royal highness and by them, hath been since fully executed, the troops of either side being withdrawn, and the prisoners released; and likewise the inhabitants of both religions have visited one another, and embraced each other with many expressions of love and joy, which they have of being reunited together, and brought under the obedience of their sovereign. I did not retire myself from Pignerol, till I had seen all things thus established and confirmed. I have the honour to be, &c.
A copy of the letter from the prince of Condé to monsieur de Turenne.
I was not a little surprised, when a letter, which you wrote to the cardinal Mazarin, fell into my hands. I send you a copy thereof, to the end you may see, that I have a small cause to complain of you. I will never think it strange, that you get upon as many advantages as you are able, if they be true ones; but to see in a letter, signed and sealed by your own hand, that the retreat, which we made lately, was so precipitated, that our last squadron was forced to remain over the river; that I have left our canon at Valenciennes; and that I should have said, that I had had a great contest with the Spaniards; and that I did advise to remain in the post of Valenciennes; these are things so remote from the truth, that unless I did perfectly know your hand, I should not have believed that this letter had come from you. I only spoke to the lords, the earls of Guiche and of Vivone, the prince of Marsillac, and some others, who were all of them persons of too much honour to say that I ever spake to them of any contest, as you say; and I do willingly submit to their testimonies; and if you had been at the head of your troops, as I was in the rear of mine, you would have seen, that our last squadron did not swim over the river. I thought, to satisfy what I owe to my honour, that I was bound to write this unto you, and to desire you, that when you speak of any action another time, wherein I have a share, that you will speak the truth. I have still done the same in those, wherein you have been interested, and when you served under me; and since we have waged war one against another, I shall always continue to do the same, and will be, &c.
A copy of the letter of the prince of Condé to the mareschal de la Ferté.
I send you the copy of a letter, which monsieur de Turenne did write to the cardinal Mazarin, whereof the original is fallen into my hands, whereby you will see what he saith of that which past lately in our retreat. I believe if you had had the van, you would not have spoken after that manner, for you would have seen it; or if you could not have arriv'd soon enough, you would have informed your self by persons, that should have seen it. He saith, that we were so close pursued, that my last squadron was forced to swim over the river; that we left our cannon at Valenciennes, in regard I could not bring it with us; and that I had said, that I had had a great contest with the Spaniards to remain in our post. For the last I take to witness the prince of Marsillac, earl of Guiche, of Puyguillen, and others, whether I ever spoke to them; and yet they are those alone, whom I spoke to in the march. As for our cannon, we were so little prest, that we should have been very miserable to have left them behind us. And as for my last squadron's swimming over the river, I can assure you, that they were not obliged to dry themselves after they had past the river; and that we did not break our bridge till long time after that we were gotten over. I do not tell you all this, to draw any advantage from our retreat. I do only tell it you, that you may not take any false impression from what monsieur de Turenne may impart unto you. I do not demand either praise or contempt. I desire the continuation of your amity, and beseech you to believe me, that I am, &c.
The examination of Thomas Coleman, of Hushburne Tarent in the county of Hants, taken this 19th day of August, 1655.
Who saith, that upon the monday morning, which the late insurrection began upon at Salisbury, when the judges were seized by the cavalier party, there came one Jethro Tull, servant to mr. Thomas Hussey of Hungerford-park, to the said Hushborne Tarent, to the house of one Thomas Widley, farmer of the parsonage there under mr. Hughes, and asked for the said Thomas Widley; and his wife answering, that he was gone for Salisbury, to the assizes there, upon a trial he had before the judges; to which the said Tull answered, tush, there would be no assizes at all, or words to that effect. And then he demanded the rent due to his master for the said farm (which used to be paid to the vicar, as an augmentation) and did receive the same; and gave his acquittance for it. This the informant had by the relation of the wife of the said Thomas Widley, within a quarter of an hour after the said Tull was gone; who also told this informant, that he drank the health of Charles Stuart at the house. And further saith, that the said Tull went from Husbborne to Winchester, to gather up money, as he was informed.
The prince d'Harcourt to secretary Thurloe.
Le sieur Douin (fn. 1) passant par cette ville, & me voiant dans le desir de fere venir huict chevaux d'Angleterre, m'a temoigné, que vous me ferres la faveur d'en demander la permission a son altesse; & qu'elle auroit la bonté de me l'accorder. Je vous en serai tres obligé; & si dans l'estendue de mon gouvernement il se presenté quelque occasion pour le service de son altesse, ou pour le vostre particulier, je l'embrassera avec affection, & vous tesmoignerai, que je suis,
Vostre tres humble serviteur,
Le Prince d'Harcour.
Mr. R. Laurence to the protector.
May it please your highnes,
My last was of the 13th of August, adviseing that the 8th day the Venis bayley, accompanied with the French ambasador, had private audience with the vizere, desireing that the old bayley might bee sent away from Andranople, and that some accomodation myght bee made betweene them and the Turke, to which the vizere seemed verie willinge. The next day being the 9th hee visited the Mustee. Within few howers after hee had given that visitt the vizere was changed, soe that theire worke is now to beginn againe, they as well as all other Christians haveinge lost a good freind. Hee hath bine in feare of his life ever since hee hath bine vizere, and no man thought hee would have contineued soe long as hee did: hee is gonn from hence into Damascus. The reason why hee was put out of place, and sente hence in such hast, is, because Husan aga with a sonn of Ipsher basha is now come to Angora with a greate body of horse, and demands the person of the vizere, as being the cheefe man that had a hand in cutting of Ipsher basha. As yet the new vizere is not setled in his place, soe cannot give you any accompt what hee intends to doe, or whether hee will give eare to those of Tunis, or not. Soe soone as any thinge offers in that busines, I shall not faile, according to my duty, to advise thereof. I further aded, that the Turke had ordered the buylding of forty shipps for the next yeare's service; that sir Thomas Bendesh had sente to salute the new vizere, and soe soone as could hav audience intended to carrie him his presente; and that one of sir Thomas Bendish his servants, as itt is sayd, jesting with another with a fowleing peece, shot his confort in the head, soe that hee dyed presently.
The aforesayd lines is coppie of what then writ; since which those of Tunis have bine with the new vizere, and made theire laments, desireing, that they myght bee permited to present a petition unto the grand seigneur concerning the sayd busines; unto which theire request the new vizere hath given them the same answer the old one did, which was, that as yet it is not tyme. Soe it is sayd, that they doe intend suddainlie to returne back for Tunis, leaveing those here, which shall prosecute the busines, when they finde a conveniente tyme. The grand seigneur hath given them six peece of brass ordnance, which they are to place in that castle, from whence your highnes shall * * * them, they haveing complained that for want of such greate ordnance, they could not defende themselves against the shipps. The 16th of this month the Venis bayley was sente for by the vizere, and all men thought that hee ***** backe againe to Andranople; but itt appears, that there is no such ******* but the new vizere ieemed to shew him more favor then ****** for that it cleerlie appeares, that the Turks would willinglie have ******** the Venetian upon reasonable termes, they begining now to feare the Muscovite, who it seems is not farr from Buda, a fronteir garrison of theirs; and one the other side the French kinge not longe since writ to the grand seigneur and the vizere in favour of the Venetian. And indeed the French ambasador is the cheefe cause of the Venis bayley's being detained, as I have understood, and itt was thus: the French ambasador treated with the vizere for a peace to bee made with the Venetian: the vizere promises, that if an ambasador were sent from Venis, hee should bee sivillie used; and if they could not agree, hee should have safe conduct backe. Hereupon the French ambasador being confidente of performance of what the vizere had promised, hee writes to Venis, and thereupon they sente their ambasador. When hee comes here, his demands were such, as the Turke would not listen unto. Finding it to bee soe, hee desired safe conduck backe againe, according unto what they had promised the French ambasador; but the French ambasador not haveing a hatta sheref, which is the grand seigneur's comand, the vizere denies what was promised; and instead of sending the Venis bayley backe with a safe conduckt, have kept him with a safe guard at Andranople; which busines causeth the French kinge to bee somethat urgent with the grand seigneur for the freeing of the bayley; and the French ambasador hath and doth take greate paines therein, and is the only cause of his staying here, and as yet nothing effected.
The captain basha is gonn againe to Malvaser in hopes to releeve it; but it is hoped,
that the Venetian may have takne it ere this. Thus with my prayers unto God, that hee
would direct you in all your waighty affayres, unto whose protection I commit you, and
Your highnes faithfull and obedient subject,
Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.
I even now received the honor of your letter, and a full dispatch of all thos particulars I presumed to recommend unto your favor and care; soe that now (God willinge) I shall hasten for Scotland, wher whilst I am, you may assure yourselfe you have a faithfull affectionate servant, and one who is obliged to be soe by too stronge tyes ever to be broken. Your commands concerninge the fisheryes, and sendinge highlanders to Amerrica, shal be in an especiall manner observed, as much as lyeth in my power; of which as of all thinges els you shall have a constant and plaine account from,
Audelyend, August 20,
The order for commencement of colonel Wetham's sallary and mine has mr. Scobel's hand unto it; but that which mentions the establishment of the councell's sallary, and their clerks, has noe hand unto it. If that be an omission, I beseech you let it be rectifyed. I apprehend you have forgot procurringe an order from his highnes, for a weekly mayntenance of my lord Grandison, (which my lord protector promised me he would signe.) Truly, sir, he is reddy to perrish, and my lady Suffolke also, whos brother he is . . . .
Mr. Aldworth, consul at Marseilles, to secretary Thurloe.
My last unto you was of the 24th current, giving you notice, that the Thollon fleete was on departure, and they att present only attend a fayre wind, and pretends to seeke the Naples fleete to fight them; but it is most probable, they are designed for Barselona, in regard the wind is att present contrary to carry them thether. The duke Merkures order is revoked, so hee embarkes not to command under his father. Two dayes past heare arrived a ship of this place from Smirna, but on the way mett with an English marchant ship, who on pretence had a commission to take French, hath taken out all lier goods to the vallew of neare 50,000 peeces 8/8, which hath so inraged the people of this place against us, as that myselfe with the whole nation, except such as are ill wishers to his highnes and the state, are constrayned to keepe oure persons and houses well guarded to safe oureselves from the sury of those rude people. How long oure trobles in this nature will continew, we cannott yett imagine. Heare is advice, that the Spaniards hath had a greate defeat in Cattalonia, and that Pavia in Italy is surrendred to the duke of Modena for the French. If the Thollon fleete meet with those of Naples, it's suposed wil bee to weake for them, they having butt 19 ships of warr, and six fyre ships; and those of Naples are 20 ships of warr, and 14 gallyes. Noe Portugall ships of warr as yett arrived. So for present humbly take leave, and remayne
A letter of intelligence.
Both armies being joined marched towards Lublin, seeking an enemy, but behold there meeteth them unexpectedly a nobleman of Poland, one of the king's bedchamber, with letters from the king, in which he complains of the Swedes expedition so suddenly undertaken against him, especially at such a time, when he was assaulted in so many parts of his kingdom by the cruelty of savage enemies; and though he was not conscious, wherein any of his family had in the least offended the king of Swedeland, yet he would not refuse a parly with him, either in person or by an embassador, if so be the king and his army would but make a halt, and come on no further. That for his part, he was prepared to give him the utmost satisfaction that became a king to give. That in war sometimes fortune doth prevail, but oftner a good cause. That the king should consider, lest he be not weary at last, to take up in time, and be contented, that he had been supplicated by the king of Poland.
The king of Swedeland keeps the nobleman with him, and returns him answer by the post that he shall speedily be with him with his army; and then if he please, he may speak with him face to face. In the mean time he will not refuse an embassador, provided it be not to procrastinate and delay time. The king marcheth directly to Warsaw.
Translated from the High Dutch.
High and well-born count, my gracious lord, and mighty patron,
These days we got advice here, as if a treaty should be in hand betwixt his royal majesty, our most gracious king and lord, and the king of Poland, which the latter has obtained, as it is said, by a deputation, and especially by the colonel Pazcinsky, and with tears and supplications. And that for this purpose mr. Leczinsky was some days ago gone to the Polish camp by the way of Thorn from Marienburgh. How far this said treaty will be carried on, we must see. So much is certain, that his royal majesty our most gracious king, is in full march against the Poles, and lyeth but a small distance from them, with the gross of his army and forces, so that perhaps, as some people will have, a battle may have happened already, if the Polander has but had resolution enough to stand it, and thus all may be over already. Last sunday his excellency the lord fieldmareschal general, and vice admiral of the realm, arrived here in the road, with the whole fleet, and after he had acquainted the magistrates by me of his arrival, and given them notice, that he was ordered by his royal majesty to lay with the fleet here, in this Polish harbour, and there to take a toll from those that trade to Dantzick, till the city had compounded and settled matters with his said majesty; he weighed anchor, and went into the Pantsker bay, 4 or 5 miles from hence, and there disimbarked the troops he had on board, which, as it was reported yesterday, have made themselves already masters of the Pautske, and thus have taken a very good place, wherein they may fortify themselves and make the best use of the circumjacent quarters of Cassubia. The waywode of Pomerellia, mr. Ludwig Weyer, as it is said, was upon the march with some hundreds of troops, to relieve the place, but came too late. Just now we get the news by the way of Thorn, that the Poles are beaten, and that the Mazurian troops were entirely destroyed, and the rest of the troops surrounded, so that but few will be able to escape. His royal majesty had taken Lowitz already, and the king of Poland was retired with a small number to ..... on the frontiers of Silesia. The Dantzickers have resolved to give to his majesty no toll, and accordingly have shut up already the custom-house here, so that all navigation for this year is over and prohibited. After recommending your lordship most humbly to the divine protection, I remain
Your excellency's, &c.
H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
I did not thinke to have given you any trouble this poste, beinge prevented in time, and haveinge little worthe your knowledge. I gave you an account in my laste of the persons, whoe weer declared to be disbanded. We have bin since imployed in the prepareinge their severall proportions of land, whereuppon they are to sitt down, and hope within 14 dayes to settle them uppon their respective places. Soe soone as that worke is over, we shall have little of difficulty to doe as to army, untill we come to act the same parte againe; which I hope will not be suddenly, you haveinge reduced us to as narrowe a scantlinge, as will but well enable us to secure what we have, (our forces with you being returned.)
I could wishe, the management of your civill affairs weer as easie. I ame sure you
want handes for that. What we shall doe in the absence of my brother Fleettwoode, I
doe not well knowe. He intends to goe frome hence aboute 10 dayes hence. I shall
have little comforte to stay behind, further then to answer duty, in the doeinge of which
I trust the Lord will assist me with his presence. I shall not further enlarge, but remaine
Your humble servant,
Col. Robert Lilburne to the protector.
May itt please your highnes,
The particuler services this bearar mr. John Drummond minister has done your highnes, has bene many and eminent, with as much cordiallnes as I have observed in any man, (I know both to the hazard of his life and fortune) and both night and day has gon many a mile to gett and give intelligence, and for all his paines and charges, while I was in Scotland, could never fasten six pence upon him. If I should goe about to inlarge upon his deserts, I should give your highnes too much trouble, and detract from what I humbly and really conceive he hath mirritted; and doubtlesse for his faithfullnes to your highnes and service is very much to be vallewed, and I humbly wish he may not be unrewarded both for his owne and other such mens incouragement, which I am confident he should not want, if .your highnes did rightly know and understand his worth. Craveing pardon for this boldness, which I presumed upon as a duty I owe to your highnes, as
York, August 22,
Extract of the resolutions of the states general.
On deliberation it is thought good and resolved, that a letter shall be sent to the lord Nieuport, extraordinary embassador in England, to the end that he may exactly inform himself, and give an account to their lordships of what passed and is negotiated between his highness the lord protector and his council, and the embassador of the king of Sweden, endeavouring by all possible means to that purpose, that his before mentioned highness and his council may communicate unto him, with an equal candor and open heartedness, the passages between them and foreign ministers there, and to know what his highness's intentions are concerning the same, as he the lord embassador hath done heretofore in the name and on behalf of their lordships.
Resolution of the states general.
There being produced in the assembly the letter of mr. Levinus Warnerus, resident of this state at Constantinople, writ from thence the twenty second of May last, containing amongst the rest, that amongst the Turks there was a common report, that most of the Venetian fleet were Netherland ships: whereupon being debated, it is resolved, that an account be writ to the said resident, therein signifying, that their high and mighty lordships have no knowledge, that any subjects of this state do reinsorce the Venetian fleet with their ships; but it may be true enough, that some Netherlanders, who are no subjects of this state, do join with the said Venetian fleet. This the said resident is to make known in the name of their high and mighty lordships, where it is requisite.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The vice-admiral de Witt being examined upon the condition of the Baltick sea and of the Sound, faith, that the great ships are not improper for the Sound and the said sea; and that the water is deep enough and wide enough for the said great ships; consequently that those of the admiralty of Amsterdam have ill advised and spared the truth, when they said, that the great ships lately built were not proper for the said Baltick sea. However he said likewise, that in all the Baltick there were no sit harbours or ports for the said great ships, except Copenhagen and Wismar. Some think, that the viceadmiral said that to please the lord of Opdam, who doth desire and will go admiral in the great ship built at Rotterdam.
The lord Rosenvinge hath caused to be made 'known by the lord president, that he hath heard, that they had resolved to send an extraordinary fleet for the Sound; that by the treaty of alliance it is said, that that cannot be done, without first giving notice thereof to the king of Denmark his master. Thereupon it is resolved to write about it to monsieur de Vries, resident of this state.
Yesterday there came a letter from those of the admiralty of Amsterdam, remonstrating, that they begun to equip the fleet, and would hasten it; but desiring to furnish it with iron guns, which the states of Holland have in abundance in Amsterdam, it was refused them, although they offer to accept them in payment of those sums, which Holland owes them.
Item, they desired to know, whether they should send the 16 ships, one after another, as soon as they are ready, towards the Sound; or whether they shall be sent in a fleet all together. Whereupon it was resolved, they should proceed to the equipping of them, and they would send them word afterwards, what they should do with them; to which end the assembly of Holland is to meet at the beginning of the next week. Many yet believe, that nothing will come of this fleet.
This day was read the news of the taking of Vilna by assault by the Muscovites; and that the elector of Brandenburgh hath been obliged to agree with the Swede, by suffering half of the garrisons of the Memel, Pillauw, and Lantsbergen to be Swedes; so that the treaty made with this state will be of little use. And this is the recompence for Amsterdam's flattering so much the said elector.
The resident of Poland hath exhibitted and delivered the enclosed letter of credence into the hands of the lord president, without demanding audience, having only required commissioners to confer with him. Whereupon it is resolved, that he shall have for commissioners the lord de la Capelle, and others formerly named for the business of Sweden and of the elector of Brandenburgh.
The ministers of Denmark have given a visit to the president, discoursing that they had heard much of an extraordinary fleet, which was making ready to be sent to the Sound; that they did not know how the king their master would take that; that they had no order to speak of it, but that they spoke of it of themselves; and that they did conceive, that it would cause great jealousy to Sweden; and that the king of Denmark being upon good terms with Swedeland, in all likelihood would not give any distaste to Sweden. But in regard they declared, they had no order from the king, and that they did not speak it to have it reported in the assembly of the states general, the lord resident hath not made any report thereof to the assembly, but doth reserve it till the next sitting of the states of Holland, which will be the seventh of September.
There hath not yet been any conference with the resident of Poland, in pursuance of his letter of credence. He hath signified, that he is not well; and that the conference may be deferred till friday.
On the behalf of the elector of Brandenburgh, the states general are required to write to the great duke of Muscovy, and to desire him, that he would spare the territories of Prussia and others belonging to the said elector, who is allied to the state. There is yet nothing resolved upon this; and one may say of it, as that in Terence, buic ipsi patrono opus est quem defensorem paro.
That which we had to day from the private correspondent at Stetin, goes here enclosed; by which it is seen, that the elector of Brandenburgh hath made his agreement; but the letters, that are come this day from Berlin, speak the contrary, that the said duke doth persist in agreement made with this state. That the lord Wyman will return suddenly hither with the ratification; that the treaty between Sweden and the elector is broke, &c.
There is a letter come from the elector of Brandenburgh himself to the states general, avouching with much civility the treaty, which his deputies have concluded with those of this state; and that he will send the ratification within a few days to be exchanged against that of this state.
There is advice come likewise, that the lord Brederode being come to his house of Petersem near Maestricht, was fallen very ill; and that in twenty four hours he had not been seen; and that there was much lamenting amongst those of his family; from whence they conclude, that he is dead; but that it is kept private. Holland hath endeavoured to withdraw at least the horse (which for fear of the Swedes were quartered this summer upon the frontiers between Eemes and the Rhine) to their old garrisons; but the other provinces are not willing to it; to declare that they will not leave to Holland the free disposal of those companies which they pray for.
Count Brienne to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
The commissioner extraordinary, whom the protector of England hath sent into Savoy, of whom mention is made in your letter of the 19th of the last month, had not only a long discourse with his eminence, but went away from him very well satisfied, and with all the good reception which was made him. This commissioner, I say, is departed to continue his voyage, conducted by the courier Heron; notwithstanding that I shewed him, that the commotion of Savoy was accommodated, his royal highness having past over, and submitted his sense and his discontent at the request of the king; and the accommodation was brought to the end as was proposed, through the address and good conduct of my lord embassador Servien. I should be deceived, if by the post of Italy, which will arrive to morrow at Paris, he doth not send me a copy of the treaty; for having oftentimes advertised you, that the chiefest reason, which did invite his majesty to interpose in this business, was his desire to make known to the protector and the protestant cantons, that he hath no aversion against those, who make profession of the pretended protestant religion, and that it did displease him, that his troops had executed that which had been resolved by the duke of Savoy; without doubt mr. Servien will inform you what good success he hath had. In regard I am going for Paris, whither his majesty is likewise going with an intention to stay there some time, you will not be surprized that this letter is no longer. It may be by the next I may send you some further orders concerning the intentions of his majesty.
An intercepted letter of sir George Ratcliffe to one mr. Harrison.
The princess royal is with her brother at Cologne, who follows his book close: she means to stay there yet three months longer. It is probable mr. Johnson may go thither, for mr. John Ware will persuade him to quit the company of monsieur Bretom. Much talk we have of an embassador come to Paris well attended, who, they say, hath taken a lodging Rue de Sene, with two Swiss at his door, where no English, Scots, or Irish may enter, but only French. He is said to be a gentleman of great credit, scoutmaster general, and called Downing. His first pretence was for Savoy: now men guess (and but guess) that he means to reside at Paris. Hence most conclude, that the next news will bring the desired peace between England and France, and then have at Flanders the next year; which if France get, (as who should hinder them?) Shortly after they may enquire, how they do in the United Provinces.
There hath been a great slaughter on both sides in Catalonia, but the French kept the field. France also hath newly taken Condé and Ghillain, with loss of many of their men. They now think to fetch contribution to the gates of Brussels, and quarter a great part of their army in the enemies country. The king of France is much delighted to be in the army.
An intercepted letter to mr. White.
I writ you by the last, and add this only to tell you, the king and court will be here on tuesday to receive the duke of Mantua, who hath forty in a fair livery. The embassador is very desirous to have little Diego de Blanco for his first page, who is as fine a lad for that purpose as any is in France, and exceeds all others for his modesty and languages. He hath promised to carry him along with him into England, whether as page or no; however is name is don Diego Blanco. The embassador knows nothing of any relation he hath to you, or any other, but only that he is a knight's son, well born. All men here admire at Holland's last will, but I not, because I never saw any of his country to decline that point of folly. How came Holland by so much? What is become of mrs. White by no share of the gettings lest for her? I cannot well think how so much could be well had on a fair and honourable score. Requiescat in pace: de mortuis nil nisi bonum.
I shall be ready to embrace the advice you will send me in your next; for I am resolved to be now off or on with red cap, and not to be fed longer with fair words, which is no good provision to stuff a belly. No news of Pavia's taking as yet.
Intercepted letter of lieutenant general Middleton to the earl of Atholl.
My deerest lord,
I AM so confident of your lordshippes favours still, notwithstanding all these revolutions, that I shall not fall upon compliments, which are only fit to begin a friendship with. The honest bearer is a person that you may trust, and will tell you more than is fit for me to write; and I am sure will be just to me in telling you, that nothing can change mee from being,
My deerest lord, your most faithfull and most humble servant,
Intercepted letter of lieutenant general Middleton to the earl of Glencairne.
The bearer is a person so much trusted by you and by me, that I shall not give you the trouble of a long letter. He will tell you much more than is possible for me to write, and I am most confident will do it justice; and am very hopefull, that your lordship will believe me to be,
Utrecht, Sept. 4,
1655. [N. S.]
The Polish resident to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
His majesty of Poland and Sweden, my gracious king and lord, hath ordered me to offer unto their high and mighty lordships his affectionate service, amity, and good inclination and affection, and to with unto them all happiness in all their undertakings; and also to remonstrate unto them, how that the Swedish nation, seeing the good correspondence, amity, and mutual commerce, whereby his majesty and their high and mighty lordships subjects have flourished above all other nations; which hath caused so much malice and envy in the Swedes, that they have endeavoured to hinder others from the same freedom of commerce and free use of the East Sea, and to arrogate and draw to themselves the dominium maris Baltici; and then to lay what impositions they please upon the merchandizes; and to keep all other nations out of the East Sea; and to turn the free commerce into a monopoly. Now there was no greater obstacle in their way, for the effecting of their design, than the crown of Poland. Therefore they advised first to invite the Muscovites and Cosacs against the crown of Poland, who have made such great progress, that almost the whole province of Lithuania is overrun by them, and many thousands of people murdered and ruined by the Muscovite; wherewith this cruel Swedish nation not being contented, hath invaded the territories of his said majesty with three strong armies, in three several places, notwithstanding the truce between his majesty and the Swedish nation; and notwithstanding his majesty sent his embassadors to Stockholm, to offer to make a peace upon any reasonable terms, yet they assaulted his majesty at unawares in a most barbarous manner, having taken Dunenborgh in Lyffland, with one of his armies, and invaded great Poland with another; and through the treachery of the degraded Polish vice-chancellor subdued under his power two whole palatinates, without striking one blow, or the loss of one man, where they are fortifying themselves, causing the third army to follow after them for a reserve, and causing their fleet to lie upon the coast of Dantzick, to prevent any thing from being imported or exported; and finally to subdue all Poland.
And although his majesty of Poland hath hitherto endeavoured to prevent all that he can their designs, with such forces as he hath on foot; yet he finds himself at present so distracted through the many enemies, that his forces are not sufficient to resist, unless his majesty be assisted by his neighbours and friends; without which it is very probable, that the whole crown of Poland, and with the same also the use of the sea, which God prevent, will fall into the hands of the Swedes. Now in regard this is a common business, and would be a common loss; therefore his majesty hath commanded me to desire their high and mighty lordships, that they would be pleased, for the preservation of the abovementioned, to assist his majesty with men or money; his majesty faithfully promising to repay the same, as soon as he shall be in any condition to effect the same. And his said majesty doth also promise, to hold the interest of this state as his own, and to assist them upon all occasions, if need be; firmly believing, that their high and mighty lordships will not abandon the crown of Poland in their necessity, but will declare on the contrary, how much they are concerned in the welfare thereof, by taking some speedy resolution for the preservation thereof.
Mr. Geo. Downing to secretary Thurloe.
By last satterdaye's post I sent you two letters, and sent a third the next day, which overtook the packett by the way, and was putt into the male, which gav an account of the peace with the duke of Savoy. In another was enclosed a letter from count de Brienne, wherin he gave me an account, that the king and cardinall would both be at La Fere that day or the next for certayn, and that his majesty desired I shold come to Noyon; wherupon the same day, after having been at church at Charrinton, wher was a very great congregation and good preaching, I took horse and went that night to Louvre. The next day, being monday, I went to Noyon; and on tuisday early I came to La Fere, whether the king and cardinall came the night before. When I was within about a league of the towne, an expresse mett me from Bryenne to desire that I shold stay at Chauny, which is about 3 leagues from La Fere till the king and cardinall's pleasure weer knowne. I told the messenger (who was a courrier du cabinet du roy) that I could not go back, but would stay in any cottage in the next village, till he returned and gave an account therof to Bryenne, which accordingly I did, and within about three houres the courrier came back to me, with orders that I might come to La Fere, which accordingly I did, and was by him carryed to an inne, wher the queen's trayne were; and within about three houres after came mounsieur du Bosc, one of the king's secretaryes, with the count du Brienne's coach, to carry me to the cardinall, to whom I presented his hyghnesse's letter, and as well as I could in Lattin communicated to him what I had farther in command. I was full two houres in private with him; he told me, that of all things in the world he desired a right understanding with his hyghnesse; that he would do any thing in his power to evidence it; that if a strict allyance were made, nothing could be too hard for them; that he looked upon it as necessary for them both; that he looked upon an ordinary allyance upon the account of trade, &c. as a thing, that would not be good for either; that Burdo had from him orders to that purpose, and that he wrote word, that his hyghnesse would only make an allyance upon common grounds, which did not agree with his eminence his sence; that for Charles Stuart and that family in this case, wher interest would be concerned, they shold be of no more consideration than the brotherhood is at present between the queen of Fraunce and the king of Spayne. That as to the protestants in Fraunce, as he had been their freind to keep them from wrong, since he managed affayres heer, so if ther were any thing, that his hyghnesse would have done on their behalfe, which might stand with the honour of Fraunce, he would do it, thow for his part he had not interposed on behalfe of the catholiques in England; and upon this particular he enlarged much. That the accommodation now in Piemont was by his master's intercession. That he would engage, that no treaty or peace shold be made in Spayne, but with his hyghnesse consent. That as during the time Holland had war with Spayne, Fraunce and they did every winter confer counsayles together, and aggree whear each shold fall upon the Spaniard; so he would do with his hyghnesse, so as if his hyghnesse would wholly mind the businesse of the Indyes, he might; or if also he had a mind to any towne in Flaunders, he would assist him in it. He earnestly pressed, that I would return for England; and if so, that he would have sett downe particularly what he would have aggreed to, and have sent it to his hyghnesse, for that he said, commonly changing hands somthing interveens to hinder or divert; but telling him I could not do it, he resolved to write in generall to his hyghnesse. He told me, that as a pledge of his good-will to his hyghnesse, he would tell me a secret, which he said could no other ways come to his hyghnesse, to wit, that a person, who shold have commanded in the fleet, that is gone with Penn, went about two months agoe to Brussels, and from thence imbarqued for Spayne, to reveale what he knew concerning that design, and the persons engaged in it, and to seek and endeavour how to overthrow it; this he desired I might let his hyghnesse know as a great secret. For his name, he said he knew it not, and that if it were any wayes known what is heer written, his intelligencer would be destroyed: he said moreover, he knew the Spaniard had now some notable design in hand against his hyghnesse ; that as any particulars therof shold come to his hands, if he sawe me againe, he would impart them to me; for that he looked upon his hyghnesse friendship as good for himselfe and France; and that it would be to him strang, if his hyghnesse having begun against the Spaniards, shold not accord with France ; and that for his part, he well knew, he could also do something in the world as well as his highnesse. The cardinall asked me, whether I desired to deliver the letter I had to the king myselfe. I answered not: wherupon he sent mounsieur du Bosc with me to the count du Breynne, to whom I delivered it; and taking leav of his eminence, he promised I shold be dispatched the next day, and from his lodging I returned to the quarter I came from in Bryenne's coach. About an houre after du Bosc came to me, and told me, his eminence had ordered me the governor's quarters, and brought the queen's coach to carry me thither, whether the cardinall sent me his owne supper with this complement, that it being too late to provide any thing, he had sent me what was made ready for himselfe, and would seek a supper himselfe: he also sent his owne plate and servants to wayte, and the captain of his guard, and mounsieur du Bosc to keep me company the whole time I stayed in towne: the next day also he sent me a dinner and his owne plate and attendance. After dinner, having received the king's and his eminence his letter, I took horse, and came that night to Noyon. The captain of the cardinall's guard discoursed much with some in my company of the cardinall's greatnesse, worth, and allyances, which he had in Fraunce; but withall told one of my company, that notwithstanding all, he looked not upon himselfe as safe, without his highnesse's friendship; and that he was the only man could thwart his designes. I asked the cardinall for a sight of the articles between those of the reformed religion and the duke of Savoy; he told me, and so after did Bryenne, that they had not as yet received them. At Noyon I received an expresse from mounsieur du Bosc, the summe whereof was, that his eminence had commanded him to let me know, that since our conferring together, he had received advise from Spayne, that the merchants of Cadiz, Civill, and other townes there, were making a fleete of thirty ships to goe to reinforce and meet the plate fleete, against admiral Blake.
Since my coming hither, I received yours of the 15/26 of August, and shall now (God willing) make all haste to Geneva, wher I hope to be about tenne dayes hence, or eleaven at most; and by that time I hope that ther will be new instructions there what I shall do, businesse standing as it doth between the duke of Savoy and the protestants, of which I understand an account at large was sent to his hyghnesse, with a copy of the articles the last post; but least that possibly shold have sayled, I have heerin inclosed another copy of the articles from the same person. I find, that as soon as mention was made of sending a person to debate with the duke, an account therof being sent to the cardinall, he forthwith dispatcht orders to Servient to inforce on both sides an aggreement, or otherwise, that the king of France would abandon the disaggreeing party.
This day I received a letter from mr. Morland from Geneva, of the 14/24 of August, by
which I understand, that mr. Pell is not yet arrived there; that (as we have it heer) the
businesse in Savoy is concluded; but yet however, that he earnestly desires I would come
forward to Geneva, whether, as soon as this is sealed, I beginne my journey; and hoping
that positive instructions will meet me there, I take leave, and with my humblest loyallest
duty to his hyghnesse, to whom are heerin inclosed a letter from the king of France, and
another from the cardinal, I am, sir,
Aug. 25, Sept. 4, 1655.
Having at last dispatcht what I had in command to the court of Fraunce, I thought it my duty to give his highnesse a speedy account therof, and therfore have dispatcht this bearer, mr. Warcub, who came out of England with me, therwith to you. I pray use him courteously; and finding this journying trade and the court very chargeable, I desire that you will be pleased to take care, that he may be reimbursed his charges, in carrying this dispatch to you. The news at La Fere was, that the king intended to leav La Fere this day, and to be at Chantillon on monday, to receive the duke of Mantua, who is still in this towne. The inclosed give you a particular account of passages. I am, sir,
Aug. 25, Sept. 4, 1655.
I pray do the bearer the favour, to let him kisse his hyghnesse hands. He can give you an account of my journy particularly hitherto. I write only to yourselfe, as to what occurs or concerns my businesse, that you may wholly (as your due is) have all within yourselfe.
When you send me new instructions, unless they be to return, I pray send me an order or letter of credit for more money. I am, I am sure, as good an husband for his hyghnesse as I can be, but I shall spend per mensem 500 l. sterling; and the letter of credit I had was but for 12000 livres, which is but between 900 l. and 1000 l. English.
The Swedish resident to secretary Thurloe.
Elapsi jam 11 dies sunt, postquam excellentissimis dominis commissariis mihi à serenissimo domino protectore constitutis, aliquatenus mentem senerissimi regis & domini mei exposui de negotiis ab ipso hoc tempore dignis judicatis, de quibus cum serenissimo domino protectore transigeretur: expectavi interea responsum ab excellentissimis dominis promissum, & eos promissi commonesacere incivile duxi, gnarus videlicet quantis negotiis quotidie occupati sint, donec & negotiorum maxima pondera, et tempus quod ad hyemem inclinat (quæ dissiciliorem mihi transitum maris in reditu minatur) coegit, ut honoratissimum dominum secretarium hisce compellarem, diligenter petens quod ipsi placeat essicere, ut mihi cum dictis dominis commissariis iterum congredi, negotia tractanda reassumere, & ita proprius rem ipsam attingere integrum sit, nisi etiam molestum honoratissimo domino secretario esset, cum illo semel ipse colloqui, in loco aliquo tertio, qui ab ipso aptus judicabitur, enixe cupio, certissime sperans, quod hoc modo commodum mutuum dominorum nostrorum maxime promovebitur, & honoratissima dominatio vestra me ad quævis officia devinctissimum habeat, quem optime valere cupio. Ex domo comitis Dorseti, 25 Augusti, A. 1655.
Mr. E. Rolt, envoy to the king of Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.
I Received yours of the 10th instant, for which I returne most humble thankes, as being the most comfortable cordiall in a tedious journey could have beene administred from a tender hand of true affection to your poore unworthy servant. On the 16th I left Hamburgh, being honourably entertained there by the English company, and was atended out of the towne by them with neere twenty coaches. Uppon my journey I received many respects from the commanders of the king of Sweaden's garrisons, which I past through; and on thirsday the 23d instant I arived at Stettin, hoping to have sound there the rix chanceler Oxensterne, but he was gone from thence with the king's brother prince John towards the army the day before. Hearing that count John Oxenstern was left commissioner by the king to attend the Polish ambassadors, whoe were apointed to meet heere, on fryday morning I sent mr. la March with a complement to him, and desired a time to waite on him, which he was pleased to apoint at one of the clocke, and then sent two of his gentlemen and his coach for me. He received me with great civility, and was pleased to retire with me into his closett, where after he had used many honourable and affectionat expressions towards his highnesse and the present governement, he related to me the businesse he was imployed about into England in thirty foure; and by the manner of his discourse I finde he is noe freind to the family of the Stewarts. I have by him endeavoured to informe myselfe, how I may with sasty proceed in my journey, which I resolve to undertake (God willing) uppon the 27th instant towards the king of Sweden, who tells me, that his master is marched to Conin in Poland, where he is to joyne with generall Whittenberg. The Polish king gives out he is resolved to stand and fight the Sweeds. He was by the last advice at Lowicz, and intends for Lancicia, his force consisting of 8000 strangers, which are all that are souldiers; the rest are peasants, whose number is uncertain, and that know neither discipline nor courage. And now considering the difficulty, danger, and tediousnes of my journey, which unexpectedly hath befallen me, and which I humbly conceive must necessarily occasion my more than ordinary expence, I beseech your honour to give order to resident Bradshaw, to furnish me with such money as I shall have need of for the future, there beeing better conveniency to doe it from Hamburgh then may be sound at London. This favour I am the more bold to begg of your honour, by reason that my moneys begin to slippe away apace; for I find all manner of necessarys, where they are to be sound, very deare, (and in some places neither meat nor lodging) the army having swept all in many places, where I have travelled allready; and the further I goe, I am informed the condition of the country to be more sadd and miserable. I have ventur'd to proceed in my journey hither without a guard; but from hence I am courtiously offered a sufficient guard by the commissioners apointed for the ordering affaires in Pomerania, which as yett I am resolved to accept, if the charge uppon further conference with the officers prove not too insupportable; and my reason is, because that part of the marquesse of Brandenburgh's countrey, which we are to goe through, being very full of souldiers and free booters, and as I am informed may peradventur proove insolent and dangerous, therefore I am unwilling to goe without guards, till I come into the quarters of his majestie of Sweeden. Thus havinge nothing more of moment in this my travelling condition to acquaint your honour withall, I humbly subscribe myselfe
Stettin, August 25, S. V. 1655.
Col. Bamfylde to secretary Thurloe.
You I knowe have noe leisure for preambles, and I therefor shall not use any; but in the first place shall tell you, that two days after you sent mee the pass, I arrived at Calice, where I met with a person of quality, whoe informed mee of the condition of Collen, in few days after I came to this place, where I have had better success in all those particulars you recommended to my care then I did expect; the account of which being of to much weight to be adventured in writing, I shall referr to my wayting on you, which by God's permission shall be aboute 10 days hence. In the mean tyme if you defer the concluding of the treaty, till I can acquainte you with what I have to say, 'twill be noe waste either of time or oyle, since I finde you maye eminently improve the conditions, which I understand here, you are allready in effect satisfyed with, and draw greater advantages both to the establishment of your present government, and to the honoure and utility of the nation. The king came hither yesterday, where in the evening was great triumph for his late success; and this day publique thankesgiving for the same at Nostre Dame-church, when the king, queen, duke of Anjou, and the cardinall were present; and to morrow as the effect of the late increase of his power, he intends to have the edicts verifyed by the parliament here, which they refused before his late removing from this place. This will heighten discontents here, but as yet not occasion any distraction. I will not adventure to say more nowe, then that I hope at my returne to give you such an accompt of my voyage, that you will not have reason to conclude mee too bolde in my undertaking, nor yourselfe in the confidence you have been pleased to seem to have in,
Paris, Wednesday, Sept. 5, 1655. [N. S.]
Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.
Since the multiplicity of your affaires, whilst I was at London, denyed you the leasure to perfect that grant of a weekly allowance for my lord Grandison, which his highness was pleased to promise me for him, I have intrusted the remindeinge you of it to mrs. Villiers his sister, who, though she will not thinke you the unjust judge, yet I believe you will finde her the earnest sollicitress; and therefore to oblige yourselfe as well as us all, I hope you will with your best leisure get that grant perfected. Really, sir, his condition is very low and sad, and delay will be as bad almost as a denyall. Therfore I beg you pardon the importunity, and grant the earnest request of,
Sir, your very affectionate
and most humble servant,
P. Warburton to secretary Thurloe.
I came to this towne on saturday last in the eveninge, and am sent for by my sick wife into the country, where shee is; otherwise I would have wayted upon your honour before now. I have nothing to present unto his highnesse or your honor, but that wee found all the countryes where wee were in a peaceable and good condition, and soe wee left them; only in Herefordshire and Gloustershire were some country greevances presented unto us by the severall grand juries of those countyes, the one concerninge the excisemen, and the other concerninge the quakers, as may appear by their severall presentments herewith sent unto your honor. Thus ceasinge to be further troublesome to your honor, cravinge pardon for this bouldnes, I desire to bee and remayne
Woodstreete, August 27, 1655.
The examination of Richard Moone, stationer, August 27, 1655.
Who saith, that upon saturday was sev'night in the morning mr. John Sturgeon, one
of his highness's life-guard, came to this examinate's shop at the seven Stars in Paul's
church yard, and desired him to go and drink a cup of beer with him, which this examinate
did, telling him, either in his shop, or as they went along together, that he had a paper to
be printed, which he would desire this examinate to get done. And faith, that they went
together to Paul's Wharf, and there took water in a pair of oars, and went as far as the New
Exchange, and there landed, and went from the water side into a house in the Strand, where
they sold beer, but knows not what sign it had, nor can he again find the house; and being
come into the house the said Sturgeon drew forth a writing, containing a sheet and a half,
which was read over between them both, he the said Sturgeon reading some part, and he
this examinate reading the other part. The said writing was entitled, A short discovery of
his highness the lord protector's intentions, touching the anabaptists in the army, &c. And having
read it all over, the said mr. Sturgeon desired this examinate to get it printed for him,
wishing him to get it done very privately, and said, that he would take them himself, when
they were printed; and the examinate telling him, that he must have 40s. for printing
of them, the said Sturgeon answered, that he should have it. And this examinate promised to have them finished upon the monday after. And this examinate being asked,
how long they staid together, he saith, somewhat more than half an hour, and then parted,
this examinate going home by water, and the other going towards Whitehall. And being come home, he forthwith went to an alehouse near Puddle Wharf, to one Greers,
and sent for mr. James Cotterel the printer, who forthwith came to him, to whom this
examinate delivered the aforesaid writing, desiring him to print a thousand copies thereof,
which the said Cotterell promised to do, and to that purpose carried it away with him.
And upon the tuesday morning after this examinate went to the house of the said Cotterell
in Addle-hill for the said printed copies, who delivered them to this examinate, being in
all one thousand, which this examinate brought away with him to his own shop, where
he kept them untill 3 or 4 of the clock of the same day, at which time the said
Sturgeon came to his shop, and askt him for the said printed copies; and this examinate
did then deliver unto him the said John Sturgeon eight hundred or thereabouts of the
said printed copies. And being asked, where this examinate delivered the said copies to
Sturgeon, he said it was in a little room behind his shop, that the said Sturgeon carried
them away, he having paid this examinate 40 s. for the printing of them. The other 200
copies he said he would leave behind him, but gave no directions concerning them, nor
doth this examinate know, what the said Sturgeon did with those he had away; but several of them being found in the streets the next morning, and one of them being shewn to
this examinate at the time of his examination, he saith, that that was one of the said printed
copies of that writing, which he had as aforesaid from the said Sturgeon, and which was
printed, by his directions, as hath been before declared. And this examinate further saith,
that he this examinate being apprehended by a messenger of the council, and one mr.
Clark who came with him from his house being also in custody, the said mr. Clark sent
for mr. Sturgeon to come unto