A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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A Collection of State Papers of John Thurloe, Esq; &c.
General Penn to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxvii. p. 313. Swiftsure, Paragon, Lyon, Bear, Mathias, Indian, Convertine, Halsmoon, Rosebush, Samson, Golden cock, Little charity, Westergate, Marygold, Hearts–ease, Gillyflower, Tulipp, Falcon flyboat, Golden falcon, Adam & Eve.
I connot send a packett, but I must give you some trouble with a few lines; which in considerations of the multiplycity of businesse, and my hopes of suddenly following these, I shall contract, and epitomize. We came from Jamaico with the fleet as per margent 25th June. The Parragon was sadly fired; and at length blown upp, a 100 men perrishing by her. 13 July neer Havana 3 of our fleet about the same time lost us in the night, & wee have not seen them since, but hope they will not be long absent. They are the Hearts–ease, Gilly–flower and Tulipp. Wednesday last we took a French ship of two hundred tunns, 10 guns, come from Greenland with traine oyle, and this 1 of September 4 afternoone the Swiftsure is ready to drop his anchor att the Spithead nere Portsmouth bay, where is at present,
De Lionne, the French embassador at Rome, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
This court is very much troubled at the great progress, which the armies of the king of Sweden begin to make in Poland; there hath been a meeting about it of all the cardinals in the presence of the pope, but I fear they could not find means proportionable to prevent the mischief, which is intended to the catholic religion; and I believe, that the protection, which our ambassador with the king of Sweden shall give to the catholics, will be more efficacious than the result of all the congregations of Rome.
You will not be a little surprised, I am sure, at the news which I am to tell you, how that the vice–king of Naples hath failed of his word, which I may very well call both shameful and dishonest; since the ambassador of Venice, who had been the mediator of our treaty, doth qualify him no otherwise. For he had promised, that if we would set at liberty the prince of Castellaneta, the Spaniards would release the marquis of Gonzaga and monsieur de Glioddi; the said prince was both well used and released on our parts at the day appointed. The Spaniards do neither release nor well use our gentlemen, but have secured them more strictly than formerly. This doth make much for our honour in these parts, and tends as much on the other hand to the confusion of the Spaniards. The Spanish ambassador here doth disown it, and hath profered to render himself prisoner to me; which is very pleasant to think, that a Spanish ambassador should be a prisoner to him of France.
Servien, the French embassador in Savoy, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Having formerly writ you word, that the peace of the vallies of Piedmont was concluded to the content of the duke of Savoy and the protestants, you will see that that of these last is full by the letter here enclosed, which they writ to the lord protector, in pursuance of what I declared unto them since the beginning of the business, to the end, that his majesty did employ himself particularly to obtain their re–establishment out of consideration to the lord protector; and because he had desired him.
I thought fit to send your lordship likewise a copy of the letters patents upon that subject, to the end that your zeal for the service of the king, and your prudence, may make use of them, where you shall think fit. I have the honour to be, &c.
Viole, president of Brussels, to Barriere, the prince of Conde's agent.
The enemy is busied in making fortifications about Conde and saint Ghillain. Their army is so much diminished, that they will be forced to put themselves into quarters of refreshments upon the frontiers. They will hardly be able to preserve the said two places, though they do fortifie them, unless they are resolved to pass the winter with their whole army in those parts. They are already in great want of provisions.
A letter of intelligence.
We hear here of a great league to be made between England, Sweden, and the protestant princes of Germany, against the house of Austria. The king of France was invited into it by mr. Downing, who went hence this day sennight towards Savoy, taking no notice of the agreement between the duke and his protestant subjects. I am told, that a person of quality is shortly designed to go from hence into England, to treat of this league. It seems, my lord protector hath no great confidence in monsieur Bordeaux.
The news is here, that the French have lost a great many brave officers before Pavia, which place doth still hold out; the taking whereof is rendered here somewhat doubtful. The whole court is returned again to this city.
A letter of intelligence to mr. Petit.
You may see by our Gazette, what rejoicings were made here at the king's arrival, and how eloquently he was complimented by our provost of merchants, in the name of the whole city. His majesty prepares himself to go next week to Fontainbleau, and cardinal Mazarin to go to la Fere, to give some orders about the conservation of our conquests of Hainault, which those of Brabant strive to take from us, being the Spaniards are not in a condition to do it. The duke of Vendosme is parted from Toulon with his fleet for the siege of Palamos in Catalonia.
We hope well of the siege of Pavia, since notice is come, that our men went down into the ditch to fasten unto the walls. In the interim there runneth in Italy a manifesto directed unto the princes and states, by which a reason is given of the assault of Milanese; and the letters from Rome bear, that they flattered the pope, that after the taking of that dukedom, which would oblige the Spaniards to make peace, they might set upon heresy.
This Court intends to send an ambassador towards the king of Sweden, to engage him in a strong union with France against the emperor, who being still jealous of the prosperities of the Swedish arms in Poland, continues to make great levies for his defense.
Count Brienne to Bordeaux, the French ambassador in England.
In regard I have been these two days taking physic to prepare my body for the waters, I could not go to the Louvre to communicate your last letter; so that I cannot answer any thing, only that the Cardinal writing to you himself by this post, you are to follow for a rule of your conduct that, which he will signify unto you in conformity to the intentions of the King, whereof I have sufficiently informed you by my foregoing; and wherein I think there cannot happen any alteration, unless there happen some new alterations, where you are, which may oblige his majesty to take other resolutions than those that are already taken.
Here is news come to the duke of Mantua by an express, who hath communicated the same to the king, that our men before Pavia had made themselves masters of all the outworks, and that they were going to attack the body of the place, so that we may hope to be suddenly masters of that place; but in regard this news is not sent to any body else, we do not yet give full credit to it.
Mr. de Bordeaux, the father of the French ambassador in England, to cardinal Mazarin.
It is with a very great grief, that I understand the resolution of the departure of your eminence without having the honour to render you my respects; and that my indispositions do hinder me from presenting my duty unto you, in giving you to understand some opinions upon the occurrences of the affairs of England. However, I humbly beseech your eminence to give me leave to deduce my thoughts in writing; not with an intention imprudently to give advice and counsel to one, whom all Europe is forced to confess to be the most perfect minister, which past ages have produced, but being mov'd hereunto through the consideration of the acquired knowledge of the mind and manner of the proceedings of the lord Cromwell, who is said to have caused to be propounded a treaty of peace in all the terms of a league offensive and defensive, and of a true and inseparable confederacy with France likewise, by declaring unto you, that hitherto all the propositions have been no other than artifices, and oblique ways to establish an incertainty and a mutual alarm of a rupture, without any relative amity or assurance.
Your eminence may be pleased to call to mind some letters sent to this effect to the ambassador and to monsieur de Bas, who in effect did not omit to make to the protector the overtures of this sincere confederacy; and that after he had received with indifferency the commissioners on his behalf, they declared, that it was not yet seasonable to enter into that treaty; and that it was first expedient to regulate the articles propounded, and upon which the conferences were begun.
This substance of intrinsic union, not only between the two states, but also between your eminence and my lord Cromwell, hath been renewed within these six months by your orders by the ambassador, who hath declared unto him the advantages for the establishment of his affairs, which he might draw from your affection and power; and instead of receiving your offers with acknowledgment of so certain a good and so considerable in the occurrences of the commotions, which he might truly apprehend; the answer was to see the conclusion of the articles, before any confederacy of this nature could be made. From whence your eminence may observe the unjust proceedings, which he useth, by going about to insinuate a failing on our part, and under this pretence to suggest artificially, and according to his usual manner, some means of new propositions to elude the signature of the articles agreed upon; and which without passing for unjust or a declared enemy, he cannot refuse. And although that in all his negotiations his chiefest object be not to do or conclude any business; yet he offers an apparent probity by uniting the demands in such a manner, that one cannot separate or finish any one of the agitated questions, but with the resolution of them all, to practise the delays, and to reserve by such remises some favourable conjunctures of time. And it doth seem, that in this rencounter he doth not disguise his humour, for by this his maxims may be known, being so evident and of such dangerous consequence to the state.
Wherefore I do conjure your eminence to give me leave, that I give you the reason thereof; the more in regard he hath already drawn this advantage from France, that there hath been sent from thence an extraordinary ambassador unto him upon assurances of a treaty, without effect; and that it hath only been a path to lead him up to a higher throne, and to dispose him to such heights of unsupportable sierceness, and disgraceful to our crown, there would be more to be fear'd, that it would prejudice the reputation and glory of this wise conduct of your eminence, if you should enter into a new deputation and augmentation of considerable persons of the state, to go or receive some new propositions. And the first opinions upon the resolution of an embassy having been balanced by the ministers of the council of the king, I humbly beseech your eminence to consider, how mean and unworthy of the king it would be look'd upon, if new persons should be commissioned for England. This is the only consideration, which I have to spread the honour and dignity of the king in those employments, wherewith you honour us in our family, and the advantages of your wise counsels, and to shun the appearances of weakness, which hitherto there hath been no cause given to be observed in all the negotiation. Certainly it will be more glorious to break at present, than to give at a time, and to a person, that ought to be brought under, all the marks of difference. And for this only reason (not making any great reflection upon the articles long since agreed on) it doth seem to be more expedient, not to agree to any ambassador or commissioner, and rather to deprive that person of the hope of his honoured and redoubled greatnesses, than to draw from him by submissions some satisfactions in themselves uncertain, and in the event most ruinous.
These are the opinions of him, who in the vacancy which you leave him, cannot suffer any alteration to be made of your greatness and of your reputation; and I humbly beseech you to believe, that there is not a person in the world, who without any interest than that of your eminence, doth make greater profession to honour you, and that doth it with more submission in the quality, &c.
Major Sedgewicke to the protector.
May it please your highness,
In obedience to your commands, I am bold to present these few lines to your highness. God was pleased to smile upon us in our voyage hither; we set sail from Plymouth Wednesday the 11th of July, arrived here on Monday the 27th of August. Our passage was followed with many favours, and made very comfortable. We lost not one soul in all our ships, but much health amongst us; a mercy so much the greater, in respect of the season we came out in. Our ships all prove good; our provisions hitherto very comfortable, all things in this place concurring to give hopes of a comfortable passage and proceeding in our design. At our landing here making enquiry after general Penn and the fleet, we meet with only this, that some small time after their arrival at Hispaniola, general Venables lands his forces, and some small time after met with a repulse by a small party of the enemy, loseth four or five hundred of his men; and under some discouragment, reimbarks his men, and intends for Jamaica: and to that end we find here an order from general Penn to furnish our selves with water at this island, and to sail for Jamaica; but I know your highness hath more large intelligence about these matters than we have. We are generally here in some wonder, that we have not, in so long a time, heard from them nor of them, how or where they are. We are fitting our ships, and filling water, and providing such necessaries as we want; and about four days hence intend to set sail, and to attend those orders, that general Penn hath sent hither. We were in good hope to complete our regiment of foot here, but I think shall hardly do it at this island. Mens spirits ashore are something dull in their attending to this design, by reason of what they did hear, and in that they have not heard from them in so long a time. I find the governor and the gentlemen of this place ready to assist us in any thing we desire. I find our own commanders, officers, soldiers, and seamen yet very willing and active in any thing tending to the good of our design, and not discouraged nor daunted. Nevertheless I must confess, I cannot but bring my own spirit to stand and consider, what I may understand of the mind and will of God, and what he speaks in so loud a voice as this. I must conclude this, that God is righteous in his proceedings, to curband bring low the pride of the sons of men. It was no small grief to my heart and soul, that before I came from England the spirit almost of every man was so highly confident, (and I fear in the arm of the flesh) that the Indies was all ours. Our friends when they went from thence were full of vain confidence and presidence, expressed by various empty expectations of great matters, as if none were able to stand before them; but God will have us know, that our strength standeth in the name of the Lord. I am willing to believe, that God is in this design, and will yet own it, and will bring our spirits low before him, that he may fit us the better for so honourable an employ as we are upon. I must profess, my heart is not discouraged, but I do apprehend much of the wisdom and faithfulness of God in this his dispensation. It is true the people, that are employed in this design, are many of them a people not so desirable, being profane and wicked; yet God may improve them to do his work; but it were more acceptable, if more honest men were amongst us. I am resolved to attend my business with as much wisdom and vigour as God shall assist me with. I thank God, my heart in some measure beareth me witness, that it is the glory of God, that I intended in this employment, and I hope he will yet own us. Our condition, I am confident, is often remembred by you in your approaches to heaven, and I hope will yet be. Religion and God was pretended, and I question not intended, and I know must now be attended, if we prosper. Let your highness be pleased to pardon my boldness and prolixity. I thank God, my prayers are for you, that the God of wisdom and grace may yet own you in your so many weighty affairs, that you may be a blessing in your generation, and serviceable to Christ, and to his people.
Mr. R. Moone to secretary Thurloe.
Was it not for the perishing of my wife in my distruction, I should not trouble you with a line; but when the innosent suffer through my folly, it breaks my heart. I can say nothing but this to provoke you to commisserate my condition, that I am at the brinke of undoeing, if not quite undone; and knowing I have offended you, I humbly beg pardone for it, assureing you, that if ever I am drawn in to the like condition, I shall expect nothing but your severity. That the Lord would put it into your heart to releive me upon your considerations of my aforesaid true sayings, or for what other arguments he may instill into your brest, is the prayer of
Lævinus Warnerus to the states general.
Illustrissimi ac potentissimi domini domini altissimi clementissimi,
Nullum ferè scribendi argumentum hoc tempore magis hic est obvium, quám quod perpetuæ Vezirorum mutationes suggerunt. Undè novi semper tumultus & quietis publicæ mira perturbatio, quæ eo major nunc fuit, quod depositus Vezir consilia agitarit de novo rege creando, cum non ignoraret adulto hoc imperatore haud impune cessurum, quod se authore pater ejus Ibrahim effet occisus. Et jam ut facilius ad effectum perveniret, primatios aliquos, qui impedimento esse possent, ex urbe expulerat. Contra alios, qui idem vellent, ad partes suas pertraxerat; nec milites quoque erant alieni, tùm quòd addictissimi essent Veziro, tùm quòd invitarentur amplioribus stipendiis & donativis, quibus affici solent, quando novus rex constituitur: verùm ut conatus hi omnes ad nihilum recidirent, effecit religionis Muhamedanæ antistes mufti, qui legis authoritate ejusmodi terrorem consiliorum istorum sociis incussit, ut statim a proposito desisterent; nec postea in quemquam fuit gravius animadversum, ne factiosi, qui multi erant, magis irritarentur. Vicissitudo hæc valdè ingrata est Venetis, quod enim diu antehac desideratum fuerat, ut Adrianopoli, ubi jam aliquandiu legatus Venetus huc expulsus detinetur, huc revertendi fieret potestas a mutato nunc Veziro, demum fuit impetratum, sed vix salutatus erat ab illo, qui vices legati obit, cum statim de Vezitatu detruditur, undè denuò primo consilia sunt irrita facta. Tunenses vim factam ab Anglis ægrè ferentes gravissimas nuper querimonias huc detulerunt, sed quibus locus datus non fuit; non quod factum illud Anglorum non magnoperè hic improbetur, sed quod hoc tempore belli Veneti curam ejus negligi satius esse credatur. Quod reliquum est, &c.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.
This last post brings me yours of the 24 August, with one inclosed for Mr. Rolt, which I have sent forward in the Swedes resident's pacquet, as he desired all his letters should come for the more certaine findinge of him in a moveinge court. His last letter to me is of the 24 of August from Stetin, beinge to depart the next day with a good convoy for Posna in Poland. At his goeing hence, upon his desire I furnished him a letter of credit upon a merchant of Stetin, from whom he tooke up five hundered rix dollers, desireinge me to pay it here, which I have done; and to charge my bills on you for it, which this day I doe for one hundered and sixteene pounds, thirteene shillings foure pence, payable at six daies sight to John Doget merchant or order, prayinge you to give speciall order both to accept and pay the bill at the tyme with the punctuality merchants expect, that the bill come not back upon me, as I hope you did for the money I furnished capt. Mynges for the use and saftey of the Elizabeth fregat. I had not any letter for you from mr. Rolt by this last post from Stetin, onely he writes me, that in his former letters, which I sent you, he had desired you to give him creadit with me for what he should have occasion of. As any letters come from you or him, I shall carefully remit them, and readily effect both your orders, as I shall receive them. The litle of newse, which hath come to hand since my last, I present you with in the weekly paper, affectionately remaineinge
Dollars, 500 at 4 s. and 8 d. per dollar, 116 l. 13 s. 4 d. I find no mention of the companies busines in your last, and I am unwillinge to give you farther diversion with it, perceiveinge what hath been said will be considered of in tyme. I heare the company's doctor, mr. Elborrow, is become an indefatigable soliciter for his sonn Townely and his party. In the meane tyme he laies the whole burden on mr. Gunter, but will be sure to receive the stipend himselfe.
General Penn to secretary Thurloe.
This morning I received the commissioners letter touching the disposall of these shipps, who wanting provisions, I cause them each to compleat it's old remains upp to 14 dayes victualls to carry them aboute to Chattham, and the victuallar here promiseth a very sudden dispatch. The wind is easterly, but a sudden alteration expected. The first opportunity (though but scant) we shall lay hold off.
Sir, at my coming in, I writ to his highnesse, humbly signifying, that I should wayt his commands for my coming upp presently to London, and rendering him as farre as I could an account of passed employments; but I have as yet received no answer; which possibly may bee caused by indisposition of body; (I having with grife heard it, that hee is afflicted at present with a disease, whose cure I wish.)
Sir, it was not by the impulse of my owne perticular, that I first moved him to admit my repaire to him; but the service of his highnesse selfe (as I conceived.) And seeing I have in that manner mentioned my coming, I am perplexed, as counting it somewhat absurd to stirre from the fleet without leave or answer. I shall only desire the last, to informe mee of his highness pleasure; and bee pleased best with that way, wherin I may render him best service; the knowledge of which if I can by your meanes obteine, (as I make it my desire to you) it shall not want a due estimate, nor your selfe (for that favour) the thanks of,
The governor of Barbadoes to the protector.
May it Please Your Highness,
The 26th of this last month came to my hands your highnes missive bareing date the 31st of June. In it your highnes is pleased to take notice, that notorious delin quents and offenders sent to the island by your highnes expresse command, heare to remaine dureing his highnes's pleasure, have gone off this place, and returned backe into theire owne countrie without warrant from your highnes or councell.
Should I stand guilty of soe high a contempt to your highnes's authority, and willfully and negligently permit the goeing off such persons, as may be of soe great a disservice to the commonwealth, I should justly merritt your highnes displeasure, and a censuer suteable to soe greate a miscarriage.
But haveing neaver receved any demands of your highnes and the right honorable councell, or any other order, that ever came to my hands, bin signified unto me prohibitting any such person or persons soe sent hither to depart hence, untill your highness and councel's pleasure were therein made knowne, I humbly beg I might stand cleare in your highnes's opinion towardes me as to any such miscariadge.
Upon your highnes gennerall order and commands now come to my hands, I have caused the enclosed writeing to have been published throughout this island. Such as hitherto have bin brought to this island from England, Scotland, and Ireland, have been landed on merchants accompts, who claimeing a propertie in the persons they bring as servants, for theire passage and disbursments on them, dispose of them heare, either for a tearme of yeares to serve, or for a summe of money, by which they free themselves from such servitude, either of which being performed, they have freedome to staye or departe hence, by the law and customes of this place. For the future, such as your highnes shall please to command theire stay heare, I shall to the utmoste possibillity of meanes to be used, labour to keepe them with us in pursuance of your highnes commands. The inclosed to your highness is from major Sedgewicke, who with the fleete under his command arived heare the 26th of August (some of theire foote companys have been refreshed ashoar) and doe intend as soone as they have trimed theire caske, and taken in water, to saile for Jamaica, in pursuance of the last intelligence I received from your highnes commissioners before Hispaniola, they haveing then taken up resolutions to quitt Hispaniola, and to attempt Jamaica. I have heare furnished them with two hundred hogsheads of beefe, and other necessaries for your highnes fleete and army from the prize office in this island.
I have lately received your highnes commands upon a complaint made to your highnes by one mr. Wade of the illegall putting to death a sonne of his by the governour of Mountserat, to examine and state the matter of fact, and report the same to your highnes; in pursueance wherof I have sent thither for the said governour, and the evidences on boeth sides, which I judge may be heare in some shorte time. In the interme I have impowered the councel of the saide island to have the charge and care of itts peace and lafetye. I have nothing att present, but as in duty bounde humbly subscribe my selfe,
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to his father.
The letter, which you were pleased to write to me of the 7th, having declared unto me the discourse of the envoy of the lord protector upon the conduct, which I have held since the overture of my negotiation, I did endeavour to know, whether he had spoken according to the mind of the ministers here; and having a pretence to pass a compliment upon one of my commissioners upon his return out of the country, he told me, that the said envoy was a young man, little vers'd in affairs, and that he spoke according to his judgment; and that now there was no further obstacle about the treaty. Yet I will not deny, but that the lord protector may have given order to his envoy, as he hath done, to cast upon France all the past delays. If it were with this design, one may expect hereafter some alteration of conduct; and I would willingly undergo any reproach, if any can justly charge me for not pressing the signing of the treaty, or that I have pursued it with lowness and submission, which might in any sort blemish the greatness and honour of the king.
Indeed I have been often reproach'd by the embassador of the states general, that I would still treat with too much loftiness; but I have still made it my care to avoid the one and the other. Yet if I had followed my inclination, I would have treated with more fierceness.
I am sure, that those, that will consider the state, wherein France was, when I came for England, and the present manner of the proceedings of this government, and my orders, will not condemn my conduct, nor that, which the court hath held, taking patience so long together. And notwithstanding that which his eminence said in public, his letters do give no cause to believe, that he hath another opinion, and that he doth speak like a good politician, discharging himself upon me the reproach, which might be made, that his majesty doth suffer himself too long to be slighted by the government of England; and in the mean time doth draw great advantages for his glory and that of France against Spain, which is assaulted in the most sensible parts by the forces of England, we only losing some few merchant ships, which will be one day brought to an accompt in lieu of those, which we have taken from the English, and which will serve to discharge the more the coffers of the king. This is that, which ought to be answered to the censurers of my negotiation; and they can without doubt hardly disavow, that if England had not stay'd the galleons from the Indies, and puzzled Spain in Europe, Spain would have been in a better condition to have put a stop to our conquests. They will likewise agree, that according to the most solid maxim of governments, advantage is to be the chiefest object of ministers; and that our enemies have contemned this point of honour, which those, who are not charged with events, do vex at, when they did believe to draw some advantage by their submissions. If my misfortunes will have it so, that all these considerations have less of weight in them, than they ought; and that they impute such faults to me, whereas I am not guilty, I shall at least not be troubled, knowing myself not to have transgress'd against my orders, nor acted against the service of my king, nor likewise against such opinions and judgments, as they themselves have often declared unto me. I do not write to–night to the court, to the end you may have the more subject to entertain his eminence.
The news of this place is the return of the fleet of Penn: he hath left some ships and the army in Jamaica without a general, he being dead with several other officers. Their vice–admiral was blown up in their voyage home through the carelessness of some that took tobacco. It is supposed, there will be no more thoughts had of making new conquests in the Indies.
I pray, be very earnest with his eminence that I may have precise orders to break or conclude the treaty; for my stock draws to a conclusion, and I shall not be able to hold out much longer without some supplies.
The deputy Van Ommeren to the states general.
High and mighty Lords!
My lords, since my last from Cologne of the last of August, my journey has been without any misfortunes, and pretty quick, having continually proceeded without stopping any where but at Franckfort, and this rather to ease the horses than myself. So that I arrived last night safely at Basil, where I have heard how the affairs of the Waldenses stand, and of the treaty made between the duke of Savoy and them, by the mediation of the embassador of France the lord Servien, who has endeavoured by all means to prevent, and has actually prevented, that neither of the embassadors of Switzerland, nor of their republic, the least mention is made in the said treaty; and further, in what manner the deputies of the Waldenses did insist upon it, refusing for some time to come to a conclusion, till the aforesaid embassadors did exhort them to it, if they could get by any other means sufficient security and satisfaction. The said embassadors of Switzerland were order'd by their masters, as they have done also, to endeavour by all possible means to hinder the conclusion of the said treaty, or at least the ratification thereof, till the deputies of the lord protector and of their high mightinesses were arrived; but they have not been able to bring this about, the French embassador alledging, that since their high mightinesses, as also the cantons of Switzerland, had desired his majesty of France, that by his intercession he would be pleased to procure by the duke of Savoy the re–establishment of the Waldenses; that he therefore ought to act alone, with the exclusion of all other mediators, there have been many other means used to accelerate matters and bring them to an entire conclusion. So that the said treaty is not only signed and finish'd, but also ratifyed from both sides, and enter'd in the chancery of Savoy, part thereof being already executed. The articles for the most part are as yet unknown, 'tis only reported by the by, that they are in some manner pretty reasonable, all being done with communication and advice of the said embassadors of Switzerland, whom the Waldenses also have adhered to very close, and without whom they would not have concluded any thing. For reparation of losses, five years were allowed them exempted from all taxes and imposts, all their pri viledges are confirmed them, and their former dwelling places restored and re–delivered, only a very small district of but a few families, which shall remove to other places and sell their effects within a limited time; and in case the same could not be done conveniently, then the duke of Savoy should be obliged to take the same according to their value, and pay ready money for it. So that nothing more remains, but the demolition of the fortress Latous, which is said to be a secret article, the execution whereof is urged at the court.
I have been received here by deputies of the government, with a particular civility and uprightness, and very earnestly desired by repeated letters in the name of the city of Zurick, to set out with the first for Geneva, where the embassadors of Switzerland are hourly expected from Savoy, in order to hold a general conference together with them, and the three deputies of the lord protector, whereof one ordinary and one extraordinary are there already, expecting only Mr. Downing, and afterwards to go from thence to Bern, where the convocation of the protestant cantons is summoned and appointed, when I will not be wanting punctually and faithfully to discharge the trust your high mightinesses have charged me with, and expect in the mean while some further letters from you, considering the alteration that has happened in the affairs of the Waldenses.
De Vries, the Dutch resident in Denmark, to the states general.
De Vries, the Dutch resident in Denmark, to the states general.
Yesterday arrived here captain William Gerbrants of Enckhuysen, having made his passage in three days from Dantzick. He reports, that the Swedish fleet, consisting in 30 to 32 sail, arrived on the 7th instant in the so–called Pantskerwyk, lying there against the high shore; that besides this there lay two ships about a cannon–shot's length from Termunde, which made the coming in and going out of the harbour very troublesom by stopping the ships, and demanding a toll from them, to witt, 4¼ rix dol. for a last of wheat, 4½ rix dol. for a last of herrings, and for a last of rye 3½ rix dol. They have taken from him the said captain, after they had caused his ship to be measured, 201 rix dol. for 44 lasts of wheat, wherein are comprehended the charges for the writing of the pass, and so forth; giving him a Swedish pass (a copy whereof goes inclosed) instead of his Dantzick pass, which they took from him. One of the said two ships is said to be commanded by the son of Martin Tyssen. This morning arrived two Netherland ships more, that sail'd on the 9th instant from Dantzick, which have likewise been stopped and forced to pay to the said Swedish ships the new toll: the same bring advice, that the master of the galliot ship bought here, whereof I mentioned to your high mightinesses in my last, was apprehended at Dantzick, whither, as it is said, he was sent as a spy.
A letter of intelligence.
By mine of the 7th instant to mr. Isaac Talbot I gave an account of what I could say as to the list. I have since shewed it to the king and our grandees here, who are much troubled, and believe you will proceed thus against them, by appointing a committee to examine witnesses upon oath against those in prison; to summon in the rest, and of all to certify in a short time; and so to proceed to outlaw and a confiscation of all their estates. And this I concurred with them in; but Digby and Werden are esteemed your friends, and that mr. Moore you name is that James Halsal, whom I called Kes Holsey formerly, now in England, and one of our chiefest agents. Sir Miles Hubbard is also trusted hence; and Armorer and Albert Morton are to go into Holland this week, and so get into England. They are very hot and confident of some speedy attempt; and never people were more jocund than they seem to be here at this present upon it; but they are a little troubled to hear of the altering of the locks at Whitehall.
All agree, that by the long seas is the best getting into England. I cannot hear a word of captain Wilson, which makes me much admire, and to beg the trouble of you to let me have an account, whether any letters of mine come to his hands or not. Neither have I heard of you or my friends the last post. The addresses by Cudner and Wicket to me are very good. Middelton and old Goring are returned hither from Holland in hast. One colonel Borthwick is sent hence into Scotland; and one mr. Mowbray come hither: all of that nation here are pieced together.
Middleton's going into Sweden is for the present suspended, until Charles Stewart hath an answer of a letter from thence. The proceedings of the Swedish embassador now in England, or his design not being yet known here, and the double dealing of that king, having sent letters to Charles Stuart, just as I have given you notice, and now sending his embassador in such splendor to you, renders his abilities to do us good, suspected. As soon as our secretary's son comes from Holland, if it be possible to be procured, you shall have copies of those letters, and what can be gathered of Doleman's more, with whom Price now is. And if so be you know not Hyde's, Ormond's, or any of their writing, send me word, and you shall have some of their letters, if of any use to you. Instead of Charles Stuart (the princess royal not being well) Ormond went to Meurs, and there met him the lord Dillon and Mac Thomas of the Spanish Irish; where after two or three hours debate they parted. As much as I can learn, their business is to preserve a body of Irish together in that quarter, as well as in France; for which soever you break with, we close with; but it is most probable to us with Spain, whither Ormond under hand prepares himself to go on the first rupture. The meeting with the Irish was on the 6th instant, and not the 9th as I writ. One Henry Moore, a Newcastle–man, servant to Wentworth, a tall young fair man, is sent hence into England with letters and commissions.
Richard Rose, who hath a blemish on his right–eye, is daily looked for here; and mr. Elliot and James Elliot, a servant here to be found at Richmond. Mrs. Earle came over with your lord president's pass. You cannot imagine the hurt these fidling people do.
A letter of intelligence.
Many you name in your last are with us, Maliverer, Darcy, Edgeworth; and much rejoicing there is for major Robert Walters escape; since which colonel Francis Lovelace is got into Holland; and I hear Stephens is got into Dunkirk, neither do you mention therein Thornhil, who was the chief agent in Kent; nor the Heaths. Little Tom Ross was their envoy hither; and when we were in Zealand, letters were sent to one Trowt at Feversham for them. The Davisons in Yorkshire, Jack Seymore, and Trelawney for the west, Halsall, and Palmer, &c. came several ways, and returned with Wilmot; Armorer just on Charles Stuart's removal hence. These are they, that can discover most persons. Forget not Stanhope of Derbyshire, of whom I have often writ; and sure I am of all I have writ I have had good reason; but you know best, being upon the place now to judge. No news from Gerard or France this week, nor Massey, who is said to be with his gang about Hamburgh, and Wagstaffe about Dunkirk. All other things are as they were.
Mr. Prideaux to secretary Thurloe.
What is before written is a dupplicate of my last. These are to give your honor advertisement, that the 10th of last moneth (which was three dayes after my here arrivall) this governour and chancellor sent mee the writer I have for prestaue, to tell mee, that they had received letters from the emperor; and in them order to signifie unto mee, that I might imbarke, and departe at my pleasure; by which I conseave, that if I had atempted it without that permission, I should have bin stopt. This goeth by one of our Englishe shipps bound to London; and on another of them I intend (God pleasing) to imbarke the 12th or 13th of this moneth. We have noe newse at all, what th' emperour doth in his warrs agaynst the Pole; nor have ought that merits your honor's knowledge; wherefore doe humbly take leave, and remayne,
A letter of intelligence.
In my last I gave you notice of the Swedish fleet coming into this road and bay; since have landed some of these men, but as yet effected nothing considerable. The day after the date of mine, being the third, the Swede began to take licence or custom. The 10th this town shut the town–chamber, and suffered nothing to pass out or in, to prevent, if it were possible, the Swedes exaction, which is upon rye 3½ rix dollars, wheat 4¼, herrings 5, salt 3 and upwards, which cost but 10 in France; and upon other commodities 10 per cent. according to their tax, which is not with the least; from which tribute people here thought such care had been taken for the interest of our nation, that we should have been exempted; but we might pay the Swedish tributary, which will help to undo our manufactures here, being made at Lyff and Francostat, and thereabout 220000 cloths per annum and above, and says in abundance in these parts, to the hindrance of our perpetuanies, whereby they will still be enabled to make more, and we be beaten out of this town, labour all they can to maintain a free trade; and I believe would yield to any protection rather than to the Swede, being accounted the enemy of all merchants. But I see no body able to protect them both by sea and land, for the Swede carries the country before him, without just fighting for it, having entred Warsaw this day se'night, and seated himself in the king's palace or castle, and summons the gentry to accompany him to Cracow, where general Whitenberg is marched with part of the army; so that I conceive the country in a manner lost, and this town fatherless, whereof the Swede being our master, together with the other parts, I hold Lubeck and Denmark to be at his devotion, having sent to the Dane to command the general out of the Sound and parts thereabouts with three men of war, and then he can command Hamburgh and Holland, also the Moscovites. We judge by his firing of Kawne he intended not to hold the country of Lettau. By this day's post from Riga, the Swede having ordered an embassador to the Moscovites, and from Konisberg, they write that he hath burnt Grodnam, and all gentlemens houses that he finds in his way, as he marcheth, which is a sign that he will depart and leave an empty nest behind him. I have had this day some conference with an especial friend of mine concerning the estate and condition of this place, who acquainted me, after much deliberation, what to do. In this their exigency they are resolved to remonstrate their condition to the states of Holland, and the consequence that may follow, if he become the sovereign lord of the Baltic seas, with desire of your assistance; but I cannot see how the Hollanders are able to relieve them, who cannot subsist without traffic, which the Swede having all these countries can debar them of; and therefore had need of other help, for all will be in vain. Out of England has been written, that the Swede is seeking an offensive and defensive league: I pray God direct for the best for our poor country's good.
Minard to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Seeing that my lord your father through some kind of policy was resolved not to return hither so soon, and that upon some reports, which fled abroad, that they were going to send to you Monsieur d'Aligre and Monsieur Boucherat, for the finishing of your treaty; thereupon my lord your father writ from Genitoy to his eminence, and ordered a copy of the letter to be sent unto you. I took an occasion yesterday to go and see him at Genitoy; and he being advertised, that the cardinal was come to the Bois de Vincennes with the king, he resolved to see him there this morning at eight of the clock, which he did; and I was also with him. He was very well received by the cardinal; he presently told him, that it was not true, that any commissioners should be sent to you, and that he had never heard any speak of it, and that you should not precipitate the signing of the treaty: after all this my lord your father returned to Genitoy. The king goes on sunday next for Fontainbleau, and the cardinal on saturday for La Fere.
Major Sedgewicke to the protector.
May it please your highnes,
Wee are this present day setting sayle, intending to call at Christopher's to heare, if possible, of and from our friends: if not, we intend to range alonge the shoare of Hispaniola, and if wee meet with noe intelligence, then to sayle directly for Jamaica.
A letter of intelligence.
I have nothing to write to you but the infamous desertion of La Marcouse, who in the night of the 12th of this month, when he had the great guard of the camp, abandoned the guard, run away to the enemy with his regiment, which consisted of 60 horse; which is one of the basest and unworthiest actions that was ever heard of, having played this treachery in the night, when the whole army relied upon him, wherein he did not only betray his highness, but his best friends. This base action hath produced no alteration in the rest of the troops, but on the contrary they do all generally abhor it.
Monsr. de Bordeaux, the father, to his son, the French embassador in England.
Having received your letter of the 10th of this month, with your letter to his eminence, and knowing that the king was come to lie on tuesday last at Bois de Vincennes, I got thither on the wednesday morning betimes, where I had the happiness to meet with his eminence, to whom I delivered your letter. After that he had received me with great demonstrations of love, he begun the first to cell me, that he did very much admire, at what I had wrote to him, and protested unto me, that he had never had any thought of any such resolution; and thereupon I told him, that the business was so public, that the weekly pamphlets made mention of it, and read to him the verses, wherein it stood, that messieurs Aligre and Boucherat, two great counsellors of state, have received orders to go and sign the agreement made between France and my lord Cromwell. He was so surprized, that he told me, that it was the design of some enemies: and having likewise told him, that such a business would very much prejudice his reputation, if it should be permitted; whereupon he replied, that it should never be: presently after fell to the reading of your letter, and having throughly examined the contents thereof, he told me, that now there needed no great care to be had for the affairs of England as formerly; that now one must expect to see what the protector would desire more of France, since that the agreement of the Huguenots of Savoy was finished to their full satisfaction, insomuch that they made bonfires for joy, they were so well pleased at what was done: so that now there was no further pretence upon that subject; and that this state here doth intend to see an end of all pretences. And reading over your letter the second time, his eminence told me; how! is not the protector satisfied with the terms of the letters of the king? if he would declare himself king, we would write to him otherwise. Notwithstanding all this discourse, yet I held it a very difficult thing not to believe, that there is not something of reality in what I told his eminence concerning the sending new commissioners into England. For my part I have many reasons to induce me to believe it. One of them is the order, which is given you not to pursue the signing of the treaty of peace, till such time that the protector hath finished his demands and pretences. Now I leave all these reflections to your examination. My advice to you is, to do your business, if you can, and insist still upon the signing of the treaty, which I should finish, if it were possible, without expecting any new orders; and it may be whilst they are coming to you, a third person may step in between you and home, and carry away all the honour. Many examples I could give you, how several embassadors have been served after this manner, by mere delaying the beginning of their treaties, when they might have finished them. I have often told you, that you should declare unto the protector his advantages by advancing of the treaty; besides France is full of money, and at peace amongst themselves. I shall not need to repeat now, what I have written formerly. By such means I would either bring him to a conclusion of the treaty, or a rupture, in a short time.
Mr. Chanut to Mr. Bordeaux.
I Wish you all happiness with your new lodgings, where I hope you will make an end of your negotiation to your content. This removing of yours doth make every body to believe, that you hold your treaty as good as concluded; and I will be of the same opinion.
I hear, that the lord embassador Bonde doth give credit to all that is said unto him. I know not whether monsieur Coyet, who hath fed longer upon the bread of London, doth rely so much upon their words.
They write me from Poland, that the king of Sweden's forces were all joined; and that it was not yet resolved, whether he would march up to the king of Poland, who hath now a considerable army on foot, or whether he would return for Prussia, to besiege Thorn. It is thought, that Poland will not be able to help itself from being subdued, between the Swedes and the Muscovites.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The states of Holland, not being yet completely met together, those of Amsterdam and others more near are returned to their principals, after that there had been reported unto them, according to the custom, by the raedt pensionary, all that had past, which was most remarkable, and especially the occurrences of Poland and Prussia; item the vocation of the charges left by the deceased earl of Brederode. As for Poland, there was proposed unto them the relapse of the time and of the season of the summer, the coldness, fear, or irresolution of the king of Denmark, and the uncertainty of the inclination of the protector; whether notwithstanding all this they shall persist to send a fleet for the Sound. I am assured, that those of Amsterdam were come with a resolution to continue the sending of a fleet, not to yield in any thing to Sweden, yea to expect the extremities thereof, &c. And although the season of acting in the east sea be past, to cause the fleet to winter at Copenhagen, to the end it may be ready at hand against may next, and that in the mean time, it would serye for a rod in readiness, or a threatning comet to the Swedes, if they should attempt any unlawful thing; but the other members of Holland, as also the most part of the provinces not being so resolved, they have taken a short recess, to return hither again on tuesday next. In the mean time the instructions for the sending into Denmark are suspended; and the most inclination amongst the states general is, to send general embassies into Sweden, Poland, Muscovy, Brandenburgh, as well as into Denmark.
There was also read the advices from the correspondents of Stetin and Dantzic, which contained only matters in general, and nothing positive, only that the Swedes, the Muscovites, and the Cosacs were agreed. Of the Swedish ships before Dantzic there was no news.
Those of Holland have made no mention nor memoration, neither of sending nor of the instruction for Denmark, nor of sending any fleet, no more than if there never had been spoken of any such thing; but to–morrow those of Amsterdam, as well as the rest, return hither, as also those of the admiralty, although upon another subject, namely, that concerning the reduction of interest: then it may be these will further speak of the said affairs. It is very certain, that prince Maurice hath also declared himself for the charge of marshal, saying, that he had been a colonel, when prince William was under the rod; and that he is the eldest of the family. Those of Holland have writ and admonished those of Zealand to proceed in a good correspondence with Holland. Utrecht doth also comply with Holland, and Guelderland will be half for prince Maurice, and Overyssell is not to be reputed for any, in regard it is divided, and by this means Holland will endeavour to maintain itself, but with much ado. Prince William will get hither at the latter end of this week.
Prince Maurice doth endeavour very eagerly to obtain the charge of marshal de camp against his brother prince William. And although it be the design of those of Holland to abolish the said charge, yet they do make use of the occasion; and there is propounded, as an expedient, to give some declaration upon the charge of prince Maurice, (being general of the horse) to make it above that of marshal de camp, as was formerly said and maintained during the life of the earl of Brederode; but the adherents of prince William do mightily endeavour the contrary, and do expect from Guelderland and Zealand (where the states are met) some provincial resolutions for prince William. Frizeland, Groningen, Overyssell where he is stadholder, are openly for him; and thereby they will be soon resolved for prince William.
There are also endeavours used to induce Holland for it by an offer of a kind of pardon or amnesty for those, that had a hand in the seclusion, and for the lord Beverning the establishment in the charge of the treasurer–general; tacitly threatning, that one day the party of the prince of Orange becoming master, the said seclusion will cost some blood.
This morning was again mentioned the instruction for sending towards Denmark, by the lord of Renswoude, president; but it was not seen, that Holland itself did press it very much, and much less the fleet. The provinces in general have declared, that to–morrow they will advise; and it is already known, that for the fleet, it is held out of season.
There hath been also a petition of the lord Wynbergen, offering his service for the government of Boisleduc, which Holland hath taken to consider of in their assembly; and a while hence it may be they will be prest to declare themselves upon it.
Those of Holland perceiving, that the lord of Somersdyck would afterwards obtain the government of Escluse, do begin to quarrel with him upon what happened in the year 1650 at the siege of Amsterdam, and for which it is true he had an amnesty; but he hath not been yet re–established in integrum.
Those of Holland having heard, that the chief officers of the foreign nations had designed to make complaint in a body, as well to those of Holland, as to the states general, they sent for messieurs Hauterive and Allardt to appear before the council of state, to whom they declared with civility, that such a complaint in a body would be ill taken; and that if any one hath any complaint to make, he might do it in his particular.
Yesterday in the forenoon colonel Hauterive and colonel Allardt, in the afternoon several others, and especially major Gentilot, were before the council of state, having understood, that the said major had drawn up the petition; which he did confess, for colonel Allardt had testified the same; but he declared to have burnt it, confessing that the petition contained these heads. The first complaint was, in regard the states of Holland do not provide the vacant company with reformed captains. The second complaint, that they had begun to confer some charges in the foreign troops on natives of this state. Third, that generally they conferred the charges in the said foreign companies without any communication of the colonels, head officers, and captains. Fourth, that they give passes and leave without communication of the said colonels and chief officers. Fifth, that they had their allowances very ill paid them of colonels, lieutenant–colonels, and majors; (for their companies are very well paid) some being in arrear six years, others less, some little or no thing. It was also reported, that they would demand a head over the militia, (as if there were no king in Israel) at least not a marshal de camp, which charge Holland doth endeavour to abolish; but they laugh at this last point. The raedt pensionary in the name of the whole council did pass a censure upon all these things, with much civility; that to make a complaint in this manner, and in a body, did favour of sedition; that if they had any thing to complain of, they might do it each in particular. That the heads or said points in themselves were against the duty of the said officers. Gentilot seems to have some more fear than the rest, having desired leave to resign (that is, to sell) his charge of major, upon which he had no answer made him. Holland ought to fear, that when these officers have an illustrious head, as they do pretend to at present, such head will very much swell the hearts of such high officers; for it hath been observed, that the princes of Orange formerly, and prince William and prince Maurice at present, have maintained and do maintain these foreign troops, as a great and chief support of their authority above the states; and therefore those of Holland have great reason to look to them; but that is usual for Holland to do their work by halves.
Prince Maurice (it is said, that it is at the instigation of those of Holland itself) hath said, that he will not yield to prince William upon any terms. Holland doth very much delight to set those two at odds; otherwise, if they seriously resist, or are resolved, they will maintain their case, as well as the city of Deventer doth theirs; for Deventer is but a sixth part of a small province, and Holland is worth as much as all the other provinces in a body together. And in case, that the lord of Somersdyck by plurality of voices doth obtain the government of Escluse, Holland will endeavour to do, as Deventer doth, as well against the drossard Haersolte, as against the stadholder prince William. All this doth depend but upon the will of Holland: Tu modo fac cupias, sponte disertus cris. But there is also a diversity of humours yet in the said complaintive or mutinous business of the head officers. All those of the council of state were very well united. We shall soon see what will come of it.
The four members of Overyssell have put the company of the lord of Beverweert upon the repartition of Deventer, and the companies of colonel Haersolte upon Swoll, instead that hitherto Beverweert hath been upon Swoll, and Haersolte upon Deventer; but in regard that Deventer would not pay Haersolte (for being brother to the drossard Haersolte) upon Swoll, and Beverweert upon Deventer, that is to say, upon a village, where there are no houses, for Deventer will also pay as little to the one as the other; and the lord Beverweert seeth and knows that well enough, and hath said, that he will make no complaint of it any where, but he will let the company perish (being rich enough without that) in not furnishing them any pay. Now this is the first company of all, having been formerly the company of the life–guard of William prince of Orange the first.
There is a company of a captain, called Haersolte, major of Boisleduc, paid upon Holland. There is likelihood, that Holland will put that company of Beverweert in the place of that of Haersolte. As for the fleet for the Sound, I know from a very good hand, that Holland itself is resolved to suppress it till the spring.
It is very pleasant to see in the letter of the lord Nieuport, how he doth complain of the excesses, which the ships or English captains do commit at sea. And when the same complaints have been made here, all nations will say, that they do but laugh at them.
They have resolved and as good as concluded a deputation into Overyssell, to accommodate the differences there. There hath been notification made from Overyssell concerning the transposition of the company of the lord Beverweert, which Holland hath taken ad deliberandum into their assembly. In the mean time a letter is written to those of Overyssell, to re–establish that transposition, as it was formerly.