A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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October (4 of 5)
A letter of intelligence to mr. Petit.
Paris, November 3, 1655.
Vol. xxxi. p. 264.
Friday the king went a hunting at Vincennes, and returned on sunday. He touched the sick on monday, and parted yesterday for Chantilly, where he is to make the Saint Hubert.
Monday the nuncio had audience about two of the clock, in which he much exhorted his majesty (in the pope's behalf) to peace, and after gave his said majesty a brief, which the pope writes to him to that purpose. He also presented him with another, by which the pope doth thank his said majesty for the edict by him given against duels, entreating him to put it to execution when time requires. The Venetian embassador had soon after his audience upon the same subject of peace. His majesty answered unto both, that it should not hold to him, and that his holiness should always find him disposed thereunto.
The enemies are in the field with a numerous army, but they have undertaken nothing as yet; they still threaten Quesnoy, but it's doubted whether they dare engage themselves for fear the rain should make them perish. It's said the king and the cardinal will approach the frontier, to give encouragement unto the opposition, which shall be made them in case they come.
Marseilles, October 26/16, 1655.
Duke of Vendosme is returned to Toulon with all his fleet, except two ships and a fire-ship, which (as it is thought) remained in the fight (I have told you) between him and the Spaniards upon the coasts of Catalonia, although he pretended to have made that loss by ill weather. Soon after his arrival an order passed for releasing of all English ships, which were detained in Provence.
The king of Spain has made a prohibition to bring any English merchandize in his estates, although he can hardly be without.
There is here a Genoa galley to carry to Rome the Portugal embassador, who cometh from Paris.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Vol. xxxi. p. 302.
[Letter contains cyphered content - see page images 110 and 111.]
I know well from a very good hand, that princess dowager doth think herself very well satisfied with Amsterdam not so much for the outward as the inward affection. Thus all those of the magistracy did cajole her. Yea, she saith, that she is sure of the affection of Amsterdam that it is for prince of Orange and that the protector is nothing. I could say many things as to this, being verily perswaded, that Amsterdam or those that govern it, do hate the protector for the reasons, which I have formerly mentioned, and are overjoyed for the misfortunes, which the protector hath had this summer with his fleets. And Amsterdam will take, as well as all of the Orange party a great delight if the protector doth fall into a warr with Spain. I have made objection to some, that Amsterdam and states of Holland will be very much hindered in their commerce by the said amity but they made me answer, that there will be a good remedy to prevent it; that they will keep such good, and so many men of war for the convoy, that protector will let states of Holland in peace; as also they presuppose, that protector will be interessed to use well states of Holland. In effect, to speak freely, I do much wonder why protector and king of Spain will cause their ennemies, as well concealed as publick, to laugh. protector is very much deceived, if he believes, that he may rely upon states of Holland and as little upon France. But if the protector must have friends, or if he desireth to have friendship that the less harmfull, and the less unfaithfull, will be always to him the king of Sweden and king of Spain. I do not speak out of any cordial affection, (for such is not to be found amongst the great ones) but out of an affection of interest.
The interest of the protector Spain Sweden is to be well together. In the states of Holland there is no stability, they float. They declare well, that they will maintain liberty. But how ? by binding and tying prince of Orange and grave William to such instructions, and most strong oaths. But by your favour, if being at present altogether free of prince of Orange and grave William, they cannot preserve themselves, how will they do, when prince of Orange and grave William will be again in charge ? for though it be never so mean, yet their high birth will render them always formidable. And as for the laws, though never so strong, yet they will never be strong enough to hold prince of Orange and grave William. For the militia, as the same is already, so it will be always for the future adherent to prince of Orange and grave William, and also the ministers and the people likewise. The magistrates dare not then deny any thing; for if they should, the ministers, the militia, and the people would force them to it. And these states of Holland believing to avoid some diffentions and civil contentions (by taking the prince of Orange) will fall into them some time or other through the suggestion of prince of Orange, who doth always get by this word divide & impera.
Although that the good Hollanders do perswade themselves, that this is the design of states of Holland or of good Hollanders, giving or making all this good usage, all this good mein to princess dowager, Brandenburg prince of Orange, to the end to plant jealousy between Brandenburg prince of Orange grave William prince Maurice of Nassau but my understanding is too dull to comprehend this; for I can take all that but for a weakness of states of Holland, having recourse to a sudden evill, to remedy one that is remote, for at the last that is the worst, which can happen unto them, unless they will change their design, and instead of liberty, (which they have had hitherto for the end) follow and embrace the contrary. Yea, it is said, that states of Holland will pro specie honoris send the pens. De Wit to Sweden Denmark. Item, lay aside Opdam.
In short, as well Amsterdam as states of Holland have some maxims too subtle for me. I am,
Your most humble servant.
This 5th of Nov. 1655. [N. S.]
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
October 31, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 277.
If in England the embassador of Spain will depart, here the embassador of France hath declared to have order (he calls it permission) to return into France. He hath often made complaint to his friends, that here he did not effect any thing. But in effect it is, that he being come to reimbarque this state in a new alliance, he findeth no disposition in Holland but only for a treaty of commerce, wherein France is very little interested. And one of the states general told me yesterday, that they did believe the two crowns were very much disposed to the peace; and without that, Spain would not engage in a new war to do a pleasure to France and the partisans of the house of Orange here: and those of that house (yea the princess dowager herself) are very full of hope, that Holland will give some employment to that house, and that all anger and malice is almost quite laid aside, by reason of the great reception made to her said highness. But when one takes notice of the difference of Overyssel, as green as ever, and that Holland doth side with Deventer, one must confess that the game is not yet won.
Since the extradition of the treaty of Brandenburg, the ministers of the elector have in a conference very much press'd the promised assistance by the treaty; and when it was told them, that via concordiæ, item, the aggression is to precede, they replied, that the danger was present, and did admit of no delay.
And to make the elector the more considerable, they say, that he hath wherewithal to pay his army of twenty thousand men, and demand the succours, not in money, (as was said it should) but in soldiers here entertained.
Those of the Holland, (who are usually duces gregis) have declared, towards the 9th of November there will be a meeting of the states, and that then there will be debated upon this point, as also upon the nominating of embassadors for Sweden, Denmark, and Brandenburg.
But in general Holland is lukewarm or cold for the embassy, fearing that the king of Sweden will not hearken to it, and will desy it.
The earl of Witgenstein having had yesterday audience, (with the same ceremonies as messieurs Sparr and Charisius had) did only propose some compliments; afterwards did recommend very much the assistance. And when they demanded of him this request for assistance in writing, he did excuse himself, for fear, saith he, of offending Sweden.
They write to the king of France, and the embassador Boreel, against the new imposition upon the herrings.
Those of Zwoll have writ, that they will also keep some of the companies, if those of Deventer do the like.
All Friezland hath furnished for the Vaudois no more than nine or ten thousand guilders.
The lord president did propound yesterday, at the request of the minister of Brandenburg, that the present necessity; wherein the prince elector their master is in at present, doth require by all means, that he should be assisted, not only according to the quantity express'd in the treaty, but also in proportion of the powerful enemy with the greater assistance. Upon which the provinces have resolved and promised to declare themselves.
The archduke Leopold hath likewise approved of the submission, according to the resolution lately taken here concerning Alden Biesen.
The embassador of France hath not yet signified his departure or revocation: he saith, that another is to succeed him in his place, and saith that he is to go upon the pacification between the two crowns, which the pope proposeth at Boulogne. I am assured that the princess dowager doth declare to her creatures a great satisfaction of those of Amsterdam, not so much for the outward as for the inward affection, which she persuades herself to have found in the hearts of all the magistrates. The sentence against those two prisoners so very moderate and favourable doth sufficiently declare, that the court of Holland itself hath much respect to the house of Orange and of Nassau. It is very certain, that the raet pensionary hath made his express complaint, how that they punish those two prisoners with the tail of a fox.
They speak likewise of sending this raedt pensionary embassador towards the Baltick sea, sending him away sub specie honoris to be rid of him, for in effect I do hold him to be one of the firmest. They speak likewise of turning out or laying aside the lord of Opdam.
In the mean time two things are yet considerable to the contrary: first that prince Maurice doth continue in earnest to oppose prince William. Secondly, that the nobility of Twente, as well as the city of Deventer, do continue to oppose the said prince William; and the princess dowager (as head of the party of the prince of Orange) doth labour for the said prince William in the one and the other case.
The deputation to Overyssel doth again halt, in regard that the lord Wybergen commissioner of Zealand is gone for Tolen, where his wife is to lie in being big with child. Also the lord of Renswoude doth desire to be excused, and those of Guelderland have not yet named one for their commissioner,
In the end they have resolved to send an order and commission to mr. Pels, commissary at Dantzick, to transport himself to Marienburgh, there to compliment the elector and all the assembly of the states of Prussia, to exhort them to union, and to preserve their freedom and present state; and to assure them, that this state will contribute towards it all that they are able.
The embassador Chanut hath demanded audience for to-morrow, having order to return for France.
The embassador of France conducted to his audience, and reconducted by the lords Beverning and Viersen, did make a speech full of speculation, saying that he was sent thither for two ends; the one to offer to be in the same condition with this state for the war of England; namely that neither France nor this state should make any peace, but with inclusion, the one of the other. Consequently that France should enter an open war against England with this state. The second cause for his coming he saith to be, to make an alliance with this state here; in regard that the embassador Boreel on the behalf of this state had made in France an overture of such a thing (in substance) inferring from thence, since there hath been nothing to do or done in the one or the other, that the cause of his sending ceasing, his abode here did also cease. Afterwards spoke of gratitude and ingratitude; that gratitude was a virtue not only particular, but also publick; that not only a person in particular was obliged to acknowledge the favours received, but likewise a state and body politick was obliged to gratitude, and not to fail of its faith for the interest of its merchants, or for some profits; but not to offend the assembly, he said, My lords, I do not speak to ungrateful persons. Afterwards he spoke in praise of this state, or of those that govern it, saying that they were not only prudent but also united, that the one and the other was requisite and was apparent: that without this, this state had never grown to such a greatness of power, nor could preserve itself. Afterwards he spoke in commendation of his king: of his power he spoke these words, that the present king was given to France by a miracle (one of the assembly hath said since, that the king his father however did believe, that he came by natural and ordinary generation:) then he spoke of the mutual correspondence, adding thereunto some words, that the king had loved and did love this state, not that he stood in need of it, but because he loved it. At last ended with these words: This is that which I had to tell you in the behalf of the king my master, and being silent, the lord president after auricular communication of his assessors, made a compliment more proper to the embassador in particular, and of the satisfactions, which they had of him; then upon the subject of his speech; after which the embassador said, after having declared what I had to say on the behalf of the king my master, I now speak in my own particular, that I give you thanks for all the civilities, which I have received during my abode here, presenting you with my service, &;c. And in regard the president had already declared in his first answer what he had studied, he did not say much upon this last reply.
Here is news from Stetin and from Dantzick, that Cracow is no longer besieged. That the Swedish army is retreated in a bad equipage enough, and in danger of being destroyed by the Poles, and the Tartars. I believe, that the jealousy here against the Swedes is very much diminished.
As to the garrisons in Overyssel, it is agreed upon, that all as well of Deventer as of Zwoll shall be withdrawn, but that afterwards they will advise to provide for Deventer. They have been in debate about the salaries of the judges, that have been employed about the business of East-Friesland; some will have them to have six guilders per diem, others 10, others 12, but nothing concluded on.
November 5, 1655.
Notwithstanding the reproaches, which the embassador of France did cast upon this state, they are in deliberation to give him a present, which will be of six thousand guilders. They have given six thousand guilders, but then it was when a treaty was made; yet in this case they did give to colonel d'Estrades ten thousand guilders, as also to the embassador of England in the year 1651. But the quantity of the said present is not yet resolved on.
They have also proposed (it seems by occasion, that France doth declare itself so busy) to send and keep residents at Madrid and Brussels. Yesterday there passed big words and injuries between two members of the assembly about the determination of the salary, which the judges were to have, that had been employed about the business of East-Friezland, which at last is resolved at ten guilders per diem, that they were employed, which will employ 600 guilders for each judge.
To mr. Pels at Dantzick is only sent a single order, no instruction, to transport himself to Marienburgh, to salute the elector, and to hear and see what passeth there.
Minard to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Paris, November 4, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 276.
Your letter of the 29th of the last month hath very much rejoiced my lord, your father, who went in the morning to carry it to the Louvre, where the court arrived late last night, and from whence he is not yet returned. The post being ready to depart I got him yesterday to sign a bond for 6000 livres, which I am going to receive. I will keep some of it in my hands to supply your occasions against your arrival here.
Your father is furnishing part of his house to lodge you and your lady at your arrival here.
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador, to the protector.
To his most serene highness the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the dominions thereunto belonging.
Vol. xxxi. p. 275.
The subscribed extraordinary embassador of the lords the states general of the united provinces beseecheth, that it may please his most serene highness to authorise mr. William Cross and John Becx the two surviving arbitrators of the demands for damages of the 22 ships in Denmark in the year 1652, mr. Edward Winsloe and James Russell being both deceased, to see and settle the account of sir Thomas Vyner, knight, concerning the monies, which by order of his most serene highness have been consigned and paid unto him, on the behalf of the lords the states general; and that the overplus, which hath not been due or demanded by the parties, who had pretended the same, may be restored to the said lords the states general, according to the promise of the said arbitrators.
This 25 Octob. 1655.
This 4 Novemb. 1655.
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Hague, November 5, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 299.
Although I have had my audience of farewel of my lords the states general with all the solemnities requisite, I will not yet take my leave of you, since I do pretend to be your correspondent to the very last moment of my abode here, which will be longer than I had hoped, in regard monsieur the nuncio is dead at Brussels, very ill for me, just as the order of nuncio in France was brought him to ask for a pass for me. We must endeavour to supply this inconvenience; but in the mean time I desire you to do me the favour to get one of my lord protector for my goods and equipage of coach and horses, to the end I may be sure of one some way or other. If your treaty were signed, I should not need any pass; but I can hardly believe it is.
There is nothing certain yet come from Poland. They write from Cologne, that Cracow is taken, and the king of Poland retreated into Silesia, forsaken by his people. In these provinces many believe, that the party which rules in Holland doth begin to lose their credit.
Monsieur Beverning hath desired to see me in particular before I go. In my next I will give you an account of our discourse together.
Minard to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Paris, November 6, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 320.
Your packet of the first of this month was delivered to me yesterday. I have sent away the letter to his eminence, who is with the king at present at La Fere, where, after some short stay, they will advance further, they having advice given them, that the enemy hath an intent to besiege Quesnoy.
My lord your father is still at Quesnoy, and very angry you have left off writing to him: he had thought to have been here in town very suddenly, but this news of the court's departure so far off will keep him from coming.
President Viole to monsieur Marigny.
Brussels, Nov. 6, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 321.
I am newly returned from the army: there hath been a great conference with all the generals and head officers of the army; some design is resolved on, but what it is, is not yet to be made public.
The queen Christina, who is a catholic in her heart, is to make public profession there of at Inspruck; and the pope will present her in the quality of a queen. He is sending four nuncios to her, to meet her upon the confines of the ecclesiastical territories, and the cardinals de Medici and Hesse two miles from Rome.
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to the states general.
Vol. xxxi. p. 296.
High and mighty lords,
The lord embassador of Spain has put off for some days his departure from hence, pretending that the pass sent him, on the 7th of October last past, was not made in due form. The lord protector being inform'd thereof, caused another to be deliver'd to him on tuesday last, and he was told at the same time, that he expected that he the said lord embassador should depart within four days out of this city. Many merchants here could have wish'd, that the differences between Spain and this state could have been accommodated; but since they have got news here, that not only the English effects are consiscated, but that also the English merchants and factors at Malaga, and in other places of Spain, are very much abused in their persons, and thrown into vile dungeons, it is observed here very plainly, that almost the minds of all mankind are violently exasperated against the Spaniards; and I am inform'd by a good hand, that several officers of the army, which having shewn a dislike formerly against the present government, were retired into the country, and had deliver'd up their commissions, come now with great zeal back again, and offer their services against Spain. There is no want of inclination here, to make a notable exploit against the king. In the beginning of this week it was reported every where, that the treaty betwixt France and this state was entirely broke off; but it has pleased God to dispose the minds on both sides so, that the said treaty was at last concluded and sign'd here on wednesday last at eight o'clock in the evening. The lord embassador of France came yesterday morning, to thank me in very civil terms for the good offices, which it had pleased your high mightinesses to do in this affair: he told me, that he intended that very night to dispatch a courier to his court, since it was thought good, that the ratifications on both sides should be exchanged within fourteen days, and that fourteen days after no act of hostility should any more be committed, neither under the pretence of reprisals nor otherwise. I hope that with the first I shall be able to send your high mightinesses a copy of the articles agreed upon.
High and mighty lords, &c.
Westminster, Nov. 5. 1655. [N.S.]
From embassador Nieoport
Vol. xxxi. p. 298.
In my last I acquainted your lordship, that the lord embassador of France refused on thursday last to sign the treaty, because in the copy, which was to remain here, the commissaries and plenipotentaries of the lord protector were placed before those of the king his master; but the day after I was inform'd by him, that the whole scruple consisted in this, that the said king was stiled therein rex Gallorum, and not Galliarum. Having understood the said difficulty, I thought myself obliged (according to their high mightinesses order and resolution) to procure, that the so long expected final conclusion of the said treaty might not any longer be delayed. Accordingly I went to the secretary of state, on the one side, and to the lord embassador, on the other, and took such pains, that at last all is settled and signed in such a manner as it was written, without any alteration; and observing, that every thing begins to be prepared for a war with Spain, I have made serious representations, to the end that this government might once be persuaded to accomplish the known treaty of Spain with their high mightinesses. In relation whereunto, I have promises made me in very serious terms, that the same shall be taken in hand very soon. I will not be wanting duly to urge this affair. And am, after my constant recommendations,
most humble servant,
Westminster, Nov. 5. 1655. [N. S.]
Resolutions of the states general.
Sabbathi, November 6, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 315.
Was proposed in the assembly, that the land commader of the bailywick of Biesen did stile himself in his memoirs and requests as land commader of Aldenbiesen in the country of Liege, and that these last words, viz. in the country of Liege, were how and then inserted in the resolutions and records of their high mightinesses. Which being deliberated upon, it was resolved to declare thereby, that the same shall nor can, no ways, be understood to the prejudice of this state in the right to the land commendary; and farther, that the said Aldenbiesen in the country of Liege, which since the death of the late commader Hoensbroek is left out of the said resolutions and records, shall be reclaim'd.
Sabbathi, Novemb. 6. 1655. [N. S.]
There being read in the assembly the former precedents, and what has usually been done concerning the presents which are made to the embassadors of the king of France, upon taking their leave as well as otherwise; after deliberation, it was agreed and resolved upon, that to the lord Chanut, embassador of the said king, being upon his departure, shall be given a gold chain of six thousand guilders, and to his secretary likewise a gold chain of six hundred guilders. Secondly, that before the said lord embassador be dismissed, there shall be delivered to him, together with the said present, a letter of recredentials to his king. Thirdly, that he shall be provided with a free pass, for the sending away and exportation of his baggage, coaches, and horses; and that, for the conveniency of the said transportation, for the use of the said lord Chanut, a fit vessel shall be freighted at the charge of the generality, however with all possible savingness. Fourthly, that a letter shall be sent to the college of admiralty at Rotterdam, that their lordships would be pleased with all possible speed, and without loss of time, to order a ship of war to be got ready and maintained, to carry the said lord embassador with his retinue to France. For which purpose the commissary Spronsen is ordered and appointed, to second their high mightinesses good meaning and intention in the said college of admiralty by word of mouth, and to hasten the same, and by the said opportunity likewise to cause the said transport vessel to be hired for the said purpose by Huybrecht Scheepmoes merchant of Rotterdam aforesaid, or by any other person, according to the circumstances and in the aforesaid manner; and afterwards make his report to their high mightinesses of the effects of his commission and occurrencies. Farther the lords of Beverning and Viersen are desired and hereby appointed, together with the delivery of the said respective presents and recredentials, to take leave of him, and to attend him with a good number of coaches. By the same opportunity their lordships shall recommend to the said lord embassador in the strongest manner, the interest of this state, and especially the ceasing and preventing of the many excesses and losses, which amount to many millions, and have been committed and caused for many years running by the French to the inhabitants of this country in both seas. Secondly also, that the great imports, wherewith the herring and other fish at Rouen and other places in France are charged, may be abolished, according to their high mightinesses good meaning and intention contained in their resolution of the 26th of October last past, making in due time their report of the whole; which resolution of their high mightinesses shall be issued, and the dispatches resulting therefrom delivered, without resumption.
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to the states general.
Vol. xxxi. p. 266.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, some days ago was issued here by the lord protector, with the advice of his council, the inclosed ordinance, touching the execution and observation of the laws and statutes made against printing and publishing of scandalous books and pamphlets, as also a further regulation of the press. Here is likewise publish'd a proclamation, whereby it is ordered, that all those, that follow'd the party of the late king or his sons, shall depart out of the cities of London and Westminster, and the lines of communication before the 5/15 of the month of November next; and in the preamble of the said proclamation, it is said, that the lord protector, by the advice of the council, had thought necessary to make and to publish a certain ordinance for the preservation of the inland peace of this republick: the execution and observation of the same is conferred on the major generals of the respective counties and provinces, to whom all persons, that have been up in arms against the republick and live there, must give security, that for the future they will behave themselves peaceably. The names of the said major generals, and the division or repartition of the respective counties and provinces, is likewise publish'd in print, for every one's information: it contains the following names, viz.
Of Kent and Surrey, colonell Kelsey.
Of Sussex, Hampshire and Barkshire, col. Gosse.
Of Gloucester, Wiltshire, Dorset, Somerset, Devonshire and Cornwal, being the whole western quarter, gen. Disbrowe.
Of Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire, the isle of Ely, Essex, Norfolk and Suffolk, lord deputy Fleetwood.
Of London, major general Skippon.
Of Lincoln, Notingham, Derby, Warwick and Leicester, commissary general Whaley.
Of Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Rutland and Huntingtonshire, major Boteler.
Of Herefordshire, Shropshire and North Wales, colonel Berry.
Of Cheshire, Lancashire and Straffordshire, col. Worsley.
Of Yorkshire, Durham, Cumberland, Westmoreland and Northumberland, the lord Lambert.
Of Westminster and Middlesex, colonel Barkstead, governor of the tower.
Most of them are set out already for their respective districts, and now it is believed, that very soon some more orders will be issued against those, that have served on the king's side. The lord embassador of Spain don Alonzo de Cardenas set out last monday from here by water for Gravesend, and the next day was publish'd here in print the inclosed declaration of the lord protector with the advice of his council, setting forth in behalf of this commonwealth the injustice of their case against Spain. They say now, that within a very few days above forty frigats and men of war, well provided with all necessaries, will be able to put to sea, and they are working with the greatest diligence to fit out the rest. The said case against Spain is very much exaggerated. The council of Scotland has made a regulation, which was publish'd on the 17/27 of October last past, touching vessels coming from the united Netherlands, whereby it is ordered, that no persons nor goods shall be permitted to come on shore without the consent of the magistrate or officers of the place. That the masters of the said ships shall be obliged to produce a certificate of the place from whence they come, with an account whether the same is infected with any contagious distemper; whereupon those that come from places not infected, must remain twenty days on board, and those of infected places forty days. Last monday Sir John Dethick, the present lord mayor of London, took the oath at Westminster in the hands of the barons of the exchequer after the ancient custom, being accompanied thither by water by the masters of the companies and a great many liverymen, and returned back in the like manner: besides this there was a greater show by land than in the former years, since those of the mercers company, which he belongs to, out of some money, which in former times was bequeathed to the same for that purpose, made a triumphal silver chariot drawn by six white horses to drive before him, wherein were three ladies very richly adorned, and accompanied by footmen and pages dressed in red and white clothes. Last week came back the Bristol frigat, which was sent with three victualling ships to the fleet of admiral Blake, but missed him. Admiral Penn, as I am inform'd, is discharged out of the tower, and at the same time of his place as admiral, which, as I hear, will be likewise the fate of general Venables.
high and mighty lords, &;c.
November 3, 1655. [N. S.]
Intelligence from several parts, sent from Hamburg by mr. Bradshaw.
Vienna, October 27, 1655. [S. V.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 313.
The Swedish embassador Bielake hath had audience both of his Emperor's majesty, as also the empress and king of Hungary at Ebersdorss. His speech was more complimental than material, consisting chiefly in congratulation of their majesties in their happy investiture with the crown of Hungary, and assuring them of his master's real and sincere desire to observe inviolable the sacred confederacy between them. His answer was no less complimental, with all the respect that could be devised. In the mean time his imperial majesty, knowing how far he hath to trust to the Swedish compliments, did the next ensuing day convocate several of the chief officers of his army by him at Ebersdors, giving them a strict charge to use all possible endeavours, that his appointed army of 50000 men may be raised with all expedition.
Hamburg, Nov. 6, S. V.
By the last post out of Poland we had news, that Cracow was surrendered to the Swedes with accord the 9/19 past, and that their king thereupon having left four regiments of foot and two of horse under command of major general Wurts in the city, was returning for Warsaw, where general Chamlinsky with 3000 horse attended his majesty's coming to present himself with 6000 Cossacks at his majesty's service and devotion. As also that the Muscovite had profered himself, if need were, to assist the said king with 12000 Dutch soldiers, the best his whole army affords. But all this hath been since contradicted by divers, that shewed letters to the contrary, in as much as we must expect this night's post's confirmation, before we can give full credit to it. The elector of Brandenburg (which writes himself 45000 men strong) is said to be agreed with the states of Prussia, but not with the great cities, who fearing of collusion between him and the Swede, will not trust him. Some days ago a Muscovite envoy came to this city from Lubeck, but staid no longer than one night, and he returned thither again. It's said he came thither to speak with the popish vice-chancellor, whom he meant to have found here: whither his journey further tends, he would not disclose.
Dantzick, Nov. 10, S. N.
My last imparted unto you what pass'd in Poland, and of the Swedes taking of Cracow, and the ending of the land-day here in Prussia, without any conclusion: they are now again met to see, if they can close with the duke of Brandenburg, whereunto not only the gentry are inclined, but also the magistracy of the three great towns; but the commonalty will not consent therein. It's now supposed, the king of Sweden is a setling of things at Cracow and the upper parts of Poland. Interim there is an embassador come from the Cossacks to Warsaw with 3000 men, but admitted into town only with 50 horse. What his desire is, is not yet known, but if they join with the Swedes (as is supposed) the business in Poland will be in a manner ended, and so the war will return upon those parts. A good composure of the business between the Swede and Brandenburg were to be wished; otherwise if these parts of Prussia submit unto him, there will be a hot dispute between them. The Hollanders have undoubtedly put the duke upon this design. I wish it may not turn to his hurt. Here are some whisperings, as if the king of Poland would wheel about unto these parts privately, and join with the duke. By this day's post from Koningsberg they write, the court of the duke of Brandenburg would gladly send an embassador for England, if he might be sure of respective reception.
A letter of intelligence.
Paris, November 7, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 337.
A few days since here arrived an express from Casall, who bringeth advice, that there hath been a meeting of the dukes of Savoy, of Mantua and of Modena, where there was resolved amongst them to send the said express to the king, to let him know the resolution they had taken to provide for the safety of the frontiers of Piedmont, Montserrat, and the states of Modena, by sending 300 men of the army into the territories of Modena, who are to pass the river Po upon a bridge of boats.
The pope doth still continue to shew his inclination to the general peace; and on thursday last the nuncio had audience of the cardinal; and after that he had read the letter, which his holiness sent him upon that subject, his eminence told the nuncio, that he had already done all that lay in his power to bring things to an accommodation, but the obstinacy of the Spaniards was the only cause, why that hitherto there hath been no peace procured, as it hath always been the inclination of his eminence.
The said nuncio hath since had audience likewise of the king, and after half an hour's speech to his majesty he presented to him the letter of the pope, wherein he exhorts his majesty to the general peace. His holiness promises to send a legate to the place, which shall be chosen to debate about that great work, and to come thither himself if need be, to advance the conclusion thereof. His majesty did declare to the nuncio the great affection he had to the general peace, and how willing he would be to further it. This ceremony being performed, the nuncio went and presented the queen with a letter likewise from his holiness, who received it very respectfully, and gave likewise great testimony of her affection to the general peace.
The letters from Toulon, which arrived here on wednesday last, advise, that the duke of Vendosme, who was arrived there with his fleet, had caused the peace to be published between England and France. And here is also a strong report ever since yesterday, that the peace is concluded between the said two nations. The earl of Brienne hath carried to the pope's nuncio an answer from their majesties to the letters of his holiness: That of the queen in substance, that the king her son will not be the last that shall send plenipotentiaries to the place, that shall be chosen to agree about the general peace.
On thursday at night the nuncio did dispatch two expresses, the one for Rome and the other for Madrid, to carry the news to the king of Spain, that their majesties were willing, that a place should be chosen to treat about the general peace; desiring his catholick majesty to do the like, and to send his plenipotentiaries as soon as might be. It is said, that monsieur de Longueville and the lord keeper of the seals will be sent thither on the behalf of France.
Mr. Peter Dunbar to mr. James Modiford, merchant in London.
Dantzick, October 27, 1655.
Vol. xxxi. p. 345.
Sir, and vearie worthie friend, at your putting penn to paper, I can promise to write litle
answerable to your expectation, unless the Breslawes post from Silesia (who brings us
nou all the neues wee have out of Poland, I mean from Crokaw, and wher both armies
lye neare, the Swedes haveing possest al the passes on the cross-line from Warshaw to Posna,
the borders of Greate Polland) come before I close att noon, our evening post's departure
being changed to nooneday, which wil make our newes henceforth alwayes 8 dayes stailer
as in former times; onelie that I received yours of the 28 past, with a diminitive relation
of the passages in Hispaniola, the Potugal, Spanish and Holland's avisoes, yea a letter
out of your owne fleet from the place from a sick hand nou dead, runing much contraire,
and stil threatening a blow at Blake, whom they think lyes in great danger of the Spanishe
fresh and powerfull navie commanded against him. The house of Austria hes bien so
much ane enemie to our religione, that none has cause to with his victorie; besides our
native obligation to pray, that the navie, the walls of our little world Britaine, may endure undesiable. By al appearance the Swedes progress in this kingdome hes had its hight,
and is beginning to decline; the reasones in my judgment, two. The præcipitat advanceing so far with so few men, in so vast a countrie, which lyes open, and you know hes no
passes nor strenthes, which can be secured for a saisse retrate, upon some few disgusted
proditors asseveration and promiss of a general complyance, though the multitude of commonalitie being quite of a contraire minde. The second reasone I find the enemies rude
proceedings, perhapps necessitated to content a discontented and unpayed hungrie armie,
with the spoyle first of churchmens lands and estates, next of churches and cloysters, and
nou of al in general: Yea, those that submitted first and most willinglie, beginn to groane
so soare under the Swedish yoke, that not onelye by ther daylie revolts, bot wher they
can by ther manifestationes diswade all men to follow their course. No doubt the Swedes
ambassadors have had reports of the taking of Crakow, and sudden expectation of a new
coronation, which wee find published in the papers from all quarters. Bot wee have certantie of the contraire, viz. ther retreate from thence, with no small loss, some 24 cannon lest behinde, and many officers of high qualitie killed and taken. The king's brotherin-law Friderick land-grass of Hessen, with al his company, amongst whom the duke of
Nassaw Dillenberg, wer killed at Kostian, a Sweedes garrison in great Polland, passing to
the king. The king at first was resolved (though unprepaired against such ane enemie,
of whose amitie and conjunctione against the Muscowiter he wes other wayes assured) to
have hazarded al on a desperat battel, comitting the success to God and his good cause;
bot by counsel wes diverted, and perswaded to retire, and draw the enemie further from
the borders, which both parties hoped to be advantageous. Wee thot our armie should
encrease by the daylye gathering countrie-supplies, and some hopes from the emperor,
and prince of Transilvania, the Tartars and Kosakes upon the point of aggriement. The
enemie supposed to be weakned by his farr march, and leaveing garrisons behind. Bot
the enemies hopes by encouragement from his leader the malcontent under chancellor
Radriewski wer, that his forces wold daylie augment, and al the countrie come in, and
help to expell the old king, which I think accordingly had issued, if the Swedes had been
as modest to the churchmen, churches, and the common people, as their first entrie pro
mised. Bot nou any wyse man may see, that although al the inhabitants of the Swedes
dominions wer transplanted hither, and divided as cunninglie as the witt of man could
devise, when they shall look on the number of the conquered, ponder the robustnes of
ther bodies, ther qualificatione to warr, in al requisites, wanting nothinge bot discipline,
which time amongst the experted Swedes wold soone teach them, they must be amazed,
and stand in continual feare of a massacre. I must injeniouslie confess, though I cannot
bot with this kingdom wel, wher I have had my being so long, and built my nest for my
posteritie, yett I forsee a prodigeous persecution of our religione, so soon as the Sweede
is forced to retire; and therefore pray God, that this warr may end in a faire treatie, to
which his highnes authoritic can contribute much, since wee waite both French and Hollands ambassadors to interpose the mediatione; and houever the state of England, for
politick causes, may seeme to connive at the Swedes progress, yet the trade of England
(which in peaceable times wes not the least towards these parts) wil finde a greate change
to the much decay of the same. I wil not insert my reasones, which you may guess att;
but darr tel you, if the duke elector Brandenburg declaire against the Sweedes, the newes
whereof wee expect to morrow from ane assembly att Marienburg 6 miles hence, wher
his ambassadors and the states and frie tounes of Prussia are treateing for a conjuctione offensive and defensive against the Sweedes, the duke haveing a brave armie of neare 30000
neare this place, which ar marching towards the frontiers of Prusia on al sydes; I say in
the posture that Prussia is nou in, if they be loyal on to another, and God be with them,
they ar able to repel al the Sweedes armies. One thing I cannot omitt, er'r I close, that
after that king's arrivall at Warshaw, (wher the keyes met him at the first message his
trompeter) all the king's and noblemens houses wer sacked and spoyled to a naile in the
wall, yea fixed pictures, looking-glasses, and costlie peeces of Marmure digged out of the
walls, the artillerie-house plundered, and all this putt on vessels to be transported by
water, bot lye as yet by the way feareing a stopp. This makes me think they minde
not (I may not say they darr not) to possess the Eagles nest. I must complaine also, that
their shipps stopp my designe, in not admitting the English to our port, that I cannot
have conveniencie to send you the cucumbers and wine, which lyes in readines, except
mr. Kemp help mee, as he has promised to carrie all about with him for Konigsberg and
the Pillew, wher he intends to embarke in your shipps, which wer forced to unload there.
And now forced to close, I must delay what the post brings this day and to morrow,
till mr. Kemp's departure this weeke, and til then and ever rest, your regardful and affectionat
friend and most humble servant,
Captaine Cock, they say, is to marrie the rayrest beautie in this toune, and to morrow should be contracted, bot is now aboard of the Swed admiral.
Cardinal Mazarin to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Compiegne, November 9, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 352.
I have nothing more to add to your letters of the first of this month, since that at last the treaty is signed, and by that means all the scruples, which were remaining, are removed. At the same time that I received this good news, I gave an account thereof to the king, who did declare as much joy, as it doth deserve. I can assure you also, that he did declare no small satisfaction of your cares. I will not say any thing for as much as concerneth myself; you know well enough, what I have done to advance so good a work, of so much importance for the good and peace of both nations, to judge of the contentment, which I have to see it so happily accomplished. And moreover, the love I have always had for you will not permit you to doubt, that I am not overjoyed at the honour, which you have gotten in this negotiation. I do then rejoice with my whole heart, referring myself to the letters of monsieur de Brienne concerning the ratification. And I will only add, that for many considerations it is necessary, that you do proclaim, where you are, by public demonstrations of joy and usual solemnities in the like re-encounters, the happy success of this business. As for a nearer alliance, all which I can say unto is, that his majesty doth desire it, and will be always ready to embrace it; but before we send you his intentions as to particulars, we must foresee what propositions they will make to you.
I thank you for the news, which you give me. I can assure you, that we do not omit any thing, that may advance the accommodation of both crowns of the north. I pray you once more to do your endeavours for the raising of 2000 Scots; and likewise, whether one thousand English cannot be had, and one thousand Irish. I believe for the last they will not make any great difficulty.
When you see a time to speak about the restitution of my two ships, I pray do not lose the opportunity.
If you conceive, that by sending to the lord protector some present, whether barbs or stuffs of Milan to make tapestry, that it may prevail any thing, you will do me a pleasure to let me know it: I will endeavour to have them. I will now fervently pursue your particular concernment. This late good service hath now very much fortified the title of your just instances, and doth facilitate to me the means to declare unto you, that I am, &;c.
Bordeaux, the father, to his son, the French embassador in England.
Paris, November 9, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 341
I have received your letter of the fourth at Genitoy, with another letter from monsieur la Bastide, who staid at Paris to receive my orders what course he should steer. I sent him word that I would make haste to Paris to speak with the earl of Brienne, to whom I advised him to deliver his letter rather than to the court, and to take his orders from him, to the end not to fall into this inconveniency to see him displeased at a news so important to be sent to others, before it comes to his knowledge. The said monsieur la Bastide arrived about noon, and I made to be in this city at night, where presently I went to monsieur de Brienne, to whom I shewed your letter; and after he had perused it, he declared to me a great deal of joy for the good news that your treaty was signed. This news was presently sent to the queen, who is in this city; and I went and communicated it to the chancellor and furintendents. I shall do my endeavour, that all may be ratified, and approve of what you have done.
Were it not out of a paternal love to you, I would not have come from Genitoy, nor interessed myself any more in the affairs of this court.
I am sure, I have been no bad sollicitor for you about your arrears, that satisfaction may be made to you; so that you have no reason to complain of me, and to forbear writing to me as you have.
Monsieur de la Bastide is gone to find out his eminence. The earl of Brienne hath promised me to insert in his letter to his eminence your particular condition.
The earl of Brienne did not open your letter to his eminence, nor the articles, but sent them away without perusing them.
To Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Calais, Novemb. 9, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 348.
I take a very great share in all that doth concern you, and more particularly when any thing doth concern your honour. I am now rejoicing amongst the public acclamations with France and England, for the happy success of your enterprize, whereof the advantageous issue will eternize your name, and that of your posterity. You are now rid of all trouble and disquietness of mind, and in a condition to recompence your past labours and troubles with the most solid pleasures, which England can afford you; which can never be perfect, till such time that madam de Bordeaux doth encrease them through her presence.
Rosenwing and Charisius, the Danish agents, to the states general.
Vol. xxxi. p. 350.
High and mighty lords,
In regard we the underwritten are informed, how that their noble great lordships, the lords, states of Holland and Westfriezland, are to meet this week; and our deduction, as also several memorandums concerning the liquidation of the proceeds of the English ships and goods, being received by the provinces of Holland and Westfriezland, according to their high and mighty lordships resolution of the 29th of October last, into farther deliberation, and the same being required to declare themselves upon them with all speed: wherefore we do most humbly and friendly desire herewith, that your high and mighty lordships would be pleased to dispose the said lords states of Holland, to the end the said liquidation, and whatsoever concerneth the same, may be undertaken in this next assembly of the lords of Holland, to be by them decided to the satisfaction of our king, in respect of the damages sustained by his subjects during the war between the two commonwealths; and likewise that order may be given for the speedy payment of 24000 rix dollars, remaining yet unpaid of the promised subsidy, by virtue of the treaty of the 8/18 of February 1655, between the king and this state.
Your high and mighty lordships
H. W. Rosenwing,
Hague, Nov. 9, 1655. [N. S.]
A letter of intelligence.
Cologne, Nov. 9, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxi. p. 354.
Mr. Jones of Yapton near Arundell, and mr. Walker of Pulborugh near Petworth in Sussex, are men, who are still conveigling people to and fro, which by accident I heard Charles Stuart tell Wilmot of.
Vere Cromwell hath been privy to all Morden's actions, as also Randal Egerton, the earl of Rivers, Booth, &;c. This earl's brother, with another gentleman, is just now going hence for England: you will do well in having them examined, for they had long discourse with the king.
This night we expected the lord Wentworth, sir William Swan, and sir Charles Cotterell, who is to be governor of the duke of Gloucester. His tutor Lovell, who is come from England, of whom I have often writ unto you, it seems is let to pass. Sir Edward Walker is here also.
A messenger is sent to young Goring into Spain, who hath power to appear as ambassador there on the breach, and is joined with Ormond; but this last post, as well from England as Flanders, gives not so lively hopes as the former, which in some measure assured us: you know best whether there is reason for it.
Alderman Bunce will be here this week. Massey's last letters say him to be at Elsenore.
I looked to have heard from you, according to your promise in your last. I pray let me not fail to hear from your self or your servant weekly; and always by Cudner, till you hear to the contrary.
Remember Wilson: let him send by Wicket.
I had no letters from you this post.
The duke of York hath been sent for, as I have said, but yet desires to be excused. He hath, as by his letters this last post, sent the lord Gerard hither express, with instructions to treat of what may concern him; and if occasion be, the lord Gerrard will be here within a fortnight. The duke is unwilling to quit France. The peace there they fear is done. Charles Stuart is much troubled, that they in France treat with you. Bamfield and other of the presbyterian agents have been lately in Paris, and returned back to London. As to Bamfield, Charles Stuart hath a particular animosity to him; yet the queen, duke, Jermyn, and lord Gerard make use of him. They run a design apart there. You can not imagine, how this confounds the council here. Charles Stuart used his commands by letters, that they should not meddle or make particularly with Bamfield. They again justify him. Both govern themselves with much jealousy.
Hyde is very fearful of being laid aside, which makes him omit no way, which may keep him up, though to the ruin of thousands. This caused him to promise much to be done on his design in England and Scotland before Christmas.
The Spanish ambassador is expected and looked for here (I mean him in England) to be come away. Ormond is troubled at Wall's being hanged at Tyburn on Wednesday last was seven night.
Yesterday looking on the news-book of our council, I observed thus:
Letters to the king of Sweden and his brother prince Adolphus, in answer to a letter to the king of Denmark; another to the Spanish ambassador in Holland, ordered to be prepared and made ready to be sent by the post this day.
One Arnot, a Scot, son to sir James, is banished the court for beating Armorer. The equery breeds daily quarrels with those of that nation, of which there are many here.
The princess royall goes home next week for Holland. The king brings her to Santen, being two days journey.
I pray fail not to let me hear by the next; and what you promised in your last, let me have without fail.
The commissioners of the treasury, to the right honourable the councill.
Vol. xxxi. p. 365.
In pursuance of your lordshipps order concerning the summe of two thousand one hundred pounds, due from the Spanish leiger, wee did direct the receyver of London to take care for bringing in thereof; whereunto we have receyved this account, that the said leiger is gone from London, and no goods left in his house, whereby the same may be leavyed; which wee humbly represent to your lordshipps, and leave it to your consideration.
Octob. 30, 1655.
Tho. Armstrong to secretary Thurloe.
The 30 October, 1655.
Vol. xxxi. p. 363.
All due respects premised, that I have done no act or thing in relation to his highness or the publique, that hath merited the hard measure I have sustained by above 7 monthes chargeable imprisonment, my owne innocency doth engage me to averre to your honour; and not onely so, but to beg that if any legall crime can be laid to my charge, that I might be brought to a tryall; but that since my imprisonment, I should in any measure render my selfe so culpable, as to draw your honour's displeasure upon me manifested by your order for my close imprisonment, cannot come into the compasse of my imagination. I know not what in your information your honour hath received concerning my keeping a horse, which from the search made for him, I have reason to conjecture to be part, if not the principall, charge against me. Now to the end your honour may not be abused by the officious or malicious information of any, nor retaine your prejudice against me, I shall humbly take leave to give you an account thereof, as I shall, if called to it, venter my self upon.
Being reduced by my chargable imprisonment to some want of money, I was constrained to press a freind to supply me; he being unfurnished of money, and willing to answere
my desire, gave me the horse in question for my releife, and I in hopes of a speedy chapman willingly accepted, but having caused him to be brought to towne, I found I could
not sell him in the market without great loss, and so was constrained to keepe him at
charge, till I could get a reasonable price for him, which no sooner was offerred but gladly
received by me. Right honourable, of the truth hereof (if called) I am ready to depose;
and if any other matter or thing be laid to my charge, I beseech you let me know my
time and accuser; and I earnestly beseech you to take the premisses into consideration, and
if it may stand with your wisedome, free me from any imprisonment upon security, or at
least, if I must longer suffer under your displeasure, that I may enjoy the liberty allowed
to other prisoners, which favour will exceedingly oblige,
you supplicant and servant,
Right honourable, I beleive I could give you better satisfaction then I can possibly here insert, if I might have the favour of waiting on you.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxxi. p. 378.
I have received yours of the 19th present, and sent forward yours to mr. Rolt, from whome as yet I heare not, nor can I learne from any, where he is: but that I presume you have letters from him by some other conveyance, I should be in feare of him.
By the last post I gave you notice of the choyce of a new deputie here, with a little of the manner of it. I expected in this your last letter to have understood from you the resolution of his highnes and the councell touching the busines, which concernes the old one, but it seemes that sleepes, or there is not leasure yet for it.
To the enclosed paper of intell. I have nothinge to add, but that I am
Hamburg, Octo. 31, 1655.
your very humble servant,