A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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November (3 of 8)
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
This day is arryved in this port an Inglish ship from Tripolly in Barbary. I caus'd the master at his going over to inform himself how that bashaw stood affected to peace: he tels me he fynds him very hyh, by reason of several pryzes he has latly taken betwix Duch, French, and Maltez, 8 sail, in so much that he now slyhts to hear of peace. I believ without the presence of some frigats befor that port in a menacing way, nothing wil be don. Som 4 French men of war ar latly gon out of Tollon a theiving; but som of that nation tel me, they ar strictly commanded not to medle with or disturbe any Inglish. I hav letters from Allicant, which advys the Spanish fleet lately at the south cape hearing general Blak was gon home, ar lykwys retorned into Cales. Ther was a west country pilchard ship fel in amongst them by accident was civilly usd, and let go to follo her voyage; but afterward putting into Allicant, she was ther seized. The other Spanish or Naples fleet was stil at Cartagena. The king has ordered them to retorn, and ly upon the coast of Cattalonia. A smal west country ship of 10 gons has bin taken about the Streits mouth by Majockan men of war, who cruelly murthered the master and mate in cold blood. Truly, sir, you wil do a worthy offis for our marchants, to acquaint his hyhnes with the great necessity that som strong squandron should ly at the Streits mouth, to secure a passage for theyr shipps; for our marchants, whos estates wer sequestered at Naples, ar most of them com to Rom, and thence to Civita Vechia, whither they providently ordered theyr fish-ships to go, becaus of this long expected breach with Spayn. This Civita Vechia is in the pope's state, a fre port lyk this. When the last breach was betwixt Ingland and Spayn, and som of our merchants retyring in that manner from Naples to the said town of Civita Vechia, I hav heard say, that pope Urban, who then liv'd, was so desyrous to draw a trade to that place, that he proffered our nation the fredom of a publik protection in theyr own religion; and if any man would hav demanded it, he would hav bin esily perswaded to have allowed a church. Wherfor I hav now writ to som of our sayd merchants, to mak the lyk demand of the pope, for he is the great obstacle that hinders other princes from it. Now althoh the pope should deny it, yet 'twil be some advantage to our nation and religion for a precident hereafter, that such a thing has bin demanded, and that we dare owne our religion even in Rom, which former tymes could never shew. Here is some talk, as if the pretended duke of York wer at Venis, intending thence from Rom, to see the great solemnity in the queen of Sweds entertainment, which is now the great affair in discourse throh al Italy. 'Tis said she travils a hors-back lyk a man, being clad so from middle upwards with doublet, cassack, band, hat, sether, in so much that the Italians say she is an hermofrodyt. Either her country or sex are very little beholden to her, for she ads reputation to neither. Doctor Bayly is gon from Rom to Bologna, where by the Inglish jesuits means he has a reformadoe's place and pay, wherwith I thoht good to acquaint you. I am,
Mr. secretary Thurloe,
I am advysed from Rom, that the Spanyard intends to mak another addres to his hyhnes the protector for peace with som more acceptable conditions; and if they wil not be received, he then wil clos with France on any terms. Itally is stil ful of dredfull newes, that the protestants ar holding a councill either at Geneva or Barnea in Switserland.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
As well yesterday as to-day there hath been a great deal of debate and contention concerning the companies, which Deventer doth desire to have or to keep. In the end, according to the advice of the council of state, they agreed to let him have three companies. This is still a sign of the continuation of the discord in that province, and therefore the design of sending commissioners thither doth very much decrease; for those of Twent and Deventer say, that it will not be to any purpose. The lord Beverning and Viersen have been to see the ambassador of France, returning him the visit, which he gave to the lord president, and giving him thanks for his signifying unto them the con clusion of the treaty of peace in England with France; and to tell him, that the commissioners, who formerly consulted together upon that project of a treaty between this state and France, are summoned together; but knowing they did not desire the said embassador to stay here expressly for that. The present or chain of gold hath not been yet presented unto him. They have revived the design of sending to Sweden, Denmark, Brandenburgh; upon which they have read the project of instructions.
Saturday last they begun, and to day they have made an end of the reading the instructions for the embassies to Denmark, Sweden, Brandenburgh, and the protector, as they were drawn up some days since, and adjusted by the commissioners appointed fof this business. But since the time, by the taking of Cracow and other wonderful progresses of the Swede, is very much altered, it will be also necessary to change those instructions; for the chiefest end of the same is to induce the king of Sweden to admit of a mediation, and at the same time to invite and engage England and Denmark to make a league together against Sweden, in case they will lay any tax upon the commerce. But they do find themselves here very much perplex'd, so that upon the said reading nothing was resolved on; only that they required the provinces to declare themselves upon it; and that there is not one now, that dare declare; for they see well enough, that the king of Sweden will not so much as hear speak of a mediation; as on the other side they do fear, that they will reckon without their host, if they do believe, that England and Denmark will dance as soon as they pipe here; for if Denmark would not engage the last summer, when the business of Poland was in its crisis, what can they do at present, now Poland is altogether brought under? And the English seeing that by the commerce of Poland there is so much to be got, had rather get a share in the publick commerce by way of amity with Sweden, than espouse the quarrel of Holland to preserve all the commerce for Holland.
They have spoken of the relief and subsidy for Brandenburgh; but the ministers of Brandenburgh themselves seem not to urge it much; as if they perceived, that it would make the cause of Brandenburgh the worse, who will endeavour to make his agreement. On saturday last, upon the exchange at Amsterdam, when the positive news came, the merchants were very much troubled, and would be very much pleased, if the king of Sweden doth lay a moderate and equal tax; but if he puts a great impost upon the Hollanders, and a less upon others, that will altogether ruin the commerce of Holland. The best counsel will be only to the king of Sweden a congratulary embassy, and to renew the alliance, which they had formerly with his predecessors.
The quarters of Zutphen and Arnheim have conferred the voices upon prince William; but upon condition, that likewise satisfaction be given to prince Maurice, whether by making of him capt. general of the horse, or some other thing. But this will offend prince William, for the question is not for the name of the charge, but for the priority, and to be head of the militia. Prince Maurice would willingly let prince William have the name and charge of mareschal, provided that prince Maurice may be declared to be above prince William.
Concerning the invasion of the French in the country of Outremeuse, and the retortions proposed to be made against Limborch, as also concerning the retortion against the priests for the business of Lisle, (which the embassador of Spain hath offered to accommodate) a conference is to be held with the said embassador. The government of Boisleduc hath been in debate. Guelderland was for Wynbergen; Holland and Utrecht for Nortwyck; Zealand and Overyssel half divided; Friezland and Groningen were for Wynbergen; but the president would not conclude. However it is probable, the same will be done to day; namely the government of Boisleduc for Wynbergen, and the Escluse for Nortwyck.
Yet this time there was nothing concluded concerning the governments; and a letter, which prince Maurice hath writ to the states of Zealand here enclosed, doth give to understand, that Holland will do all that it can, not to suffer, that prince William be imposed over the militia by plurality of votes; for prince Maurice durst not write so freely, if he did not know, that Holland would maintain him in his pretension.
They have writ to the lord Nieuport, to procure communication of the treaty, which is made between England and France. They have agreed upon, and concluded the instructions for the embassies to Sweden, Denmark, Brandenburg, as also for the lord Nieuport to the protector.
This morning again they had in very serious debate the business of the embassy for Sweden, Denmark, and Brandenburg, to proceed to the nomination of persons. It is true, that the province of Overyssel, which presides at present, is not much interested in the Baltick navigation; but however it is interested enough to have peace, being exposed to the frontiers of Westphalia; by which in case of a rupture the Swedes may return by land, what is done to them by sea. But Holland hath declared, that they are not ready; and it seems that they will look a little farther into the negotiation between Sweden and the elector of Brandenburg, who hath writ hither to the princess dowager, that the king of Sweden doth press him very much to renounce the treaty, which he hath made with this state; and having done that, he doth assure him, that for the rest they shall easily agree in every thing; so that Holland doth very much fear, that Sweden will debauch the said elector.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
In answer of yours I will say, that I durst almost say, that really here they love as little protector as Spain; yea a little less, and therefore they will not take any great pleasure in this enmity between them, chiefly if states of Holland can have any advantage in the commerce, and therefore they will very much endeavour to tie or bind the hands of protector by some treaty of commerce. As to the animosity between states and Sweden, whereof you write, I believe I have writ to you a long time ago about it, and often since. The source of quarrel between the great and the lesser ones is concupiscence. Holland feareth the great imposts between Dantzick. You may remember, that I always told you during this summer, that the event and success of the war would govern and order the said fear. If the Swede take Prussia, as he has taken Poland, Holland may bawl long enough; for who will hinder Sweden from laying such impositions in a conquered country (holding it for his own) as he pleaseth? Of right every one doth with his own what he pleaseth. Pacta nor treaty there are none; for the Swedes pretend, that by the treaty of redemption made in the year 1647 with Denmark, the treaties made with Sweden are annull'd; and this answer was given to the lord Beumingen in the time, that during the English war (1652, 1653) he sollicited the queen of Sweden for assistance and subsidy; likewise since that this present king is succeeded, who will say, that the foregoing treaties are personal, and that he is not obliged to those treaties? And therefore it is at present, that they propose two other means; first by embassy to induce that king to content himself with a moderate impost and equal; for it is very much feared, that Sweden will treat with protector to take less of those of England, and more of states general, which would be of very great prejudice to Holland. The second medium is to shut up the river of Dantzick; and by this means to force Swede to reason, to be contented rather with a little than nothing. But in case royal Prussia doth make any agreement, as it is probable, (for what can that province do?) the elector of Brandenburg will have enough to do to defend himself; so that their resistance will be vain and fruitless. And if Swede doth make the least shew of assaulting Friseland, Overyssell, Guelderland, the Holland dare not think on it; but if protector and Denmark would engage states general against Swede, that would do something. You ask, whether this business could not be accommodated by an amicable way. I answer, why not? for it doth also concern Swede to prefer a little with quietness, than to ask or desire much with hazard of a quarrel or war. But the truth is, that Amsterdam hath a bad conscience, having engaged elector of Brandenburg against Sweden and having sent men of war against Sweden, and still threatening besides. But upon this question will better answer you the ambassador of Sweden, who is with you. Just as they engaged the elector of Brandenburg against Sweden, so likewise did they endeavour to engage Dantzick, and they are angry that Dantzick would not engage. But Dantzick hath very great reasons for it: I believe I have written them formerly. And who would advise Dantzick to engage, seeing that neither protector nor Denmark (whom you also know to have been very much sollicited, and will still be) would engage? The Brandenb. is poor and weak: the states of Holland are afar off and remote, and amity saith, that they are bad observers of alliance. I am,
P. S. I understand, that on the behalf of Brandenburg there is also one come to protector, one called Sleytser; but those of Brandenburg, as being asham'd to have correspondence with protector do deny it; at least say, that he hath no character, and that he doth not do any thing but correspond. I would willingly know the truth of this.
Pels, the Dutch commissioner at Dantzick, to the states general.
High and Mighty Lords,
By this post I acquaint your high mightinesses of the certainty of the surrender of Cracow, which was on the 19th past. The garrison consisting in 4000 men march'd out with flying colours, and twelve pieces of ordnance, and all their baggage; the city and the Jews have been obliged to give a large sum of money to redeem themselves from being plunder'd. At present his majesty of Sweden is marching back with his army to Warsaw; he draws all his troops together, apparently to attack Prussia, and to make a beginning with Thorn. Of the Tartars, Cossacks, and of what happens at Warsaw, nothing certain can be mentioned, since we have had this week no letters from Warsaw.
The prince elector is incamped with the greatest part of his army three miles from Thorn, and treats with the said town for a succour in time of necessity, demanding in consideration thereof a large quantity of bread and beer for his army.
Yesterday came back here the imperial embassador, count of Starenberg, who passed by here 14 days ago to his electoral highness: he seems to return with good satisfaction, and his commission is chiefly to make an alliance against Sweden, the command of the German army being conferred on the elector. The Swedes have desired a passage through Prussia, but the same is refused them by the elector.
The count of Swerin, the electoral embassador, is return'd from the king of Sweden, and, as it is said, without any success, because his majesty insists positively, and above all things to have Pillaw and Memel delivered up to him. In the treaty at Marienburg nothing as yet is concluded.
From Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France.
I Find that their high mightinesses intercession is often sollicited by many people for one and the same affair, which being granted, I do not take the same as a reproach for my negligence, but rather as a comfort, which their high mightinesses give to their complaining subjects.
By this mail I have received their high mightinesses letters of the first instant in favour of capt. Renier Adriaenssen of Ackersloot, late master of the ship The Charity, which served for a fire-ship in the king's fleet anno 1654, an affair the most just in all the world; the same is acknowledged as a good and just debt, and has been passed, a hundred times; payment for the same has been promised; but all comes to nothing, notwithstanding the captain is continually solliciting for it. But inter nos, count Servient, as your lordship knows without doubt, has order'd a gilded fine yatch to be brought hither from Holland, which sails from hence to Meudon. The good captain enter'd himself as a voluntary slave on board of the same, to work her down to Meudon. The count of Servient ask'd, what old man that was, and hearing the said captain's pretension, promised that he would pay him as soon as he came to Paris, but it was soon forgot. The day before yesterday the captain came to bring me the said letter of the first instant in great haste, and told me that he was going again on board of the yatch to row, in order to rub up the memory of the count: if this will be of better effect, we shall see. I will add to the same whatever I can to promote the cause. But I fear, it will be in vain, because the said captain demands money, which falls always short here, so that he will be obliged not to eat himself out here, to go home empty handed; every body says, that he is in the right, but no body will pay him. One of the most vexatious things in my office is, to see, that honesty and faith are but words and a sound here without effect. A clerk, who has served the count Servient but three years, and had nothing when he was admitted, is reckoned now to be worth four or five hundred thousand guilders, buys houses and estates, and has bought now, some few days ago, the place of ministre des comptes, which costs him 62000 French crowns. But for our poor captain no money can be found.
My lord, I only beg the favour of your lordship to continue sending me every week the resolutions, as soon as taken and passed, extracted at large for the service of the state and honour of my character.
Embassador Nieuport to the states general.
High And Mighty Lords,
Since my last of the 12th instant, is published here a declaration of the lord protector with the advice of his council, shewing the reasons and motives of their proceedings, whereunto, as they say, they have been forced for the preservation of the peace and quiet of this republick, by the late insurrection and rebellion. Therein is contained a large relation of the means, which from time to time have been used, after the absolute and total overthrow of the royal party, to persuade the same by a favourable treatment, to join to, and to live peaceably under, the established government; but that they had observed, that their animosity was not removed thereby; rather, that they, by subtle means and secret correspondence, had kept themselves separated, and erected a council under the name of the sealed knot, by whose conduct from time to time several sums have been collected, and agents employed, and the last plot brought about and so forth, concluding, that though they were obliged to provide against it, by force of arms and men, yet they had no reason, to lay the charges thereof on the shoulders of such persons who are quiet and well affected to this nation; that, therefore, they had thought it just and equitable, to lay the charge of maintaining the establish'd militia in the provinces both horse and foot, upon those of the aforesaid party; proposing at last, that if any one of the said party is inclined to separate himself from their confederacy and adherents, and can declare for truth, that he has left that interest, nor has had any part nor share in the last plot, but remained quiet in his actions and behaviour; or in case any one of the said party would still repent of his errors, change and alter his former ways, and quit his former interest, and give a real demonstration thereof, that then they would not seek his or their distress and ruin. It is observed, that those of the aforementioned party are mightily enraged against it, and I am informed, that many of them intend to sell their real estates, and chuse rather to live elsewhere than according to the said regulation. The major generals that are gone into their provinces have advised, that they have been received with great demonstrations of affection, and had found every thing in good order. I am told, that my lord Lambert staying here has appointed two substitutes or lieutenants in his district and in his room, viz. mr. Howard captain of the horse guards and one of the Scotish council, and colonell Lilburne. General Venables is now likewise discharged from his prison and places. On the 11th instant the lord protector and his council have ordered, that my lord Richard Cromwell with six lords of the council, seven of the chief judges, ten gentlemen of distinction, and about twenty merchants and aldermen of London, York, Newcastle, Yarmouth, Dover, and other sea port towns, shall meet on the 27 November/7 December next in the painted chamber at Westminster, with power and authority, all or at least seven of them to consider, by what means and ways the traffick and navigation of this republick may be best promoted and regulated, and to make a report of their considerations to the lord protector and his council, who then and for the purpose aforesaid will give such orders as they shall think proper and fitting. The lord protector has been busy for some days with the council, to appoint the sheriffs and high officers in the respective counties for the year ensuing. I am informed, that the judges of the admiralty have received orders to issue out letters of reprisal against the Spaniards. Don Alonso de Cardenas is carried over in a frigate of this state from Dover to Dunkirk; for his baggage he had freighted a merchant ship, wherein he had shipt one hundred and sixty bales or sacks, which were open'd by a custom-house officer of London, who followed the said ship, first at Gravesend and afterwards at Dover, but nothing being found therein against the duty of the customs, he suffered the same to proceed. Collonel Harvey, one of the directors of the custom house, being accused, together with others, of some malversations in the receipt of the customs, as having employed for his use several large sums of money belonging to the publick, was committed to the tower the day before yesterday; they talk also of others, that have been employed in the receipt of the excise, whereat the people shew in general great joy and satisfaction.
From embassador Nieupoort.
Their high mightinesses letter and resolution, dated the first instant, concerning the complaints made about the stopping of several ships, and especially of a certain boeyer or vessel, bound from Amsterdam to Rouen in France, I duly received on the 13th of this month. As soon as I perceived in what manner and by whom the said ship was taken, I represented in my audience of the 17/27 October last past to the lord protector, how insufferable such seizures were, for the inhabitants of the united provinces, and delivered the inclosed memorial in writing. I have since that time several times spoken about the said affair to the secretary of state; the last time was on the 16th instant, and observing that as yet no positive resolution was taken, I demanded by him an audience of the lord protector before the sending away of my letters by the ordinary post, which was granted me four o'clock this afternoon, when I represented to the lord protector with many arguments the great inconveniency and losses caused by the illegal seizing of ships and goods belonging to the inhabitants of the united provinces, refreshing at the same time his memory, how many times I had been forced to apply to him on account of the like complaints of private persons, and what promises from time to time were made me, to open the conferences touching a treaty or regulation of the marine. That nevertheless, and notwithstanding all my so ost repeated endeavours and sollicitations, several considerable merchants had again made their complaints to their high mightinesses, who had commanded me to procure and to send them an exact list of all such ships and goods, that are not yet released, and deliver their high mightinesses letter, which they had written to him on the said subject. Further I lay'd open to him circumstantially the condition of the six vessels mentioned in the said list, and added all imaginable arguments, to make him sensible of the wrongs and hardships, which their high mightinesses subjects did suffer thereby, delivering unto him the said letter of their high mightinesses, together with the inclosed list, containing the names of those ships, which are not yet released. Whereupon he declared, with many strong expressions, how much he had endeavoured from time to time, not only to remove the like complaints, but also to prevent the same. That during the hostilities against the French the council had thought it for this state too prejudicial, to permit, that our ships should make free the whole traffick of that nation; but that whereas now a treaty was concluded between both, these motives would cease, and that he hoped that every thing was remedied thereby. Hereupon I took the opportunity to shew him the necessity there was to make a treaty of the marine, and the equity and justice, that a free ship should make free goods, which this state had also agreed to in the respective treaties with France, Sweden, and Portugal. The lord protector having attentively heard all my arguments in the presence of the lord president and the secretary of state, who remained only in the room, told me, that it was well, that I had made that proposition in the presence of those two lords, who could best witness his good inclination, not only inviolably to keep the treaty made with their high mightinesses, but also to establish a still closer and more confident friendship; assuring me, that the council had been busy this morning, to project something for that purpose, and desired in my presence, that the said two lords would take care, that my papers might be read in the council, and that they would finish the work, which was so well begun; according to which affairs might be regulated for the future. I can assure your lordship, that the aforesaid list is truly stated, and that I have carefully enquired, as well in the admiralty as otherwise, whether any other ships be detained in other places, but I have not heard the least thing of any others. All the other ships contained in the list, which is sent me, have been restored long ago; nay some even before I had received any intercessionary letters. I have heretofore delivered a particular list of the ships stop'd and seized at or about Barbadoes, which, as I am assured, together with the other pieces, is in the hands of sir Charles Wolsely, who had been for some weeks in the country, and is daily expected back. I will not be wanting to procure as well, with him, as in all such places where it is needfull, that very speedily due order may also be given for the restitution of the ships, which are detained in those parts, contrary to justice and reason; at least I will do my utmost endeavours for that purpose.
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
I Have not yet suffered any prejudice by the retardment of the pass, which I desired you to procure for me a fortnight ago, in regard the wind hath been contrary ever since; and there being no likelihood, that it will change before the last quarter of the moon, which will be the time, that I shall receive the pass, which you promise me by the next, I will stay for it, though the wind should chance to change, in regard you think it necessary.
The assembly of Holland doth begin; and it is hoped, that something will be done to re-establish the peace amongst them. I perceive some dispositions amongst them, that do incline to it. They have serious thoughts of renewing the treaty of alliance with us.
They write me from Brussels, that monsieur de Chastele is come from Spain, where he left the duke of Lorrain his master at liberty with the king at Madrid. If this be so, methinks one may infer, that the Spaniards have serious thoughts of making a peace with us.
The king of Sweden doth not find any resistance. He is now drawing towards Prussia: there are sufficient forces to oppose him, if they unite themselves with Brandenburg; but the fatal division, which hath ruined Poland, will also render that province uncapable of defending itself; and the elector will be forced to undergo the hard conditions, which Sweden will impose upon them.
These states write to-day to the lord Nieupoort to demand a copy of our treaty with England; and that he do insist, according to the 15th article of their peace, that these provinces be comprehended in it.
Major general Worsley to secretary Thurloe.
As I informed you in my last, soe wee had our meeting yesterday att Preston, where wee had a considerable number off commissioners. Wee have put our selves into a method of proceedinge, and have chosen a clerke, a messenger, and a dore-keeper, and brought our businesse to this issue, as that wee have sent order for divers off our great malignants in this county to apeare, and to bringe in an exact account of there estates both reall and personall. Wee have done this, not that wee shall rest upon there survay, but still take that course, that wee may come to a full and right understanding of the full vallue, and proceede with them accordingly. Our next meetinge wil be the 29th of this instant. Upon tuesday next I intend, if the Lord will, to be att Chester, and soe to Staford, and back here by that time of our next meetinge. I have alsoe got a day set for to fitt upon the ordinance for ejectinge of ignorant and scandelouse ministers and scoalmasters. I have daylie more and more incouridgment, that God will carry one this good worke. I have bene in divers tounes and corporations, and have acquainted them with somthing I have in chardg, and with the good people, who doth noe litle rejoyse, and seeme to be abondantly affected therewith, and promis to set hart and hand to this good worke. And indeede I hope it will make it selfe (by the blessinge of God) a reconsillinge worke. I find, that major Wildman hath a great estate in this county bought and compounded for in his name. I beg a word of that from you by way of direction. If I here not from you, I intend to sequester all that belongs to hime. I am hopefull, we shall bringe things to a good and blessed issue. I found many of the commissioners very free, and resolved to be very active. I am now in hast, but your honor shall here more fully by the next, and now onely subscribe myselfe,
Preston, Nov. 9. 55.
Major general Boteler to secretary Thurloe.
I Have beene two dayes in this towne, where I have mett with many malignants, though but few commissioners, and some of them not very harty in our worke neither. Two or three of our most active gentlemen are at London, and coll. Blake could not be here at this tyme. And that considered with the nature of the worke (assessing mens estates) made some of those, that did meete, a litle timerous, and seemingly averse to the buisines; but I perceive by this daye's worke we shall go pritty well through it, albeit yesterday I had other thoughts. They have all of them putt their hands to the plough; and shame will not let them now looke back. They have begunn with some of our capitall delinquents; and I am sure they will make an end with the meaner sort, without any scruple. For their sakes, and at their requests, viz. the commissioners, I have propounded the quæries, that are postscribed to my letter, to which they begg the councill's solution, and I humbly intreat you by the next to signify to me. I humbly thanke you for the declarations I received on monday last; the reading of which did very much silence the objections both of freinds and enemies, and hath encouraged your freinds to this worke. They came to my hands very seasonably. By the next I hope to give you a good account of our proceedings, viz. that we have done that part of the worke for taking security of our cavaliers, and decimating their estates very home, and without trisling. I shall continue here yet four or five dayes, and then to Bedford. Whereever I am, still I am
Northampton, 9 Nov. 9 at night, 1655.
If you please to speake a word in answer to these two questions, 'twill be more satisfactory to the commissioners then what I have said to them, because I see it does a little stick upon some of them.
Resident de Vries to the states general.
High and mighty Lords,
My last to your high mightinesses was from Copenhagen of the 14th instant; since that the Swedish resident went from thence the 15th to Elseneur, and from that place that very night still over to Helsingburgh, having shewed himself on the road very much dissatisfied, to a certain private person, at his reception touching the overture he has made of his commission. Since that time all the letters from Dantzick, Hamburg, and the east quarters boast very much the rapid progresses of the Swedes in Poland; and it is not questioned but they will find their winter quarters in Prussia, where they will meet with succours, which is caused by the saint-heartedness of the great towns. These tidings (what effects they have on the high regency here, I cannot tell) cause every where strange discourses and imaginations, as also not the most confiding thoughts in the neighbours and allies; and by sundry letters, which I have seen from other concerned quarters, it is advised and whisper'd by the common people, that Denmark before it will be too late, and the realm ruined, ought to accommodate matters with Sweden. So that I am resolved, upon a letter I have received from my confident there, to set out to-morrow again for Copenhagen, to omit nothing which may give me an opportunity to penetrate into the minds there.
Col. Bamfylde to secretary Thurloe.
This place affords soe little newes of any importance this weeke, by reason of the absence of the courte, that I had not given you the trouble of any letter, but to prevent your taking my silence for neglect. The business of Perron stands as it did; on the one side large offers are made; on the other unreasonable demands insisted on. The cardinall (whoe came hither laste night, and they say, returnes to day) says publiquely, that since the marescall has refused what has been proffered him for his submision and resignation of his goverment, he shall not nowe have any thing, but either deliver himselfe to the king's mercye, or be beseidged; but this has more of the rant then reality, for to my knowledge they at firste offerred him three hundred thowsand crownes, and will come certaynly to his demands, rather then engage theyr armie soe late in the year in soe difficult an enterprise, or expose theyr affayres (which are not soe well setled, as is believed by some at distance) to the consequences, which may arise from the governour's espousing theyr enemies interests. Moste, whoe I discourse with doe believe it will be certaynly accommodated; but 'tis to be doubted till it be concluded, and the rather by reason that young d'Hauquincourte the governour's sonn was lately taken prisoner; at leaste his falling into theyr handes had that resemblance; though, as I am informed, even the cardinall himselfe is not without his apprehension of some further designe in it. The treaty with Spayne takes up all men's thoughts and discource. The reasons whereby to conjecture either at an accorde or the continuation of the war are soe equally balanced, that 'tis hard to come to a judgement of what the event may bee, unless by those, whoe are in the cardinall's secrets; and even they fayle, whoe know the moste, the distempers of this place being greate, and the dissatisfactions to him very universall through the whole kingdome. Here is at this tyme a generall meeting of the clergy, about the setling of the business of this archbishoprick, which was one cause (if not the chief) of the cardinall's comeing yesterday. The business of the cardinall du Retz, which disturbs this citty, and animates the inhabitants, troubles cardinal Mazarin more then all things else. Here are greate partys making allready to promote the peace; universally all of the church will be furiously for it; and the generallity of the nobillity, and the parliaments. Those whoe command the armyes, Turene being a protestant, and la Ferte the cardinall's confidant, besides the advantages theyr commands afford them, which muste end in peace, will be against it; and upon the like account of interest all or moste of the governours of guarrisons. Al the rest of the kingdome will be for it; and if a peace be not concluded, which I confess I thinke will hardly bee, unless some desperate thing should be attempted (and succeed) yet their is great likelyhoode of a defection to the Spanish party upon the same grounds the league a hundred years since was entered into, for the preservation of the catholique cause in Henry the third's time; and this is so far from being chimericall, that I am confident were you upon this place, you would be of the same judgement; but their is yet some mistery in this affaire, which I may acquaint you with ere long, as soone as I can 404. 30: 43. 37: 35. 90: 755: 711. which I may doe by 859, if 820. 204. 821. resolution be the same it was when I parted, touching that particular, which I shall ernestly desire to bee speedily informed of, by reason that I am in doubt whether the change, which has been since in your affayres, may not have altered your inclinations. Of other things likewise I may advertise you more particularly then I can yet, whoe am with great truth and respect, sir,
Saturday, Nov. 20, 1655. [N. S.]
Mr. E. Rolt to secretary Thurloe.
After 7 weeks tedious expectation of the king's comeing to Warsaw, he arrived there uppon the 5th instant, and was pleased to give me audience the next day. The manner of my reception and usage ever since I have largely expressed in this letter inclosed, directed to his highness, to which I must take the boldnesse to referre your honour, not having time for soe copious a declaration of it as it doth deserve. I am now in the borders of Prussia with the king, who is marching with his army thither. The lesser and the greater Polland with Mazovia being wholly brought under his command, having left sufficient force therein to keepe them from attempting any thing to his disadvantage during his absence. He hath by large guiftes and a constant salary out of the salt mines about Crakow bought off the Quartianoes (the standing forces of the crowne of Poland) from theire king. What his majestie's resolutions are concerning Prussia, I doe not know certainely; but the common talke is, that he intends to force to his subjection all those in the regall part of it, which deny to come in unto him. Neither can I give you an assured judgment of affaires betweene the elector of Brandenburgh and him; but I have great reason to believe, that there will be a difference betweene them, because the elector's two commissioners, which were with the king at Crakowe, left him without concluding any thing; but since the king's arrivall at Warsow, one of them came backe againe thither, and hath waited the king to this place; and from hence is resolved to retourne to his master to morrow morning, having, soe farr as I can learne, received as little contentment towards the effecting of his commission, as he formerly had. In his company for security sake I have taken the oportunity to send part of my baggage and servants to Hamborough, partly to alleviat my great charges, which I daylye sustaine; partly to avoide trouble and cumber, which I must expect in a marching armie; but chiefely, that (if possibly) I might find out some probable way of hearing from your honour, which I have not been soe happy to doe but twice, once at Hamborough, and once at Stettin, since my coming out of England. I have therefore made choise of capt. Fenwicke and mr. Swift to attend upon that businesse at Hamborough, which last for his diligence and faithfull service towards me, I must intreat your honour for my sake soe farr to take into your favourable consideration, that his absence with mee may not prejudice him in those imployments he injoyes under your honour and the lords commissioners of the seale; and be pleased to send to him (soe farr as your honour shall think fitt) a duplicat (of what you write to mee) to him allsoe, that I may from him receive your sense by such severall wayes and means, as in discretion shall from time to time be offerred to him. About 4 days since there arrived at Warsow the French ambassador from Stockholme; it is supposed with a commission of mediation betweene the two crownes of Sweden and Poland; but his majestie hath denyed him audience, he having no letter credentiall to his majesty from his master. This is all att present of moment, which I have to certyfie your honour; and therefore am bold to take my leave with this one petition, that since the maine of my commission is executed, you would be pleased to be a favourable mediator to me for his highnesse for my recall home, which is the strong desire of my hearte; and I shall for that and all other undeserved favours towards me humbly pray for your honour's health and happinesse, and subscribe my selfe (what I truly am)
Cziermielsko, Nov. 10, 1655.
One thing of moment concerning my kind usage (which I have received from his majestie ever since my audience) I have forgott to insert in my letter; which is, that I am entertained with all provisions from the king's table; and one of his coaches ordered for my march uppon the way with him. One thing more. Prince Adolph commaunded coll. More (the Scotch gentleman, that was sent by the king to salute me the same night of his arrivall) to sound and enquier of mee, how his highnesse liked of his suite to the lady Sophia daughter to the queen of Bohemia; but the said Moore having first spoken of it to the king, he fell into a great passion, and told coll. Moore, that if his brother should thinke of that match, or endeavour any longer to seeke soe near allyance as by marriage with those, that were enemyes to his highnesse, with whome he had already made a peace, and att this time was contracting a more close and feirmer league of amity and allyance (being a thing he more desired then with all the princes of Europe) he would discountenance him, and never see his face more. This was told me by the said Moore, whoe requested mee to keepe it (as I valued him) in silence to my selfe.
Mr. Rolt's speech to the king of Sweden, upon his delivery of the ratification of the treaty.
Tres-puissant & serenissime roy,
Vostre majesté sçait tres bien, quelle intime & constante amitié & bonne correspondence il y a tousjours eu entre l'Angleterre & la couronne & royaume de Suede. Ce qui a prins sa naissance & conservation sur les plus fermes fondements, qu'il soit possible a une nation de s'unir & d'entrer en alliance avec une autre. D'icy est evidemment avenu, que les changements & revolutions, qui d'aucun temps sont survenus a l'une & a l'autre des deux nations, ou que les differents, qu'elles ont en avec autres estats, leurs voisins, n'ont donné sujet quelconque de changement en leur mutuelle bienvueillance & amitié; au contraire ont fourni l'oportunité de leur renouvellement, confirmation, & accroissement, comme il appert dans les derniers troubles tant domestiques que forains de l'Angleterre, quand de part & d'autre, durant tout le susdit temps, il s'est fait communication tres intimé avec beaucoup de preuves reciproques d'affection, tant par lettres que par messages & ambassades, d'ou entre autres bons effets de correspondence mutuelle a procedé le renouvellement d'alliance, union, & confederation entre ces nations, suivant le traité a Upsale entre l'ambassadeur extraordinaire & plenipotentiaire de son altesse le serenissime le protecteur de la republique d'Angleterre, d'Ecosse, & d'Irelande, mon tres gracieux maistre, & les deputés & plenipotentiaires de sa majesté la serenissime & tres puissante reyne de Suede. Et ce traité a de depuis ete ratifié de part & d'autre, selon le contenu d'un des articles d'iceluy. Et vostre sacree majesté, qui a present reigne tres heureusement sur le renommé royaume de Suede, ayant envoyé a son altesse la ratification faicte par la susdite serenissime reine Christine, avec asseurance, que c'est le desir de vostre majesté d'entretenir ferme amitié & bonne correspondence avec son altesse mon maistre, & la republique sous sa protection, son altesse ne s'est pas voulu contenter de donner les mesmes asseurances de son affection & bienvueillance envers vostre majesté & pays de son gouvernment, tant seulement par la tres honorable personne le ministre & envoyé de vostre majesté monsieur Coyet, mais estant desireux de le faire par une ministre de sa part, il luy a pleu m'en commettre la charge comme en son nom de saluer vostre majesté, & luy tesmoigner le grand estime qu'il fait de l'amitié & personne de vostre majeste; & veu que c'auroit este le vouloir de la tres illustre princesse & dame, dame Christine, n'agueres reine de Suede, de resigner de son propre mouvement son royaume hereditaire; son altesse loue grandement la sagesse & providence maternelle de sa majesté, comme aussy la prudence des estates du royaume, d'en avoir transferré le gouvernment a vostre royalle majesté, dont les sujets peuvent promettre la continuation du bonheur, du quel ils ont joui pour un long temps sous le gouvernment de justes & vertueux princes par une continuelle succession; comme aussy les voisins & alliez y trouveront le bien & l'advantage, qu'on doit se promettre d'un puissant, fidelle, amie & allié. En telle consideration son altesse ne peut ne congratuler de tout son cœur l'acces de vostre royalle majesté au gouvernement du noble & fleurissant royaume de Suede. Et comme il desire ardemment, que toute prosperité & bonheur accompagnent vostre majesté en son governement, que le tout puissant la benie & face succeder ses entreprinses a sa gloire; ainsi aussy son altesse desire en toute sincerité, que vostre majesté soit toute asseurée de son entiere affection & bienvueillance envers vostre royalle personne, aussy que ses sinceres intentions & fermes resolutions ne sont pas seulement de garder inviolablement le susdit traité (la ratification du quel de la part de son altesse il luy a pleu par moy envoyer a vostre majesté, qu'aussy je suis tout prest de livrer selon qu'il en plaira ordonner a vostre sacrée majeste) mais aussy de contribuer de tout son possible a contracter une plus estroite & particuliere alliance entre les deux nations. Et son altesse ne doute aucunement, que vostre majesté n'ait les mesmes inclinations & bonne disposition; de quoy il est d'autant plus asseuré, que c'a esté le bon plaisir de vostre majesté d'envoyer vers luy son ambassadeur extraordinaire, que son altesie des auparavant mon depart d'Angleterre avoit receu avec l'affection & le respect deu a vostre majesté pour si grandes & singulieres faveurs. Il ne me reste, que de presenter mes lettres de creance, ce que je fai en toute reverence, me recommendant tres humblement a la grace & faveur de vostre majesté durant mon sejour aupres vostre royalle personne, a laquelle je souhaite de tout mon coeur tout vraye grandeur & bonheur.
Viole, president of Brussels, to Barriere.
I Have received your letter of the 12th of this month, which refers me for news to the lord ambassador, who is not yet arrived; and when he doth come, I shall not learn much of him, by reason I am not known to him. I believe you will receive no letters this post from his highness, who is at present at Catelet upon some discontent of the mareshall of Hocquincourt, who doth seem to incline to an accommodation with his highness; but in regard it is not yet certain, I forbear writing any thing more of it till the next.
To Monsieur Petkum.
Here is great news come since my last. The mareshall of Hocquincourt, governor of Perronne, upon some discontent hath made an accommodation with the prince of Condé, and hath received 400 men, and the earl of Henin into his garrison, and as many into Ham, which is a town not far from thence, where his son is governor, and where is also entered monsieur Verbrester with 400 men.
We expect here with impatience the confirmation of the great news of the discontent of the governor of Perronne. There are already I know not how many bottles of wine drunk off to the health of monsieur the marshall of Hocquincourt.
President Viole to Marigny.
We know nothing yet, what the contents are of the treaty between France and England; but if that clause be in it, which you mentioned in your last, it is a very dishonourable one for France; and I do not believe the protector would have past the like. We are expecting the certainty of the business of Perronne, for which the prince is marched with all the horse, and is at present at Catelet.
The queen Christina hath at last made open profession at Inspruck, and hath given advice thereof in a letter to his highness. It is eight years since that she made it in private; and seeing she could not keep her crown with this religion, she had rather forsake it than not follow the true religion, which is the Roman catholic. After all this, what have you to say ?
A letter of intelligence.
The chevalier of Hocquincourt is taken prisoner by a party of the prince of Condé, but it is supposed he suffered himself to be taken, by reason of his brother, who hath brought into his garrison several gentlemen and countrymen in lieu of the Swissers, whom he suspected.
Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.
The greate favor of your last with thos inclosed therin I receeved yesterday, and forthwith I caused both the declaration concerninge Spayne, as well as that concerninge the cavaleers, to be put to the press; esteeminge the divulginge of both very requisite, especially the last, which may possibly keepe thos heer in quietness, upon an account of fear, which will hardly be soe upon that of love;
Indeed, sir, much of his highneses affaires here doe suffer for want of answers to thos letters I have wrote; especially that concerninge the exchequer. I beg you procure us a speedy answer, for we are at a stand therin till we receive it.
I thinke fit to advertize you, that capt. Brasy is broke, lest you, as many other, may have som money in his hands, that if you have you may take som speedy course therin, and that I may be soe happy to serve you.
The sum he breaks for is but for 29000 l. which I feare will hugely prejudice many of
our officers and other honnest men. My paper only allows me roome to subscribe my
selfe truly, sir,
Poore col. Litcot is like to loose 400 l. by Brasy.
Major general Haynes, &c. to the president of the council.
May It Please Your Lordship,
In observance to the orders of his highness and council sent unto us, we have this day sent to the garrison of Yarmouth one John Cleveland (fn. 1) of Norwich, late judge advocate at Newark, who we have deemed to be comprized within the second head.
1. He confesseth, that about a year since he came from London to the city of Norwich; and giveth no account of any business he hath there, only he pretends, that Edward Cooke, Esq; maketh use of him to help him in his studies.
2. Mr. Cleveland confesseth, that he hath lived in the said mr. Cooke's house ever since he came to the said city; and that he but seldom went into the city, and never but once into the country. Indeed his privacy hath been such, that none or but few save papists and cavaleeres did know, that there was any such person resident in these parts.
3. For that the place of the said mr. Cleveland his abode, viz. the said mr. Cooke's, is a family of notorious disorder, and where papists, delinquents, and other disaffected persons of the late king's party do often resort more than to any family in the said city or county of Norfolk, as is commonly reported.
Your honour's truly humble servants,
Major general Whalley, &c. to secretary Thurloe.
We desire by yourself to acquaint his highness, that in obedience to the several orders and instructions of his highness and the council for settling the peace of this nation, we have had several meetings at this place, and made some progress in the business committed to our trust; and find it necessary to our more effectual proceedings therein, that we have a list of all such in this county, that compounded at Goldsmith-hall, with the particulars whereupon they compounded; thereby the better to enable us to apportion on each person his annual payment; as also the names of all persons resident in those parts (if any such be) who have been engaged in any late plot or design, that we may know in what qualification to proceed against them respectively. Upon our short entrance into this business we have hopes to give a good account thereof, finding a compliance in most of the gentlemen we have yet treated withal. Sir, we desire, that we may receive more of the printed orders and instructions, which we shall endeavour faithfully to execute; and remain
Lincoln, Nov. 10, 1655.
Your very affectionate friends,
Francis Clinton, alias Fines,
Mr. E. Rolt to secretary Thurloe.
Uppon the fifth of this present the king returned into this towne with about 8000 horsemen. His majestie noe sooner was arrived, then he forthwith sent to me, and did condescend, as since, to as much favour towards me, and respect, and singular affection towards his highnesse, as could and may be reasonably expected from a noble prince and a freind and ally. I was the very first night invited to an audience, which I had the next day with all satisfaction to my selfe, because his majestie seemed to be well satisfied; soe that from that time I begin to forgett my sorrow. I shall not weigh the weight of my trialls, if I doe acceptable service to his highnesse. I promise my selfe, that I shall not incurre his displeasure, or trespasse against my duty through any negligence in what I know I must doe, or with any consent of my will, though when intending and endeavouring after the just ends of my commission, things should happen different, or not soe convenient, as the case or circumstances thereof might require. As to this I submitt my selfe, and my actions to my master's judgment. Allready since my audience I have seene his majestie two severall times, and finde, as my poore judgment gives me to believe, great sincerity and opennesse of hearte, and dealing, and much affection. I am now uppon the march with the kinge towards Prussia, whether severall of the king's armies have their rendevous; for I dare not retourne with his highnesse commands. My earnest desire, as of all my company, is to returne, expecting daily orders to that purpose; to which end, because I have not had the happinesse to receive any letters from your honour, since that of the 10th of August, which came to my hands at Stettin, I have sent away captain Fenwick and Swift, and the greatest part of my baggage to Hamborough, partly to lessen my expences, but cheifely to waite uppon all occasions of hearing from your honour, which otherwise I see by sadd experience I cannot expect, or hope to have. I'l ad noe more to these, only my harty prayers for theire highnesses health and prosperity, together with their illustrious children, my most honourable lords and ladies. God prosper the commonwealth and yourselfe, according to the praiers of
From Czermielsko, Nov. 11, 1655.
Extract out of the secret resolutions of the states general.
There being deliberation had upon the request of the ministers of the duke of Brandenburg made unto their high and noble lordships, a few days since, to the end the said duke in pursuance of the alliance made with this state might be furnished, as soon as is possible, with the supplies promised by the same alliance; after deliberation had upon it is resolved, that the required monies shall be furnished; and to that end that notice be given to the provinces to bring in their shares forthwith into the treasury of the receiver general Doublet here in the Hague.
Resolution of the states general.
Upon what was represented by the lords commissioners of the province of Holland to the assembly, after deliberation had, it is resolved, there shall be once more writ in serious terms to the defective provinces, that they will once without any further delay clear their defects in the consents formerly agreed on for the building of new ships of war, in regard that several colleges of the admiralty do otherwise declare, that they shall be necessitated to sell some of the new ships half built for want of money to finish the same.
Prince of Condé to Barriere.
I Could not possibly write to you by the last post, in answer to your letter of the 5th of this month; and now at present I have so little time to write to you, being employed about some weighty business, that all that I can say to you at present is, that I have not sent any person into France, neither by the way of Calais, nor any other way. So that if any has past that way, it is without my knowledge; for I know nothing of it: therefore you need not trouble your self about it. I am expecting the last resolution of monsieur D'Hocquincourt.
Monsieur Caillet, secretary to the prince of Condé, to Barriere.
I Believe you have heard speak of the business of Peronne, and that several have sent you word, how that monsieur D'Hocquincourt is discontented with the court. This is so in effect, and his highness is approached near unto him with his troops, to favour him in his good intentions, to declare himself against Mazarin, and for his highness. There has been some retardment in the business, and we are expecting here the last resolution, which we shall know very suddenly.
If the business doth succeed, I leave you to think, what advantage it will be unto us, and what mortification it will be to the court, and for all the enemies of his highness. I am in great haste at present, and can no more as to that business.