A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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November (4 of 8)
To Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
The disobedience and obstinancy of the mareschall of Hocquincourt still keeps his majesty at Compiegne, he having sent unto him the abbot Fouquet; but the said mareschall gave him but a flight reception, and sent him back with a frivolous message. We know not yet what issue will be of his business.
The governor of Corbie is also said to be of this cabal, and the governor of St. Quintin; and monsieur de Montjeu is also suspected. It's very strange, since that the enemy cannot destroy us, that we must endeavour to ruin ourselves.
Major general Worsley to secretary Thurloe.
By my last I gave you an account off our meetinge att Preston, from which I received much incouridgment. You may see by my last, what progrese was then made; and since that time I have with the assistance of the lieutenant of this county-troope taken care, that all papists, and malignants, and evill-affected persons be disarmed; and that wee may not be in the least prevented, have taken care, that as much as possible it may be done in all parts of the county in one day. One thinge I had forgott in my last to signifye to you, and that is, that wee have apointted a time to put in execution the ordinance for ejectinge of scandelouse and insufficient ministers and scoolmasters. I have since bene in some corporations with the mayor and aldermen, and the best of the people, to stir up and quicken to be puttinge in effectual execution the lawes against drunkennese, sweringe, profaininge the Lord's day, and other wickednesses. And I indeede finde a very great seeminge redinese, and I am hopefull it's very much upon there hart soe to doe. I hope, when wee have a litle more time, to take some course to get out bad officers, and put good in there roomes in corporations; but truly that which is none of the least incouridgments is, that God hath alredy put into his people a prayinge sperit for this great and good worke. And indeede I find it alredy in good men of differing principels. I intend to morrow to be att Chester, where the gentlemen meet for that county. I am hopefull to give you a good account of that shortly; and to morrow seven-night, I shall (God willing) be att Stafford, of which meetinge you shall likewise here imediatly after. I have noe more att present, but to assure you, that I am,
November 12, 55.
Lord Broghill to the protector.
May It Please Your Highnes,
I Presumed in my letter of the 8th instant, humbly to present you with a large relation of som passages, which I thought in my poore judgment were not unworthy your knowledge, and of which I am faithfully assured I shall have a fuller and cleerer accounte on saturday night next, of which also I shall make bold to informe your highness, our intellengencers beinge alreddy gon about it. Last night col. Plaketer and major Bortwik did make col. Bortwik (to use their own words) merry in his owne chamber, to make him speake the more freely; and his brother the major sent me this paper, as som of his observations, in which when he sayse he, he meanes his brother col. Bortwick, and by worde of mouth since added to me, that C. S. calls Middleton his excellence, and gives him place above all his lords; by which it may probably be thought, that he intends to employ him in som speedy emminent service heere, or els he would never court him soe highly. We shall have a strict eye over them all heere, and when we can safely discover noe more, we will ceise upon all who deserve it. I shall now only presume to subscribe my self with all sinserity,
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.
Though it be now 14 daies since I first heard from Dantzick of mr. Rolt's beinge at Warshaw, and that an overture was made to my freind there, to supply him with money, as by the last weekes post I writ you; yet noe letteres come from him, at which I wonder. Onely this night againe my freind from Dantzick writes of his beinge at Warshaw, soe as I doubt not of his wellfare: he may move with the kinge, and soe not finde the convenyencie of posts for theise parts. The inclosed paper presents you with what the present here affourds. Most beleeve the kinge of Sweden will shortly draw the warre into Prussia, haveinge setled his garrisons in Polland. The duke of Brandenburgh is 20000 stronge, and backed by the emperor and states generall, as some give it out. A little tyme will either compose the business twixt them, or bringe it to a battle. I am glad you have let the world knowe the justnes of your proceedings with Spaine. I wish it were allsoe in Latin. I presume there is noe Englishman, but will acquiesce in the just grounds of that warre, and chearefully contribute unto it. I perceive that my letter of the 23d ultimo was come on, but not come to your hands, when the post came out. I hope the next will let mee know how the choyce of a new deputie is approved of, and what I may expect upon that busines; I meane as to the resolution of his highnes and the councell upon the papers before them, beinge little carefull what becomes of the place of deputie, or whome they choose to it. I am well assured of your favour to obtaine my just vindication, though it will now come late to recover my reputation. I am, sir,
Hamburgh, Nov. 13, 1655.
An intercepted letter of sir Edward Hyde's.
This day sevennight I acknowledged the receipt of your former; since when your other of the 2d of this month is come to my hand; and I hope I shall not now fail any post to hear from you, your letters being great cordials to me. We are now out of all hopes of a piecing up between you and the proud Spaniard; and therefore as we have done the best we can, to transport our effects out of this country, so we hope shortly to get our persons free likewise; towards which it is pitty, that our friend do not help us with some mony, which we want more than can be believed, and which will keep us here, after we have obtained our liberty, if care be not taken of us. I must confess, though we are at present loosers, we are all so well satisfied with my lord protector's declarations against the dons, that we believe no true Englishman will be sorry for his present losses, but will heartily join in revenge against that bloody popish people, who, I hope, may owe their conversion and salvation to this war. The Spaniards brag here, as if they had destroyed all our brethren, who were left in Jamaica, and recovered that island; which I do not believe, because you say nothing of it. If we were once got away, I would not care what mischief you do to them. Let me hear my letters come to you, which I direct according to your order. God send us a good meeting.
Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.
I Even now received your commands concerninge the postages in Scotland, and in observance therof the generall, mr. Disbrow, and my self will meete to morrow morninge before the councill doe sit, to put that affaire in the best way we can; of which you shall receive speedely a full account. This enclosed I thought not unfit for your peruasall, and therfore present it to you; but I hope I shall have somethinge of more worth for your knowledge on saturday night next, which I shall hasten to you. I beg you, sir, if there be any omission or misinprovement of thinges here, to favor me with a hint thereof, that it may be mended; els I feare through ignorance we may be guilty of ill; which, I trust, designedly I shall never acte. I thought now to have troubled you with an accounte of what we have done towards the reduction of the civill list, but my indisposition beinge still upon me, and lyinge most in my head, I am not able to doe it at present; and therefore must desyer your excuse, if it be deferred till another oportunity. Sir,
Major general Worsly to secretary Thurloe.
I Have this day bene with the commissioners for this county of Chester, and had a very lardg and considerable number of them togather, and find noe less redinese in them then in those I have had to doe with in other countyes. Wee have made as lardg a progrese in the businese in this county as in Lancashire. Wee have agreed of orders to be sent to divers of the greatest delinquents in this county, to apeare before us upon monday sevennight next at Naintwich, which wil be before our next meetinge in Lancashire; soe that I shall take it in my comeinge back from Stafford. Coll. Croxton and my selfe have agreed about the disarminge of delinquents, and papis, and disafected parsons. Wee have likewise pitcht upon a time to put in execution the ordinance for scandelouse ministers. I blese the lord I cannot but take nottis of the good hand of God leadinge and carriinge mee one hitherto in this great and good worke of his. To morrow the commissioners meet for this citty. I dare not doubt, but God will give good succese still. The commissioners every where are ernest for every one of those orders of his highnese and counsell. Truly coll. Croxton is a good instrument in these parts, and very much deserves your thanks. If you have but so much leasure to let him know, that you have taken notis thereof, it will not be amis. I shall troble you noe more, but onely subscribe my selfe
Chester, Nov. 13, 1655.
Major general Boteler to secretary Thurloe.
With the help and assistance of some of the commissioners of this countye, I have now almost gone through the first parte of my worke, viz. the assessing of the estates of those, that are taxable by our instructions; the finishing whereof I shall leave to the commissioners, and then give you an account of what the yearly summe will amounte to from the estates of this county, which will be, I thinke, much about two thousand pounds. I suppose my lord of Northampton's lady hath made her address to his highness before this, to see if his highness will give a dispensation to him, whereby he may be exempted from entering into security, according to the common obligation. His lordship's so publique and peremptory refusing it before many other of the cavaleers, Ile assure you, made some of them putt the same resolution on, and had certeinly caused an unhansome slurr to our proceedings, had I not upon his lordshipp's refusall declared him a prisoner. But that being done, the rest were silenced, and presently with their suretyes became bounde. I hope his highness will consider of what ill example 'twould prove, if he should order his said lordshipp's release upon any other condition then sealing and signing the same condition that the rest have done; for I thinke (ipso facto) if a man will not engage for his peacible living under the government, he declares himself an enemie thereto. And I conceive I ought to looke upon him and deale with him as no other. I know his lordship pretends it will prejudice him in borrowing money upon his estate to pay his debts. Many other did make and will make the like pretence, if that be admitted. I humbly entreate your honour to waite upon his highness in this point as soon as this shall be presented to you, because my lady of Northampton will be waiting on his highness about the same tyme or before. Thursday morninge I am goinge to Bedford, and shall leave the commissioners to do what is behinde here, who though they came on (some of them especially) a litle slowly at first, yet now go on without any rubb. I am
Northampton, Nov. 13, 1655.
In case sir Gilbert Pickering should be gone out of towne, I have desired this gentleman to deliver the letter to your selfe, that I had written to him; and do very humbly begg of your honor, that you will comply with my humble suite in the first part of it.
Major general Goffe to secretary Thurloe.
I Hope you have received myne from Lewis, which gave you an accompt of my proceedings there, as also of my purpose to come to this towne, where I appointed the commissioners for this county to meet mee this day; the names of which commissioners I then sent you. Now this is to lett you know, that wee have accordingly mett, here being present of the commissioners, mr. Sherley, mr. Yates, and mr. Betsworth, mr. C . . . g, mr. Manning, mr. Knolls, capt. Jenner, capt. Everden, capt. Madgwick, capt. Freeman, mr. Ballard, and my self. It was late before wee mett, and therefore there was nothing donne save the appointing of a clerke and a doorkeeper. Wee have adjourned from the inne, where we mett, to the counsell-house of this citty to morrow morning eight a clock. These gentlemen seem generally well satisfied, and resolve to act. Mr. Bowten wil be much wanted: hee is a lawyer, and fully acquainted with all the sequestrations of this county; and as I heare thorow to the business. He is a great friend of mr. Rushworth. I wish you would hasten him downe. 'Tis expected and desired by the commissioners that they might have copies of the orders and instructions, by which they are to act. If it bee thought fitt to print them, I desire you to speed a sufficient number to mee.
Sir, I desire to know, whether the registry bee settled, which is mentioned in the additionall orders to the major generals; for till that bee donne, and the place knowne, I thinke it scarce convenient to require the bonds mentioned in the said additionall orders.
Mr. Phagg was here this day, and was very free and curteous, professing himself very
ready to assist mee in any publick business, though (as he saith) he was very glad he was
not named to his imployment. I doe not know the hearts of men; but I bless God I
have not wanted the civil respects of all sorts of persons, with whom yet I have had to
doe. Captain Freeman tells mee, that coll. Bishop plays least in sight at this end of the
county, and beleeves he is lurking some where about the edge of Kent. Sir, I have not
else at present, save to desire you to lett mee now and then hear from you. I had nothing of intelligence since yours with the declarations, which I heare doe give very great
satisfaction. I commend you to the grace of God, and rest
Chester, Nov. 13, 1655.
If you thinke fitt, I beseech you present my most humble service to his highnes, for whom I pray without ceasing, and can I hope cheerefully sacrifice my life in the service, if need be; but I wish he doe not repent the laying soe great a trust upon soe poore and inconsiderable a creature.
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.
Your lordship's last to me was of the 31th of October, wherein came enclosed some papers of very ill complexion. I communicated the whole unto his highnesse, which confirmes him in the oppinion he formerly had of the person those papers doe cheiflye relate unto. He is still with some difficultie kept in prison; and I suppose will be now for some longer tyme. For what your lordship writes concerninge the Scotts comeinge into the north of Ireland, is a matter of a very great consideration, and is certeinlye a growing evill, and ought to have a fittinge remedy applyed thereunto in tyme; and orders will be sent to general Moncke therein. And for those, who may in probability head any troublesome people in those parts, I suppose your lordship will take care to secure them, when you finde it necessary. I am sorry to heare, that the adjutant general doth deceave some expectations heere, though I confesse he doth not mine. However cunninge did neiver doe any man good, nor will it hym.
The major generalls are most of them at worke, and finde a very ready complyance with the gentlemen of the countrye; and the cavaleirs themselves doe very quietly submit to this new way of taxinge them; so that through the blessinge of God there is like to be a very good use of the raysinge of this new militia, and the puttinge it under major generallships, and the nation is likely to be kept thereby in peace from those continuall dangers, which the cavaleirs and some other people do threaten it with.
It is certeyne, that the 5th monarchy men, (some of them I meane) have designes of puttinge us into blood; but I trust this will be prevented, since we are preparinge, against the season, for action, little or nothinge haveinge beene yet done at sea by either side. This day I have received intelligence from St. Sebastian, and alsoe from Cadiz it self, that there arrived at Cadiz two gallions from the West Indies, which brought in them 180000 l. sterlinge; who report, that the rest of their gallions were pursued by our ships in those seas, and knowe not what is become of them; but we expect a confirmation of this newes before we can give full creditt thereunto.
Our peace with France is concluded, and ratefied by that kinge; but we have not yet received it. The cardinall is put to some trouble with some of the fronteir garrisons of France towards Flanders. There was a combination amongst the governors to revolt to the prince of Condé and it had beene done, if a tymely discovery had not beene made thereof; and wheither yet the cardinall be able to stem this tyde is doubtfull. In the meane tyme he hath gct over to hym 5 or 6 regiments of the Lorayne armye, who have revolted to hym from the archduke. The newes, which concernes Sweden and other forreine parts, is truly set downe in the enclosed print.
For the propositions about the transplantation, I judge them most rationall and christian. I have only yet acquainted his honor with them, and shall, as I have opportunitie,
get his resolution therein. Your lordship hath done well to ridd you of the charge of
expectinge the directions heere about men for the West Indies. Your lordship knowes
how slow wee are; which is the reason, that about the girles is not yet ready. I humbly
take my leave, and rest
Nov. 13, 1655.
Actum, Nov. 24, 1655. [N. S.]
High and mighty lords,
The present commissaries of the respective colledges of the admiralty, having perused your high mightinesses resolution of the 16th of October last past, and what is requested by the colledge of the admiralty at Rotterdam, viz. that the scheme of a placart, sent over by their honours by order of your high mightinesses, concerning the preventing of the frauds committed in the country may once be resolved upon and issued, or at least, that provisionally may be renewed the forewarning heretofore given to the inhabitants of the open country and to all those that frequent this state; with such alterations and ampliations as formerly proposed to your high mightinesses, and recommended by the lords commissaries of all he respective colledges of admiralty, do deliver as their advice, which your high mightinesses by the said resolution demand from your said commissaries; That they having examined the said placart, have met with one or other difficulties, which they do not find proper to advise upon, without having first heard the opinion of the lords their constituents concerning the same; that they therefore will be ready with their advice, in the next assembly: however with submission to your high mightinesses, the said commissaries are of opinion, that it would be very necessary for the service of the country, if your high mightinesses in the interim and without any further delay would issue the above said forewarninge together with the ampliations made thereon by your commissaries on the 10th of May 1652, and delivered to your high mightinesses, and successively reiterated, commanding the execution thereof to the respective colledges of ad miralty in their several districts, since the said commissaries do believe, that in the mean time the manysold frauds that are committed, and which they observe still continually to increase, may be prevented thereby, and the revenue of the state considerably augmented.
Actum, November 24, 1655.
High and mighty lords,
The commissioners of the respective colledges of the admiralty having seen your high mightinesses inclosed resolutions of the 18th and 21st of October last past, taken respectively on two letters of the lords counsellours of the college of admiralty at Amsterdam of the 15th and 16th of the same month, and the papers thereunto annexed, concerning certain proceedings of the master of convoys at Swoll; find after due examination, that it is an affair in dispute between the colledge of the admiralty at Amsterdam, and of that of the north quarter; and that, because of the exceptions alledged for and against by the commissaries of both colleges, the same cannot be very well settled by the commissaries of the other colleges of the admiralty. Wherefore your high mightinesses are desired to have this affair to be debated before the lords commissaries of your high mightinesses for the sea affairs, and to decide the same at once by their report to your high mightinesses.
Commissioners of the admiralty of Amsterdam to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
The present commissioners of the colledge of admiralty, pursuant to your high mightinesses resolutions of the 30th of last month, and of the 20th of this present month, having read and examined the inclosed representations, to wit, one of the colledge of the admiralty residing at Amsterdam, bearing date October 28 last past, and one of the colledge of the admiralty at Rotterdam of the 18th instant, as also a memorial, presented to your high mightinesses by the present deputies of the colledge of the admiralty at Amsterdam on the 20th instant, all of them containing sundry inconveniencies, retardments, and losses, done by the English men of war and commissioned ships, since the conclusion of the peace with the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, to the inhabitants of this state trading at sea, by the illegal visiting, searching, taking, and seizing of their merchants ships, as also what further is to be fear'd, by the carrying on and continuation of the war between the said lord protector and the king of Spain, unless prevented by some timely and prudent remedy; having at the same opportunity also received a specification of those complaints, that have been made by the merchants of Amsterdam to the colledge of admiralty residing there, as also a list of the ships that are taken, which are known to your high mightinesses, and therefore needless to be mentioned; they in compliance with your high mightinesses commands, would not be wanting, to declare as their advice, and humbly to represent to your high mightinesses, that the said proceedings of the English men of war, and commissioned ships, as also the retardment under colour and pretence of justice, are notorious excesses and contraventions of the said treaty of peace, as it may respectively be seen out of the VIth, XVIIIth, XXIst, and XXVth articles; and therefore, as hurting the very soul of the trade, not to be suffered for the reputation of this state, and intolerable for the inhabitants. For which reason by extraordinary and vigorous representations, not only a prompt satisfaction ought to be demanded, but also besides this, in order to prevent the like for the future, an effectual remedy must be applied, by making a reasonable, and for both parties, becoming treaty of marine, so as it is stipulated by the VIIth article of the said treaty of peace, answerable to the extent of trade of this state, to all countries, that are in alliance or neutrality with the same, and so as the above mentioned lord protector has stipulated with other nations, and may any ways pretend to, or has obtained for the benefit of his highness's own subjects, in the like occurrences, without distinction of wares and merchandizes, that in relation to the one or the other party may be deemed contraband, the Turk only excepted, being the common enemy, having beset and besieged any christian place either by water or by land, which ought to be in the like manner, and by a further treaty settled with Spain, since those two treaties are to be on an equal foot, without which the trade at sea in these conjunctures of times cannot be continued without considerable inconveniencies.
In the interim, and to consider from our side, what may be most convenient and requisite for the advantage of trade, considering the contradiction there is in the said treaties, because in that with Spain in the XIIIth article, it is stipulated in relation to their enemies, unfree ships, unfree goods, without distinction of places where they are bound for or come from; and in English treaty it is agreed, article XXI, that the merchant ships of both parties failing by chance or otherwise in company with some men of war of the one or other party, shall be convoyed by them, as long as they steer the same course, and protected against all and every one that shall attack them by force. It is our advice, that, after the example given by England, provisionally and till further order, no merchant ships going to or coming from England, Scotland, and Ireland, shall be convoyed by any men of war of this state, the subjects of your high mightinesses, according to the said treaty with Spain, having no occasion for any convoy. And it is but just, that the English in that case be served and protected by their own ships of force.
Actum, Novemb. 24, 1655. [N. S.]
High and mighty lords,
The commissioners out of the respective colleges of the admiralty having perused your high mightinesses resolution of the 29th of October last past, taken upon a representation of the college of admiralty at Amsterdam of the 27th of the same month, as also the pieces added thereunto, being copies or extracts of letters of Jacomo Van den Hove the residing consul at Cadiz, concerning the prizes that have been carried in thither and sold by the captains of some ships with letters of reprisal against the Portuguese, as likewise the copy of a memorial of the directions of the West-India company of the chamber of Amsterdam aforesaid, touching the passing and granting of the said letters of retorsion or reprisal; are hereby delivering the advice, which your high mightinesses have demanded of them, viz. that it is the opinion of the said commissioners, that, whereas Brasil is now surrender'd, and the court of justice, which used to be kept and sate there in the name of your high mightinesses, in the causes of those that happened to take any prizes within the district of the said company, and to carry them in there, doth now cease; and whereas there are now no places of any consideration belonging to the said company lest, where such like causes, as required, according to the circumstances thereof, can be exercised without a new regulation and order of this state, there ought certainly some alteration to be made, in the granting and distributing of such letters of reprisal, viz. that the same ought to be taken out of the hands of the directors of the respective chambers, and be lest in the custody and management of the respective colleges of the admiralty, in order to distribute the same in the name of your high mightinesses, at the request of the directors of the said company, and to make them, to whom the same are granted, give security, that they will carry all the prizes, which they shall happen to take, by virtue thereof, together with the papers and writings belonging thereunto, not diminishing nor disposing of the same without the most pressing and unavoidable necessity, to the college of the admiralty of those quarters where the same are issued from, in order to receive judgment of the lawfulness or unlawfulness of the same, reserving however the right and share in or about such a prize to the said company, which may also be mentioned in the bond of security. And further, that the said directors shall deliver in a true and persect specification of the names of the captains to whom heretofore such letters of reprisal have been granted, declaring, and from time to time giving notification of their return, to the end that information may be taken, and enquiry made of their behaviour; in default whereof the said commissaries are of opinion, that under the pretence of the said reprisals many outrages may be committed against those that are neutral, and ships and goods taken right or wrong be sold abroad without any form of justice or enquiry, to the prejudice of the owners thereof, whereof several reports are heard already, which by the notification of the said consul Van den Hove are confirm'd. From whence many inconveniencies, to the disrespect and prejudice of this state, and the inhabitants thereof, as well by retorsions and reprisals as otherwise, may arise, which your high mightinesses in your high wisdom may easily foresee. Of all which, if it meets with your high mightinesses approbation, notification may be made to the forementioned West-India company to regulate themselves accordingly, and to cause the same to be observed by all those that belong to them; which notification may be given likewise to the consul Van den Hove aforesaid, and to all the other consuls of this state, refiding in other parts, with a strict charge and command, by no means to facilitate the sale of prizes, taken by the said commissioned ships, and carried into places under their district; and in case the same must needs be done, because of some unavoidable and pressing necessity, to take an account of such a sale and the proceedings therein, and to send over a notification of the same to the respective college of admiralty, before which the said captors have given security, where they sail'd from, and to whom they are answerable for their proceedings, in order that, after due information out of the papers and declarations which the cap tains are to bring over, and by proceedings of summons and otherwise, as it behoves, they may give judgment of the lawfulness or unlawfulness of the said prizes. However, so that the said consuls, except in this case, or upon special request, shall not trouble themselves about such commissioned ships and their prizes, that shall happen to come in there, be it in demanding their commissions, or make any other enquiry further than for their necessary information, to acquaint their high mightinesies and the said colleges of admiralty therewith. Much less shall they by their approbation give the said captains any right or colour of right for the condemnation of the prizes, but shall leave and reserve the same to the said college of admiralty, to whom the disposal therein doth privately belong.
Minard to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
I am still endeavouring to borrow some money to pay your bills. Your father is very unwilling to be bound for you; he hath sent me to one, who hath lent me 6000 livres, and promises me to furnish me with more.
The king arrived here last night, only to stay till to morrow, when hee must returne to Compiegne, where his eminence is. It is sayd here, that 4 or 5000 Lorrainers have lest the Spanish army, and are come over to ours; and that the duke of Guise is at Guise.
A letter of intelligence from col. Bamfylde.
This is the first letter I have wrote to you from this place, and shoulde be very glad to knowe, that the rest are come to your hands, for I finde soe great danger of the intercepting of letters here, and soe much suspition upon myselfe, that I am constrayned to send my letters by the way of Rouen to mr. L o n g e 38. 55. 5. 55. to deliver them at the poste house there. Lord G e r a r d 55 and one B e n n e t secret a r y d of York fee the poste master of this place, and seize what letters they please, of which haveing advertisements I shall rather use this way hereafter, that may keep my letters longer from you, then to runn the hazard of the other. The king of France is come hither this night, and with him the duke of Yorke. The cardinall continues at Compiene, the business of Peronn not being agreed. The governor insists on the former demands, and is not likely to recede. He says the cardinall is a cheat not to be trusted by any, further then his owne immediate interest carryes him; especially not by him, whoe four years since, when he was forced to quit France declared for him, raysed 5000 men, and browght him into France in the then most desperate condition of his assayres, and since that has done divers signall services; and for his requitall has been deceaved twice by him, and is resolved not to truste him the third tyme. The tyme of the yeare will not admitt of a seidge, and the mareschall declares he will keep the place for the king, but neither put it into the hands of the Spaniards, nor surrender to the cardinall. I was informed this evening at courte, that duke Charles of Lorraine is come into the French with 4000 men. 'Tis soe confidently reported, that most believe it; but the king has not yet had any express concerning it. Neither 858 nor 859 are not yet come to towne, or if they were, till I hear agayne from you, whether your resolutions in that particular are the same they were, for the peace being concluded 5. 55. Besides that, I am informed both out of England and here, that s i r K e n e l m e D i g b y e is employed by you to discover the secret s o f 847. If it be soe, his interest seemes, and, I believe, is diametrically opposite to what he undertakes, he and mr. M o u n t a g u e f are the principall instruments for the pope. The latter has t u r n e d Buck p a p e s t and advised him to get into England by any means, in order to the great designes they propose to themselves, which God of his infinite mercye will, I hope, defeate. They will all cozen you, if they can, and have but to many agents amongest you. I shall pray there may be none neer you. I knowe you sometimes use whoe you doe not truste. If you have any thing to doe with him, I wish it may not be any further, but you will say this is advice not intelligence. Indeed sometimes the latter may have the resemblance of the former, and by those, whoe need noe councill, is often misinterpretted; but I beseech God, that what is easye to foresee upon this place, and may be often foretold, does not prove like Cassandra's prophecyes, to be allways true, but never believed, till Troy be on fyre. Much of this is to be discovered, but not by such hands; and I feare this is the danger England lyes moste exposed to, of which I have soe great an apprehension, that to have it really secured, I doe unfeinedly with my soule wish, that I might be a sacrifice. I doe nowe expect, that you should conclude mee possessed with some strange kind of frenzie, or els that I am a very great hippocrite, and pretend this to engratiate myselfe; but I have had theise thoughts soe longe in my brest, and finde every day soe many fresh causes to encrease them, especially knowing nowe what of late I have been totally ignorant of, that Jermin Buck. and divers others have privately alter e d 5. their religion, and finde all the rest either inclining or indifferent, quod difficile est satyram non scribere. I may e're longe find meanes to make this more demonstrable to you, if this doe not take soe ill with you, that you desire not to hear any further from mee, for some tymes wise men dislike what they beleive vayne and causeless, as much as they doe what's unfaithfull, or wicked. The o t h e r s i d e is in I em o n use the f i r e and beleive mee, what I truely am, sir,
Paris, Nov. 24, 1655. stile no.
If you doe consent to the leavyes for the French, I thinke you may with better advantage to your affayres have such persons in the command of them, as are dependant on you, and whoe you can truste; by which means you may have a body of your owne men mayntayned in this service by the purse of France, and have them home upon any urgent occasion in eight dayes tyme. The next post I shall say more to you of divers other things. Pray be pleased to write very carefully to mee.
Tow days since lord G e r a r d met mee in a garden with other company,
and after some short discourse of other things, fell into the moste bitter and slovenly language
of my lord protector, that can be imaginable. The company only gave him the hearing,
but made not any reply to his wilde discource, few here thinking him much better then a
mad man; but I stayd with him till all the rest were gone, and then desired him to let
mee knowe what his late discource tended to: he answer'd, that he spake it purposely,
that I might aske him that question; for he had hitherto admired my patience and virtue, that coulde soe longe suffer what I had done from the king, and not abandon his interest, after those many services I had done him, and his samely; and that he had beleived,
that my going into England was rather to serve the king, then the contrary: but that he
perceaved I was steering a contrary cource, and would be my owne ruine, which he, as my
friend, laboured to prevent. I asked him wherein ? he replied, that my making conditions in the French service, as things now stand, was the same thing as to serve the protector, and was an abandoning of my former principles; and next the protector had lately
sayd, that he had designed to murder him; and that he had never discourced with any but
the king and myselfe about it, and might therefor have some ground to suspect it came from
me. I tolde him, I had never seen the protector, and forgot the business, or that he spake then
of it; and that he might more probably imagine, that it might come by his cozen's confession, or some of his associates. He sayd, he knew his cozen had not confessed any thing;
and that he did not say this to vindicate himselfe from the desiring of it, as a crime,
which he beleived a virtue, and meritorious, and wowlde doe it himselfe, if he coulde,
but howe-ever that he wanted oportunityes for it; yet 'twas not impossible but it may
be done yet, as close as he keeps himselfe; and began to recomend it to mee, as the moste
deserving and glorious action in the worlde. Mr. Mountague, and divers others, are dayly
harping upon the same string. Valiant men may fear to little, as well as cowards fear to
much: it may be worth his highness consideration, that he has those enemyes nowe, that
holde assassination of heretiques merits heaven, and may prevayle with some zealous fanatique persons to attempt it, though they be sure to dye. There have been but to many
pregnant instances of this of late years; all here that will converse freely with mee say all
attempts without it will not signifye much; and that wowld breed soe great disturbance, that
a small assistance would restore the king. There is one Rutherforde, a Scots collonell here,
goeing over into England to rayse 2000 men to recruite his owne and coll. Dowglass's regiments; he says, you have given leave for it in Scotland; he is a very great enemy to
mr. Firbanke's letter is written as this.
An intercepted letter of sir George Ratcliffe to mr. Samuel Harrison, under cover to one Lilly a painter.
If monsieur Letriere takes a journey, which some talk on, monsieur Mombrunty will not know what to do, for he will have no desire to see monsieur Beaumont. If Tomlinson look for any kindness from monsieur St. Megrin, as it is probable he doth, it will not be handsom for mr. Johnson to do as he hath done this summer, and before.
It is now ordinarily talk'd, that the cardinal Mazarin could be content to match his neice with the king of France; and they say that another little thing newly arrived out of Italy, may in time prove fit for the duke of Anjou.
I had a letter the last week from Jackson; but no news in it. I think they have none, that is visible, only that they are much quieter then they have been, for Tomlinson is too hard for all those of Janning's party in that place. We have had a great expectation here of the issue of two businesses, one concerning cardinal de Retz, the king pretending that his bishoprick of Paris was vacant for his felony and misdemenour; but now the king doth acknowledge him to be archbishop, and suffers his vicar general to execute his place. The pope seems to stand for cardinal de Retz. The other matter is concerning mareschal de Hocquincourt governor of Peronne, and conte de Monjou governor of Arras. The cardinal Mazarin would have some of their contributions from them, which they would not yield unto. Then he would have their governments to dispose of to others. They refuse to obey, and stand out in deafince; prosessing their fidelity to the king. This was probably a great cause of hastening the peace with England, which in time the protector will understand; for nothing is done but for ends. It is not impossible, but that there may be peace between France and Spain. Though it be not thought to stand with cardinal Mazarin's interest; yet it is much pressed, and the queen of France doth earnestly desire it.
Major general Whalley to secretary Thurloe.
I am now returned from Lincolne to Nottingham, where yesterday wee had a great appearance of the cavaleeres, being formerly summoned by us to bring in particulars of their estates reall and personall. Our buysines goes on very well; and I hope wee shall give a good account of it. My selfe severally, as alsoe conjunctly with the commissioners writt to you both from Lincolne and Nottingham, to desire you to send us more of the printed instructions, as alsoe some more of your last declarations, as very necessary; but having not heard from you, I renew the request; and likewise that the major generals may bee constituted justices of the peace in the severall and particular counties and corporations given them in their charge; for I find it very needfull. I was forced at Lincolne, for the composeing of a long and hot difference there betwixt the mayor, aldermen, and citizens, to assume a little more power then (I thinke) belonged to mee; and I hope God hath made major general Berrey and my selfe instruments to reconsile them, and to settle their government. I pray, sir, forget not to put into commission for the peace for Lincolnshire mr. Richard Brownloe, a gentleman of a very good report, a hopefull young man, whose father sir William acts very cordially for you. I hope after I have gone through all the countys, and shall have oppertunity to make longer stay in Lincolne and Nottingham sheires, to present you with the names of some gentlemen, that may be fit to be put in commission of peace, there being as yet scarce enowe to carry on the publique service. To morrow, if the Lord please, I shall goe to Derby, resolving to goe first to those counties, where there are most caveleers: and what successe the Lord shall give mee, shall bee made knowne to you by,
Sir John Reynolds to secretary Thurloe.
I have beene unwillinge to trouble you with any account of affaires heere, hoping you constantly received it from better hands; but I have something to impart, which I beleive you will not receive from your usuall correspondents. There hath beene many former suspicions of discontents amongst the officers heere, especially of the baptised churches, and since the securing of the lieutenant generall and the coming of the adjutant generall divers unfit speeches and practices have beene discovered. And indeede they are very unwilling to submitt to any indifferent share of power, or trust, which is (soe fare as I judge) all intended; and if it be not pursued, his highnes interest may receive prejudice, yea probably will e're it be long. I take no pleasure in allegoryes and metaphors, especially in wrighting to a person, in your weighty emploiments; but in plaine termes, unlesse his highnes be pleased to give a fitt countenance and authority to the lord Henry, whereby persons and places may be secured, as there is or shall be occasion, I am confident it will be repented, when too late. The lord deputy's generall sweetnes kept bonds upon some, who have since manifested discontents. And although I should sooner cutt of my hand, than signe a paper reflecting upon his lordship's person and government, yet I must confesse, that I have been prevailed with upon the former confiderations to concurre in a petition that the lord Henry may be deputy, in case his highnes shall find cause to detaine our former governour in the greate affaires of the commonwealth from coming over. And if my poore opinion were worthy consideration, it would be for the interest of his highnes and for the lord deputy's advantage, that this were done. I wish it were before our petition arrives. Things of this nature may in time to come beget a custome in our armyes to interpose in government, which hath ruined many states. This present petition disownes the right of doing it, and begs pardon for such an extraordinary addresse. I hope we shall soone know his highnes pleasure, either that the lord deputy returne, or the lord Henry bee appointed deputy, which I heartily desire, as that which will promote his highnes service and safety. I humbly implore the continuance and encrease of all blessings upon his highnes affaires, and conclude as I am, sir,
Dublin, Nov. 14, [1655.]
H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
By the last I did so sufficiently load you, which I hope you have received, and am fully satisfied, that I could not have abated one title of what I there writte, soe that I hope my brevity may bee pardonable at this time; and the rather that most of my time have bin spent in writing the inclosed to his highness, which I desire your care in it's presenting.
I have writt to you formeriy about severall things of most moment, to which I have as yet received noe answer from you. The first and principall thing is money, for the want of which wee shal be speedily reduced to many and sad strayts, if not speediiy supplyd from you. The second is the paper concerning the qualifications for dispensinge with the Irish from transplantation, which I sent you for your approbation. The 3d is touching the souldiers for Jamacha, wee havinge received neer a thowsand over and above the present establishment to answer your desires therein.
The 4th was as to the setling a militia heer in Ireland, which would be very necessary,
and of very great advantage to us, and by meanes thereof, if the king of Spaine should
attempt any thing uppon us heer, wee might have the greatest part of our forces to prevent any such designe of his. Why should the king's party here fare better than they
doe with you in England ? Without doubt they have the same hearts and spiritts, and
as irreconcileable as those with you. Our Scotts in the north are a packe of knaves;
but wee shall have an eye on them and such like. Wee have cleared the towne of Galloway of the Irish; and shall have a speciall care of that place: if there be like to be
any attempts made on us from abroad, I hope we shall receive it from you; and doe
not at all doubt, but by the blessinge of God to give a good accompt of this countrey.
Nov. 14, 55.
The enclosed was brought to mee by sir John Temple: it makes a discovery of a person, whoe was a notorious murderer heer, who is gott into his highnes lisguarde. Whether it meanes the horse or the hallbertdiers I knowe not. I thinke it will be worthe your inquireinge into, whether it be true or noe. It's thought, he is enterteyned by a new name. The man, who subscribed the inclosed, affirmes it verry considently. He was with mee.
H. Cromwell to secretary Thurloe.
This enclosed paper was presented to me by a person of worth heer, who desired it might be communicated to you, and desired, that you would heare sir George Ascue (if you thinke there is any thing worthy of your notice) more particularly about it; and alsoe I make it my request, that you would heare him as to other thinges, and make what use thereof you thinke fitt. I am
H. Cromwell to secretary Thurloe.
This bearer sir Timothy Tyrell havinge brought a letter from his highnes to the councell here, wherein was intimated directions to them to grant some leases to him of twenty one years; but they being not impowered for any farther demisses then seaven, could not fully perfect his highnes commands. I doe therefore desire, that you would be pleased to take him into your care and favour, as a person of a quiett and peaceable disposition, my longe acquaintance with him having confirmed mee in this perswasion of him.
Mr. Thomas Chambrelan to secretary Thurloe.
I sent last weeke your letters for Geneva; but I humbly conceive there was a mistake, in regard his highnes order and his councel was to pay 7000 l. sterlin, and I have received 7500 pounds, and therefore shall expect your honour's order for the other 500 pounds. The first 5000 l. was paid the last fayre at Lions, according to your honour's and the councell's order, to mr. John Lewis Calandrin, as will appeare by acquittance under his hand; and therfore shall humbly desire your honour, that order may be given to the tresurers for to returne me my bills of exchange, which were not sent over. I was yesterday to have wayted upon your honour to acquaint you, that by letters received from Paris dated the 10th current, there was advice from Spayne of the arrival of two gallions, and two small vessels from the West Indyes, and that the rest of the gallions were expected the latter end of this moneth. But some conjecture they cannot come so soone. They likewise advise, that the French king was gone towards the frontiers of Flanders, to take order with 3 of the gouvernours, which refused to obey his commands, viz. the gouvernour of Arras, the gouvernour of Bapaume and the gouvernour Labassié, who (as it is reported) have since submitted. They advise from Marselles, that two English ships formerly taken were restored, and that the duke of Vendosme has given order not to meddle with any English ships, but to give them all liberty of commerce and free trade. All which I thought fit to advise your honour, assuring that I am.
Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.
Your commands concerninge the postage of Scotland by mr. Talbot I received on tuesday last, and yesterday morninge the generall, mr. Desbrow, and my self met, and sent for the two postmasters of Leith and Edenbrough, who with him of Barwik are the only which carry on the horse posts of Scotland, wher after the best information we could get, wee concluded a horse post any wher else in Scotland would not be necessary, or counterballance the charge. And as to that betweene this and Barwik, we have ordered, that ther be noe Scotch man post-master in any stage betweene this and Barwik, nor noe Scotch boy ryder; as also that the male be not opened, till it com to Barwik; and for the more safe convayinge of publike letters, we have thought fit, that all letters directed to his highness, any of the councill, yourselfe, the commissioners of the admiralty, or our agent mr. Wm. Rowe, should be sealed up in one bag with my seale, and directed to your selfe; a printe of which seale is to be left with every respective postmaster betweene this and London, that if the bag should be opened, it might be knowne in whose stage it is done, that such a fault may be severely punnished. This is the best method I could propose, and this I hope will secure our publike dispatches, as much as a thing of that nature can well admitt, which is all at present I have to trouble you with, who am unchangably, sir,
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
I hav received very good advys this week from the great duk's secretary, that the king of France has condescended to a treaty of peace with Spayn, and to gratify the pope, as the author of so good a motion, he wil send his plenypotentiaryes to meet in any citty, that the pope shal nam in his own state. What I shal hereafter hear about the time of theyr meeting, you shal be acquainted with. Here is not any newes this week from Spayn in relation to theyr fleets. Al Itally begins to feel the want of the plate from the West Indyes, and 'tis confidently believed, they wil not com hom til March or April next. The doller or piece of eiht is ris latly in al parts of Itally, at least 5 per cent. Thos that ar weity would yeld now by exchange for Ingland 5 s. 2d. wheras in London they wer nor latly worth more then 4 s. 6 d. so you may pleas to know wher is a good market against yow tak'um. I am sorry throh doctor Balylye's il managment you ar frustrated of that intelligence you expected from Rom. He altogether mistook the bisness he went about. I hear by one mr. Mettam, that he has committed much folly at Rom. I latly sent yow som letters of this gentleman's, by which you might se Baylye's indiscreet carryage. Their is one Holstein a Lutheran born in Hamborow, master of the library in the Vattican at Rom, which offis he got by turning papist; this man 30 yeares ago was a student in Oxford, and tutor to sir William Courtin's son. He was the only man in Rom thoht sitting by the learn'd, or rather pollitik consistory to meet the queen of Sweden, instruct and advertiz her in her new relligion, for which it is reported that queen must beg a cardinal's cap of the pope for him. Now if you think this man a fit intelligencer and pentioner, I hav meanes to addres my self unto him without any suspition or danger of discovery. Thus much I thoht good to advys you, leaving al to your better judgment. I am,
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Although that those of Brandenburg have not much insisted (at least not lately) and that they might have expected the aggression of the Swedes, before which no susidy is due; yet however Holland hath thought fit to resolve for the subsidy, to the end the elector may have no cause to accelerate his accommodation, which is very much feared; and thus those of Holland have this morning brought in their provincial advice, that they ought to furnish the elector with three months subsidy, amounting in all to 120 thousand guilders, whereof each province is to furnish their share. On the contrary as to the embassy, Holland doth shew themselves cold and unresolved, foreseeing well enough, as it is the truth, that Sweden will look with an ill eye upon the embassadors of such, as assist that person, that will fight against Sweden. And it is credible, that Holland doth send this subsidy expressly to render the design of the embassy of no effect; yet they may send to Denmark, the elector of Brandenburg, yea it may be also to the emperor, as during the war with England they sent or resolved to send every where.
They will also proceed at last to send a resident to Brussels, foreseeing, that this war, which Spain will have with England, will cause much piracy and depredation. Item, it is in good earnest, that Holland doth also labour to finish the treaty with France, whereof very suddenly some result will be brought into the generality.
There hath been also spoken of the visiting of ships at sea, which as well the Spaniards as the English begin to do; a thing, which the commerce of Holland doth judge intollerable, although the Hollanders did never forbear doing of it themselves during the last war. This is referred to the admiralties, and men are to make use of the maritime treaty against the Spaniards. And as to the English, they will endeavour to make one with them by the lord Nieuport, to the end likewise to debar the English by a treaty.
The embassador of France, accompanied with the lords Beverning and Viersen, with a good number of coaches, was this morning conducted as far as the Hornebridge, to be at noon at Maeslant Sluys, and to imbark before the Brill, where a man of war lies ready waiting for him; it being false, that he was desired by this state, or commanded by France to stay here to resume, continue, and finish the treaties or renovation thereof with France. The truth is, that Holland doth shew some eagerness to the renovation, but not so great, that they would for that retard the embassador, although he himself did sufficiently declare, that he would willingly stay for that purpose, which they have pass'd for a general compliment; and it would be no new thing, if the said heat, which Holland hath shewn for this renovation, do grow cold again. The embassador required to recommend the abolition of a new imposition in France laid upon the herrings, which he did promise. And in regard the commissioners did also speak to him in the behalf of the Vaudois, he said, that this state being willing to renew their treaties with France, ought to take heed not to meddle much with religion; as also the king would not meddle with that of this state. He hath left here his secretary to correspond with, and hath recommended him to the commissioners. Item, he recommended the consul Jannot; and that they would give him satisfaction, if they desired satisfaction to be given in France to the consul Deutecom.
The business of the embassy towards the east hath been again debated; but Holland not being ready, they have referred it till to morrow, at which time Holland promised to be ready; and the burgomaster Witsen being nominated at Amsterdam to be one, we shall see whether he will be named, and who more.
Yesterday was said by the lord president, that the minister of the elector of Brandenburg had required, that he would propose the nomination of embassadors towards Sweden and Denmark; as also to recommend the speedy payment of the subsidy provisionally resolved on for the said elector. Upon the first was again said by the lords of Holland, that they were not ready, but that they should be to day, hoping, that they would give Holland leave to name four; and so that from the other provinces there should come but two: whereupon the other provinces in a discursive way made answer, that they would allow Holland but two; yet I believe they will let them have three. And as to the fleet, to resolve to send it thither, there is yet much irresolution; and I do perceive, that notwithstanding they will resolve to send one thither towards the spring: for to resolve is easy, and in the mean time the success or bad success of the Swedes in Prussia will govern the sending of that fleet.
The like and more irresolution there is concerning the visiting of ships by sea. As for Spain, they do believe it is curbed enough by the maritime treaty, and will seriously endeavour to dispose England to agree to the same treaty. It is very pleasant to see how they persuade them elves of the exact observation of this maritime treaty by others, when they themselves have observed it so ill. And as to the project of securing the navigation by powerful convoys, (as in the year 1652) they do see inconveniencies enough, and do fear the same fortune, which happened the 19/29 May 1652. The most part are of opinion, that they ought first to endeavour to finish the maritime treaty.
Yesterday was again debated the nomination, or rather the distribution of the embassy. Holland did very much insist, that they ought to have four. Besides this Holland did propose, that it would be requisite to send an extraordinary embassy to the king of Spain, without giving any other reason, only that the honour, which he hath done this state by sending hither his embassadors, doth deserve the reciprocal favour. And they discourse here of sending thither an embassy of three or four persons. And men have an eye and discourse upon the lords of Ghent, Opdam, and Renswoude. It is remarkable, that this proposition of Holland at present doth meet with an acclamation and applause of those, that are affected to the prince, who formerly have always murmured against this project; for it is known the said affected have always been good Frenchmen, consequently bad Spaniards; and therefore do still wish no good to the princess dowager, in regard she did so much labour for peace. What is the reason then, why the king of Spain is so much in favour? The hatred of the protector, in regard they see, that the said king is resolved to make war against the English. Having also seen, that Spain hath pretty well cool'd the courage of the English in Hispaniola; item, durst look the fleet of Blake in the face; and that Spain in so little a time caused to be set forth so powerful a fleet. These considerations do make them believe, that the king of Spain is formidable at sea, and they will endeavour (if need be) to have him for a friend, in case England do behave it self too offensively.
The earl of Brederode is resolved to return into France, finding, that the nobility will no longer give him priority as the deceased lord his predecessors have had; and the other members of Holland will not in that do for him as he desireth.
Yet this morning they could not make an end of the nomination of an ambassador, although Holland in a body was in the assembly of the states general. The dispute was concerning the distribution. At length it seems they have agreed, that four members shall go towards the king of Sweden and Poland, three to Denmark, and two to the elector of Brandenburg, which are nine in all. Of these Holland will have at least four, and the embassy into Spain will be for one of Guelderland, and one of Holland; and the resident for Brussels will be in all likelihood one of Holland, called Sasburgh; but of all this nothing hath been yet concluded; but to finish the same the assembly hath appointed to meet to morrow by nine of the clock in the morning.
At last the state is happily delivered this morning of eleven embassadors; namely, of two for Spain, which will be for Guelderland and Holland; of four for Sweden and Poland, (which will be for Holland, Zealand, and Groningen) of three for Denmark, (which will be for Holland, Utrecht, and Friezland) and of two to the elector of Brandenburg, which will be for Holland, and for Overyssel. The lord of Ghent in all likelihood will go for Spain. Zealand desired, that they would first agree upon the instructions for the embassy for Spain, before they proceed to the nomination.
There hath been also spoken of conferring the charge of mareschal de camp; and although Holland did declare themselves unready, yet those of Friezland did desire a conference with those of Holland; which they having obtained, they told those of Holland, all that was possible to induce them to conform themselves with Friezland to the person of prince William. Those of Holland did declare, that they would report it to their principals.