A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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January (3 of 9)
To the right worshipfull the commissioners for securing the peace of the commonwealth for the county of Yorke.
Whereas his highness the lord protector sent out a proclamation, that noe delinquents shall beare office, and seing it, I informed the justices of many such, and made oath, that one Peter Jackson of Leeds hath been for diverse yeares last past in actuall armes for the late king against the parliament, and is now deputy bayliffe under Robert Hurst the elder of Leeds; whereupon the justices, the 15th of October last, sitting in the court at Leeds, sent for the said Hurst, and at his coming they demanded, if the said Jackson were a sworne deputy to him. He consessed he was, soe the justices shewed the said Hurst the said proclamation, and required him by vertue of it, to displace the said Jackson from his office; and when the said Hurst had read the said proclamation, he cast the same from him, and refused to yield obedience thereunto; but hath since, and doth still continue the said Jackson in his said office, they being both dissaffected to the commonwealth: and this informant knowes many other officers in the same condition.
Intelligence from Koninsberg, Jan. 18. 1656. [N. S.]
Although the conditions, upon which the peace between the king of Sweden and his electoral highness is concluded here, are kept very secret, yet the common report in this town contains, that his electoral highness shall renounce the alliance made lately with their high mightinesses; however the same is intirely denied at court, though it is known, that the Swedes have a long while insisted upon it. It is said with great probability, and contradicted by no body, that the Swedes shall have and enjoy half the toll at Pillauw, however, without any heightning or enlarging the same; and it is regulated, that all the goods and merchandizes out of Poland, coming by the way of Elbing, shall go through that port, which is believed will yield a considerable profit, and will ease the king from the troubles of making himself master of Dantzick. The Swedish men of war shall have liberty in case of necessity to enter the said port of Pillauw; however it be, the Swedes shew themselves exceeding well pleased with the said peace. If the aforesaid is true, then Dantzick is not comprehended in the said peace. The syndick of that city continues still here. Oxenstiern is to take his residence at Elbing, and govern from thence the royal Prussia. In Lithuania every thing is calm. They say that the Muscovite has offer'd the Swedes to deliver what he has occupied in that duchy, provided they would make over to him some district in Russia; but the Swedes, it is said, will give nothing but powder and ball.
A letter from Stetin.
Notwithstanding that according to all likelihood the treaties between his majesty of Sweden and the duke of Brandenburgh did seem, as if they would have had no effect, yet now the contrary doth appear, as we are informed by the last letters from Koningsberg; how that the rix chancellor thought to have returned re insecta, but that at last he was staid by the duke, and the treaties were reassumed, and the chiefest points finished and concluded what concerneth the city of Dantzick, though it was thought, that the duke would not conclude without taking in their interest; yet that the same was not comprehended in the treaty; whereupon the inhabitants of the same are said to be very much troubled and discontented.
Here hath been a speech for a long time, that the king of Poland had endeavoured to join himself with his few troops to the Tartars and Cossacks; but that his design had no great success, as we are this day informed by the letters from those parts. Certain it is, that the king of Sweden hath had some words with the French embassador d'Avaugour, declaring to him, that his majesty of France, upon the request of the pope, had assisted the king of Poland with some monies, which the embassador denyed, and saying he had no knowledge of it, and that it was not to be believed, the king with much circumstance did shew a great discontent about it, and in an ill humour left the embassador. The next day the king (seeking an opportunity) came and spoke very kindly to the embassador, caressing him with words, and pressing him by the hand, he did sufficiently declare, that he would be glad, if the embassador would not take ill that, which had past between them, and that he would not write the same to his king. Since that the embassador is gone to Elbing; but without all doubt hath sent word to his king by an express of what had past between his majesty and himself. This is very certain, and that the Swedes are no more so good French as they were formerly.
A letter of intelligence.
Although the conditions of the peace made between the king of Sweden and the duke of Brandenburgh are kept very secret, yet it is the common report here in this city, that the duke of Brandenburgh is to renounce the treaty lately made with their high and mighty lordships; but the same is strongly denied at court, although it be very well known, that the Swedes did very much insist upon that point. It is considently believed, that the Swedes are to have half of the toll in the Pillauw, without that the same shall be raised or molested. The Swedes do seem to have a great deal of satisfaction in this treaty. It is not yet certain, whether Dantzick be concluded in this treaty.
Mr. William Swyft to secretary Thurloe.
I Have conveyed your letter to call home mr. Rolt by post to Dantzicke, and have given order, that an expresse shall be sent thence with itt to him (the speediest, safest and most thristy way I could devise for the delivery thereof.) I hope hee will receive itt before this comes to your hands. But if itt should miscarry, I cannot understand what is further to bee done by mee, unlesse you would bee pleased to send another letter to the same effect, and vouchsafe mee a copy thereof, that I may thereupon by every post and all oportunities send unto him, until I am assured he hath received your directions. If the former bee not lost, stopt, or taken by the souldiery of Prussia, who are in armes against the king of Sweeden, the envoye may bee here in five weekes from this tyme; but whether the Elve will be then open or not is uncertaine; but 'tis affirmed, that at Rotterdam the Maze is seldom or never shutt up about the end of February. If your honour will be pleased to appoint before mr. Rolt comes hither, where he shall take shipping, I shall acquaint him when he comes to Hambrô with your orders, and in the meane time wait there for what you shall thinke fitt to give further in command to,
Daniel Searle, governor of Barbados, to the protector.
May it please your highnes,
In pursuance of your highnes commands to mee directed for the examination of a complaint to your highnes, exhibted by Samuel Wade of Topham in the countye of Devon, gent. concerneing his sonn Samuel Wade's being shott to death upon the island Montserat by command of the governor coll. Royce Osbourne; in obedience thereunto I have sent for the said coll. Osbourne, togeather with such witneses as were mentioned in a list I received from your highnes, and such others as were supposed to be material evidences, and were on the island, upon whose arrivall my selfe and councell fully examined them, not only on those interigatories receved from England, but on such others likewise as were thought fitt to be exhibited for more cleare and fuller discovery of the truth and circumstances relateing to the saide Wade's death. The perticulers of our proceedings therein, and the saide coll. Osbourne's answer to the complaint, as alsoe the charge against Samuel Wade at his triall at the courte martiall, together with the depositions of those evidences heare examined in presence of the said coll. Osbourne, I doe hearwith transmitt to your highnes: humbly leaveing the same to your highnes for the detaineing coll. Osbourne heare in the island. He is againe returned to his charge in the goverment of Mountserratt, untill your highnes further pleasure be made knowne unto him.
The last of December the Marston Moore frigatt arrived to the island. I received from the commander thereof severall declarations of your highnes; the one setting forth the justice of the cause against Spaine, th'other for encouragement of such as shall transplant themselss to Jamaica. Although I have not received any order or commands from your highnes therein, or from any minester of state, yett have caused them to be read in the severall parish churches and meeting places of this island. The saide frigatt haveing refreshed themsellfs with water parted hence the 4th of this moneth. Nott haveing else at present I doe in all humility subscribe my selfe,
Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.
I Received the last post the honnor of your letter of the first instant, and in it thos hugely obliginge expressions, which I could not be more satisfyed with, then troubled that I cannot deserve them.
I heere unclosed present you with our proclamation to hinder the greate confluence of Scots into Ireland. If we have made it too rigid, I hope that wil be esteemed an error of the right hand, consideringe what occasions it.
I have begun to sett some of the sober and honnestest of this nation to worke, to offer what might discriminate them from thos, who hate and will not cheerfully live under this government. Som fruits I dayly expect, which as soone as received shall be transmitted unto you by, Sir,
J. Drummond to secretary Thurloe.
May itt pleas your honour, thatt whatt I writt last unto you annent the removall of generall Monck, I find now soe many grounds, thatt if att this tyme upon anie termes he be removed, all will turne here to confusione. Altho' my respects to hime be greatt and manie, but this is nott the caus, I spok first unto your honour, nor doe I now writt unto your honour upon thatt accompt, but sincerelie for the peace of this land, of which his . . . . cannot be . . . ., but sal instantly turne to consusione, if he is removed: for instead of the eight personns I told your honour were come in here as messengers from Charles Stewartt, ther ar eight-score priests and Jesuits come in and daylie . . . . for making ane combinatione. Thatt nothing be wanting for mischief, when opportunitie sal be offered, what they considently assure all off, if anie thing sal prove wrong in the West-India-expeditione, and thatt the king of Spaine and all Cristian kings wil be readi for all possible assistance for taking off all apprehensions of fear in anie to engadge, and to prepare for that effect. Thes agents goes in beggers habit, under other names; butt I am hopfull, that some of them sal be catched. They doe nott delyver anie letters, butt they have articles, as grounds of the assurance they give, which ar promised unto me, and zour honor be the nextt I hope sal receive the same. This wofull dissatisfaction in the ministrie against the governmentt, and the disserences amongst themselves, is the greatest encouradgmentt they have to attempt such bussines. The hail highlands and ilands in Scotland ar all Atheists, butt ther inclinatione is to poperie, and ther hail superstitione tending thatt way. They are everie day going as beggers to Ingland to keep correspondence. More your honour fall hear be the nextt. The report was heir, that there be letters come unto Argyle's dochter, the king's maistres. Whatt is truth in thatt, I have not yet learn't; butt I know thatt ladie was in murning, and mutch privatt devotions; butt this I know, that my lord Lorne has had ane meeting of all his frends, who ar nott few. Itt is given out, thatt the same is for taking order with his debts, which notwithstanding does nott agree with his capitulatione, who is not permitted to have meetings of frends or others withoutt advice and consent of the commander in chief. General Monk is well enoughe advised quhatt to doe, in regard I was att London, and had some favorable audience off his highnes and some acquaintance with zour honour. The bodie of the ministrie heir finding thatt ther dissaffectione to the present governmentt and ther differences among themselves has encouradged thes locustes to make this attemptt, they have therfore sentt some off the most eminentt among them unto me, thatt something may be presented to his highnes, thatt ane harmonie and understandinge might be betwixt his highnes and the ministrie, albeitt it was the motionne I ever hard, I lyke it best, yett fearing some defectt, and for proving the realitie of this motionne, I have drawne up some considerations for them, wherewith to be satisfyed, before anie thing should be spokene, quich I have writtene herin, thatt I may have zour honour's advyse quhatt to add or alter. The considerations are;
First, thatt they wold now leave off ther opinions of ther being oblidged by ther covenant to stand for the interest of Charles Stewart, which continews no longer, nor he was in power, and nott now quhen he is removed.
Secondlie, thatt they would look upon the series of providence in bringing downe thatt familie, as ane act of divine justice, and nott to imputt the same to miscarriage off instruments in armes or otherwayes.
Fourthlie, that they wold not forbere prayer for Charles Stewart as forced or compelled, but outt of conscience; and thatt they joine in prayers and otherwayes for his highnes, affaires being now to engadge with the common eneme for taking off the inquisition of Spaine, the greatest tirranie on earth against the reformed religion.
Fifthlie, that they wold considder quhatt encouradgementt the pope and his crew has to send in his agents, seeing the dissaffectione of all unto the governmentt and ther own differences, and quhatt grounds the same doth yeild unto them to gain ther poynt.
Last, thatt they wold considder how greatlie they have provoked his highnes by ther long oppositione, and how farr he is * * lest if they sall longe continew, thereupon . . . the eneme taks sutch advantage.
Sir, if ther stomacks disgest thes, zour honour may be confidentt, they are reall. Therfor I have umbly laid them before zour honour, thatt I may have zour advyse, till which tyme I will not meddle. If this succeed, and zour honour held the course on foot off taking away the idle vagabonds and robers for the expeditione, wherby in all probabilitie ther may be ane well-grounded peace, thes onlie instruments of mischieff being first takene away.
Ther was some other thing I spok of unto zour honour annent generall Monck, thatt in regard off his great services sumething should be conferred upon him be his highnes, in place of the of the island of Ila, whereof the duke of Leanox, as I told zour honour, had a lease for many years to come: therfore something considerable might be given in Ireland; as also collonel Bryen governor of Innerlochy, ane excellent wyse man, quho hath done more in setling the peace in the hilands and in Lochaber, quhere ther was nothing but barbarities, that now ther is not one robbery all this year; although formerly it was their trade they lived by to robbe and steall. This must alsoe be takine into consideration by his highnes in giving him land into Ireland. Also his areares in Ireland; for ther is nott any meane so powerfull to mak men carfull in thes ill times, nor quhen they see thes incouradged, quho have formerly done good services in ther places; butt I dare not lett anie off thes know, that I was so bold as to writt or speak anie thing of this unto zour honour; butt I know it to be ane meane to advance the service, and therfore withoutt respect to them doe I speak. As for quhatt his highnes did recomend to general Monck, in relatione to my self, I am still in the countrie waiting for occurences for preventing of mischief; and therfore thatt business relating to me being in his hand, I know he will be myndfull of itt, for I will not distrust thatt. We have laid down the cource assuredlie to get knolledge of the most secret bussines, that Charles Stewart shall send hither be the earl of Perth and his son, quho has ane cowsen major generall Drummond with him in chief trust, and he will convey the same to them and they to me, quhich they will continew in doing, albeitt thir fine was not taken off, quhich lest it sould have been ane precedent to others to if next the lyk favor wer givine also, I have made them content to pay the fine, and to continew in this correspondence also, upon hopes that they shall have ther assessment abated unto them for ane tyme, and as they deserve itt, which abatementt being takine off, the haill abatementt allowed for the haill countries will be no charge unto the estatt: this conforme to the paper I have from zour honor in order to them, quhich as yett I have not givine to generall Monck; butt I can assure, he will doe itt, for itt is no charge at all unto the estatt, and will make them carefull quhat they promise, and quhen they they know to wantt itt; and their caise is peculiar, having ther houses burnt, and lands wasted by the eneme, and fyned by his highnes. I writt of this the more large, because I have nott delyvered the paper, the precedentt of the councell being sick at my return; and now I am in the country upon busines. Zour honor is troubled with this long letter, but in regard of your owne greatt busines, let mr. Lockier and collonell Bridge give me the returne and answer therof. I have no further, butt thatt I am,
The commissioners for Yorkshire to the protector.
May it please your highness,
The petition and paper herewith humbly presented from a well-affected person, and the matter therein represented is concerning a place of the greatest trade and most populous in our county; and we finding it directly contrary to your highness's proclamation in that behalf, and a great mischief, and that in our humble opinions in case many such cases may fall out within this commonwealth, (namely, that persons not wellaffected to the publick peace and present government, and to the good people, who have contributed their assistance in time of trouble and danger against the common enemy be in office) it may be of inconvenience to the peace of the commonwealth, have thought it our duty humbly to represent it to your highness, and shall be ready (by God's assistance) to secure your highness for the peace of the commonwealth, and humbly wait for your highness's further directions not only in this but in all such cases; our instructions (as we conceive) not extending hereunto. There are also many stewards of courts, solicitors, attornies, and other officers in these parts, who have been very stirring for the late king's party, and are and have been very active in such places against well-affected persons, and do thereby act the cavalier's revenge against honest men, who have been instruments to the commonwealth's service, which we do find a great discouragement to and oppression of honest people; all which we humbly leave to your highness's further consideration to take such course herein as your highness shall think fit, remaining
Your highness's most faithful humble servants,
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.
I am amazed to read the paper, which came enclosed in your lordship's of the 2d instant, not thinkinge, that Vernon's discontent was blowne up to soe great a height, nor haveinge heard before he was a preacher. I see his highnes is not alone in these exercises; and I trust your lordship beares them with his spirit; and then it will be better for you, then if you had beene without them. I was bold by my last to let your lordship understand somethinge of his highnesse apprehensions both of thinges and persons with you, wherein I wrott a great truth; and your lordship may relye upon it, whatever is suggested to the contrary by any other hand.
Wee are heere as to the outward appearance in a peaceable state; how longe it will last, the Lord only knowes. It is certeyne enemies of all sorts endeavour trouble and disturbance. By letters I received this day from my lord Broghill I understand, that there is a close correspondence between the royall partye in Scotland and that in Ireland. A person is apprehended, who confesses, that he was to be sent from some lords in Scotland to some very considerable persons in Ireland, (who yet are not named) who had promised to send into Scotland some good numbers of men in the fisher boates, which use to goe from Ireland about Lent to fish on the Scotch coast. As any thinge further appeares concerning this, your lordship shall have it. In the meane tyme I thinke it will not be amisse to have an eye to them in Ireland.
His highnesse had an expresse this weeke from Geneva, whereby the protestant cantons of Swisserland have represented to hym in most pathetique expressions the sad condition they are in by reason of the insolence and insufferable carriage of the popish cantons and their other neighbours of the same religion; who have already, to witt, the canton of Switz, put to death four of their inhabitants merely for turninge from popery to embrace the protestant profession, and that they are necessitated for their owne defence to have recourse to armes, and doe therefore most instantly beseech his highnesse, that he would afford them some pecuniary assistance and further ayde therein, as there shall be occasion, without which they shall be swallowed up of their popish neighbours, who compasse them about, as the pope, the Spanyard, Savoy, Milan, Burgundy, &c. And it is very likelye, that they will be in open warre, before wee shall receive the next letters; and if they be, it is very likelie, all the world, I meane the European, may engage in it, one way or other, when it is possible wee in these nations may have somthinge else to doe then fight one with another for wee knowe not what; and if the Lord be not the more gratious to us in the issue, some of us will be glad to wish and pray for the dayes wee now see and despise, and be ashamed of our murmuringe spirits in the midst of our highest enjoyments. And if the Lord would be pleased to bringe us to the latter by a gentler meanes, it would be a mercy; but I will not take up your lordship's tyme with discourses of this kinde; but havinge nothinge else to trouble you with, I begge leave to subscribe me
F. Ryngrave to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
Some two months since was signified to your high and mighty lordships, that a party of soldiers of Diedenhoven had brought prisoners into their garrison some inhabitants out of the country of Hartogenraede, where they are still kept in prison. In regard I have writ and spoken myself to the governor of that garrison to have them released, my endeavours had no other effect than a complimental letter; wherefore I thought it my duty to send your high and mighty lordships a copy thereof, and withal humbly to acquaint you, that last sunday another party of the same garrison came, and fetch'd away some more of the inhabitants and horses; by which second attempt it doth clearly appear, that their intention is to bring under contribution the country of Outremeuse, and first that of Hartogenraede. I have writ to the lord mareschal Schomberg governor of Metz about it, who is an understanding person. What answer I receive shall be communicated unto your high and mighty lordships.
Commissioner Pels to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
By the post from Koningsberg the treaty of peace made between the king of Sweden and the lord duke of Brandenburg is confirmed; so that now there is no doubt made of it; yet it is not yet published, and likewise kept very private. It is given out, that the said duke was necessitated thereunto, in regard all hope of assistance was in vain; and it was to be feared, that the assistance out of the Netherlands would arrive too late, and that there would be no resisting this winter. It is said, that the duke was ready to go to the king' at Bartenstein, and to confer with him by word of mouth of all things. Here enclosed I send your lordships a paper of the heads of the articles. His majesty of Sweden is to enjoy in the Pillauw half of the tolls, and half of the garrison.
This city of Dantzick doth now expect to be assaulted every hour; but I cannot perceive any other by the magistrates and people, than that they are resolved to defend themselves unanimously to the very last, hoping that the potentates of this sea-coast will not wholly relinquish them.
The English merchants at Dantzick to secretary Thurloe.
The jealousies of this magistracy, occasioned by the Swedes great successes, hath (for the better preserving of their privileges in so great mutations) occasioned them to give an oath and impose an unusual tax of head-money upon the inhabitants; the latter of which, though in it self of no great concernment, yet assented unto, might ingage us to the payment of greater, if by them demanded from us. We have therefore upon the following reasons refused to swear or pay that imposition:
2. That we dare not make to ourselves an enemy of any king in amity with the lord protector his highness, especially not the king of Sweden, seeing by the refusal of this magistracy to receive our goods, (that came late from England) because fore'd to unlade them at the Pillauw, from thence we would have brought them hither, through the inland streams, but by them impeded, so were enforc'd to unlade and lay up the same to a great value in the city of Elbing, of which place the king is now master; so that by paying a contribution, or taking any oath to them, we might run the hazard (according to the rules of war) of losing the aforesaid.
But notwithstanding our reasons and requests, they are again importunate with us for the doing of both, which yet we dare not assent unto, but humbly address ourselves to your honour, begging the remonstrance of the premisses to his highness the lord protector; humbly adding, that although so far remote, we are yet members of that body, and hope protection from him not only in the premisses, but that in the seasonable conjuncture, offers may be done to the Swedish embassador for the obtaining of such privileges for us in this place or elsewhere, as the company of Hamburgh has there, that we may with them have the liberty of selling the manufactures of our nation to all merchants whatsoever, and of buying all commodities, and also transporting them through all his inland streams, so that we residing here may not in the sale of our manufactures (the golden mines of England) be longer obliged to trade only with the citizens and people of this city, who by reason of some privileges granted by the kings of Poland, have so long enforced us to groan under them, to our great prejudice, and prejudice of our manufactures; but that our manufactures may as well here in Dantzick, as through the kingdom of Poland, be transported, and carried without the paying those great impositions, being well nigh 20s. per cloth, through which great burden Silesia and some bordering towns rob us of that trade, which was formerly the imployment of many thousand families of our own nation; nor is it without our great grief to consider, that in former years 40 or 50 thousand northern kersies have yearly been imported hither, and now by reason of the great burdens laid on that manufacture, 300 yearly are not made sale of in this country, to the great prejudice of our northern manufacture, and so in some proportion other manufactures. Much more would be wrote, but we dare not trouble you at this time. We humbly desire his highness's commands to us, in what is now demanded from us, and that you would be pleased to procure a letter of favour from him to this magistracy in our behalves, which we humbly beg may be sent forward to
A letter of intelligence.
We hear from Rome, that the queen of Sweden made her folemn entrance therein on the 30th of last month; that she was received by the facred college at the gate called del Populo, where she mounted on horseback between the two legates, a hat upon her head, clothed after the French fashion. That on Christmas day she received afterwards this pretended sacrament of confirmation; that she had dined in publick with the pope in his chamber, his table being half a foot higher than the said queen's; that after the ceremonies of her reception she was lodged in the palace Farneze, there to be as long as she shall sojourn in Rome, which was to be three months, during which she was to be feasted by the pope at the rate of 1000 crowns per diem, and afterwards go for Naples, and from thence for Spain, where she will turn a nun; and that the French minister seeing her so possessed by the Spaniards, did not render her the least respect.
The other news from Italy are, that prince Thomas had really lost his son Emanuel of the small pox, as I informed you on last saturday; that 600 French foot were landed in a post near Genoa for the said duke of Modena his service, and that a deputy from the popish cantons of Swisserland was arrived at Milan, to call back the soldiers of their nation to the war of their country, and to demand other relief from the Spaniards.
The little queen has feasted in the palace royal the duke of Modena, who was a few days ago received in the queen-mother's coach as she was going to her devotions in one of the nunneries of our suburbs; a particular honour, which it's said was never done unto any prince of his sort.
The chambers of this parliament have much pressed for a meeting to oppose the king's new edict concerning the monies; but his majesty has forbidden them to meet, and hath referred the consideration of that edict unto the court of
Monsieur Minard to monsieur de la Bastide.
I Believe my lord embassador will hardly be able to write to you by this post, being abroad at present, ready to depart. I have not much to say to you at present, only to signify unto you the reception of your last packet.
The cardinal hath writ a very fine letter in answer to the brief, which the pope sent him, to exhort him to use his endeavours with the king for the setting on work this great business; wherein his eminence doth assure his holiness, that there was no need of his intercession to dispose his majesty to the peace, who of himself was so eager of it; and that he did offer to come in person to Savonne or Avignon to hasten the conclusion, to the end to give peace to his people.
Mr. Ph. Sandys to Fleetwood lord deputy of Ireland.
Many eyes are upon you, some to abuse you, some to amuse you, some to serve you. You are not well advised in every thing. God hath given you sweet abilityes, they need a little more fire. This age may bee complyed with, it can never bee subdued with your sweetnes. Delayes weare out the hopes of your frends, and they feede the hopes of your enemyes; for they thinke, that if you doe your frends courtesyes, and move but slowly in that and in doeing justice, in time your resolutions in eyther may bee weakened, and such constructions put upon your actions, which may render you lesse considerable than now you are. For my part, sir, I wish you very well, and value you above gold and silver, and soe did Jesus Christ too, or els hee had never shed his blood for you. But give mee your freedome a little; for ought you know enemyes have it with you, why should not a frend? Doe you thinke, that Cæsar's stratagem is not still working? Have they any way to worke it but by assaulting mindes? Have they any way to doe it, but indiscerneably? viz. by ingratiating themselves into affections, pretending noe other busines but to serve and wayte upon any they have a designe upon. My lord, these are noe riddles, they are plaine thinges. Thinges beeing soe, why doth your lordship suffer confluences of persons of all sorts to have perpetuall accesse to you, to your table, I cannot say to your bed-chamber? It is not, that I would advise any person in honour not to bee noble. I am farre from it, God hath given mee as noble a mind as any man of my condition in the world: and if my condition were riseing, I thinke something else would rise too, not in pride, but in noblenes. But I will assure you, my lord, as the case now stands, the course you take is not prudentiall in many respects. For first, it seemes too popular, and the affectation of that was it, which ruined major generall Harrison, his minde being poysoned with that venome. Surely, sir, it's God's mercye, if you are not soe too. But this is not all; beesides popularity, 'tis needles in the transaction of state affaires; for doe the persons, that come to you, come to you aboute busines or not? If yea, never take private cognisance of any thing that is judiciall; if not, why soe much time taken up in applications, when as your time might bee spent better? Sir, there is a time of action coming, and I will assure you your time must bee spent otherwise, or els Christ will bee angry. 'Tis time to dally noe longer with complyances; it argues feare, and 'tis but a fleshly weapon. Oh! but you receive the requests of divers frends; are the requests just? find them soe at the councell upon evidence, not in your chamber or dineing roome upon suggestion. Keepe that course, and wee must have division still, beecause wee cannot have justice, where suggestions are the rule of judgeing, and an auricular representation almost admitted for evidence. My lord, I write these things sighing; it beecomes mee not to speake too playne; yet who doth not see that I speake true, that knows mee, and shall know this? For my own particular, I value it not, I see my way, my patience will weare these thinges thred bare, 'tis soe inured to hardship and harshnes of usage. To wave sleights and indignities, my comfort is, that whilst the world sleights mee, Jesus Christ doth not, and you will know it ere long; but I assure you there is a voyse, &c. I leave you to imagine the rest. Sir, I have many things to speak, if I were sure I should not be troublesome. I am sollicitous for you, but neither beyond my duty nor my sphere, if either were well known; but as God hath made that known as yet only to myself, so think I shall be under some censure, till God makes it known to others, which I think will onely be done by degrees. My lord, I am, if any man in the earth be,
By the commissioners appointed by his highness and the council for securing the peace of the county of Middlesex and city of Westminster.
Having received directions for suspending of our proceedings against you, which accordingly we have hitherto done; but you not producing unto us any discharge, these are to give you notice, that in pursuance of the orders and instructions from his highness and the council, we have assessed you the sum of three hundred pounds per ann. for three thousands per ann. real estate within the said county and city, which you are to pay half yearly by even and equal portions unto John Baldwin, esq; receiver general, at his lodgings in the Tower; the first payment to be made and paid the one and twentieth day of January instant, the second payment to be made and paid the four and twentieth day of June next ensuing; and so yearly and every year for the future upon the one and twentieth day of December, and four and twentieth day of June, until the said tax shall be taken off or remitted; and if you shall refuse or neglect to make payment thereof upon the days aforesaid, or within twenty days after, your estate is liable to sequestration. You are likewise to bring unto us to Hicks-Hall upon wednesday next by nine of the clock in the forenoon, a just and exact particular (subscribed with your name) of all your estate both real and personal, within the said city and county, containing the several houses, quantity of land, the yearly value, where they lie, and in whose tenure or occupation.
The council to the lord Broghill.
The council have taken consideration of your lordship's letter of the 11th of October last, and therein take notice of the great care of the council in prosecuting your instructions touching the recovery of such part of the revenue as hath been concealed, detained, or made away, which of right doth belong to the commonwealth, and of the difficulties by you suggested; and do upon the whole matter incline, that the same be done in the court of exchequer to be set up there, as near as may be conformable to that of England, for judging in matters of inheritance between his highness and the people, with such limitations and restrictions as may restrain their jurisdiction only to what concerns any part of the revenue made away by king James and the last king, contrary to the laws of Scotland, and to lands and profits belonging to bishops, or any branch of that hierarchy unduly alienated; but having not here the copies of the acts of parliament mentioned in that letter, the council have thought fit to recommend it to the council there, to consider of and prepare a draught of an order for the setting up the court of exchequer there, as shall be judged most effectual to the ends aforesaid, and as may avoid those inconveniencies your lordship mentions, and to return the same unto the council, who thereupon may better be able to give their advise to his highness herein. They do also recommend to the council there to expedite the settlement of the receipt of the exchequer in Scotland, the doing whereof they apprehend will be of much advantage to the publick. It is also the desire of the council, that the copies of the acts of parliament before mentioned be also sent unto them, with the draught of the order for setling the court of exchequer.
Mr. Ed. Rolt to secretary Thurloe.
I Have receaved from you the two last posts by each a letter; the first inclosed in one of the 4th of November from resident Bradshaw, but without a date; the other of the 21st of December, that you have pleased in them to give me a commission I shall with speed execute, resolving (the Lord willing) to morrow to repaire to the court, which is at present 14 miles from hence, at a town called Shippenseil; and haveing don my duty there, I shall with all speed returne to Hamburg, as you have pleased by his highnesse's commands to order mee in your last and most welcome letter, where I shall attend your honour's pleasure, either to passe by shippe from thence home, or to goe by land into Holland, as you shall direct. All the newes here is the expectation of the conclusion of peace with the elector of Brandenburg, which is, or will be speedely compleated. Major general Henderson the Scotchman is heere, and hath often vissited mee. He tells mee, that hearing of his highnesse's preperation for a forren warre, he hath proposed to his highnesse, and alsoe to your selfe by letters, the offers of his service, if his highnesse will please to imploy him. He seemes with much earnestnesse to desire it, and faith, that he waites your honour's answer; and if it be not accepted, he is resolved to addresse himselfe to the king of Sweaden for entertainment under him, having refused a proper employment from the emperor, from whose court he is lately come. There is noe thing of note occured since my being heere worthy your honour's knowledge; therefore with my humble service presented, I shall leave further to trouble your honour at this tyme. I rest
H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
I Shall not by this give you any further trouble, then to let you knowe, that you may expect a more large and perticular account of affaires heer by sir John Reynolds, whoe is prepareinge for Englande with all possible speed. I should scarce have parted with him at this time, hade not you given hime intimation of his H. pleasure; but I hope his beinge with you for a time may not be alltogether unprofitable for us. I was the more free to let him goe, in regard of the supply you lately sent us of the towe collonells, who arrived heer upon satterday laste. I ame verry well pleased, and well satisfyed with collonell Cooper, judgeing him to be a verry sober and worthy person ; and I doe believe your expectation will be fully answered by hime in his commande of the northe ; and I am not without hopes, but that Sankey may bee of some good use heer; but I dare not too much boaste of him at present, least he should leave me in the lurch, as he did some, you may please to remember when. Wee have had a meetinge, that bothe the collonells might understand the grounde of all the clamours of persecution raised by some heer, wheer some of themselves were present, and had freedome to object what they could either against my publike or private actinges. Howe vaine they weer, I had rather you should be informed from others then my selfe; but, I hope, it will appeare, that I have carried my selfe like an honest mane to all, notwithstanding the harde measure I have received from some. A faire complyance shall be from me towardes all, soe farre as it may consist with publique safety. Collonell Sankey himselfe hath confessed to me, that nothinge will satisfye some of his brethern but the saddle; but I shall keep them frome that, least they should make me their asse. I bless the Lord all heer is quiett, and noe present appearance of danger either from them or our common enemy. The 20000 l. that is comeing will helpe us to quiett the souldiers, whoe indeed weer and are in verry great streights. I am glade to heare, that you thinke of us, for some further supply of money, which your last letter gave me an account of; as allsoe that misrepresentations frome hence hade not imprest uppon his highness. I ame prevented in time, and therefore crave leave to remaine,
Major general Goffe to secretary Thurloe.
I Have received yours with the inclosed aditionall instruction to the comissioners for securing the peace of the common-wealth, which I have this night communicated to those in Hampshire, where I now am, and have been keepinge of sessions these two dayes, Dr. Stephens being our chaireman, and gave the charge, and in all things expresseth himselfe very cordially for his highnes and the present affaires. Coll. Norton and mr. Love were with us att the bench, and all things seeme to goe on very cheerefully ; but Foxe and two more eminent northerne quakers have beene in Sussex, and are now in this county, doing much worke for the devill, and delude many simple soules, and att the same time there are base bookes against the lord protector disperst among the churches, but rejected by all sober men. I have some thoughts to lay Foxe and his companions by the heeles, if I see a good opportunity.
I thinke to goe on monday next to Redding to the sessions there, and allsoe to a meetinge of the comissioners appoynted att the same time, and soe to returne to this place, which I thinke to make my constant place of abode; only to spend 4 or 5 dayes att a time in Barkesheere and Sussex, and returne againe. If you please to lett me know, that his highnes doth approve of this place, it woulde be a greate encouradgement to mee, to endeavour some conveniencyes for my setlement here with my familly: for the present I lodge in mr. Whitfeeld's house, who is a very godly minister in this place.
When I was last att Lewis, C. Werden one of our comissioners, desired to speake with mee privately, and after some appollogie for himselfe, that he bare noe ill will to the gentleman, tould mee, that he did perceive by lord protector his making B H. S. that he had a speciall confidence in him, and therefore held himselfe bound in reason to lett mee know, what he had heard of B: and soe went on to tell me, that after B had received his comission for 80, an honest 25 came to him, and tould him he wondered that B was in soe much favour with lord protector for, saith hee, I was lately in his company, and was saying, that wee had greate cause to blesse God, that had given us such rulers &c. at which B was silent for a good while, and att last brake out most rudely, and saide that 95 was an base knave and a proud fellow and speake many other things against the government which I did not presse him to repeate; these words were spoken before B had his command; but if this were his spirit, I doubt his comission hath not so farr converted him, but his new wife, which he got since his comission, being a notorious malignant, may againe pervert him; and besides honest men are troubled to see him soe greate a 70 of disaffected persons and a countenancer of an malignant meeting, which is kept up in that parte of the country where he lives, where they drinke and game &c. 36. allsoe said, that B his trum could say much of B his words and actions that were not right. Thus you have now the ground of my opinion concerning B; which having represented, I shall leave to be made use of as you shall thinke fitt, and for the present take my leave and remaine, sir,
Fr. Underwood to secretary Thurloe.
Since my last I have againe speake with capt. Whetstones, who for the present is busy in taking the two gulls, but conceives hee may bee at liberty about the midle of February, to intend your busines, resolving when hee doth beegine with it, to proceed without intermission more then what the necessety of ill weather shall constraine him to. Sir, I perceive there will bee little cause to increase the men off the militia forces, by what is likly to bee raysed in this county toward pay of them, the summes not likly much to exceed the particular here inclosed. I have beene here 3 times since my retourne from London, and am now pressing toward a conclusion, to retourne his highness an accompt of it. There is a respitt upon mr. Chichley's estate, and is in refference to a letter sent from my lord protector, to that purpose, and his is the most considerable estate of any one man's in this county, and sir Anthoney Cage his busines beeing not yet fully setled, and these two are the mayne of what will bee to bee added. Sir, I shall trouble you no further save only this, that when your leisure will permitt, you will please to send . . . . for the compleating my troop. I confess I know not yet where to find an officer in the south part of the isle, unless it bee capt. Coale of Sittleport; and if you are pleased to think of any about Wisbeich for the other, I shall bee glad the commissions might come filled rather then blank; and if you please to recommend any thereabouts for souldiers as oppertunety is offered, I shall be glad to bring them in upon vaucanseyes. I am sir,
I doubt not, sir, but in your care taking to reforme the balifes of the Esle, that none of them bee necessitated to fine, or pay rents, for theire places, that beeing an introduction to theire undue fees taking.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
La declaration, que la Hollande a fait de ne vouloir pas demanuer sa quote au subside de Brandeborch, si ce n'est que les autres provinces eussent aussy fourny les leurs, n'a este que pour stimuler les autres: Car sous main on a asseuré, que la Hollande fournira presentement; et la Zelande a aussy sa quote icy in loco. Les autres toutes sont encore fautives. Mais le traité pour l'emprunt des 200,000 rixdales est differé jusques a l'assemblée future de Hollande, qui ne sera qu'au mois prochain.
Le conseil du prince d'Orange a derechef requis les dismes des prinses faites par la companie d'Ost & West Inde, deües au prince comme admiral, & l'avis desdits companies a esté lu aujourd'huy; mais la Hollande y a contredit.
Hier tard fust assemblée; ou furent leu les lettres de Stetyn, Dansick, & Coningsberg: contenants d'un coste l'approche de grandes puissances de Tartares & Cosaques: auxquelles s'est joint le roy de Poloigne. Et de l'autré coste, la grand apparence d'accord entre les roy de Sweede & l'electeur. Puisque le chancelier Oxenstiern estoit venu a Coningsbergh. Le plus de difficulté restant: 1. Pour sauver l'alliance faite tant avec cest estat, qu'avec les estats de Prussie royale. 2. Pour sauver Dansigk. 3. Comment faire avec l'armeé. Car l'electeur ne l'osera pas casser, de peur d'estre accablé par apres par les Swedois: & l'entretenir oisive n'est pas en sa puissance ny finance: Ergo sera necessaire de se joindre avec les forces Swedoises. Mais contre qui? Il n'est pas sans apparence, qu'on en voudra a la Poloigne ou au duc de Nyborch. Et cest estat aura de l'ombrage, que l'electeur ne redemande les villes de Cleve.
Cest estat, au moins la Hollande s'est desia monstrée plus content de cest apparence d'accord entre la Sweede & Brandeborch, qu'ils ne facent des articles secrets. h. e. donnent de la Tarte. Car l'electeur aimera autant les grands peages que les Swedois, s'ils en peuvent venir about.
Le sieur Gent commis a remercier la princesse douariere de la notification de dissoudre la promesse de mariage de la princesse Henriette, & declarer que l'estat s'en rapportoit entierement a S. A. meme, en a fait rapport: & il en a esté remercié. On doubte si le prince d'Ostfrise a sceu aucune chose de cette notification: & cela piquera & l'alienera tant plus.
Il est certain que ceux de Hollande ont desia fourny leur quote dans les 120,000 France, pour Brandeborch, le cacheant devant les autres provinces: de peur que la promtitude de Hollande re rende paresseuses les autres. Le Zeelande de méme a desia fourny sa quote. Et la Hollande proposa hier, qu'on devroit resumer la besoigne touchant le prest des 200,000 rixdales sur le peage du Pillauw, pour Brandeborch. Et cela pour encourager a la guerre, laquelle on prefere fort a la paix ou accord; qu'on júge icy en toute façon dommageable pour cest estat, qui s'interesse si fort dans le commerce Baltique; que j'ay de bonne part: que la Hollande fera plustost la guerre a toutes les nationes que de perdre ce commerce: comme durant la guerre Angloise on avoit la maxime, de ne laisser passer pas un neutral par la mer, plustost que de patir une diversion du commerce.
A Dansigk la nation Angloise refuse de renouveller le serment, disants cela leur estre interdit par le protecteur: dont icy l'on a grande soupcon, que le protecteur soit d'intelligence avec la Sweede.
Hier le sieur Beverning a fait rapport du contenu des diverses lettres du sieur Ommeren 1. s'il doit achever le voyage vers Turin: ou demeurer a Geneve. 2. En cas de guerre entre les cantons, si cest estat voudra assister les protestants. 3. En cas d'accord, si cest estat voudra demeurer guaranter: sur quoy est resolu, que le sieur Ommeren subsistera a Geneve. Et pour les 2 autres points, on n'a rien resolu.
Ceux de Hollande ont ce matin proposé qu'on doive faire avancer l'ambassade vers Prussie; principalement au roy de Sweede. Sans que soit parlé de la flotte: dont on a fait tant de bruit. Estant bien vray, qu'Amsterdam seul en equippe les 24, mais ailleurs point. Et la Hollande a belle peur que electeur ne face paix & accord. Qui au mieux aller, ne sauroit estré que fort nuisible au commerce de Hollande. Et quelle precaution que l'electeur use pour l'interest de la Hollande, cela n'est rien. Car chacun ne garde le traité qu'a la mesure de son interest.
L'on ne comprend pas icy la reigle militaire de l'electeur, de n'admettre pas les tambours & trompettes qu'a jeulx bandes: & d'admettre le chancelier avec 300 cavailiers ou suivants les jeulx ouverts.
L'agent du conte d'Oldenborch a eu audience, souhaitant de la part de son conte un bon nouvel an a cest estat. Et ayant entendu, que cest estat envoyoit quantité d'ambassadeurs vers l'ost & nort, requeroit qu'en passant ils voulussent le venir voir, pour leur monstrer combien il honore & estime cest estat.
Ce matin, ayant este conference avec les ministres de Brandeborch, est sait rapport; qu'ils persistent & continuent encore de vouloir bien, que le gouverneur & garnison dans le Pillauw jure cest estat jusques a tant que les 200,000 rixdales soyent payes & ce en 8 termes.
Cest estat veut que ce soit en cinq termes: & se contente bien des conditions susdites pour le serment du gouverneur & garnison au Pillauw: mais cest estat veut avoir la hypoteque sur le pais de Cleve, a quoy les electoraux ne veulent point entendre. Et par ainsy l'affaire s'accrochera jusques a plus de certitude touchant l'accord ou rupture en Sweede.
Nieupoort, the Dutch embassador in England, to Ruysch.
Captain John Banker having convoy'd some ships from Zealand into this river of London, came to me on sunday last from Gravesend, and declared unto me, that a mariner of his ship was run away, and had entered himself aboard of one of the ships of this state in Tilbury hope, and that the lieutenant or master of that ship had arrested him the said captain for the payment of the said mariner's wages, which he had earned: Whereupon, according to the advice I gave him, he complained thereof to the governor of the castle, who presently sent to the mayor of the place, and thereupon the arrest was taken off, but that the officer of the English ship had threatned him, that he would make him pay him. I have caused complaint to be made to general Mountagu of the uncivil proceedings against the said captain and the pressing of a Scotchman, who hath served the united Netherlands for many years. He hath promised to have all these abuses remedied.
At the council at Whitehall,
Ordered by his highness the lord protector and the council, that the earl of Clare be discharged of any further proceedings against him by the major generals and commissioners upon their orders and instructions, and that letters be sent to the major generals for that purpose.
Major general Whalley to secretary Thurloe.
Receaved yours of the 8th this instant, and returne you my hearthy thankes for your newes, though very sorry to heare, that the poore protestants in Peidmount are in so sad a condition. I hope the Lord will seasonably appeare for theyr deliverance. Upon my comming to Lyncolne, I found that the commissioners here had bin very active, but had allowed incumbrances upon estates before Nov. 1. 53, and were resolved to send to you for theyre further direction therein; but I have geven them satisfaction, that by his highnes and councills orders wee are not to allowe of any incumbrances. They thought it hard to allow of mortgages, but they are satisfyed, and so where they found any estates so incumbered, resolved to goe over them agayne, which I shall see donne. Should mortgages be allowed, the tax in most places would come to little. I met here with an order of his highnes, that delinquents should be taxed for theyre estates that they had at or since 1. Nov. 53, though they have sold them. I writ twice to you presently after wee began to put our instructions in execution, for your resolution as to that poynt, many conceaying they were tyed by the orders and instructions onely to certify such estates as were sold. It's now resolved, and wee shall mend our saylings that are in some other places; but I earnestly desire, when any new directions or orders from his highnes and the councill are sent downe that they may be sent to me, that so I may communicate them to all the counties under my charge, that in our actings wee may be unanimous. The heate of our buysnes as to the taxing the delinquents is over; so soone as our lists are perfected, they shal be presented to you. In the meane time I desire wee may have an order for the paying the militia forces under my command out of the moneyes, that are or shall come in upon this tax: it's now above halfe a yeare since they were listed, and they expect theyr money. Wee have had many plowes agoing, that of ejecting scandalous ministers, depressing of rogues, taking bondes, providing for the pore, depressing ale howses, which were growne to incredible numbers, but could not throughly end all, by reason this tax upon the delinquents hath taken up so much of our time. I hope wee shall give you a good account of one thing after another, and suddenly of all. Sir, I humbly desire this, that as our acting is from the authoritie of his highnes and the councill, so our countermand may be from the same, and if I herein erre I pray rectifye me. I have herein sent you the informations agaynst George Walsham, he is runne away, and it's sayd, that he hides himselfe in his brother's howse, one Walsham, apotecary or druggest in Aldermanbury or Bucklersbury, and that his brother hath 200 l. of his in his hands, as also a letter from col. Lylburne. This Morley is with his maister mr. Grantham at London, who lyes in the same lodging as I am informed where mrs. Grantham his mother lodges, viz. neare Worcester howse over against the Golden spread eagle in the Strand. Wee have taken two or three scurvey bookes agaynst his highnes, that was brought to one Smyth the carrier of Boston, and directed to one Cox and another, two Annabaptists but very poore men. The bookes being wrapt up in browne paper was put into a packett of cloth, and brought to a townesman of Boston: he untyed the browne paper, wherein these bookes were, and within the inside it was written, that you are desired to communicate these to the best advantage. The carrier having bin examined by one mr. Yarborowe told him, that one that was a stranger to him, gave him them, and also that he did see severall such bundells geven to other carriers. Cox will not confesse that hee knew of any such bookes that were to bee sent him. Mr. Yarborowe is to come to me the next tuesday, and then I shall give you a more perfect account, and indeavour to search into the bottom of the buysnes. I shall not at present further trouble you. I remayne, sir,
Commissary Pels to the states general.
This city is yet firmly resolved to defend itself to the last. They did cause to be burnt yesterday and to day the suburb called Scotland, a very populous place; they will cause the rest of the suburbs out of the fortifications to be also burnt. This city doth confidently believe that your high and mighty lordships will take care and use all possible means to preserve the same and the free commerce thereof, without any molestation whatsoever.
Mynheer Henvliet to monsieur Huart.
The P. R. hath but one gentlewoman with her; therefore tell my daughter Catharine Stanhope, that her H. doth desire she will meet her at Paris with as much speed as may be; for if she be not at Paris at the beginning of Feb. she will not see any thing, for all the masques and balls will be finished before the end of that month.