A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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January (4 of 9)
Prince of Condé to Barriere.
I Have only to tell you in answer to yours of the 24th of this month, that at present there is some money a receiving for me at Antwerp, so that by the next I will send you 200 l. to pay the interest of the. Pray see if you can engage them for six months longer.
There is never a post that I write unto Spain, but it mentions something in my letter to the earl of Fiesque about your maintenance, that they will supply you with some monies. You may be sure I will do all what I can to assist you. The earl of Fuensaldagna is at Antwerp receiving of money, as soon as he comes I will also speak to him about it.
Major general Berry to secretary Thurloe.
I Have received the comission and papers, which you sent me, and cannot but acknowledge my lord's kindnes in his endeavour to keepe me from idlenes, though I am perswaded I could have made a shift to have found my selfe worke without any such enlargment of my limitts; but seeing he hath noe pitty for me, tell him I will take some care of my selfe, and yet not soe much as to neglect his commands; onely I must beg a little time to consider, which way to put them in execution: when I have my orders and instructions, I will hasten to the worke as fast as I can. I am now at last become civell, and have taken my place amongst such magistrates, in the quarter sessions at Sallop; where hath beene the greatest appearance that hath beene seene there for many cessions; and that you may see who were there, and what hearth they have for reformattion, I have sent you the coppy of an order or declaration, that we made and subscribed and read publiquely, and have promised effectually to observe, which if we and all others would doe, I am perswaded it would suppresse one halfe of the deboistnes and prophane practises of this nation. Some other acts of justice have beene done, which give men some hopes, that reformation may be wrought; some dissatisfyed justices are resolved to give us assistance, and we are not without hopes, that magistrates shal be a terrour to evill doers, and a prayse to them that doe well. I suppose by this time col. John Jones may be come to London. I pray you acquaint his highnes, that he hath beene very active and usefull to the carrying on of your worke in Wales, and by all meanes putt him into the comission for the peace in the northerne counties.
I pray you present my humble service to my lord, and tell him, I thanke him for his legacy; but because it is a jewell that is not fitt to be separated farre from the crowne, desire him to bestow it upon some that are neerer to him, who may better deserve it, and I shall content my selfe with my owne flowers at Lincolne, till I have a garden in Wales.
Major general Disbrowe to secretary Thurloe.
I Had yours with the inclosed instructions, which were welcome to me. As for mr. Butler, that is added by the councell, it's true he is a deserveinge gentleman, but not in a capacity to putt these instructions in execution, for I depute only such as are cloathed with authority, as the officers of the militia and officer of my owne regiment, they beinge only proper for the puttinge them in execution; and therefore in that must crave to be excused. As for the instruction you mention, it cannot come sooner then expected, especially for the satisfaction of friends, whose desyres are to walk regularly. Butt for the councell's dissatisfaction in makeinge persons of 50 l. per annum, lyable to this additionall tax, I shall not mention more, untill I have had conference with the rest of the major generalls, though my judgment clearely is, you will not loose one of them by itt, that otherwise might be gained, and without a change of their principles are better lost then found. I must desyre you, that sir John Davey barronett may be inserted in the commission of the peace for Devon. I have sent you a list of such names to be added for ejectinge both in Devon and in Bristoll as will effectually doe the worke; but for Glocester, Wilts, and Dorsett, I have not yet names; but assoone as I can pitch upon qualified persons, their names shall be presented to you, by him, who is
Major general Goffe to secretary Thurloe.
This is only to convay the inclosed petition, with the papers annexed, into your hands, earnestly desiring your helpe in presenting the same to his highnes, and to gaine his gracious answer thereunto. The first name mentioned in the petition is, one who hath beene as active, and indeed as usefull, as any one of the commissioners lately appoynted by his highnes and the counsell for the county of Suffex, and is a very honest godly man. And indeed I am informed, that this losse is a conciderable wound in his estate, and as I find him very ready to spend himselfe in the publicke service, soe I wish that something may be done for his encouragement. The petitioners say they have heeretofore found you very ready to assist them, for which they are very thankefull to you: the papers annexed to theire petition, you were pleased to procure for them, and wee now send them, that you may the better call to mind the business. Theire former solicitations have beene very expensive, and much increased there losse; and therefore they doe not now imploy any solicitor, but doe humbly hope, that you will be pleased to doe something for them, and let me have notice thereof, when you wright to mee about other bussines. Sir, I beceech you pardon this bouldnes; I hope it is a very charitable and honest worke, and if you cann doe any thing towards theire releese, many families will have cause to blesse God for you. Butt knowing your great forwardnes to every good worke, I shall not further presume to interrupt your more waighty occasions by adding any other arguments; only I shall desire some returne from you, that I may give some answer to the petitioners. I now comend you to the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and remaine
If something be done to the effectuall releese of the petitioners, you will thereby give mee a great reputation in Chichester, for most of the merchants in that city are concerned, and this losse hath beene a great blow to them.
A letter of intelligence.
Since my last the news of the total rout and defeat of the regiments of the two Polish waywoods Wiesniewitz and Coniez Polsky, by col. Aschenbergh about Coniez, is confirmed in the same manner as was then communicated; and that the said Aschenbergh (receiving certain intelligence at Schlochaw, that the remnant of the said defeated Poles, joined with the queen's forces under conduct of general Czarnetzky, were fled in great confusion, and past the river Netze about Nackell, where thinking themselves secure they had formed their league) has followed them straightways with his troops, with a full resolution to give them a second alarm and defeat, if he be able to overtake them; of the success of which enterprize an account is every hour expected. In the mean time it's certain and confirmed by several letters, that his majesty of Sweden upon notice of the said successful rencounter near Coniez, broke up immediately from before Dantzick with his whole body, (leaving nevertheless a considerable party under general Steinbock in the Werder) and advanced towards Coniez; which place his majesty aster two days siege forced by accord to submit unto him, and having beset the same with a competent garrison went thence srom Tauchell, (being also a very considerable place in Cassubia, and about two miles from the other) requiring the same likewise to submit; but they refusing, his said majesty laid also siege to it, where for as much as we know he as yet continues. Several letters from persons of quality to the Swedish resident here assure us, that a strict union and confederacy is fully concluded and ratified between the king of Sweden and the Transilvanian duke; by virtue whereof the said duke is obliged, and hath promised to break up with his forces, consisting at least of 40 or 50000 horse and foot, and fall into Poland with incredible celerity, whither he will also command the Cossacks innumerable legions to resort unto him, of whose sidelity and obedience he hath been lately, by their solemn oath or juramentum clientelare, assured, and there (it's said) his majesty of Sweden intends to meet and join with him, and so conjunctis invincibilibus viribus, to re-conquer those parts and places of Poland, which king Casimir hath recovered last summer. The Tartars do also wish to be in consederacy with the Swedes, having desired the said duke of Transilvania by a letter to endeavour to make their peace with his majesty. In my last I gave notice of an order given to the Swedish nobility and cavalry in the Stift of Breme to repair to a general rendevouz, and put themselves in posture of defence in omnem eventum, being it was feared the Danes had a design upon the said Stift; but we hear since no more of it, the Danes keeping themselves yet very quiet and peaceable, as if they thought no man any hurt. It's for certain reported, that the Poles have forced their queen back, and arrested her for their pay, being resolved not to dismiss her before the king gives them satisfaction. Letters from Dantzick, Koningsburg, and Marienburg this day arrived relate, that the Dantzickers having notice of his majesty of Sweden's departure, have sent out 4000 men upon a certain design, whereof the elector of Brandenburg receiving certain intelligence, hath sent an express to his majesty to return with all speed from Coniez with a flying body, in hopes to cut off the passage, and stop the return of the said party for Dantzick.
The protector to the king of France.
Cum ea jam eluceat in majestate vestrâ sides atque integritas, principe summo digna, quæ tam exteris quam vestris civibus justitiæ fructus uberrimos non promittat solùm, sed etiam nunc serat, id usque eo ignorasse Bellæ Insulæ præsidem, ut pacis scedus paulò ante sancitum & promulgatum inter ipsa initia, quæ vel pessimo cuique sancta esle solent, tam apertè violare ausus fit, perquàm sanè miror. Ab Roberto enim Vessio navis Lusciniæ, quæ ex præsidiariis hujus rei-pub. navibus una est, præfecto delatum nobis est, Bellæ Insulæ præsidem quinto decimo Decembris, alias etiam recentius, Dillonium quendam piratam, hujus rei-pub. perduellem, non solum portu accepisse rebusque omnibus juvisse, verum etiam navem quandam mercatoriam Kinsalensem ab co captam contra Vessium desendisse, immo ipsam Dillonii prædatoriam navem navali pugna sugatam nostrorum ex manibus eripuisie, quam alioqui Vessius vel cepisset procul dubio vel depressisiet. Hasc contra fœdus recens initum cum piases ille committere nullo modo possit, quin majestaterri quoque vestram pariter atque nos lædat, arbitramur hac in re nihil esse, quod à vobis postulemus potius quam expectemus; five in illum præsidem animadverti, five nobis satissieri velimus. Quod enim jus nostrum, id idem sides vestra sœderisque religio a vobismet ipsis æque flagitat. Quod reliquum est, majestatem vestram Deo opt. max. commendatam in primis volo. Dab. è palatio nostro Westmonasterii 13 Januarii, an. 1655–6.
Mr. J. Aldworth, consul at Marseilles, to secretary Thurloe.
My last unto you was of the 11th current, since which not any thinge hath presented worth your notice, saving that 5 dayes past arrived heare from Malta two ships of this place, that bringes newes of the arrived of two English ships att Malta from Smirna, on whom was the consill and all the English merchants, that lived att Smirna, having left the country on the advice they received, that the grand seigneor had ill-treated oure ambassadour att Constantinople about the buisnes acted att Tunis by gen. Blake. These ships bring advice also, that before the English shipps came from Smirna, they shott above 1000 cannon-shott against the town.
Wee cannot hitherto give much creditt to those reports, butt in a short time we shall know the certaintye thearof, here being a ship of this place dayly expected that comes directly from Smirna. It is supposed, that two of the Thollon ships of warr, that went out in coars, are lost by tempest. For present I humbly take leave, and remayne
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.
Not findinge any from you by this post, which is but newly come in, I have onely to cover the inclosed received this night from mr. Rolt, which I presume will satisfie you, that now all your letters are come to his hands, as I doubt not but ere this your last pacquett for his returne is allsoe with him. Mr. Swadle writes his merchants here, that he had not then received the money of captaine Curle by my order. I pray be pleased to order the payment of it, either to him or to my servant Hudson, whoe will attend you for it. I hope you will excuse me, if I mynd you of the busines of the company, till somethinge be resolved therein. With presentinge the inclosed weekly paper I cease your further trouble, and shall remayne,
Extract out of the register of the resolutions, of the high and mighty lords, the states general of the United Netherlands.
There was again produced in the assembly the letter written by the college of admiralty at Rotterdam, dated on the 21st instant, containing an answer to their high mightinesses letter of the 17th of the same month; and further a request, to be informed of their high mightinesses sentiments and intention, concerning what fort of ships, and within what space of time their noblenesses shall equip them, and where and in how they may have money and necessaries for the said purpose. At the same opportunity was again read the letter of the admiralty at Amsterdam, written at that place on the 21st instant, containing likewise the answer to their high mightinesses letter of the 17th of the said month, touching the same provisional fitting out of all the ships of war under their department; which being deliberated upon, it was resolved and agreed to, that both the said colleges should be written to, that their high mightinesses are now busy in deliberating and finally resolving upon the fitting out of an extraordinary fleet of 48 men of war against next spring, as also upon finding out the ready money and means necessary for the equipment of the said ships. In relation whereunto their high mightinesses are in hopes to come to a speedy and short resolution: that their noblenesses in the interim would be pleased, as far as possible, to procure, that some of their ships of war might be provisionally got ready out of their ordinary and extraordinary means, so that they may be compleatly fitted out and kept in readiness to go to sea and be imployed for the best services of this state, in manner and where-ever it shall be thought needful, immediately upon the resolutions to be taken by their high mightinesses on the said accounts. Consequently the college of admiralty is desired to get provisionally in readiness the large new ship for the lieutenant admiral, together with five more new ships in their repartition of 130 foot long. Further, the said colleges are also desired provisionally to buy up out of their ordinary revenues so many iron cannons, as is necessary to mount their said new ships of war. The said province being also required in the speediest manner to make good their arrears of the payments consented to, for the extraordinary equipments at sea, and the building of new ships of war, with all the appurtenances, which are consequent thereunto.
An intercepted letter of sir Edward Hyde.
My dear little John,
I Have received yours of the 17th of the last, by which I perceive you are in no very pleasant place for this ill season of the year. I thought you had kept that for the summer, and would have chosen some good house for the winter; and yet I think you are the wiser. I perceive by letters, which I receiv'd last week, that our young master will be very shortly at Paris; and the reasons he gives for it are very good. Ill neighbourhood in such a little place as the other is very inconvenient and troublesom, but are never found in a great city; which, amongst other virtues, is still best for privacy and retiredness. I shall then hear once a week from him. I wish the good time were come we might meet and confer together of the splenetick boy, who must not be neglected, because he is like the mother, who was a very good woman.
Mr. Samuel Morland to secretary Thurloe.
On the Lord's day last, about four of the clock in the afternoone, I received a packet, wherein were two letters from your honour to me, the one of the 20th of Dec. and the other of the 27th of Dec. and two letters likewise to mr. Pell of the same dates. By the two letters to my selfe I perceive, that your honour is satisfied as concerning the way and method of the distribution, which mr. Pell and I have formerly propounded, which I am heartily glad of; as also that there is now no necessitie of my undertaking a journey towards the Valleyes for the giving of further satisfaction to his highnesse and the councell. For the plain truth is, I doe now find, having to the best of my understanding laid all things in the ballance, and thoroughly considered the present state of affaires, that the inconveniences of that journey would be manie more and much greater then the conveniency or advantages, which could in all appearance bee expected from such an undertaking, and therefore I shall not presume to think any further of it without expresse order: butt according to your honour's command use my utmost diligence for the speedie conveighance of the 7500 l. to those poore people, and the distribution of it in the method and order abovesaid. I have given your honour an account in former letters concerning the 5000 l. being part of the 7500 l. viz. that it was alreadie paid to the commissioners at Grenoble; and that mr. D'Ize, who is one of the cheise of them, had promised mr. Pell and mee in the name of the rest, that as well the 5000 l. as the other 2500 l. should bee speedily laid out in come, cloth, shoes, linnen, and such other commodities as those poor wretches have need of to supply their present necessities; and the remainder of the money, after that all such things were bought, they would send immediatly into the Valleyes to be distributed amongst the poor people, as they have don the former summer; towards the releiving their sick, and providing other necessaries which are at present exceeding many and exceeding great. Mr. D'Ize has alreadie sent mee an account of about 5000 l. that is to say, how they have laid it out in buying cloth and shoes, &c. a copie of which account is the paper (A); and I hope to be able to send your honour shortly the like account of all the 7500 l.
As to the history, which your honour has mentioned so often in your letters, I have not neglected to use my utmost diligence since the verie first time you mentioned the same; but have been ever since laying out by all the wayes I could imagine to procure all the papers and letters, which have been written upon this subject; and which may in any maner contribute to the completing of an history. The greatest difficulty I meet with is in relation to the matter of fact in the beginning of these troubles, and during the time of the warr. For I find upon diligent search, that many papers and bookes, which have been put out in print upon this subject, even by some of the ministers of the Valleyes, are lame in many particulars, and in manie things not conformable to truth. Mr. D'Ize during his abode here in Geneva told mee, that there was a certaine gentleman, by name mr. Belon, not farr from Grenoble, who had spent much time, and used much diligence in the curious enquiry after, and setting down every particular, which concerned the matter of fact in the late massacre; and that hee had made an exact collection of all things, intending to put it out in print; but for as much as hee was a man of verie little learning, hee thought, that hee had laid those thoughts now aside, and that it would bee possible to procure a copie of the said collection, at least for some little summe of money; and withall promised mee, that hee would use all meanes possible for the speedie procuring of the same. This would bee of exceeding advantage to mee in this designe. However, in the meane time I shall not cease to make what progresse I can in it. I have alreadie drawn a mapp of the Valleyes from a copie, which is in the hands of the ministers of this place, and is the most exact mapp, that is to bee had of the Valleyes, being drawn formerly by a minister of the Valleyes, who was a mathematician, and tooke the paines to goe from mountaine to mountaine, and make the most nice observation that possiblie hee could; and as the ministers here say, it cost him manie months in the finishing of it. Now there being but this one in the world, I thought it worth my paines to draw an exact copie of it, and hereafter it may bee printed in Holland, and affixed to the history. I have not been idle likewise as to the languages since my abode here, as my buisinesse would give mee leave. As for the French and Italian, I daily make use of them both, as to the speaking and writing part of them without much difficulty; and if my abode here should continue, I hope to doe the same in some tolerable maner in the high Dutch and Spanish, that so I may bee in the better capacity, if God give mee an opportunitie, to serve your honour, then which I have no greater design in this world.
This day I received yours of the 3d of January, the reading whereof has brought more griefe upon mee then ever yet I had experience of as to any thing that ever befell mee in relation to this world. I shall not attempt to aggravat the offence by endeavouring to frame an excuse, by relating on the one side the severall passages of your honour's letters, that I so weakely then apprehended (as I now find, when it is too late) to be sufficient to warrant my privat discourse with the Helvetian deputies, and the paper which I gave them; or on the other side by pleading my good intentions in so doing, but freely and plainly consess my fault, and most humbly ask his highnesse, the councell, and your honour's forgivenesse, and promise to doe my utmost endeavour to make null what I have alreadie don. The deputies did solemnly engage to mee upon their honours, that neither the paper, nor what I said unto them, should ever come to light, or construed as a publick buisinesse; and I trust they will bee as good as their words. Those of Berne and Zurich have indeed wrote since that time letters to his highnesse and to us, in the name of all the cantons, but so farr as I can discerne they do not at all touch upon either what I said or that paper. For they speake verie little concerning Piemont, and that which they doe speake, as for example, negotium etiam Pedomontanum ut summæ nobis curæ sit, deque necessariis mediis, motibus nestris sedatis, deliberetur, operam dabimus, seemes to bee obscure and cold enough, and not much more then what they said at Payerne. However I cannot conceive, that it can bee interpreted any other then a bare answer to what mr. Pell and I gave them jointly, wherein wee desired them to mind Piemont; and I doe not perceive that mr. Pell takes any notice of it otherwise, or that hee knowes or suspects any thing that I spake to them. For my part I doe now beleive, as I alwaies did, that nothing will make the Switzers either speake plain or engage any further then their privat interest. I much seare that God is provideing a fore chastisement for them for so shamefull a neglect of their brethren. They are now gon out into the field both Zurich and Berne, but they make but slow progresse, and are like to meet with verie great difficulties, as dos appeare by the papers B, C, D, and E, where your honour has all the newes that is yet come abroad concerning that buisinesse. Geneva is fore afraid, and long almost with impatience to receive some answer from his highnesse to that proposition and letter I sent your honour some weekes since, wherein they beg of his highnesse somthing towards their fortifications, which the truth is are but exceeding weake, and they have cause enough to seare. I hope your honour will make mention of it by the expresse. In the meane time I humblie beseech your honour to have compassion upon the frailties and weakenesse of my understanding and youth. The truth is, I am a bruitish creature, and have not the understanding of a man; and if the event of this action should proove to bee what your honour feares, (which God Almighty prevent) viz. the hastening the ruin of those poore people, my life would bee but a burden to mee, and I should never bee able to looke your honour or any of my freinds in the face more. I am willing to consesse any thing, but the knowing of my master's will, and not doing the same. Wherefor once more I beg your honour to make a favourable construction of him, who though he thinks himselfe unworthy of the honour, yet shall never think himselfe exempted from the dutie, right honourable, of,
I have carried my selfe to mr. D'Omeren, ever since your honour wrote to mee, without pressing at all any further concerning Piemont, and shall bee most carefull for the future of venturing upon any thing without order.
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.
Wee have had noe letters from Ireland these two last weekes, which wee attribute to contrary windes; nor hath any thinge occurred here worth your lordship's trouble, save that I had it in a letter from the Low Countries, that there were 10000 armes put aboard some Dutch ships in Zealand, for the pretended kinge of Scotts, and that the ships were bound for the west. And wee imagine here, that they may be for Ireland, upon which certainely they doe designe to act somthinge the next springe; as they alsoe doe upon us here and in Scotland. As I get any particuler intelligence, your lordship shall receive it. In the meane tyme your lordship will be pleased to have an eye upon Conaught, and such other places, as may possiblie be in consideration with the enemie. The counsell of Scotland have made a very strickt proclamation against the goinge of Scots into Ireland, and hope that it will be effectuall. I have nothinge to trouble your lordship with further, save to subscribe me
Extract of a letter from Spain, January 26, 1656. [N. S.]
I Have written you formerly of the great preparations at Cadiz for wars with England: they are hastening their fleet all they can possibly, and by the best intelligence I can procure (in which I have been very sedulous and diligent) I find they have there from 50 to 60 ships of war, which they are fitting, also 30 galleys and 30 fireships. The want of monies is that, which doth much hinder and trouble them; which they endeavour to borrow of the merchants and others, promising them repayment on the arrival of the galleons, which they give out are daily expected: if they come not, this kingdom will be in a miserable condition. I have seen a letter from Cadiz of the 14th instant, wherein they write there was a frigat arrived from St. Christophers, which reports all the English at Jamaica were gone away in the ships, and as they came out thence 4 of the said ships were cast away. I do not give credit to this news. The people here report, the Hollander will make a peace and league with Spain and the emperor, and will break with England, France and Sweden, and that all this rises from the blows and hard measure they have from England in visiting their ships at sea.
There is order gone to all the several ports in this country for a sale to be made of all the ships and goods that were imbargoed of the English, and the money thereof to be remitted to the king's use, which order will be put in execution in this place the 14th of February. There are no letters of marque yet granted to any against the English, neither are the pirates of Brest yet admitted, though they expect an answer in their favour speedily. Notwithstanding there are no letters of marque granted, yet the Ostenders and Biscay men of war take all English that are bound to France with provisions, and have lately brought a fish ship or two, which will be made good prize to them.
From Madrid it's written by judicious men, that they cannot make good their part with England, and will in short time be forced to comply; and there is secret discourse of sending over the marquis de Lede from Flanders to his highness, it's thought (if their plate fleet arrive not) a little time will accomplish this.
Ommeren, the Dutch embassador at Geneva, to Nieupoort.
The intention of his highness the lord protector being made known in Switzerland, whether they did intend to do any thing in the business of the Waldenses, thereupon their intention hath been sent to me and mr. Pell, express'd in these words, negotium etiam Pedemontanum ut summe nobis curæ sit, deque necessariis mediis, motibus nostris sedatis, deliberetur, operam dabimus; and withal having considered the letter of the lord embassador Servient, and those which were writ to one of the ministers, who was sent commissioner to the Vallies from the Synod of Dauphiné, as also that, which my lord embassador Boreel signified unto me in his last letters, concerning a discourse held with the abbot of Moret, who in the absence of the ordinary embassador of Savoy taking care of the affairs of that duke, he had been to give him a visit, that his master did bear a good inclination to his subjects, though of another religion; that moreover his master had wholly referred the business concerning the observing of the treaty to the arbitrage of the king of France, in case his majesty should think good, that any thing more or otherwise should be added in or concerning the late accommodation, that the duke would willingly condescend to it; so that it is clearly to be perceived, that the Switzers in this conjuncture of times are no wife willing to engage themselves in this business, much less to pass the mountains, and to urge the alteration of the patent with the duke of Savoy. And that therefore we shall be necessitated to address ourselves to the court of France, for the obtaining of the said alteration; this being in some fort conformable to the intention of their high and mighty lordships, which were lately sent to the said lord Boreel, for the prosecuting of the affairs of the Vaudois in that court; and likewise conformable to those of the lord protector, as I have been formerly told. So that here it is judged highly necessary, that your lordship having made reflection upon the said advice of the evangelical cantons, and upon the letters of the lord embassador Servient, and upon the discourse of the abbot of Miret, should found the government there, and consult with them, whether it will not be very serviceable, that we should conjointly address ourselves to the said court of France, and that necessary orders may be dispatch'd to that end without any further delay to a person capable of managing such a commission. And that it may not appear, that we intend wholly to abandon the course we have taken, it will not be amiss, that one of the commissioners should return to his ordinary resident place in Switzerland, the other third make a journey to Paris, there to give all necessary orders for the better advancing of affairs; and to keep a near correspondence with each other upon all accidental occasions. And by reason the poor people chiesly ought not to remain any longer in this uncertainty, neither is it credible for the state, nor the deputation, to continue in this vacancy of affairs, therefore your lordship is earnestly desired, that there may be forthwith consultation had, and some order made in the abovesaid matter, and that I may receive advice thereof with as much expedition as may be.
Monsieur Augier to secretary Thurloe.
My last unto your honour was of the 19/9 instant. The pastimes in this court in the duke of Modena's behalf have since continued untill mondaye last, that he parted in coach to be changed from stage to stage to Lyon; thence to go for Italie, where he is to command this king's arms in quality of generalissimo, prince Thomas being fallen so sick, that this court has disposed of his office of great stuart to the king in the prince of Conty's behalf.
The count of Brienne has continued me many excuses for not presenting of me yett unto the king, because of those recreations, which I finde more familiar unto his majesty then the epistles of Ciceron.
His majesty has signed his treaty with the duke of Orleans, to whome the duke of Damville has carryed it. I am informed, that his said highnesle has more insisted in it for the present, then for the future, looking only unto his particular interest.
The little queene presseth still for leave to live in the castle of Madrid, whereunto this court doth so much the more resist, that all the royal houses, where shee and hers have lived in here, and the parks depending thereof, have bin wholly spoil'd by their disordonate conduct and slovenry; and amonst others, the palace royall, one of the ornaments and recreations of late cardinal de Richlieu. She demands an augmentation of her pension, which will doubtlesse be graunted her upon condition shee shall withdraw further. The pretended duke of Yorke parted from hence on last mondaye, to goe and meet his sister of Orenge att Peronne, and to bring her hither, where cardinall de Richlieu's lodgings are preparing for her in the said palace royall. It's said shee will be here at her own caust, except the private seastings, which will be made unto her, and the view of this new mask with other gallanteries of la Foire St. Germain and Caresme prenant. Shee will sojourne here but about a month or six weekes. The designe of the said pretended duke's voyage for Bruxells continueth still. Some moneys are preparing here for that purpose.
This councill has given two decrees this weeke to encourage some partisans to the payement of mr. de Cezis debte; counte of Brienne sayeing, we shall here more thereof next weeke according to our desire. Monsieur l'ambassador de Bordeaux presseth that and other affaires before his return. Orders have bin given unto the cittys of Roüen, St. Malo, and Marseilles, to name each of them a merchant to be commissioners for the regulating of the compensations to be made between these two states. Monsieur Fermanel of Roüen been here has bin cheusen by the said cittie, who has written thereof unto him, but he has not yett accepted the commission. I remaine alwaies,
The officers in Ireland to the protector.
May itt please your highnes,
Wee as the gleanings of the vintage compared with those, who came over with you, and others who have been swept away by the callamityes, which reigned and have raged in this late gasping, but now (through God's mercy) reviveing nation, doe, with all thankfulness to your highnes, acknowledge the mercy of God, under your owne most happy, and the most prosperous conduct of those, who have succeeded you, and have been sett over us, principally upon the account of your care and dearness manifested to us.
The excelling abillity and piety of our lord deputy Ireton was lovely in his life, and casts a sweet persume, now dead. The wisdome, moderation, evenness of spirit and sweet behaviour of our present lord deputy bespeaks alowd, your care over us, and God's kindenes to us.
Now, inasmuch as wee have beheld the lively image of our Lord Jesus Christ in him, and the influence of his spirit acting him, and have satt under his shaddow with great delight; what can wee bless God more for, (as to all our externalls especially) or what greater blessing can wee receive from him, or what can wee more desire, then his returne and continuance with us, and his influence upon us and his management of affaires here ? who (doubtless) wee may say, as was sayd of his master, He was a ruler sent from God; for noe man could have acted his parte, and done those great things that he hath done, unless God had been with him; for his mouth hath spoken wisdome, and his tongue talked of judgment, the lawe of his God is in his heart, none of his steps shall slide. And inasmuch as wee dare not lymit the holy one of Israel, to sole disposeing and confineing instruments (who are his curious workemen) to any place or station, further then his providence shall concurr with our desires, wee doe with all gratefulness of spirit acknowledge itt an additional mercy from the Lord, and a redoubled pledge of your highnes care and watch over us, affection and tenderness to us, a clearer, fuller, and more thorow manifestation of which (nay more of your very hearty love) could never have been expressed to us, then the sending of your owne son, upon our addresses to you, to carry on the worke under our deare lord deputy, and to strengthen his hands, and our hands, and the hands of all that seare the Lord; and are one in the common and great interest, which God hath supported your highnes to support, and strengthened you to strengthen. What greater favour could wee have received, blessed be the Lord, and blessed be you of the Lord, who have shew'd such kindenes to us ? We rejoyce in the enjoyment of them both with one accord, and begg that wee may further find this grace in your eyes, that they both be by you set here, as the two pillars att the temple, the one to establish, the other to strengthen, that they both may be continued, as pledges of your affection, and whoe (wee trust) wil be polished shafts in the Lord's quiver, to strike to the heart wickednes and prophaneness, and whatever persons or things declare enmity against the designes, which the Lord Jesus Christ is carrying on; and that our present lord deputy may be invested with more full power; and that under his excellency. And at such tymes and seasons, when God's providence may discontinue him, our deare lord Henry may likewise be cloathed with sufficient power and authority, as may inable him to carry on and mannage the publique affaires, and steare the helme of the vessel, wherein, not only our common goods, but our most precious things, which have been dearly purchased, and difficultly obtained, are imbarqued; the granting of which, as itt will much refresh us, soe, wee trust, will noe less promote your highnes service, and be a further obligation upon
Instructions touching the letter dated with these presents, to be presented to his highness.
First, That itt be humbly besought of his highness, that he will please to take in good parte the address presented by us in the said letter, craveing his favourable interpretation of the reall affections and dutifull thankfulness of his poore servants here, for the many great testymonies of his highness great favour towards them.
Thirdly, That itt be humbly presented unto his highness, that an addition of authority and trust be made, the better to enable his excellencie, and our lord Henry under him, to the management of his highness affaires in this nation; which would not only be an addition of his highness great regard to us, but also strengthen them in mannagement of the great worke upon their hands.
Fourthly, That in case his highness demaund what wee desire therein, that itt be presented to his highness, that wee humbly offer to his highness consideration, that his excellency the lord deputy be quallifyed in the capacity of lord lieutenant; and whenever providence shall deprive us of his presence for any tyme, our lord Henry may be quallifyed with the title and truste of lord deputy. Dated the 16th of January 1655.
Col. Hewson to the protector.
May it please your highnes.
You have been pleased to honor me with your letter by coll. Sanke, which I have received and shoed to my lord Henry according to your highnes commands. Your highnes is pleased to take notice of my affections to our lord deputie. Truly, sir, his excellencie is not only deer in my affections, but in the affections of all godly men, that I knowe in your highnes army heere; and this nation, wheer he is much desired, and wher he hath deservedly attracted the hearts of all good men to him, and wisely cemented ther affections together (though differinge in perswasions aboute formes and dispensations) and your highnes good will to us in the intendinge his excellencie's continuation of his conduct over us, and partinge with your deer son to assist him in the worke, is not only a great demonstration of your highnes favour, but alsoe a stronger obligation ingadginge our affections and duty to your highnes and them.
I humbly begg your highnes favour to be informed, that for those petitions your highnes takes notice of, I cannot think neyther doe I beleive youre son had any hand in the promoteing of them: yea I have cause to beleive he never knew of them, untill the one was gone for England, and the other dispersed abroade in the army; and soe soon as he knew therof testified his dislike therunto, and with all speed tooke effectual care for suppressing of both.
I humbly thanke your highnes for youre commands to doe what I can to heale. It is a blessed worke, yea it is God's command alsoe, and double injunctions presseth strongly for obedience. The Lord give a heart and wisdome with succes to that worke.
It is true, maye it please your highnes, that he, whoe can redily call persons and formes Antichristian differinge from himselfe, makes a breach (let whatever wil be pretended) and makes reconciliation impracticable. But indeed through mercie, I find not that obsticle in that worke heer. I have heard very litle of those tearmes in Ireland, and that I doe heare only relaites to the popish faction; and I hope your highnes hath noe account of such miscarriage heer; but if any such unworthy expressions hath fallen from the lips of any, it was never observed by me, neyther can I trace any footsteps therof; nor doe I find any pretendinge to sixe such offensive miscarriadges upon any heer; soe that noe such interruption to cloesure, healinge, and reconciliation (which seemeth to smile hopefully upon your servants heer) is at all in viewe.
Youre highnes poor servants heer with humble thankfullnes acknowledge your highnes care over them, and great respects tendred them, in those commendations hinted in your letter, and tendred to them in your highnes name, by
Col. Tho. Cooper to secretary Thurloe.
Through the good hand of God towards mee I arrived safe heer on fryday laste was seaven night. I have been heatherto silent, untill I understood both persons and things, that I might give you some accompt of them. There hath been veary unhapy prejudices by many officers entertayned against others, of which my lord Henry hath had his share; and indeed I may say since a meetinge hath been had with some persons dissatisfyed, and a freedom to lay open what hath offended, it hath appeared that those prejudices have been taken up on veary slender or noe grounds; and by the means aforesayd used, I doe not doubt but there is not onely a stop put to that evill that was groweinge, but a right understanding of one another, and unanimous speakeinge and wishinge the same things, of which you will see a taste in England, if God permit. There are some persons soe much out of order in their owne spirits, that noethinge will please, but these are but few; I doubt not but the generallety of the officers will live in love togeather, and that ther is noe fear of any distempers amongst them. I shall not trouble his highnes at this tyme, onely beg you to present my service to him, and crave your pardon for this trouble put uppon your selfe, and remaine
To the right honourable John Thurloe esq; secretary of state, and comptroller of all the posts.
Wee whose names are subscribed, beinge justices and commissioners for the preservation of the peace within the county of Stafford, at the request of Thomas Chalenor post-master of Stone in the said county, doe hereby humbly certifie your honour, that hee hath lived in that capacitie for many yeares last past, duringe all which time hee hath carefully and dilligently demeaned himselfe in that imployment, as well in time of war as peace, to discharge the trust reposed in him accordinge to the severall orders and instructions given him from the former comptrolers and secretarys of state on that behalfe; and that wee conceive him a fitt person to bee still continued in the said office, soe longe as hee shall behave himselfe as formerly hee hath done in that place as soe greate trust; all which wee leave to your honour's serious consideration, and humbly subscribe.
Major general Worsley to secretary Thurloe.
I Spoke and formerly writt to you in behalfe of the petitioners for the dutchy court, and the event of that petition was an order from the councell coll. Fell should come to sitt for causes depending this terme, or give his answer to the councell and retorne the county pallatine seale by the twentie-first of this month. The order was delivered to him, but hee will not declare to any what hee intends to doe, but faith, they that gave causes, and some lawyers also do come up at an adventure, not knowinge whether hee will act or refuse; hee tells them, hee hopes my lord will excuse him in regard of his age. Sir, least his highnesse should mistake this gentleman, I thought it very necessary to acquaint you, that as to the government I thinke noe man more disownes it then hee hath hitherto done; and as to the place which hee holds in the chancery in the county pallatine, hee acts as commissionated from judge Bradshaw. It is indeed a place of honour and profitt, and truely might bee much more worthily bestowed; it is executed with much ease, but with an unusuall irregularity, the seale beinge shuffled from hand to hand, seeinge by him delivered to the attorneys of the chancery there, who keepe the same by turnes, who make and seale their owne writts without any competent judge, whether the same ought to passe or noe; hee will perhaps seeme (for soe here hee doth) to bee nice and unwillinge to keepe the place, but hee hath used, and I suppose will, what secret meanes hee can to continue in it, yet I beleeve hee will bee very loath to act as to the dutchy, but I hope hee must take to both or neither; and in case hee refuse, or be thought unworthy, I should commend one, might I presume, who for integritie, fathfullnesse, and fittnesse every way, and readinesse to act, I thinke none can exceed; it is Richard Haworth of Manchester, esq; an antient lawyer and practitioner in the chancery here: if the other gentleman doe not, this will bee ready, if soe ordered to sitt this terme in the dutchy; and indeed it will bee neare the undoeinge of some, should there bee noe sitinge at all. I know you will not misinterpret mee in any thinge I have writt, there beinge noe end of mine in it, but to serve my country, and let you know what spirits are amongst us. I rest
Major Chamberleyn to secretary Thurloe.
By letters I received from Geneva of the 2d of this moneth they advise me, that they had given notice formerly to masters Pell and Moreland, that the mony was ready in chest at Lion for the last two thousand five hundred pounds, and they have ordred the disposing thereof, and mr. Calandrini hath sent me an acquittance from the said mr. Pell and mr. Moreland for the same. I doubt not but that they give your honour advice thereof, and therefore I humbly intreate, that I may have an order to deliver me my bills of exchange for the former five thousand pounds, they having been payed by order of his highnesse and counsell. They advise from Paris, that the alterations of the mony in France causeth a greate confussion in trade and by exchange, and there is great opposition against it by all this nation; and all the companys of Paris have opposed it, and give their reasons in writing, as your honour will find by the inclosed.
From Rome, by letters dated the 25th December, they advise me, that the queene of Swede was arrived there, mett by two legatts cardinalls, and came late on the munday: then thursday went forth, and ventered on horseback between two cardinals, attended by all the other cardinals, princes, and magistrates, horse and foote-soldiers belonging to the pope, with as much pompe and splendor as the master of ceremony could devise; and this day hath beene confirmed or bishop'd by the pope, and communicated at his hands, and to morrow dines with the pope, a ceremony seldom knowne. His holyness hath been at a verry vast expence, hoping thereby to invite all the princes, which some report have inclinations to popery, as the king of Denmarke, duke of Saxony, marquis of Brandenburgh, and the kinge of Swethland, who they say might by that means quietly enjoy Poland, and make a faire way for the empire.
From France, by letters dated the 21st of January, stilo novo, they advise, that the kinge of Swethland continues his progress in Prussia, and that there is hope of an accomodation betweene him and the duke of Brandenburgh, and that the oulde queene of Swede was departed from Lorretto, where she had made a present of a scepter and a crowne, and an image in silver of the virgin Mary, and was departed for Rome. And likewise they had advice that the admiral de Ruyter had beaten the Turkish men of warre, and sunke or taken four or five of them, and had released manie Christians, and sent the Turkes to Spaine to be sould, and had hundired two squadrons of Turkish men of warre to come out of Algiers. They have likewise advice, that the queene of Spain was brought to bed of a daughter, which is since dead. And likewise that they had advice that the grand senior hath forbidden the Tartars to attempt any thinge against the king of Sweaden.
By letters from Amsterdam, dated the 21st, stilo novo, they advise, that the Sweedish armie were advanced as far as Koninsbergh, but that the duke of Brandenburgh could not agree to their pretensions, so that he stood upon the defensive, and the Sweads were drawne back. And they advise, that it is reported, that the Cossacks would come to the helpe of the kinge of Poland; which said kinge did strive to come with them with onlie two troopes of horse by way of Hungaria, and that the countryes would not suffer him to passe, so was returned back to Silesia; all which I thought good to acquaint your honour, and in all occasions shall strive to approve my selfe to be
Resolution of the states general.
Having received a letter from the college of the admiralty of North Holland, writ at Hoorn the 24th current, containing an answer to their high and mighty lordships letter of the 7th current, and withal desiring, that they may be furnished with money for the equipping of the men of war under their jurisdiction; whereupon being debated, it is thought sit and resolved that an answer be writ to the said college, that their high and mighty lordships are considering at present to make some final resolution concerning the equipping of an extraordinary fleet of 48 ships, as also the finding out some way for the speedy raising of money sufficient for the equipping of the said fleet; upon which their high and mighty lordships do not doubt but some speedy resolution will be taken; and that their lordships in the mean time will be pleased to take care, that the men of war under their jurisdiction may be made ready with their ordinary and extraordinary means by provision, that so they may be ready, being provided with the things necessary to receive the orders of their high and mighty lordships, to be employed upon such designs as shall be thought most sit for the service and welfare of this state; and likewise that their lordships will be pleased to bring so many iron guns as will serve to mount their new men of war under their jurisdiction.
Advice of the council of state of Holland to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
The year of 1655 being expired, it hath pleased God throughout the same to preserve these united Netherland provinces, associated territories, towns, and places in good tranquillity and peace, for which the Almighty God must have everlasting thanks and praises returned unto him; also he is to be pray'd unto for the future graciously to send down his holy blessing, and to continue the same upon this state, and the inhabitants thereof. With the expiration of the year happen also to expire the petitions, made in the last general proposition for the year 1655; wherefore necessity requires to keep order in every thing, and to consider of what is requisite for the further continuation of the state, against all that is to be suspected, although at peace with all the adjacent neighbours.
This is that, upon which his highness prince William stadtholder of Friezland, &c. and the council of state have employed their thoughts in performance of their duty, wherewith they are obliged to the state to propose and to represent to your high and mighty lordships what their opinion is, for as much as they can foresee, and conceive, according to the present opportunity of time and affairs, what will be requisite for this year 1656, for the maintenance, preservation, and protection of the state both by sea and land.
But before they proceed so far, they must first propose to your high and mighty lordships, that it were to be wished, that the true motives and reasons proposed in the former proposition had operated so much, that the respective provinces could have been moved thereby, not only to have given their full consent to the petition, but likewise to have suffered the necessary requisite effects to have followed upon it with all speed, by making satisfaction of some arrears, which in the one and other for some years being only done by piece meal, the same doth occasion great disorder in the direction of the affairs of the state, so that men hardly know how to free the same from further relapse; which however in times of peace, which we now live in, ought to be done, and that which is got in arrear by the excessive chargeable war might be redressed, and so every thing reduced again to a good and orderly method.
The redress doth consist therein, that means be found out to pay the old debts contracted in the last year, whereof in the year 1651 an accompt was delivered to your high and mighty lordships, containing very near two millions; the council desired at that time, that by provision 600,000 gilders might be ordered and furnished, therewith to make the necessary payments, as was done at the beginning of the truce 1609. But although the same hath been insisted upon hitherto, yet no effect hath followed upon it; and in regard some provinces do say, that the said accompt or request was not sent unto them, and therefore they could not examine the business, nor give their consent for means to pacify the complaints of officers and others; wherefore it is requisite to have the business renewed and reviewed to know where the business stuck, and being resumed, that then some effectual course may be forthwith taken to satisfy the mouths of complaining people.
Besides the charge of the old debts, the state is still charged with a heavy burthen of interests for several great sums taken up on account of the former war, and other accidental occasions; the capital sum, which each province hath taken up at the request of the generality, is mentioned in the state of war, and the interest that is paid for the same.
But those capital sums, which have been taken up besides, and employed from time to time by your high and mighty lordships order, do amount to the sum of eight millions 94555 gilders, whereof the interest doth come yearly to four millions, four thousand, vii hundred, xxvii gilders, xv stuyv. which must be precisely paid upon the day as it grows due.
Of which great burthen the state might be easily freed, in case your high and mighty lordships would resolve to pay off the said capital; which might be effected by such means as have been formerly represented to your high and mighty lordships.
Now we come to what is judged convenient for the defence of the state of these countries for the year 1656, so that there is to be considered, that for the defence of all the considerable frontier towns, and forts, from Eems as far as the Yssell, Rhyne, Maese, Schelde, and in Flanders, as also at home within the territories, for the carrying on of the politick commands of the lords states in the provinces, a great number of men both horse and foot is required; so that his highness and the council of state do not conceive, that the present number now in service can be lessened, but the same must remain compleat as it is now established, in regard there is fire of war seen round about this state, and that men do also hear of great preparations, which may soon approach the frontiers of this state, so that it is good to be upon one's guard to be in a readiness to protect this state, if occasion should be.
The above mentioned frontier places must not only be provided with soldiers, but also with ammunition of war, and provisions, that so they may be in a condition to subsist in case of necessity; all which is comprehended in the state of war, which hath been truly and exactly examined, and thereupon taken into consideration the observations of some of the provinces brought in upon the same; but before we proceed to particularize the same, the council is necessitated to propose to your high and mighty lordships upon their resolution of the last of July, mentioning that the council of state was desired henceforward not to make any alteration in the state of war without your high and mighty lordships consent and knowledge, so that the council could not accept of the said considerations, as striking against the power given to the council of state by force of their instruction, and all ancient customs which have been used hitherto.
For the casting of new ordnance for frontiers, there was desired by the former petition 50 thousand gilders, wherein there hath been hitherto nothing done: the same however being very necessary, that those places should be again supplied, that have had their guns taken away upon several occasions, it is also requisite that some new ordnance be cast, that there may be no want thereof, if occasion should require it. Wherefore your high and mighty lordships are desired to consent to the said 50 thousand gilders for the use aforesaid for this year 1656, and that the money may be paid with all speed, for the effecting thereof.
Wherein we must first repeat the necessity of liquidation, which the provinces ought to make; so that care must be had for the payment of six millions for the affairs of the sea, contracted in the years 1652 and 1653, as hath been often desired; so likewise the provinces are desired to liquidate the sum of four millions for the building of the 60 new men of war; which being perfected and compleated, the same ought to be kept in good order for the service of the state; and likewise that the old ships of war may be also fitted for service, that in case it be requisite the state may presently have a considerable fleet in readiness to maintain and protect the trade and commerce thereof abroad against pirates, or others that shall endeavour the disturbance thereof.
In the last general proposition was proposed to your high and mighty lordships all that had happened in Brasil, and that the treacherous dissembling of the Portuguese declaring, that they were resolved to treat, was the occasion of the sad event and loss of those countries, about which your high and mighty lordships may be pleased to take into consideration, whether there ought not something to be undertaken for the recovering of the said countries, the loss whereof hath been the ruin of a great many inhabitants of these provinces. Wherefore the council cannot but more mind your high and mighty lordships of it, that so the business may not be wholly forgot; but that the same may be taken into consideration, how that by some means or other the West-India company may receive satisfaction to preserve the interested from further damage, and the company from utter ruin.
Lastly, his highness and the council do desire, that your high and mighty lordships will once help to further and promote, that the respective provinces will bring in their contents upon the petitions against April at the furthest, for the speedy paying of the companies without any further delay, that so all things may be preserved in good order, and thereby all disorder prevented.