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State Papers, 1656: January (9 of 9)

Pages 474-488

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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January (9 of 9)

An intercepted letter, inclosed in the foregoing.

January 28, 55.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 883.

Deare Hart,
The beginning of your lettar was cutt of about 2 lines, and without date; I pray you lett mee know, wheethar you did itt. I desiered to know, what you had given my keeper or his wise, and what you sent to mee, of any thing since you came, but give mee noe accompt, nor whethar you had received any gould of myne. I desiered iff you had that I might have itt, for iff I should bee banished, itt may bee that I shall not have tyme to send to you, as some wear served from hence in the spring. What I writt about Will is very trew. I am very much troubled for H. P. I hope bettar than you write of him. I pray you forbear to visett the gentlewoman before I see you. I am glad shee hath not beene troubled. I pray you bee kinde to mrs. Powell. I am consident Will ever long will repent him. I wish you could by accident meet him. I cannot thinck the leevtenant goes to Gam: however I would not have you moove any thinge concerning mee, as yett. I have much reason to thinck that they will put mee to death; but I thank God I feare itt nott, I am confident of his mercy to mee. Iff you see the pr. you may acquaint him with my condition, and the stricktnes of my imprisonment, and smalnes of my allowance, as my keeper tells you, and that I am something sickly with this usage, which really is trew. Lett mee heer from you: my head aketh soe much, that I can write noe more. Give this to R. H. iff hee bee in towne. Lett H. P. know how much I am concerned for him; really itt much doth trowble mee, and makes mee sometymes that I cannot sleepe when I thinck of him. I am glad hee is soe harty. I hope well of him.

I pray you gett mee a little pott of ordinary pomatum, for the water you made hath soe much honey in itt, that it dries my head soe much, that I must use itt to anoynt my head with.

Iff my friend Hu. Pa. bee in towne, know of him whethar hee ever had any answer of the lettar that mr. Pi. had from him, and what is becom of itt, for itt concernes mee to know. My harty love to poore H. P. and A.

The examination of John Morena.

Falmouth, Jan. 28, 1655.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 889.

He saith he lived formerly in the town of Jamaica: since our forces have had the town, he lived at a place called Wanac Moore, and from thence he removed to St. Anne. Being asked what condition the Spaniards are in ? he saith, for the generality of them they are almost starved, and use all the indeavours that may be for getting for Cuba. Being asked where the Maestro del Campo was ? he saith, he is now gone for Watta May on the north side of this island, and that one George, an Englishman, general Venables's servant, did wait upon him; he faith, that the Maestro del Campo was going for Cuba, but news came from thence to him, that the king of Spain was sending an armado for their relief, whereupon he remains here, but most of the gentry of the land are gone for Cuba. Being asked what periagoes have gone lately from Cuba ? he saith, about 12 days since were two, and carried some 70 persons; he saith also, they expected two periagoes from Cuba, and that the people are waiting for their coming at a place called Reo Moua, and there are three hundred men, women, and children which live there, and have huts in the mountains; and when they discern an English ship, there are two fires made, and then the people go into the woods with their goods: more he saith, that there hath been a great mortality among them, for want of provisions they are almost all starved. Being asked where the Negroes were ? he saith, scattered up and down thirty and forty together. Being asked from whence his periagoes came ? he saith, from St. Anna, and that there were 32 persons in her. Asked what goods were in the periago ? nothing but clothes to his knowledge; and what are good they that ran away, carried them with them. Asked whether any Spanish ships were lately at this island ? he sayeth, there was a ship came from Carthagena, and landed about Point Pedro wine, salt, and Indian corn, about six weeks since, and that there was another expected to come to them with relief, and further sayeth not.

Examination of Francis Lopez, who died on board the Falmouth.

He saith, he formerly lived in Jamaica town, his imployment was to kill hogs, and that he hath lived on the north side these five months, sometimes at St. Anna and Byocone, and in the woods. Asked what periagoes came lately from Cuba ? he saith, 15 days since came four, but three are now gone back with passengers, and one was burnt by an English ship about 20 days since, who came and landed at a place called Fortolosse. Asked what news from Cuba ? he saith, they hear —.

Stetin, February 8, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xlvi. p. 371.

My lord,
We are here yet altogether ignorant of the articles of the agreement made between the duke of Brandenburg and his majesty of Sweden. It is to be supposed that something lies concealed thereunder of very great importance, in regard they are kept so secret. It is sufficiently known, that there doth seem to appear a perfect amity and correspondency between the king and the duke, and a particular relation and intelligence between them; so that henceforward it is to be supposed that they will embrace one and the same design, whereby the old presumption is now more and more strengthned, that this treaty was not now, but well formerly resolved in each other's thoughts.

It is writ from Koningsberg, that the said duke is to raise nine regiments of horse and foot, and to march shortly with his present forces towards Littauw to resist the Muscovites there.

The earl of Waldeck, who is said of a certain to be gone from Berlin for Holland, will inform their high and mighty lordships more than any body, of all secret particulars.

The king of Poland doth still remain upon the frontiers of his kingdom, and the Cossacks and Tartars are said to have sworn to be true and faithful unto him.

It is believed by some that the king of Sweden will spend this next summer in maintaining what he hath already conquered; others are of opinion, that there are further designs in hand.

A certain person of quality told me not long since, that it would not be so strange, that notwithstanding all these great preparations of the city of Dantzick to defend itself, should yet agree with the king of Sweden; which if it prove true, will be contrary to the opinion of many.

Last saturday here came a letter from his majesty of Sweden to the earl Wrangel, to be sent to him with all speed; whether the said earl be sent for, or ordered to stay where he is, we shall soon learn. The markgrave of Baden and the earl Axelspar departed from hence yesterday towards the king.

Advice out of Koningsberg of the 8th of February 1656.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 937.

My last was of the 4th current. Since that here hath not happened any thing remarkable, than only that all foreigners retreated out of our countries, and against whom the king of Sweden doth wage war into this dukedom of Prussia, are to make oath of sidelity to the duke of Brandenburg within five weeks; or if they refuse to do so, then they are to depart out of the same within the said time.

The duke of Radzivil is still here with his companion the earl of Thoorn.

The dutchess of Brandenburg is reasonably well again recovered of the small pox. The court here will remove from hence very suddenly, and go and reside for some time in each province of this dukedom, to give good orders about the governments thereof.

They write from Dantzick that they pay the 100 penny, that they are much discontented, and yet are resolved to defend themselves.

Mr. Wiliam Swyft to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxii. p. 525.

Right Honorable,
I Received two letters from you the last weeke, the first was of the 11th instant, which commanded nothing but what was my duty to mr. Rolt; my carefulnes in the conveyance of your orders towards him, which hitherto I have diligently performed, and have given you several accounts thereof; and I hope ere this time you are fully satisfied concerning my readines, as in all other things, to obey you therein. Towards the end of that your honour's letter there was an advice concerning the well husbanding of expences, to which I can only answer this, that I am confident, that there are none gone along with mr. Rolt, that will urge him to unsitting or unallowable disbursements; and as for mr. Rolt himselfe, I cannot beleeve, but that your honour is soe well assured of his discretion and frugality, without the consideration that his hands are tyed up by the great awe and affection he bears to his highnes, (besides the expectation of future encouragements) that your thoughts will at all call his stewardshipp into question. I am perswaded there will be noe sault, especialy of that nature, to bee condemned in him at his returne.

The second letter was of the 18th instant, which promised a frigot to meete him upon newes of his drawing hitherward; such a convenience will be very wellcome (the rather that he will bee thereby the more confirmed in the opinion he already hath of your good inclinations towards him) since you are pleased soe favourably to provide for the safety of him and his company. Hee will (according to information) bee here about the midst of February; from whence hee may (the Elve being now open) directly come for England by sea: I mentioned somthing to this effect to your honour by the last post, and I hope I shall have your resolution thereupon almost as soone as this can come to you from,
Hamburgh, Jan. 29, 1655/6.

Right honourable,
your honour's most faithfull
and obedient servant,
Wm. Swyft.

A paper in vindication of mr. Richard Bradshaw, the English resident at Hamburg.

Vol. xxii. p. 561.

For the suitable vindicatinge of the commonwealth in the person of the resident at Hamburgh, for the affronts putt upon him by the disaffected amongst the English company there, and for the future better regulating of that court, it's humbly proposed,

First, That the cheif ringleader Francis Townley, who hath not only since his last coming over to Hamburgh been the principal cause of all the disturbance and divisions among the company, but also has been the cheefe in dessigning the outinge of the resident from the place of deputie, as alsoe the well affected from having any share in the government, because they would not goe along with him and his faction in that affront, but cheefly because they applied themselves to the lord protector, may be prevented from making the like disturbances againe or plotting such affronts, by making him uncapable of bearing any office in the company whatsoever for some years tyme, 5, 6 or 7 years as it shall be thought fitt, and also uncapable to sitt in court during 7 years, as it shall be thought sitt, and also uncapable to sitt in court during that tyme, because of his turbulent spirit knowne to the whole company.

2dly, That all such as were actors, abettors or contrivers with him, or any other in the late unworthie designe of ejectinge the resident or otherwise affrontinge him, which hath been frequent, as also all such as shall be found to have countenanced or corresponded with any ministers of Charles Stewart, or shall be found to have opposed or hindered the resident in the securing of George Waites his papers, or any way to have abetted, or sided, or held correspondencie with him since the resident expelled him from Hamburg for his traiterous practises, that all such may be excluded from having any vote in court or bearing any office for three, four or five years tyme, and yet may be admitted to sitt in court for the direction in the affayres of the company, and to have liberty to speake their minds in matters relating unto trade, they behaving themselves decently, and not propounding any thinge which may tend to strife or contention upon penaltie of being excluded the court for the aforesaid tyme, and notwithstanding be subject to the orders of the company for their faults, because some men accompt it a great accomodation to be free from attending courts, and therefore may give occasion wilfully, of turninge out or absenting themselves.

3dly, That the assistants in the government (as indeed their own charters require, though not regaded by the late disaffected faction) be chosen of the most experienced in the company, and such men only as are of known good lyfe and conversation, well affected to the government of the state, and not under the age of 30 years, and such persons thus qualified and chosen not at any time after to be left out in the choice, except it be when there is choice of other like qualified men, or that they give just cause by their own miscarriage against the state or orders of the company, or that any of the said persons goe for England to live there, or shall with leave of the court obtayne liberty to be free from houlding, or that such prove insolvent or bankrupt in such cases, and where the orders of the company for any crime makes any of the said parties uncapable, he may and shall be left out in the choice and not otherwise.

4thly, In regard the company at present in Hamburgh consists most of young men, unexperienced either in the affayres of the company, and the customes and laws of England, as also such as have had a hand in the affronts putt upon the resident, and still do continue their designes against him and the well affected, and are most of them such as formerly have been excluded the court for their not engageing to the state. It's therefore propounded, that until others more hopefull, and that are not engaged against the resident, be grown up, the number of assistants, which by the charters of the company are limitted to 24, of which 13 must make a court, may for some tyme be dispenced with, where there cannot be a full choice of such like qualified men as aforesaid, and that in such case 9 may make a court, and this to continue only for five or six years, and not longer, without prejudice to the companie's charge.

5thly, The place of deputy in Hamburg is yearly eligible, and the power of choosing or laying aside of any man hath been and still is exercised by the company at Hamburgh onlie, though it ought to be with the advice of the company at London: so that it hath been found by experience, that such deputies as could not comply with the corrupt humors of the major part, who are ordinarily the worst, but have endeavoured to exercise their places according to their oaths and duties, have been yearly subject to their affronts, either by the turning them out, or lessning their stipends; by which it comes to pass, that such as have left their countrey and employment to do them service being soe disapointed, have either yeilded to their humors, or else without friends have been utterly ruined. To prevent which for the future it's propounded, that the deputie at Hamburg may be chosen, but with the approbation of the company at London both for stipend and place; and being once chosen his stipend not to be lessned, nor himself laid aside but by the consent of both courts, first to be signified by the court at London to that at Hamburgh, and to be done by them three months before the election, that so not only the company may consider of the motion, but also that the deputy may be provided for the change. But if the court at Hamburg shall not consent to the change, he shall then continue his place as before, by which means the company will be freed from all plotings and designes, and it will be an encouragement to any man that shall be deputie to execute his place chearfully, and also encourage others to come over when there shall be want.

Resident Bradshaw to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxii. p. 563.

Honourable sir,
Since my last of the 22d I have received your two last week letters of the 11th and 18th present, and remitted the inclosed to mr. Rolt, from whom we expect letters this night, if come in tyme to inclose. I have signified to sir John Henderson according to your direction, with which I presume he will rest well satisfied, and betake himself to the Swedish service. I could not refuse the civility of sending forward his letters, though I told him my thoughts of that way, and disswaded him from it e're this. I presume you are satisfied in my care in sending the letter of revocation to mr. Rolt, who hath welcomely received it as he wrote to me in his last. I expect him here within a fortnight, having furnished him with letters of creditt in several parts for what money he shall have occasion of. The fregat may now come hither for him, if you so thinke good, but Rotterdam is the securer place for the ship, it being difficult to find the mouth of this river in the winter time, and dangerous to fall in with it in fowle weather.

I am sorrie there is no ende put as yet to the busines of the company; the faction here grow higher upon it; for now they sticke not to say among themselves, that his highnesse may command what he please, but they will doe what they thinke meet. They are angry that mr. Baron comes not over to them, and were yesterday about to have chosen another of their own faction in his place; but in the end, resolved to write to him for his positive answer, that they may proceed accordingly: and they are much disgusted with the court at London for advising them by the last post to have patience, and not heighten things till his highnesse's pleasure were known; which their committee solicited weekly, judging it an undervaluing of their authoritie to wait longer, saying it was sufficient for their committee to wait on his highnesse when he sent for them; and soe much they said yesterday at an assembly should be writ to the court at London by their secretary this post, who being wholy their creature and craftye, feedes the humor notably. Truly, sir, if some speedy course be not taken either by commanding Townley or three or four more home; (for it they be only removed out of the court they will here influence others) or otherwise by putting the power into the hands of the court at London, with some provisoes, that a faction carry it not there alsoe, I believe you will shortly find, that his highnesse, may breake them, but never bow them to his commands, they being, as I am credibly informed, entered into a combination under their hands, to stand by one another in this businesse till they have their wills, or ruine the company if they can, though it should cost them their whole estates; and now that they thinke the court at London begin to shrinke from them, and their hopes at Whitehall lessens, the ringleaders grow more desperate, most men judging mr. Townley not farr from the condition, into which many of his parties are lately fallen, to the greate dishonour of the nation. I begg your pardone for this detention, and professe my selfe
Hamburgh, Jan. 29, 1655.

Your honour's most humble servant,
Richard Bradshaw.

Sir,
I heare one Petticome is agent for the kinge of Denmark in England: at my being in Copenhagen he shewed himselfe a scornefull enemie, by sending to my table, whilst I was at dinner, an axe and a head of paste in a dish, and otherwise acted what he could against me, which I presume you will note if you thinke it sutable. General Knipe knows him well, and how he acted there.

Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.

In the possession of Joseph Jekyll, Esq;.

My lord,
Your last to me, which is come to my hands, is of the 10th instant, since which sir John Reynolds is arrived, with whom I have had some perticuler discourse of affairs and persons in Ireland, and am confirmed in the beleife wee had here before of the manadgment of thinges in that place. And that which I most rejoice in is, that matters stand very faire for a freindly union and accommodation, which is most to be desired and endeavoured of all other things, as that which is not only lovely and beautifull in itselfe, but the best meanes to preserve this honest cause and the assertors thereof from fallinge into the hands of the common enemye. Sir John hath not yet delivered his instructions, nor his fine expedient, unto his highnese, who of late hath beene somewhat ill, and not yet very fitt for buissines. But I suppose he will have opportunitie for it to morrow morneinge. In the meane tyme he is very welcome to H. H. and hath dined with hym twice.

I thought to have sent your lordship by this a breviate of the thinges now under consideration in reference to Ireland; but I had not tyme to get it ready, but shall not faile to send it by the next, that if any thing be short in it, your lordship may signify in tyme any further additions.

I heare noe more of the Spayniards intentions for Ireland; but it's certeyne, he will have a powerfull fleet in the springe; and therefore it concernes us to be aware of hym in all places. Our fleet is alsoe hastning out, which through the blessinge of God will be very considerable. The warre continues betweene the protestant and popish cantons of Swisserland, though I am not able to give your lordship by this any perticulers of their proceedings; only those of Zurik are still before Rappersvill, a towne of the popish cantons, where some men have beene lost on both sides; and that the popish cantons are prepareinge to releive it, and the other to defend their seige. Berne is alsoe in the feild with a good army. Wee expect perticulers by the next. The state of matters betweene the Swede and Brandenburgh is in the enclosed print, and therefore shall not trouble your lordship with any thinge of it here. I remeyne
Jan. 29, 1655.

Your lordship's most faithfull humble servant,
Jo. Thurloe.

Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states general.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 939.

High and mighty lords,
My lords, the lord cardinal hath told me, how that he had certain advice, as that an extraordinary embassy from Brussels or the lord don Stephen de Gamarra should suddenly make a proposition to your high and mighty lordships, to make them jealous of the great encreasing power of the lord protector and the commonwealth of England, and his near alliance with the king of Sweden; secondly of the accommodation of this king and England; and that therefore there being such a good correspondency between these three, your high and mighty lordships should do wisely to foresee and prevent the inconveniences and prejudices, which will otherwise proceed from thence or follow thereupon, in case (as is reported) these allies and confederates do intend to conquer the Spanish Netherlands on the one side, and in Eastland, other kingdoms and countries, and to bring the business of Europe into a quite new posture. Wherefore it is referred to the consideration of your high and mighty lordships, whether for the common good of the empire of the Spanish and free Netherlands there ought not to be made a league and confederacy between these, to prevent and destroy all such destructive designs of the confederates, and that this ought to be done without any delay. But his eminency would needs persuade me, that all the said points, which the Spanish embassy had to declare, were in no wise true for as much as concerneth France; but that this king is inclined to renew the old and faithful amity and alliance with your high and mighty lordships, and to observe the same in sin cerity, yea more than formerly, whereof their high and mighty lordships may have full assurance of this when they please to make overture thereof, which this court hath for a long time expected and desired. Moreover, that in regard this king is wholly inclined to make a peace with Spain upon reasonable terms, and that therefore his majesty will not engage himself with any confederacy for the continuation of the war, whereby the freedom of this crown should be limited to make a peace with Spain; his eminence therefore desired, that I should give your high and mighty lordships notice thereof, not only in his name, but likewise in that of the king, that so your high and mighty lordships should not give credit to all such discourses as may be reported to the contrary. All which I thought myself obliged in duty to signify unto your high and mighty lordships.

Paris, Feb. 8, 1656. [N. S.]

W. Boreel.

Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.

Edenburg, the 29th of Jan. 55.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 911.

Honored Sir,
By the greate favor of yours of the 22d instant I finde a verry just doubt arisinge in you, concerninge our lettinge the intended petitioners petition what we should put in their mouthes; but possibly that objection may cease, when I shall assure you first, that the councill heer neither indirectly nor directly know any thinge of it. Secondly, there is none of the petitioners but two, (who I have imployed to incite the rest) that are knowinge of it. Thirdly, if by some meanes or other they know not, what particulars to mention, as thos which wil be of best acceptance, they may thinke they have done enough in mentioninge som generals, which will neither convince us soe fully as enumeratinge of particulars wil doe, nor wil be soe stronge an obligation upon them, nor soe thoroly sifte and dive into their intentions, since many may not be scrupelous, to subscribe a petition consistinge of generalls, who upon condescendinge to particulars, might start back. Fourthly, I have bin alwayse soe openly a professed ennemie to makeinge of bargaines betweene the state and the people, that even to the two I intrust I have declared, that I would not at all esteeme this, if it springe from any other principle, but a reall conviction and sense of their duty, and that they wil be deluded, if they expect any other recompence but an acceptinge of it, as soe meant. But yet, sir, I have soe just a respect and obedience to your opinion, that I shall proceede no farther heerin, till I have the honnor to heare from you again, nor after, but as then you shall direct. I heare the ministers are verry jealous of this intended adress, because thos, who make it, are indifferently of the honnestest sorte of publicke resolutioners and remonstrators, wherby thos parties in an action of the highest civill concernment are not owned as such by thos which are of them, and it seemes they would have that thred of distincktion run through all the worke.

I most humbly thanke you for the newse you are pleased to communicate to me: doubtlesse the unitinge and designes of the ennemyes of the truth should provoke the prosessors of it to unite also. And therefore I endeavor that worke heer what I can. I am not doubtfull but ere longe to get the ministry of this nation by a voluntary adress to owne, and publickly pray for the now authority, and in their stations to incite the people cheerfully to obeye and serve it. I have got the cheifest ministers of late, to confess privatly to me, that soe oposite a change to what they lately weare, does not now soe much scruple them as publickely to profess it; soe that now their shame and not their consciences beinge to be overcum, I trust the highest difficulty as to this particular is over: we have indeed renderd one party soe jellous of the other, that we now seeme to be the courted. I must confess I thinke the remonstrators are generally better, then the publicke resolutioners; but I profess, thes of late acte better towards us then thos. I send you this coppy of col. Gilbert Ker's letter to the high sheriff of Roxburrowshire, which he delivered at the first meetinge of the justices of the peace for that shire, he beinge mentioned in the comissimon: he is one of the remonstrators, and a very leadinge man in that party. I have still bin of opinion, and am more confirmed therein dayly, that we shall hardly doe our worke by buildinge with any one of thos two partyse, but by composeinge a third, extracted out of both, and consisting of the honnestest and most peaceable amongst them; by which you will have this one advantage, that all your party will not be lead by any one party of the ministers, which the other way they will wholly be. I beg your pardon for this longe trouble and that you will beleeve me, as indeed I am,
Your most affectionate, most faithfull,
and most humble servant,
Broghill.

A copy of the letter of col. Gilbert Ker to the sheriff of Roxboroughshire.

Inclosed in the preceding.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 915.

Sir,
I Understand by your order, that I am named by his highness councill in their comission to bee one of the justices of peace in this shire, which comission doeth relate to an ingagement and instructions, which the councill has bin pleased to issue forth to bee the rule of the exercise of their power, which instructions and ingagement I have seen and perused. Sir, I shall not speake either to my inability or want of guifts for soe weighty a charge, or my being a stranger to this place, in respect of such interest as frequently concurrs to capacitat a person to bee a member in a judicature for doeing their cuntry service, though both or either of these might have been a ground sufficient to have laide me aside; but neither of these are the maine ground to presse me to take the freedome (being called thereunto) to declare, that I cannot accept of that imployment; but after such serious inquiry for light from the Lord and his word, in order to this thing, as the Lord has been pleased to give me grace to make, I am convinced in my conscience, that imployment is sinfull and unlawfull, as it is there stated, framed and ingaged into, as being not allowed by the word of the Lord, contrary to our solemne league and covenant, as alsoe a manifest incroachement uppon the liberties of the kirke of Christ in this land. The conviction of this uppon my heart is the ground, why I judge that office soe stated sinfull and unlawfull, and therefore willingly dare not walke after the comandment of his highness councill. And since my unworthy name is inserted in that commission, I doe in all humility desire, that this may not testify my want of cleerenes to accept that charge; but since I am called unto, I desire that this may remaine my testimony against the sinfullnes of such a course, as further backslideinge in covenant breaches may involve us. It is to me a weighty scripture, that Mal. ii. 10. Why doe you deale trecherously every mann with his brother, by blaspheming the covenant of our fathers. This ought to bee seriously laide to heart in its season, least that sad threatening in verse 12 overtake the despised. This I desire to present, as that which I conceive my dutie in humble returne to your order: in which I hope there shall bee noething found inconsistent to that dutifull honor, obedience, and submission, that the Lord in his word calls me to give unto the magistrat, whom hee in his holy and wife providence has given order over us.

Yours in all dutifull obedience,
Gilbert Kerr.

An intercepted letter.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 953.

Sir,
I Writt to you about a fortnight since, and therein acquainted you the reason I did not send those commodities you writt for, yett I have now assigned them to you, and sent them aboard one Robert Williams bound for Rotterdam, and directed them thither to the person you ordered mee: you will doe well to take care they may be called for there. I alsoe writt you word, that mr. Wat: Factor was still in the countrey, and sent mee word he had ordred an account to be given to him by a friend of his that was coming to you: he still continues in the countrey, soe that I cannot speake with him to give you any further account, neither doe I believe, that you will have any that is good, for I understand he is here supposed to be failed, and some others of his partners, who had a good creditt upon the change, but now lost. All trade here is at a great stand, and noe man knows whether to send goods. The Turkes it's said have seised all our merchants goods, and put many to death, but wee hope this comes from the hands of false intelligencers; yett at present it puts us into a greate maze, and together with our own trouble at home makes us all at a stand. All the gentry of this nation are att present imprisoned, and still every day more taken; to what intent is not yett knowne, but itt makes this cittie in a sad condition for want of trade; it's hoped all may prove for the best att last. You shall hear from mee shortly by a friend that's coming over, and will give a perfect account of all comodities that will turne to any account here: In the meane while be patient, if you doe not here from mee soe often as you expect, for wee have little incouragement to my trade but sitting still, all things growing worse and worse. Pray give the enclosed to your brother, which comes from his taylor, who desires itt may bee ordered him to receive. You appointed me to lay out the odd money in H. P.'s hands for tookens to your freinds in the countrey, which was done accordingly, and yett since mr. West came and demanded that summe by a token from you, which I have paid accordingly, soe that this sume and the charge of shipping these commodities will come to above 4 l. which will be the overplus of what I shall have of your brother more then I paid him for the goods I had of him, therefore pray pay him soe much. I believe I shal be forced to see you shortly, for here is noe good to be done here. I am
London, Jan. 29, 1655.

Your assured friend to serve you,
John Sanders.

The superscription.

A mounsicur mounsieur Jaques Le Grand mercht. au Cullen.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

Samedy le 3 Fev. [1655. N. S.]

Vol. xxxiv. p. 943.

A Ujourd'huy derechef a esté proposé la revocation des troupes de Dansigk: sur quoy hier desja les 4 provinces estoient d'accord, mais le sieur Veth (pour son particulier estant d' autre opinion) ne voulut pas conclurre. Maintenant ses collegues l'obligerent a conclurre: mais une des provinces estoit absent. Si qu' encore cela est demeuré sans conclusion.

Estant avisé qu'a Elbing le roy de Sweede s'avoit consormé avec les bourgeois desirants faire cesser les pseaumes de Lobwasser, & avoir l'usage des chansons de Luther, l'on avoit mis cela es mains du sieur Hugens pour l'examiner, dont il a fait rapport, avec inclination d'escrire la dessus au roy de Sweede. Mais l'on n'a guere trouvé de fundament de s'en mesler.

Dimanche 4 Fev.

Le roy de Dennemarck s'est resolu tout a fait a un armement, au moins de 4000 chevaux & 6000 a pied. Un seul gentilhomme offre de lever mille chevaux sur sa propre bourse habilles en la livrée de S. M. Le pretexte est, pour restablir la la Prussie en estat comme devant cette guerre. Le sieur ambassadeur Beuningen n'espargne nullement sa retorique pour induire cest estat a se joindre avec Dennemarck en ce bon dessein, ce qui seroit facile, si on ne craignoit pour la mer Mediterrané.

Le roy de Poloigne a fait dire au sieur ambassadeur Dorp, que Charnetsky avoit defait 2000 chevaux Swedois: ceux de Brandeborch le nient.

Lundy 5 Fev.

L'on aura resolu de faire encore dire a sa excellence l'ambassadeur de Spaigne, que le sieur Greffier n'a pas couché la resolution touchant le prisonier la Ratte (a Duynkercke ou Ostende) en autre façon, que comme l'on luy a dicté. L'excusant ainsy de ce que ledit seigneur ambassadeur aura taxé ledit Greffier.

La lettre du sieur Beuningen est mise ce mains du sieur Huygens & autres, mais l'on n'a pas encore en conference la dessus. On verra si l'on voudra prester l'oreille aux projets & concepts du sieur Beuningen.

Mecredy le 7 Fev.

Aujourd'huy comme encore hier on n'a eu en mains que l'affaire d'Ostfrise. Hier fust resolu de rediger la resolution du 1 Fev. en un traité & convention, dont le concept est leu a ce matin, & sera communiqué aux deputes d'Ostfrise.

Aujourd'huy a esté par ceux de Hollandre pressé l'equipage en mer: & qu'on voulusse prendre en consideration les offres faites par le roy de Dennemarck, ayant dessein de se mettre en armes: sur quoy le sieur Beuningen a derechef escrit fort expressement, si qu'on a resolu de tenir demain conference la dessus. Et se verra quelle inclination ont les provinces pour s'engager avec le Dennemarck.

Jeudy le 8 Fev.

La chambre mypartie a escrit 1. Touchant un super-arbitre. 2. Touchant la suppletion d'un de Hollande. 3. Touchant celuy de Frise; qui est si long temps absent.

Le synode de Geldre a escrit pour avoir Ravesteyn & Meegen soubs eux.

L'on a resolu d'escrire aux ambassadeurs en Dennemarck: en sorte que modestement on leur donne a connoistre de n'estre pas trop chauds, ny n'engager pas l'estat avec precipitation. Et que cest estat se reserve les libres deliberations.

L'on escrira aussy aux ambassadeurs en Prussie de voulour procurer pres le roy de Poloigne & la Ville de Dansigk la libre navigation, au moins pour les navires de Hollande.

Et au roy de Sweede parleront touchant la derivation de la riviere.

Vendredy le 9 Fev.

Le sieur Huygens a fait ou rapporté un concept de reiglement, selon lequel tous consuls en Espaigne, voire meme tous sujets de cest estat sont rendus comme dependants du sieur Reede de Renswoude ministre resident a la cour de Spaigne.

Aux ambassadeurs en Dennmarck sera escrit, que les choses qu'ils ont escrit icy en leurs 2 derniers lettres on a trouvé de telle importance, qu'on les a rapporté aux provinces: & que sans leurs expres aveu & consentement on n'oseroit pas s'y engager: que pourtant ces ambassadeurs seront bien de soy tenir simplement a leur instruction.

Au roy de Sweede on escrira de ne pas divertir la Weyxel, & au roy de Poloigne de n'enfester pas la mer par depredation, ny gaster le Pillauw par enfoncement de navires, comme l'on menace.

Le sieur de Thou partiroit de Paris a my Fevrier. Les François prennent & vexent quantité de navires Hollandois.

Le mere ou abbesse du cloistre Kouwater pleint, que Ravensway a fait grande insolence.

Aussy plaignent les habitans de la Meyerye des insolence de nos soldats.

Commissary Pels to the states general.

Dantzick, Feb. 9, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxiv. p. 949.

High and mighty lords,
The dutchess of Brandenburgh is now perfectly well recovered, whereof I made mention in my last: this is now to confirm the same. The articles of the peace between the king of Sweden and the duke of Brandenburg are not yet known. There hath been yet no thanksgiving made in the churches for the said peace, neither are yet any prayers made for the king of Sweden. What order will be taken likewise for the toll in Pillauw is also uncertain; only it is said, that a Swedish controller is also to sit in the room where the licences are granted.

We are informed here, that his majesty of Sweden is gone for Thorn; others say he is gone further. Of the king of Poland's approaching with his troops there is yet no certainty.

Mr. Ed. Rolt to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 957.

Right honourable,
In persuance of your commands from my most gracious master, expressed in your acceptable letter of the 21st of Dec. (which I received att Elbing) haveing after the overture of agreement betweene the king's majestie and the duke, (which is since completed) retired myselfe from that courte to that place to refresh my selfe and company after our hard march, I forthwith addressed myselfe towards the king againe, whom about two dayes (after the interview betweene him and the elector att Bartenstein had passed (as it is reported) with much kindnesse and satisfaction on both sides) I happily found att a towne in the byshopricke of Varmia called Shippenpeil; from thence I marched with him to a citty called Wartenburg, where I had audience. I humbly tooke my leave of his majestie att that tyme, taking a fresh oportunity, according to your commands, to congratulate (as I had often done before) in his highnesse name the great successes in his affaires, which God had bestowed uppon him; and that it was his highnesse reall intention to endeavour a nearer union betweene them, which I doubted not would apeere in the treaty now with his extraordinary ambassador for a stricter union between the two nations, to which his majestie returned a gracious acceptation, expressing the great desire he had not to be found wanting in a suitable and reciprocall respect and affection to his highnesse and for the governement under him; whereuppon I tooke the boldnesse humbly to thanke his majestie and thereuppon to say, that I doubted not his good affection towards his highnesse havinge received such large and ample testimoneyes of his gracious favour to myselfe during my abode in his court, for which in particular I am obliged to pray for his majestie's long life and prosperous raigne. Some other discourse passed at that time, which I am loath to committ to the frailty of a paper messenger, and therfore shall take the boldnesse to keepe it in my owne breast, till I shall have the happynes to waite on you in person, which (I hope) will not be long, being thus farre onwards of my journey for England, intending (God willing) to be att Hamburgh about the middle of the next month, if noe cross intervening accident doe supersede my endeavours. In the meane time having noething of any certainty in matter of news at present to write, I take my leave, and subscribe myselfe what I truley am,
Dantzick, Jan. 30, 1655.

Your honour's most humble and most obliged servant,
E. Rolt.

Dr. H. Jones to Fleetwood lord deputy of Ireland.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 681.

Right honourable,
I Made bold by the last post (in coll. Sankeye's pacquet) to trouble your lordship with some passages of intelligence heere; in pursuance whereof this now inclosed (since then come to my hand) is also presented. The former was from Conaught; this is from Ulster, into which province it is necessary now to have some inspection.

By another also from the queene's county I have it now given, that some of the Irish forces in Flaunders are drawen out to be speedily sent as a forelorne into Munster, under the command of coll. Murtagh O'Brien, and that another party is to land in Scotland (if it be possible) at the same time. This was lately declared by bishop O'Dwyer (mentioned in my former) unto a priest his confident, and by that priest privatly spoken, where I found it. The letter giveing this inteligence I delivered to lord Henry, together with a copie of the inclosed, from whom although I doubt not but your lordship will have all, yet I conceived it my duty to give this accompt to your lordship also. That generall fast amongst the Irish, mentioned in my last, appeareth now to have beene continued from September untill now, and ordered to be observed on wednesdays, fridayes, and saturdayes weekely, with more than ordinary abstinence, those being dayes, whereof (they supposed) little notice would be taken: the end of that fast is, that the nation may be delevered (as they say) from the tirany and misery under which they now are. Mr. Thomas (who was sometimes lieutenant generall of the horse to generall Preston in Lemster, and is now in Flaunders) hath lately written to his wife in Ireland, that e're long he would visit her, which runnes on the accompt before mentioned. The goode Lord watch over his people for goode, and disappoint the evill of wicked men intended to us, and fill you with his spirit, by whom you may be guided in all your waies to his glorie. To whose grace I recomend you, and rest,
Dublin, January 30, 1655.

My lord,
Your lordship's moste humble and faithfull servant,
Hen. Jones.

H. Cromwell to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 671.

Sir,
Blessed be God, affaires heer continue in a peaceable quiett posture, and our freinds findeing, that their clamouroseness hath not hade that success they hoped for, begin to be more quiett and silent then formerly. Allen and Vernon appeare little abroade, and are verry angry at Sankey's compliance, whome I'll trust as farre as I cane see hime; but I thinke there may be good use made of hime, and therefore shall keep my old correspondency and familiaritie with him.

I perceive by some intelligence I have mett with, that the Irish are bigg with expectation from somethinge abroade; their priests have been verry active to prepare the people for new attempts. They give out, that their is a considerable number of officers to be sent out of Flanders, such as weer formerly of this nation; but I suppose you have better intelligence frome those partes. This inclosed will let you see what our intelligence is heer: how true it is, I can't tell; but however it will putt us uppon carefullness and watchfullness. I doe intend to take advantage from their non-transplantinge to seize uppon and secure the most considerable, active, and dangerous persons resideinge within the provinces of Munster, Leinster, and Ulster, whoe may legally be disposed of as you please to forreign service or otherwise. I have taken what care possible may bee for the discoveringe any shipps, that shall bringe ammunition and armes, and hope to prevent their designe therein. Wee have not one shipp of force uppon the western coast. Wee have writte to the admiralty aboute it, but have had noe returne. It weer good we had 2 or 3 shipps of countenance constantly to attend those parts. Coll. Cooper is this morninge gone to his charge; wee have given hime information of the moste dangerous persons there, and have given him directions to disarme them, and secure their persons if he see cause. Questionless their hath bin something a breweing there, which I have not only from the intelligence sent from my lord Broghill, but allsoe from some I have mett with heer. Wee shall use our uttmost to prevent any breakings forthe either frome Scots or Irish. It would be a great security, as allsoe an advantage to your interest, to have Gallway (which is the strongest towne in the 3 nations) well planted with English. At present there are not six familyes in it, and the houses decay dayly. If you could treate with some honest able merchants of London to undertake it uppon good and sase tearmes, though you gave them the houses freely, it would be much for your profitt and safety.

I have endeavoured, as much as in me lyes, to procure the collections for the poore protestants of Piedmont, judgeing it not only to bee charity, but duty to relieve those poore distressed creatures. There hath bin 1100 l. which was gathered frome the people, returned by bill already. I shall make what improvement I can of it further.

The souldiers have been in such a necessitous condition, that we could not as yet lay holde of what they have given uppon that account. The inclosed paper will let you see what it is. The next moneys that come out of England wee shall without faile make it good; if you are in any present necessitie for it, you may uppon the credit of this make use of 4 or 5000 l. of our Irish money. But if you please to speake with my brother Fleetwood aboute it, I thinke it would not doe amiss. I have bin too tedious, and therefore shall only remind you of a supply of councellors and judges, which indeed wee verry much wante, justice Cooper haveing not as yet acted, and, as I heare, is resolved not to act at all. I am,
January 30, 1655.

Sir, your truly affectionate freind,
and humble servant,
H. Cromwell.

The examination of colonel Anthony Gilby of Everton in the county of Nottingham, taken at Newark upon Trent the 31st of January 1655, by major general Whalley, James Chadwicke, Samuel Bolles, William Wightman, esqs; capt. Edward Cladd, Philip Lacock, Th. Bristow, Gabriel Odingsells, gent. and capt. Hen. Champion.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 975.

This examinate saith, that about a fortnight before the late rising at Rafford in this county, he was with mr. John Cooper at his house in Thurgarton, and went up from thence to sir Roger Cooper's house in the same town, where he was with the said sir Roger Cooper, mr. Cecil Cooper his son, and mr. Drewry Cooper, but cannot tell whether mr. John Cooper went up with him or not; and that he never met with major Scott, nor with mr. John Cooper at any time near unto that rising; only mr. John Cooper came to his the said mr. Gilby's house about three months before that rising, (as he remembers) and that about tuesday following that rising he went to Gainsborrow to sell a little barley, whereof he had a sample; but finding the price not good, he offered it to no body, and staid there that night, and went from thence to Market Raison in Lincolnshire the next morning, to speak with one mr. Booth, whom he supposed would be there, because his daughter lived there, but he himself lived about twelve miles off, and staid at Market Raison only that night, and so returned homewards; and in his way between Gainsborrow and Walkerith he met with his man William—that now serves him, sent by his wife with a letter to him, wherein she advised him not by any means to come, home for fear he should be taken by the soldiers, who had been to search for him, lest he should be abused by them. Upon which he went to his sister mrs. Elizabeth Bulster at Durrington in Lincolnshire, in all which time there was no body with him; and that he staid but one night with his sister, and went thence towards London, where he lodged at one mr. Heskett's house in high Holbourn, near Bloomsbury, an attorney or sollicitor, and lodged there till his highness issued his proclamation, that all cavaliers should depart this city; and there met with mr. Thomas Nayler sometimes in the streets, but does not remember whether he went into any house with him. And being asked how oft he was with mr. John Cooper in London ? he saith, he met with him sometimes accidentally in the streets, but doth not know whether he went into any house with him or not; and saith also, that about the same time he met with major Barker accidentally (as he thinks) upon the exchange, with whom he had no discourse, but only how do you, and the like. And being asked how his plate came to be sent out of his house, and convey'd to one mrs. Williamson's in the same town ? he saith, his girl did it, without the privity of his wife, because (as he apprehends) the soldiers had been there to search for him, and had taken away a horse; and saith, he hath a siver can, and about a dozen of spoons of his own, and a silver porringer, silver box, and silver dish, which are his childrens; and further this examinate saith not.

A true copy of the original, examined by me
Jo. Boawre, clerk to the said commissioners.

Mr. G. Ireland and mr. William Linley to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 221.

Right honorable,
In order to his highnes expresse of the 24th instant, wee are this day mett at Liverpole to putt in execution what is thereby comanded. But in regard of our distance assunder, and the shortnes of the days, wee could not come together till evening, and soe have not hadd tyme before the poast's departure hence to doe much in referrence thereunto, but shall by the next give you a full accompt of our further transactings; of which wee thought it our dutyes to give you this accompt, although but shorte; and shall endeavour to the utmost of our powers to use all dilligence and vigilencye therein, whoe take leave, and remayne,
Right honorable, your very humble servant, G. Ireland,
William Linley.

Right honorable,
The persons mentioned in the list, to witt, Carpenter, and Weaver, and Lynn, are already secured, and now under a guard at Preston.

W. T. to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 587.

Sir,
I Have heard of the seaseinge of sir John Packington, who, I beleive, if guiltie, has other confederates. I am not willinge to accuse persons without ground. I'le give yow my jealousies; the last Michaelmas tearme sir John, collonell Sands of Worstersheire, and one collonell Blunt, a papist and dangerous person as any in London, att whose chamber all these with major Norwood and diverse others had theire constant randezvouse. Blunt's chamber is neare the water-side, fower pare of stares. I beleive it is the same chamber where Norwood lay, the corner chamber over one mr. Thurland's chamber. Blunt lies there but seldome, haveing lately married a widdowe, beeing a Scotch lady. I begg your pardon to subscribe no more then, sir,
Your servant,
W. T.

Major general Worsley to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 297.

Right honourable,
Upon tuesday last I mett the commissioners for the county of Chester att Namptwich, att which time wee proceeded to an extraordinary tax upon them, which were summoned to appeare at that time, and have added somethinge to the former summ; and have this day mett for the county and cittie of Chester, and have proceeded to the extraordinary tax there. Wee likewise sate this weeke upon the ordeinance for ejecting of scandelous, ignorant, and insufficient ministers and schoolemasters, and have received articles against diverse; but I finde both in this county and the rest, that it will bee hard to carry on that worke without more commissioners bee nominated, and have beene desired by the commissioners of the severall counties, to intreate you, that more may bee added to them nominated in the ordinance; and then I doubt not, but in a short time to give you a good account thereof; and for that purpose wee have thought of these inclosed for this county, and shall send likewise for the rest. I finde a very greate wante of justices of the peace in these countys, both by reason of those that refuse to act, as alsoe of the smallnesse of the number; and shall send you a list of such as are conceived fitt for that imployment shortly. The report wee have here is, that coll. Duckenfeild is named high sheriffe. I thought fitt to signifie, that hee is the onely person, that refuses to act with us upon the orders and instructions of his highnes and councell. Wee have agreed upon a way how to putt the rest of the orders in execution. I cannot but admire at the forwardnesse of good people generally to cary on this worke. I finde itt to bee the judgement of the commissioners generally, that it were a speciall good worke to descend full as lowe as fiftle pounds per ann. and five hundred pounds in personall estate. Wee finde our selves deficient in this, that where a person hath an estate of two hundred pounds a yeare for thirtie one yeares or fortie one, or if A. B. live soe longe, it appeares but to bee a chattell, and soe will not come within our compasse. Wee humbly begg some directions in this case. I shall bee at Stafford on the 16th day of this instant; att which time wee shall tax the rest, which have not beene yet dealt with; and hope at that time to take course, that the rest of the orders may bee putt in execution there. Wee are busie in all the counties, takinge securitie from papist and disaffected persons. Noe more at present, but I am
Your faithfull servant,
Cha. Worsley.

I pray to take some course, that wee may pay the severall troopes, and get ridd of those that are unworthy. Wee have now moneys ready, wee onely want your orders.

Major general Kelsey to the protector.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 649.

May it please your highness,
Being at Maidston with the rest of the commissioners, where wee receved a complaint from severall honest men against on Coppin of Rochester, for preaching and maintaining severall blasphemous tenants, saying Christ's humane nature was defiled with sinne, and that he offered sacrifice for his owne sinnes, as well as for the peoples, and that all men showld be saved; denying hell or heaven to be any other than what was within him; and many such damnable tenants, and drew many followers after him, and the souldiers theire many of them did begin to adhere unto him, and some officers to much favoured him; upon which wee sent to apprehend him, but he was not to be found; but I comeing to Chatham about busyness relating to the navy, sent to serjant Parker, and some other justices of the peace to meet me at Rochester, where wee examined witnesses concerning the said Coppin; and finding the thinges charged against him was testifyed by several wittnesses, did comitt him to the goale; but knoweing that many scandalows professors, that have fallen of from the worship and services of God, and ready to follow after any thing that is evell, are ready to cry out for liberty of conscience, and are not backwark to say it's persecution wors then in the bishops time, and the like; and knoweing not how thinges may be presented to your highness, I make bold to give your highnes this accompt. I could wish, and doe humbly offer it as my opinion, that he may be sent out of the land, as yow have done Beedell; and I further offer it to your highness as my humble opinion, that it would be convenient to remove the souldiers that are at Rochester to some other place, and to send some other in theire roomes; for that I am afraid, they have drunck in soe much of these tenants, that I feare they may doe hurt by lying theire, because many townesmen being tainted will be ready to strenthen them in theire opinions. All which I leave to your highnes consideration, and remaine
Your highnes moste humble servant,
Tho. Kelsey.

Heads of a treaty between the protector and the king of Sweden, in the hand-writing of secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 205.

1. That the former treaty and confæderation made betweene his highnes and the late queene Christina shall stand in full force.

2. That there shall be a confæderation offensive and defensive between his said highnes and the kinge of Sweden, their kingdomes and dominions, and against the kinge of Spayne, and whole house of Austria, whereof Poland is a chiefe branch, and those who shall assist them.

3. That the states generall of the United Provinces, and such other princes and states as shal be thought fitt, shall be invited into this confæderacy, and by such meanes as shal be thought convenient.

4. That as soone as their affaires will permitt, an army shall be raised, consistinge as well of forces of both these confederates, as of other princes and states, who shall enter into their confederacy, for invadinge the dominions of the said common enemy in such manner, as shal be agreed upon.

5. That there shall be noe treaty of peace or truce with the said enemy, but by common consent.

6. That for prosecutinge the sayd common enemy, it shal be lawfull for both to levy soldiers, and hire ships, as well merchant as ships of warre, in the dominions and territories of each other, in such manner and numbers as shal be agreed upon.

7. That it shall be lawfull for one to buy armes, powder, shott, or other ammunition, and warlik preparations in the dominions of the other, and to transport it into their owne dominions, provided it may be done without prejudice of the other.

8. That in case either side be invaded by the sayd common declared enemy, upon demand of the partyes soe invaded, the other shall assist hym both with land and sea forces, at the expense of hym desireinge it; wherein regard shal be had to the ability of the party, of whom ayde is desired, that more be not desired of hym, then with consideration had to the then conjuncture of tyme, and the state of his owne affaires, he is able to spare.

9. That noe declared rebell or fugitive of the one shall be suffered to come into or abide in the kingdomes and dominions of the other; and if any shall be there, they shall be banished within forty dayes after notice given, upon payne of forfeiture of life and estate.

10. That all ships carrying commissions for takinge prizes from any prince, that hath noe territories, to be esteemed as pyrates, and dealt with by both accordingly.

11. That it shall not be lawfull to conceale the goodes of each other's enemies.

That noe contraband goods shall be carryed to the enemies of the other, and that under the name contraband shall be conteyned, &c. that if any contraband or enemies goods be found in the ships of the one, those goods shall not only be forfeited, but all the rest of the ship's lading, and that ship itself.

That the certificate herein-after named shall be the forme to be carryed by all merchant ships, accordinge to the 12th article of the said treaty; and in case it shall appeare, that any of the said certificate and passes be counterfeit, or that the ladinge of the ship shall be otherwise then is exprest in them, that then the master and masters of the ships shall be corporally punished, and the ships and goods therein shal be confiscate and for feited to that state, whose prejudice was intended by such false passes.

To the end, that the navigation and commerce may be encouraged, the tolls and customes shall not be raysed in the places now in the possession of each other; and in case of the conquest of any other places, noe greater toll, duty, or custome shall be imposed or set upon the people of either, then were due or payable in such places before the conquest thereof, and the same priviledges and advantages in all other respects continued.

That if the tolls and customes be lessened to any other forreigner, or further priviledges granted them, the people of either shall enjoy the like.

That the states general of the United Provinces, and such other of the confederates, as shall desire it within 3 months, shall be included in the treatye.

Notes of particulars to be added to the treaty with Sweden.

Vol. lviii. p. 190.

To be added to the 5th limitation,
Contrary to the treaties now in force between them and their respective friends and allies. The clause of securitie to be lest out.

In favour of navigation, and for prevention of all hindrance to commerce, trade, and traffique, it is agreed, that all ships belonging to the one or other confederate, or the subjects of either, haveinge the sayd passports and certificates hereunto annexed, viz. all ships belonging to the commonwealth of England, or the people thereof, sailinge in the Baltique sea, and the shipps belonginge to Sweden or the subjects thereof, sailinge in the seas of the comonwealth, or elswhere in the ocean, shall passe freely without any molestation, hindrance, detention, or trouble whatsoever.

And for the avoydinge of fraud and deceit, which may creepe in by such passes, it is agreed, that if any of the passes be counterfeited, that it shall be capitall; or if there be any goods in the ships not conteyned in such passes, and belonging to the enemies of either, that it shall be a forfeiture of the shipe and ladeinge.

Paper of the Swedish resident to the states general.

Vol. xxxiv. p. 291.

The resident of Sweden having received and perused, what the high and mighty lords the states of the United Netherlands have been pleased to resolve on the 11th of January last past, and communicated to him on the 13th following, returns thanks in the name of the king his most gracious master, for the friendly and neighbourly assurances, contained in the said resolution; and in acknowledgment thereof, reiterates the declaration of benevolence made by his majesty in his letter of the 4th of April, and by his extraordinary ambassador the lord baron of Sparr in his propositions of the month of June, both of last year, viz. that not only the confidence and friendship, which has been established for such a long time, might be confirmed, but also be augmented for the satisfaction and advantage of both parties. Likewise, in order to satisfy their high mightinesses in relation to his majesty's armament against Poland, a declaration was delivered, wherewith their high mightinesses, by their answer of the 14th of June following, containing several demonstrations of affection, seemed and shewed themselves to be very well contented and satisfied. About the same time there was also published by the press a preliminary manisesto or relation of the reasons, why his majesty was forced to wage war against Poland; wherein, among other arguments, is to be seen a complaint, that not long ago it was attempted by Poland, to introduce some foreign fleets in the Baltick, to disturb the protection of that sea, which from of old particularly did belong to the kings of Sweden. Soon after the said resident, understanding, by common report, that an extraordinary fleet of men of war should fail from here to the Baltick, found himself obliged, for the mutual service and satisfaction of their high mightinesses, as well as of his majesty, to declare and to mention the same, in a memorial of the 13th of August, as also in that of the 27th of Septembr, viz. that from the side of Poland endeavours were made, to instill into their high mightinesses ill impressions, and instigate them to disturbances; wherefore the said resident cannot conceive very well, what occasion there is for an elucidation of the words in his last memorial of the 4th of this present year: Neighbours that countermine the peace of this state. The lord baron of Sparr makes mention also, in his propositions, of fomentations of malevolent men, whereof however, though very general and dark, their high mightinesses were pleased to demand no elucidation. There is no state so happy, which has not its illwishers, and it is not to be thought, that their high mightinesses should reckon themselves to be more exempted therefrom than others. So that it is no ways strange, that others also, besides Poland, might envy their high mightinesses tranquillity. To doubt this, would be, to enquire after a known way, or nodum in scirpo quærere; neither is this of any concern. The question is not of who endeavours to countermine their high mightinesses tranquillity, or who encourages them to send a squadron of men of war, or whether the same is done by others besides Poland; for whether it is advised, or whether there is such an intention, no body knows better than their high mightinesses themselves. The said resident refers only to the common report, (confirmed also by the licenced and weekly publish'd news papers here) with his humble and friendly protestation, that he is ready to contribute to the keeping up of a good correspondence, according to the mutual expressions betwixt his majesty's extraordinary embassador, (secundum præsentem apud exteras in vicinitate nationes rerum faciem, which are the words of his proposition) and their high mightinesses in the month of June last past; and therefore he could not help making the aforesaid representations, and giving the well-meant forewarning, being now rejoiced, that your high mightinesses in the resolution of the 11st instant approve of the same, and intend to be watchful, and to apply betimes all necessary remedies, and thus to make all matters of dispute vanish, which have been reiteratedly mentioned, whereby the counterminers against the tranquillity of both sides shall be defeated. Whenever the said resident shall find any further opportunities to be serviceable for the cultivation of a further mutual and good understanding, he will never be wanting in his endeavours.

January - - - 1656.

Being put under deliberation, it was agreed to and resolved, that the provinces of Zealand, Utrecht, Friesland and Overyssel, should be written to in serious terms, that the same would order and authorise their deputies in their high mightinesses assembly, with all expedition, to assist in, and to promote the fitting out of an extraordinary squadron of men of war, to go to sea against the spring.