A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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February (2 of 6)
A letter of intelligence.
A French merchant l'Olmet living at Stockholm, who formerly went from here with the regiment of the count of Stirum to the Swedish camp, set out last friday from Elbing, and arrived this day here in my lodgings coming with the Dantzick post waggon. He, by reason of some money he has to demand of the king having followed the court every where in Poland and Prussia, and as it seems, taken a sufficient notice of all that has happened there, has given us a further and nearer information of several particulars, which we have not had here as yet.
2. The electoral Prussia, as also the bishoprick of Ermeland, shall for the future be taken as a sief from the crown of Sweden; however justice shall be pronounced decisively without appeal: upon renewing the allegiance no more than 4000 ducats shall be payd, without being obliged to make any further presents, as formerly, neither shall it be obliged to furnish in the Swedish service more than 1500 men, to wit 1000 horse and 500 foot.
3. The elector shall demolish the fortifications of Braunsberg, to the end that they may not be prejudicial to those of Frauwenburg, which place together with the dependances thereof his majesty retains for himself.
4. His majesty shall enjoy half the toll at Pillauw and Memel, which shall neither be lessened nor heightned but with the consent of both parties. Neither shall the king heighten the tolls in his part of Prussia, nor lessen the same, without having first treated and agreed the same with the elector.
This is all that the said merchant could tell us concerning the said treaty. As to Marienburg he told us, that he knew for certain, that the elector had last saturday was se'nnight march'd his troops out of Marienburg being 7 or 800 men strong, with 50 or 60 waggons with sick soldiers, which he believed were full 300 men more; all that remain'd there was in the whole not above 1000 horse and 500 foot. The same day the ryx chancellor Oxenstiern had sent a trumpeter into the said city with a letter to the lord Weyers, exhorting them not to be any longer obstinate, but to surrender themselves to his majesty upon good and reasonable conditions. Weyers answer was, that it was not in his power; but that lord Guldenstern and another, whose name the said merchant did not very well remember, must likewise consent thereto, as well as he; so that it was thought, they would in a little time submit.
Count Magnus de la Gardie has lest all his troops with the king, having taken none but his regiment of dragoons back with him, without which reinforcement his majesty's army was very weak, since the same was very much lessened by desertion and sickness, so that the regiments, which before were 6 or 700 men strong, could hardly march 300 at present.
The emperor's embassador (who has not been able these four weeks past to obtain an audience of his majesty) was fetch'd up from Elbing to Thorn under an escort of 300 horse, where the Turkish envoy was likewise come back.
Mr. Rolt the English envoy took his leave of the king last saturday three weeks: the said merchant left him at Dantzick, and thinks he will be here within 10 or 12 days: the same had made himself very much beloved at the court of his majesty, and received great honours and favours from the king.
As to the report of the count of Waldeck's having left the elector with great discontent, and set out for England, it appears to be a great untruth, raised by some body that has no great affection for him; however what I mentioned of it before, was certainly reported here at court and believed for truth, it being likewise publickly printed in the news papers of the 22d of January. The said merchant has seen, that the said count acquainted the king with the arrival of the elector, and received of him great and distinguishing honours, receiving as a present a diamond ring, which the king himself was used to wear valued at 14000 guilders.
Count Stirum (whose regiment by desertion and ill management is at present not above 150 troopers strong) has demanded his dimission of the king, and obtained the same immediately, being willing to withdraw from the army: how advantageous this affair will be to him is easily to be judged.
Of the taking of Cracow they had no news in the Swedish camp: the letters this day arrived mention nothing further of it, but that the king of Poland with a great army is hovering about the frontiers of this kingdom, and doth still continue; and it is thought that his majesty as much as possibly can be got together with a great army will march next spring against the said king: for which purpose it is said, count Magnus has received orders to raise 14000 recruits, and that count Leuwenhaupt shall be employed for the said recruiteering.
Further the said merchant cannot speak enough how unprovided and destitute of money every one is in the Swedish camp from the lowest to the highest officers; they are all equally bare and needy, more than can be imagined.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
I this eveninge received yours of the 25th ult. The inclosed for mr. Rolt shall goe by to morrowe's post to meete him at Stetin, from whence wee expect letters this night; if any come from him ere theise depart, you will find them heere. I acquainted mr. Swyft as you ordered, I much wondred letters come soe seldom from mr. Rolt, but I suppose he now followes the kinge to take his leave, and soe may be out of the roade of the post.
It's most certaine, as you say, that the states general feare, that the agreement betwixt the king and the elector will impeade their commerce in the Baltique sea, and soe much I understood from their embassadors as they past heere. From which feare if they can be delivered, they may there perchance judge their conjunction an advantage to the protestant cause. I presume you have the newes from Switzerland eare it reach this place. The last from Basil faith, the popish neutrall cantons, whilst they pretended to mediate, most treacherously fell upon two regiments of those of Berne, and cutt many of them off: Popish faith was never better kept. The frost begins here agayne, and the river not wholly free of the former ice; it will be safest sending the ship to Rotterdam for mr. Rolt.
I hope the company's busines is not quite forgot, though of late I finde noe mention
thereof in your letters. I wish I had left them when I first resolved it. I had then both
saved you and myself a great deale of trouble, and prevented the dishonour of being
forst off. If his highnes will but please to repaire his owne honour in mee (which I humbly
conceave may easily be done, if the heads of the faction have but their deserts) I
shall be very well contented never to have to doe more with the company; and truly
without something of that nature be done, I shall not be much longer serviceable heere.
I pray excuse me, that I thus trouble you every post with this worthlesse busines, of
which I may be adjudged to have too deepe a resentment. However it succeeds, I shall
only professe, and approve my selfe
Hamburgh, Feb. 5, 1655.
Lucas van Hoff to Nieupoort, the Dutch embassador in England.
The assurance and certainty of the conclusion of the treaty between the king of Sweden and the duke of Brandenburgh, and the report of the new levies of the Brandenburgher for 9 or 10 regiments both horse and foot, doth alarm the princes in these parts, so that, as I am informed, Mentz, Triers, Cologne, Newburgh, Wartzburgh, Munster, and Paderborn have made a defensive alliance together, and chosen the lord Ruysschenburgh to be general of the league: the said lord is stadtholder of the countries of Gulick and Bergh, who is busy in raising of men, they having resolved to keep an army on foot for the defence of their towns and countries of 12000 men. The duke of Newburgh being also moved for the reasons aforesaid is shortly expected at Dusseldrop; who is said to be chosen general of the emperor's army, who is also said to make great levies, and hath lately bought great store of ordnance.
Resolutions of the states general.
Was heard the report of the lords Huygens and others their high mightinesses deputies for sea affairs, according to their resolution of the 25th of January last past, upon perusing and examining the letter of the college of admiralty of Amsterdam written there on the 18th instant, whereby it was lest to their high mightinesses consideration, whether the Hans towns, on the same foot, as it has been contracted many years ago, to contribute for the safety of the east and north sea, could not be disposed to contribute for the safety of the Mediterranean sea, be it in ships of war or in money, so as it should be thought most fitting and adviseable to enter into negotiations on that head: whereupon the said lords having made accordingly their report, viz. that their lordships had also conferred on that subject with the resident Aitsma, who had promised to write on that account to the cities Lubeck, Bremen and Hamburgh, in order, after having received their answer, to acquaint their high mightinesses with their sentiments and consideration. Which being taken into deliberation their high mightinesses have given thanks to the said lords deputies for their trouble; and afterwards it was agreed to and resolved upon to desire the said lords the deputies hereby, that they would take the further trouble, to enter into conferences on that subject with the ministers of the kings of Sweden and Denmark here present, as also with those of the prince elector of Brandenburg, duke of Courland, and the city of Dantzick, to hear their considerations, and to make their report thereof.
Advice of the council of state to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
As to the reduction of the interest on the capitals negotiated at the charge of the generality from five to four per cent, the lords our commissioners have declared by word of mouth, and afterwards on the 8th of October last past delivered in writing, in the conferences with the lords commissioners of your high mightinesses assembly, their sentiments on that subject. We have since resumed this important affair in this council according to the resolution hereunto annexed, and are of opinion, that for the service of the country in the low condition of the Finances, such a reduction would be necessary to be made, but that it ought also previously to be considered, how to execute the same with reputation. Therefore it is our opinion, that the same should not be done upon some sundry articles, but generally upon all the money negotiated as well in the deportment of the receiver general, as also in those of the subaltern receivers of the generality; as also on the negotiations made by the colleges of admiralty, so that every thing may be brought upon one and the same footing, and no creditors may have reason to complain of being wrong'd. But above all things one ought to make sure of a certain fund, in case warning should be given for the capitals, as apparently it may be done, chiesly for such capitals negotiated in the department of the subaltern receivers, to the end to have recourse thereunto, which fund ought to be no less than one million of guilders, in the deportment of the generality, without reckoning the admiralties. For which purpose your high mightinesses might apply to the province of Holland or to some considerable members of the same, to persuade them to it, to support their high mightinesses, in which case we will undertake the said reduction of all bonds, which are due on the first of Aprill next, and so on, so that every thing will be regulated by the first of October of this present year, since the bonds of the generality are all for six months; otherwise in case one could not beforehand be sure of the said fund, and that the said reduction could be made, it would be unsafe to begin the same at this time and in the present conjunctures of affairs. Therefore it ought not to be undertaken, in case one should not be able to go through with it, seeing that else great disorders and confusion might easily arise therefrom; which your high mightinesses will be pleased to take into consideration.
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.
Sir John Reynolds hath presented to his highnesse the letter, with the instructions he brought from Ireland subscribed by the officers. They have beene comunicated to my lord deputy and major generall Lambert, and some little discourse hath bene upon them; but I knowe not, nor can I ymagine what the answere or returne will be thereunto. In the meane tyme the unanimitie of the officers therein is not unacceptable, which wee dayly pray for the encrease of. Some tyme will be set apart for a through consideration of this buissnesse; the result whereof shall be comunicated to you with the first; I doe beleeve the persons you mention in yours doe sitt very uneasie, since they have left the saddle: however I am glad, that their trouble arises out of their owne spirits, and that noe body hath contributed to it but themselves; and if they proceed to a further distance by the same steps, I beleeve noe body but themselves will have much cause of sorrow, or ever wish their returne, till their principles be mended; and I thinke the best carriage towards them is neither to provoake them to it, nor court them from it.
I perceive there hath beene great endeavours to spread a paper of Vavasour Powell's and some other Welshmen, in Ireland, as in all places of this nation, and it is greatly hugged by some. I suppose your lordship may have seene it. There are animadversions made upon it, of a very strange and extraordinary nature. It is hard to judge, wheither they be for us or against us. This booke stole out into the world, and now it is abroad, I knowe not wheither it be sitt or convenient to stiste it. The leiuetenant of the tower brought me one, which he seised upon, which I have sent unto your lordship, desireinge that it may not be knowne it came from my hand. His highnesse had yesterday a paper delivered to hym by mr. Cradocke and capt. Lewis, who were sent by the subscribers thereof. It was occasioned it seemes by Vavasour Powell's paper, which carryed the name of many of the churches and saints in Wales; and your lordship will see about 300 hands sett thereto; but in truth all the names were subscribed by one hand and pen, and very many of them without the consent of the persons. But this hath almost 900 hands to it, and all subscribed by the persons themselves. It came from them freely, and, as was prosesst by those who brought it, is much below the affections of the subscribers, and yet it favours of much Christian affection, as your lordship will see by the coppy thereof, which comes herewith; and I have sent it, that your lordship may see and let others see, that the godly partye hath not (as would be suggested by some) forsaken us. The subscribers of this paper are knowne to be the sober part of Christians in those parts.
I have had nothinge of that intelligence, which I received in your lordship's, of transportinge Irishe out of Flanders into Ireland and Scotland; but it is not improbable, and therefore not to be slighted; I shall hunt after it the best I can. I shall not faile to importune the admiraltye, that ships may be sent into the West of Scotland. I have already spoke with colonel Clerke about it, who sayth, that there are already some ships about Dublyn, which may be spared thither, but I doubt he is mistaken, and therefore I shall not take that for an answere, but wee must see our maine fleet gone before that can be done, in settinge forth whereof wee have met with some difficulties; but blessed bee God, they are in some measure overcome.
The affaires in the West Indies are rendered by the letters, which wee received from thence the last weeke, but in an ill condition, by reason of the badnes of the conduct and the unspeakable negligence of those, who were trusted with the manadgment of those affaires. This hath occasioned the sicknes of many of our men, and the death of some. Fortescue is dead, and soe the army is without a head, commanded now by 7 colonels alternis vicibus. The fleet is in a good state; the most of what is come by the letters is conteyned in the enclosed print, whereto I will be bold to referr your lordship. His highnes intentions are to prosecute this buissines, and to send supplies of men, part whereof will be, what your lordship can spare out of Ireland (as I suppose).
The last weekes letters confirme, that a peace is concluded betweene the king of Sweden,
and the elector of Brandenburgh. Dantzicke still holds out, and is soe resolved to doe.
This agreement with Brandenburgh hath greatly disappointed the Dutch, who had by all
meanes possible instigated the elector to hold out, and are now preparinge 48 ships to
send into the Baltique sea against the Swede. His highnes will doe what he can to agree
them, for the sake of the protestant cause, which is in such a condition, that all the professors thereof ought to agree together. The affaires of the protestants in Suisserland are
not in a very prosperous state. Zuricke is yet before Ropperswill, without any great
hopes of takeinge it in a short tyme; and what befell those of Berne, your lordship will
see by the enclosed paper. Wee hope for better newes by the next post. I shall
endeavour to procure a new supply of judges, but where to have councillors I know
not. I remeyne,
Whitehall, Feb. 5, 1655.
From the Dutch resident at Geneva.
I have received their high and mighty lordship's resolution of the 9th of the last month; and shall endeavour to effect with all care and diligence their good intention therein express'd, since that the evangelical cantons have signified unto me in a letter the proceedings or rather the threatnings, which are used by the mediators, to cause them to condescend to an accommodation, which I hope will be facilitated by the good offices of your high and mighty lordship, and the arrival of the lord duke de Rochesoucault; the lord de la Barde (the ordinary embassador of the king of France) not being liked of by the evangelical cantons for several reasons given by them. They find themselves beset on all sides by their enemies, assisted with the counsel and effects of Rome, Spain, and Savoy; without that they have received as yet any assistance from any of their friends. I have made known unto them the good inclination of their high and mighty lordships comprehended in the said resolution, and offered them my service, in all what they can desire of me in order thereunto. The lord Pell, who hath assured me of the extraordinary care and affection of the lord protector, had received order from the lord Thurloe to go for Switzerland; and in regard that the lord Boreel hath given me hopes, that further instructions and orders will be sent unto me concerning Switzerland and the Vallies, I have thought fit likewise to begin to prepare myself for the journey, the better to effect the good intention of their high and mighty lordships.
An intercepted letter of sir G. Ratcliff to mrs. T.
D. of York
Francis is not yet resolved of his remove: nobody speaks to him of it; he will not go of himself, except those here desire it; and he must have money for his charges, which as yet comes not. Yet I believe something will come after a while. It is believed, that Peter [ie. K. Charles] will send for him, but as yet things are not ready: in the mean time I can resolve on nothing. Francis [ie. D. of York] is very civil (of late more than formerly) towards Rochefort, but that is all, for he gets little for himself, and has no money to spare.
Many wonder what the princess royal meant to take such a journey at this time. It was against the will of some of her friends: many guess at several things. I know nothing at all nor can imagine what the motive was. I hear nothing that carries any shew of probability, it is a greater secret than I can dive into.
Bordeaux, to de la Bastide.
Your letter by this last post doth oblige me to tell you, in answer to the discourse, which the embassador of Holland had with you, that if the intention of the king had not been to send me back in all hast, that there would have been spoken of a prolongation of delay; but since they are sending me away every hour, it is believed, that the protector will not look so narrowly to it. This is what you may say, when occasion. shall offer itself; and you may also assure them, that it will not be long before I return. I had been ere now upon the way, if the commissioner of the city of Malo were arrived.
The discourse of the secretary of state having given an occasion to believe, that the lord protector is of the same opinion as the cardinal is of, about the removing of the said prince, you must not fail to signify, that this expectation alone doth defer his departure.
I do not believe, that they make here any great account of the levies of Ireland. The conduct of Cooke will not make them rather to rely upon them. However if he bringeth any proposition to you, do not fail to hearken to it; and to let him know, that unless he makes very great haste, we shall have no occasion to make use of his levies.
A letter of intelligence from mr. Petit.
Yesterday the king sent towards the chambers of this parliament, to bid them send their deputies to the Louvre, to know his will in reference to the business of coining. Where being come, mr. de Servien told them, that his majesty understood, that his edict should be executed, and expressly prohibited them to make any more assemblies thereupon, or to make the report of what was told them, which might be done by each deputy in his chamber, as well as in open assembly. Then the king himself commanded them to hearken and make their profit thereof: so this new coin (which goeth by the name of lis) begins to glitter, and stops the mouth of every body. In execution of the treaty of this court with the duke of Orleans, mr. de Sonnieres (son to the late mr. de Broussell, heretofore governor of the Bastille) is come here; and it is thought his royal highness will follow him suddenly.
The popish canton of Soleure has sent a deputy to this court, to demand relief of his majesty against the protestants, which it is thought will be denied them. I am credibly informed, that the protestant Swiffers have sent two deputies towards mr. de Villefranche Montbrun, to intreat him to take the command of their horse in chief.
Letters from Rome tells us, that the pope did continue his noble entertainments towards queen Christina, so far as to propound unto her the opening of the holy gate, as did heretofore Paul the third, to receive and honour the emperor Charles the fifth; and that she was daily feasted by all princes and grandees. That the embassador of Portugal had so far prevailed with his holiness, that his demands had almost been granted; and that his said holiness did much approve, that the cardinal of Retz should keep only the name of archbishop of Paris; and that the functions should be perform'd by a great vicar, as long as he should be in the king's disfavour.
Letters of intelligence.
In my last I gave you notice of the king of Sweden's being upon his march with his army towards Sendomir and Cracow, since which time nothing further is come in from his majesty; but from Cracow it is said, general Wittenbergh being now fully restored to health, broke up thence the 23d past with his forces, and on the second present were marched together for Lublin to seek out king Casimir with his adherents, who was said to be at Reushlemberg, and (according to report) past all hopes of any assistance from the Tartars, as also exceeding fearful to trust these Poles, whom he found once perfidious unto him. Marienburgh holds out yet, notwithstanding it hath been earnestly attacked already; in which service the count of Donaw left his arm, and was also shot through the body: but we shall not leave most violently to prosecute and continue the siege, until they yield, which we know cannot be long. The plague begins to be very strong at Koningsberg, in as much as the elector and electress intend to leave the city very shortly. A Muscovian embassador was expected there, being to go thence to the emperor's court. His business is yet private.
The Switzers having perfidiously treated for and obtained an armistitium for 6 days, and knowing that our army was strictly enjoined inviolably to observe the same, came on friday morning before day with 3000 men, and fell unawares upon our watches at Ricklishweil and Wehtishweick consisting of 6 companies, with great fury and clamours, with an intention not only to put them all to the sword, but also to destroy with fire and sword all the villages to the very city. Our men indeed beat off the first assault most valiantly, but at last finding themselves too weak, were forced to retreat into these trenches; but being immediately thereupon seconded by general Wertmiller and lieutenant general Ulrick, they set again upon the enemy, put him to flight, killed a great many, and burnt some villages together with the convent Frawenthall; upon notice whereof, it's said, the assembly at Baden broke up with great discontent re infecta: If this be true, a general rupture will certainly follow.
From the commissary Juchem to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
Your high mightinesses without doubt have heard formerly in what manner the electors of Cologne, Treves, and Mentz, the bishops of Bamberg, Paderborn, and Munster, as also his ferene highness of Nieuburg, were upon making a defensive alliance, which now as it seems is come to an effectual conclusion. Since the same under pretence of being Condé's friends assemble a large number of troops on the borders of the Rhine. About three weeks ago the bishop of Munster sent 1000 foot and 300 horse at Keiserswert over the Rhine, into the lower bishoprick of Cologne, who took their quarters at Lyn, Vyrdingen, Camper, and thereabouts; so as those of Juliers and Bergues have done likewise along the Wetterau at Lynich, Wassenberg, and about that country. Those of Dryeer and the upper bishoprick of Cologn are march'd towards the Liege quarters; at present those of Mentz, Bamberg, and Paderborn come to take up their quarters in the dutchy of Bergues. And whereas the statholder Russenborg at Dusseldorp has the general command of the said troops, as they write to me this day from Dusseldorp, his ferene highness of Nieuburg is expected by post at Mulheim on the Rhine, where there is at present a dyet of the states; he is said to have sent before 5 companies of Bavarian horse, which are arrived in the upper part of the dutchy of Bergue, whither there are more ready to follow. The said letter mentions likewise, that his ferene highness of Nieuburg will for certain be declared general in chief of the whole imperial army. And whereas these affairs in the said dyet seem to create disturbances, I have thought it necessary to acquaint your high mightinesses with as much as I know of it with the greatest humility. Being, &c.
These said soldiers render the roads very unsafe, so that scarce any body dares to travel: 3 or 4 days ago they sir'd three pistols on a footman of an ensign near the bridge of Rhynberk and Osenborg, whom they plunder'd afterwards, having taken also from a merchant 200 rix dollars.
H. Cromwell to secretary Thurloe.
Wee have not as yet received your laste weekes letters, but wee hope all is well with you. I cannot be without my feares in relation to his highness, 'till I heare of his perfect recovery. It will not become me to say howe much the interest of these nations, and especially of the people of God therein, depends uppon and is wrapt up in his highness. I have as much reason as well upon that account, as allsoe uppon a more perticular, to be earnest with the Lord on his behalf as any. Those, that may secretly desire and contrive harme against hime, would hardly escape the general calamitie, that woulde fall uppon these nations, and which they too much endeavour to pull uppon their owne heades and others by their murmuringes, mutteinyes, and wicked designes.
I have nothinge new heer to acquaint you with, save that wee are quiet, and in a generall calme, as to outward appearance. Our most considerable enemy nowe in our view are the quakers, whoe begin to growe in some reputation in the county of Corke, their meetinges being attended frequently by col. Phaier, major Wallis, and moste of the chief officers thereabouts. Some of our souldiers have bin perverted by them, and amongst the rest his highness's cornet to his owne troop is a professed quaker, and hathe writte to me in their stile. Major Hodden, the governor of Kinsale, is, I feare, goeing that way; he keepes one of them to preach to the souldiers. I thinke their principles and practises are not verry consistent with civil government, much less with the discipline of an army. Some thinke them to have noe designe, but I am not of that opinion. Their counterfeited simplicitie renders them to me the more dangerous. I wish they bee not too much slighted in Englande. Sir H. Vane, and such like, whoe are as rotten in their principles, cane make good use of such delusions as these, 5th monarchy, and the like, to carry on their designes. Mr. Weaver hath writ verry hotly to a freind of his, (who tolde me it as a secresy) that sir H. V. goes up and downe amongst these people and others, endeavouringe to withdrawe them frome their submission to the present government, which perhaps is no newes to you; but comeinge from such a hand, I thought it not amiss to give you this hint. His expression concerninge him is, that if he bee not prevented, he will be a sad scourge to Englande. I hope you will send none of the breed of hime into Ireland. Sankey sayth, that there weer some thoughts of mr. Salloway, but I hope you will consider well what manner of persons to send hither, though wee wante a supply, which I have often minded you of, and doe againe send my desires to you in this particuler, (assureinge you the publike suffers extreemly for want thereof.) To tell you, that in that one particular of the revenew you have bin manifestly cousined of above one halfe for these 5 yeares would hardly bee credited by you; men have taken that from the state, for which they payed 20 l. per ann. rent, and have immediately let it out againe for 150 l. per annum; and, sir, this is to be made good in above 40 particuler instances, and fear'd that all your lande in Ireland is let at this rate. I knowe 3 men, that took 18000 acres of the commonwealth's lande in the county of Meathe for 600 l. per annum, and let it out againe for 1800. Sir, and these were commissioners intrusted for lettinge your landes. Another, which let himself (being a commissioner) for 400 l. per annum, and the state to bear the contribution, that which was at the same time let by the state for 800 l. the countrey at the same time beinge as well stocked and planted as it is nowe. Sir, these and many more particulars might easily bee proved, they being soe notorious, that all men knowe of them; and truly we either want hearts or understanding to redress them. What doe you think of mr. Scawen for such a worke as that? I dare searce venture to propound men, there haveinge bin soe much corruption of this kinde even practised amonge goode men, soe thought to be. Wee are in a very great streight for want of judges. I have often writ aboute judge Donelan. I wish you would speak with my brother Fleetwood aboute him. I shall be very watchfull over the Irish and Scots, whoe are both bigg with expectations of some new business. I hope suddenly to have faste holde of the considerable persons of the Irish of the three provinces, whome you may doe what you please with, upon the account of their non-transplanting. Connaught will be well looked after. My last proposall about Gallway, if I soe represented it to you, as you understand it, will (in the opinion of all sober men) much conduce to your future safety and advantage. I am
Major general Whalley to secretary Thurloe.
I Receaved yours, wherin was enclosed the orders concerning the rectifying juryes, and also those that directs for the paying the militia. I have likewise received yours of the 2d of this instant, with a petition of col. Frecheville to his highnesse; and give me leave to deale very plainly, could he prove a reall change in his judgement, and manisest both it and his good affection to God's people and the present government, by such works as sir Robert Markam did, wee should be so far from grudging him, as that wee should bee humble suitors to his highnes for his favour to him; but we knowe that mr. John Frecheville was a colonel in the king's army, an active enemy, one that gave 10,000 l. with his daughter to match her into the same tribe; and if not to a papist, at least to the sonne of a papist. He exprest his affection to the late king as long as he well could, as long almost as his head was upon his shoulders. When I wayted upon him at Hampton-court as his guard, he came thither, and played at tennis with him; and at this time of day you shall have halse the cavaleeres in England prosesse as much as he. sir, this tax hath exceedingly pleased our friends, it haveing put a difference betweene the well and ill-affected; and certaynely it will much dissatisfye them to see you about to put them in your bosomes, especially eminent ones, before the Lord hath wrought a reall change and worke of grace in their heartes. Upon the request and earnest solicitations of the lord Fleetwood, I did suspend our proceedings agaynst him; and the rather, because hee had hopes, as he writ to me, to procure his discharge from his highnes and the councill; but that not coming, I thinke by this time he is sequestered. It wil be no prejudice to him, if his highnes be pleased to free him betwixt this and Ladyday. It is very much desired, that as our instructions are from both, so our discharge may bee by the same authoritie; and if herein we erre, I pray rectifye us. I formerly made the same request to you; and doubtles it would very much free his highnes from impertinent sutors. The freeing of one, that is of a civill deportment, will bring hundreds upon him. The Lord help us to know what our sinne is, or what his pleasure is, that wee are so crost and visited in Jaimacha; and that in all thinges wee may ayme at his glory, and submitt to his will, is the prayer of, sir,
Nottingham, Feb. 6, 1655.
Notification made by mess. Daniel Weyman John Copes, ministers of his electoral highness of Brandenburg, in relation to the peace concluded on the 7/17 Feb. 1656, between his majesty of Sweden and his electoral highness.
God has delivered his electoral highness, our master, from war, his territories from destruction, and his allies from the necessity of assisting him with great danger and costs; since it has pleased him, out of his infinite goodness to bless the treaty so far, that we have got peace with Sweden. His electoral highness doth not doubt but your high mightinesses partaking of the effects thereof, will be so much pleased with it, as they, according to their usual prudence, will judge it to be better to take the certain before the uncertain, and that a tolerable peace is to be preserred before all wars, though the same was not undertaken out of an imaginary fear. But time may heal things, which before seemed to be very dangerous, especially between parties, that cannot overcome the other without hurting the publick welfare, and with whom your high mightinesses have constantly kept up an equal friendship, which they are both inclined to continue in all sincerity. It was pity, that such sad misunderstanding happened between so near neighbours. And his electoral highness was no ways to be blamed, to defend himself with all his forces, since he could not obtain neither a peace nor neutrality. But as soon as his majesty of Sweden offer'd reasonable conditions, whereby his electoral highness not only kept his dominions, subjects, harbours, fortresses, rights, and properties, but also greatly increased and enlarged the same, all reasons to expose one's self to further dangers ceased, it being justified by the law of nature at least to save one's self, if one is not able to save others. Poland gave way to the victorious arms of Sweden, and the states of such a powerful body submitted themselves unanimously under the obedience of another chief, so that there was no king of Poland in the country, neither kept the kingdom true to the king. All which shewed his electoral highness sussicient reasons by such unexpected revolutions, why he ought not to oppose such a powerful hand, every thing obliging him and concurring to induce him to it; seeing that he could not any longer be protected by his feodal lord, but when it would be too late, and that his electoral highness being almost deserted by his allies in Prussia and Poland, saw no other assistance from others, but what would come either too late, or attended with more danger than safety.
Therefore his electoral highness, at the doleful request of so many thousand of ruin'd subjects, and the earnest remonstrance of his states, did accept of the conditions that were offer'd him, and made peace, whereby the friendship of the neighbouring princes is obtained, and the way opened, to come from all sides again into an universal good intelligence between old allies, for the safety of the publick peace, preservation of commerce, and a mutual welfare of every one in particular.
And whereas his electoral highness is convinced of your high mightinesses good and kind inclination to have assisted him, if he had not made peace by his own forces, he acknowledges the same with all marks of gratitude, and has order'd us not only to give your high mightinesses due notification of all the aforesaid, but also to assure you, that his electoral highness in making the said treaty has had the interest of this state as much at heart as his own, and that he had consented to nothing, that may any ways hinder him to perform what his electoral highness is obliged to, pursuant to the treaty of alliance. That for the future he will be always greatly inclined to shew, on all opportunities, his sincere affection to promote the welfare of this state, being assured that your interest cannot be touched without his sharing in it. We do not doubt but this will be acceptable to your high mightinesses, and are, &c.
Don Alonzo de Cardenas to one mr. Theo. Conel.
I am sorry to hear, that you are likely to be put to your shifts by the departure of the Venetian embassador. I wish there were another to supply his place in a time of so much calamity, to protect as much as is possible all the priests and catholicks against their persecutors.
We are much threatned by those gentlemen and their fleets. We hope God will defend us, the justice of our cause being so clear and so notorious. I am, thanks be to God, very well in health, and do hope shortly to go for Spain, the weather hath been so cold hitherto, that I durst not venture. I shall be glad when I am there, being here altogether idle. In what country soever I am you will always find me ready to serve you.
Major general Whalley to secretary Thurloe.
I Have sent out letters to the justices of peace in all the counties under my charge, for the speedy rectifieing of all juries according to his highness orders; but fear, that some countys may not make a timeously return of their names to serve upon juries at the next assizes; for (as I am well informed here) unless some speciall direction be presently given to the sheriffs now at London, to forbear the return of any venire facias, till the freeholders bookes can be prepared and sent up to them, those instructions of his highness cannot be put in excution for the next assizes, in regard the sheriffs will have retorned all their juries in the old way and course by the end of the next week.
Major general Boteler to secretary Thurloe.
I Received his highness his commands two or three dayes since for the sending up a duplicate of the decimations of the delinquents estates within my association, which I doe hereby present to the councell. Wee have noe more estates to be assessed then are here mentioned, and the generall receivers of each county have receiv'd all or most of the money soe assessed already; but itt falling so much short of the summ, that should pay the millitia, I have not distributed either the whole or any parte of itt; for to pay them lesse then their halfe yeare's pay would more discontent them, then to stay 'till the councell please to supply us (some other way) with soe much as we come short. The takeing of my lord of Westmorland's, sir William Farmor's, and some other great estates in this county, hath made us fall as much short of the pay of those two troopes, as we should otherwise have beene over. And the like hath happened in Bedfordshire, Hunts, and Rutland: as they are little countreys, soe had few delinquents, and these very small estates. I shall want noe lesse then one thousand and eighty pounds to pay the millitia officers and soldiers, and some other incident charges. I humbly beseech your honour lett me obtaine your favour and assistance to the councell in this matter, that it may fare with us as with the rest of the associations. And indeed 'till I have money to pay the millitia under me, I cannot put off nor purge out such as are unfitt to be continued, which (together with the bringing in of more fitt men) is a most necessary worke. Concerning his highness other commands for prepareing fitt jurors, and the way of doeing it, I shall faithfully observe, and have been (though very privately) doeing somewhat that way already. I am
Northampton, Feb. 7, 1655.
A duplicate of the several delinquents estates, which are decimated within the county of Northampton.
Col. Cooke pretends sir Anthony Morgan's estate is in him: if it be allowed so to be, it will take off l. 81: 8: 0 per ann. out of the said l. 1600: 6: 0, and then 'twill be per ann. but l. 1518: 18: 00.
|Molineux Audley of St. Ives, gent.||34||06||00|
|Sir John Hewett of||16||00||00|
|The earl of Devonshire at||156||17||00|
|The earl of Northampton at||12||07||00|
|Stephen Anderson of esq;||60||00||00|
An abstract of the names of all those, who have been ejected by virtue of this present committee for insufficiency or scandal.
The relation of his majesty of Sweden's victorious encounter near Wlestowiz, with the Polonian general Czarnetzky, happened February 8, 1655/6.
The (fn. 1) late successful encounter of lieut. coll. Ashenberg with the enemy by Radom, wrought so well, and struck out such a terrour into him, that when he got the news thereof, and certain intelligence withal of the king of Sweden his approach and march along the Weixell, he not only forthwith hastily retreated to the said river, but the Sendomirian gentry also, for fear of his majesty, abandon'd the party. Now his majesty having with all possible expedition advanced his march, and past the river Pilcza, by a village called Bronkow, towards Radom, getting nearer to the Weixel, and intending to pass the same at Gazimir; but understanding by the way by his scouting parties, that the enemy had wheeled sideways along the Weixel towards Solecz, his majesty stranged somewhat at this resolution; and therefore left the enemy should get betwixt him, and incommode or damage the infantry and baggage, left somewhat behind under major general Bulow, he resolved to alter his own march likewise, and to bend it directly toward the enemy, for to find him out, and to engage him thereabouts. But when his majesty was informed by his commanded parties, that he was already withdrawn hence, and had passed the Weixell, and was marched away toward Gazimir, he likewise followed him thither along the Weixell, which he passed February 8/18 in the afternoon, at Gazimir, to see whither the enemy had directed their course, and finding the same had taken it down the river toward Golombi; his majesty presently suspected their intent was to fall upon his flank in the march, and therefore resolved to follow them as close as might be, to observe their motion, and whether they would not turn toward Podlachia. But perceiving the enemy had gotten a notable start before his majesty, he resolved to lie still a while in the head quarter at Wlostowiz, and to let the regiments retreat to their quarters; when soon after his arrival thither, he got intelligence by a prisoner, that Czarnetzky stood but a mile and half off thence, with 80 companies; whereupon his majesty forthwith took horse again, and marched with the next at hand, late left wing, commanded by major general Henry Horn, and by the van now become the right wing, directly toward the enemy, ordering the right wing under major general count Woldemar, to advance likewise with all speed after him. And having now reached the said Czarnetzky with his forces, by the village Golombi, his majesty ordered the two regiments of Quartians he had with him there, and major general Nimritz, as also colonel Kurck's regiments, to hang upon the enemy, and hold him play, until he could advance and follow with the body. In the mean time his majesty ordered most of the horse himself, and made them to advance, as well as the various bogs, passages, and waters would permit, giving the left wing to general count Douglass, and the right to field-marshal Wittenberg; where at the beginning his majesty's brother and generalissimo palsgrave Adolph, had the misfortune riding from his majesty and the left wing toward the right, to get a fall from his horse, and to break his right knee-bone. Now, when the left wing first began to charge the enemy, and the king saw, that the enemy wheeled to the right hand, and endeavoured to force the flank of his right wing, whereby the same was constrained to alter his front somewhat, the king likewise altered the front of the left, and ordered general Douglass to give the first onset, and with the commanded horse to enter upon the flank of the enemy, and to follow with all the wing; which when the enemy perceived, he met his majesty with stout resolution, and fought valiantly and manfully with both wings; and nevertheless in open field, was beaten out of it, some hundreds cut off upon the place, 12 standards taken, as also divers chief officers, and amongst them, he that commanded in chief under general Czarnetzky. The rest of the enemy seeking to save themselves with great confusion, were pursued by his majesty for two miles, and many cut off yet, besides some hundreds that perished passing the Weixell, the Wiesetz, and other waters, in their flight. In which action his majesty had this advantage likewise, that though his squadrons and troops were somewhat weak in regard of a number of tired horses, and many left behind with the baggage, and the enemy was much the stronger in men; nevertheless not one of his squadrons or troops was driven to yield ground, but performed their devoirs with such resolution and chearfulness, that they deserve great commendation. The enemies strength consisted of fourscore companies, none less than of an hundred men: his majesty had not 3000 of his own, besides 2000 Polonians, in this fight, none having looked for such a sudden action, and most being retreated to their quarters. The most high be praised for this victory, and bless the councils and actions of his majesty with further success.
Sir, this is a true and authentick relation, confirmed by the king himself. Some add, his majesty took Lublin too since, and his march to Rystish, Lamberg, and Camien Podolski; that the castle of Marienburg was upon the point of surrender to the lord chancellor gone thither. Letters from Holland tells us, that two Holland vessels coming forth from Dantzick richly laden with packs and chests, to the value of 1200000 rix dollars belonging to king Casimire, were intercepted, and conveyed to Pomeren, to be safe guarded there by the king of Sweden.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Hitherto there hath been no report made concerning the business of prince William and the lord de Wildt, for the accommodation of the differences of Overyssel. The lord de Wit is absent, and it is perceived that the next week Overyssell being president, the same will make report but only summarily and in general, without communicating the agreement or project, which they pretend to keep secret. But not only the princess dowager, but the whole assembly is jealous of it. The princess dowager desireth to know what is said in that project of the prince of Orange; she saith, that although prince William do renounce his election of stadtholder, yet the prince doth not renounce. And yet those of Deventer will have precisely, that the one and the other do renounce. Of the prince of Orange is nothing is spoken in it. The states general, yea the proper friends of the raet pensionary are jealous of it, because that the said pensionary doth take upon him too much, and seeing him to close so very much with prince William do begin to hate or envy him; so that with and by prince William he doth endeavour to raise himself, and to grow great. The princess dowager has signified, that she hath sent an express to Amsterdam to hasten to him the news of the indisposition of the electress, and of the articles of the agreement in Prussia. The commissioner of Dantzick hath not yet delivered in his proposition in writing, delaying of it on purpose 'till he shall have received his letters by this next post; for if it be true, that the chancellor Oxenstiern is to come to Dantzick, they will fear here, that Dantzick will suffer itself to be bribed or cheated by an abbie or cloyster, if the elector suffered himself to be deceived or bribed by a bishoprick, and this state will be very difficult to take any vigorous resolutions against Dantzick.
This morning was read the proposition of the commissioner of Dantzick, containing first, intercession for the said city; secondly commissioners to enter into conference with him; thirdly a declaration that the city will always remain faithful to the king and crown of Poland. Whereupon they have appointed the lords Bemmel, Beverning, De Witt, Crommon, Hoolck, Bootsma, Mulart and Ysbrants to confer with him.
The lord Hubert, one of the embassadors for Sweden, hath proposed, that now the lord Ysbrants being come, and no body of the embassy being wanting, and all being come with their train, that it did very much concern them to know whether they should go or not go. Upon which it is again resolved that they shall go, and that they do finish their equipage, and make themselves quite ready, and that being done, that then they will advise about their voyage, with an inclination that they shall go by sea at least as far as Hamburgh.
The lord Vryberch being returned from Zealand doth report, that there they have so great an aversion to the harmony, that they would affront that person, that should dare to speak of it to recommend it.
And from North Holland it is also known, that they will not hear any body to speak of making a general of the horse: so that the prince of Tarante and the lord of Opdam do still strive, and bestir themselves to take a bird that flyeth in the air, and it may be will never be taken.
As to the passage money, Amsterdam and the like do begin to require to have the same confirmed against those of Dort and the like, for whom standeth the lord raet pensionary, whose friends do diminish.
This day the lord raet pensionary hath made report of the business, which he and prince William have consulted about for the accommodation of the differences in Overyssel, but so general and summarily, that the assembly could not get to understand it, the whole remaining secret. Therefore it hath been also a conference with the resident of the Hans towns upon the resolution of the 25th of January last: they proposed to him, that the Hans towns, enjoying the benefit of the Mediterranean sea, being cleared of the pirates by the ships of this state, it were but just, that the Hans towns should contribute to defray the charges: he made answer that he would make report thereof; but since he doth not correspond directly but with the towns of Lubeck, Bremen, Hamburgh, and that all the other towns situated upon the Baltick sea are under Sweden, Brandenburgh, Courland, Denmark and Holstein, that it will be requisite, that this state do make the like proposition to the ministers of those kings and princes, to the end that the said course may be taken withal.
The president hath proposed, that the ministers of Brandenburgh had told him, that they were resolved to make overture of what they knew concerning the treaty of Prussia, not as having any charge, nor likewise the treaty, but to give as much as they are able, satisfaction against the murmur and disturbance, which this state maketh for the treaty of Prussia, as if it were contrary to the treaty of the 27th of July made with this state; hoping to prove the contrary; requiring some commissioners. When that was proposed Holland opposed it, saying, that to give commissioners of state to persons, who would only speak nomine privato, was not proportionable: that they might address themselves to some members of the state in private. At last they agreed they might make it to the lord president, so that it doth appear that Holland is seriously angry, and in good earnest. I perceive however, that the said ministers will not make the overture they offered, after that manner as Holland doth desire it, but do incline to demand publick audience. I do also understand, that those ministers have a copy of one or two of the articles of the said treaty, which are or seem to save the treaty of the 27th of July. But they say here they must see all, and that there may be other articles, which do annul the said treaty.
The ministers of Brandenburg have had audience, and declared though for some reasons (which do not concern the state) they cannot communicate all the treaty in it's full terms; that yet however the elector hath not yielded to any thing, which may in any wise offend this state, or the treaty of the 27th of July, which they were desired to give in writing.
The admiralty of Amsterdam hath assured, that before the end of this month they shall have ready the 24 ships. They have also again mentioned, that the Hans towns ought to contribute towards the charges this state hath been at, in the clearing of the Mediterranean sea of the pirates.
This morning the lord Bemmel and other commissioners of the states general were assembled, and did examine the proposition of the deputy of Dantzick, and premeditated the matter, which they have to treat with him upon: and upon that there is to be a conference again to morrow, where the said deputy is also desired to come.
This morning there was a conference between the commissioners of the states general and the envoy of Dantzick, who hath deduced his proposition a little more particularly, and given them to understand, that he doth offer realities unto them. Now in regard that the states of Holland are not completely together, they must stay till the next week. And in the mean time there hath not passed any thing remarkable to day, only that the said envoy express'd, that the reality consisted in some assistance of men and officers, whereof the commissioners have made report, for which they had thanks given, and desired to continue the conference.
The ministers of Brandenburg have in particular made complaint of the little esteem, that was made of them, that they did not vouchsafe to give them commissioners, and that therefore they gave only this general notification already printed by their order. That otherwise, in case they had given them commissioners, they would have deduced the same by reasons, and exhibited some sufficient copies.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
To my foregoing I am to add in general, that Holland are most seriously and heartily angry at the proceedings of Brandenburg and do give to understand, that they will resent it against him, in case it shall appear, that he hath contracted with Sweden to the prejudice of commerce of Holland but these are but words. It is sufficiently known, what great credit and authority, which as well Brandenburg as all the Orange party have in S. G. and Holland and as well raet pensionary as Obdam have the reputation of being very intimate with grave William, which will cause all this discontent to be swallowed down as sweet as milk.
In the mean time I can assure you, that I see the affairs to imbroil more and more. For as well amongst the Orange party as amongst the good Hollanders there are some, that have an aversion against the harmony. Likewise prince Maurice seeing no likelihood of getting the charge of general of the horse, pretendeth, that in the place of one mareschal de camp there should be made two; so that there is likelihood, it may be, that they will not make one, at least not so soon. And very great doubt is to be made of the progress and acceptation of the projected agreement between the members of Overyssel and on the other side princess dowager doth also labour against that, in regard that it is contrary to pr. Orange. In the mean time de Witt is joined with grave William it being very remarkable, that formerly pr. Orange was contented with correspondence of U a l e of raet pensionary This v a t l e doth destroy. He hath now raet pensionary self. However I will not charge or accuse raet pensionary. I do pity him; for he doth not know how to satisfy every body; for there are so many motions and so many turnings, that it is a hard matter to govern oneself. Neither royalists nor Hollanders have one and the same end, but the one and the other, besides the common end or design, have their particular ends, which is the proper and particular interest of each. Otherwise if the Hollanders had no other end, than liberty the freedom and liberty of pr. Orange they had been ere now masters. Likewise in case that the Orange party had no other end than the welfare and interest of pr. Orange they would have had ere now all good Hollanders under foot. But the Orange party are assured, that to the first 154 the good Hollanders will be constrained to take the pr. Orange and grave William simply and purely, and therefore do not embrace the harmony.
That Brandenburg hath deceived the states of Holland is not strange, for neither Brand. nor pr. Orange nor grave William have any other end, than to embroil the S. G. and H. to make them subject unto themselves. I do forgive G. W. but not Hollanders who ought to be wiser, and not to apply themselves so much neither to Brandenburg nor to Denmark and the like, who are altogether G. W. and royalists.
As to correspondence between S. G. and Sweden, that is as formerly. We shall now see what resolution will be taken for men of war. If they resolve pro affirmativa, that will very much alarm the Swede and Brandenb. I do perceive that Dantzick doth very much advise the sending of men of war. But since they are of that opinion, it had been good to have sent hither sooner.
They do lay this fault upon their common people, who do seem at the beginning to have been very much for Sweden Since, seeing the spoil of Prussia regalis are got to be of another opinion. Likewise the good Dantzick hath always had some enemies near K. of Poland.
In short many heads. Dantzick doth confess with me, that a number (though great) of men of war
cannot redress the K.of Poland But though that men of war will hinder K. of Sweden from receiving of the
tolls, which is true enough, yet all the commerce will cease in the mean time: Yes saith Dantzick
but that will last but a year. J feareth, that it may last several years, as hath been seen,
that the deceased Swede hath maintained the Prussian regalis for many years, in despite of K. of Poland and
of emperor, both of them very powerful, couragious, and very victorious; but I do refer
myself to some, that are wiser than myself. I am
Feb. 18, 1656. [N. S.]