A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 4, Sept 1655 - May 1656. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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April (3 of 7)
Intelligence sent by resident Bradshaw.
General Steinbock, who lately lay in this town's lands, and brought the country under contribution, is called hence, and marched (as the report goes) towards Cracow, so as now this town is at more liberty, who have since taken upon them the protection of Putzky, supposing the Muscovite will give the Swedes their hands full. From Riga they write, that for certain the Muscovite marcheth his forces towards the Swedish borders, and they in like manner against them, so as it's expected they will shortly engage; and that thereupon the king of Poland will appear again in the field, if strange forces fill not that miserable country from all parts this next summer. It's writ hither, that the Holland embassadors are stopt, some say arrested at Lawenburgh in their way hither by the governor of that place for the Swede. What that means a little time will shew. From Elbing they write, that for certain the Poles have ruined about 1000 horse commanded by the marquis Von Boden, who married the king of Sweden's sister. Some say the marquis is slain, others not; the Poles having a far greater force way-laid him going to the king of Sweden, and chased him near the walls of Cracow. Also they write, that Radgieskie came flying from Warsaw to Elbing. The king of Sweden is said to be about Sendomir, expecting succours from those parts, and some say from Ragotzky. The queen of Sweden is daily expected at the Pillauw's port.
Lord Broghill and general Monck to secretary Thurloe.
This gentleman major Borthwick hath bin very serviceable to his highnesse heere, and being desirous to doe further service (by way of intelligence) wee doe earnestlie recommend him unto you, to imploy him, if you have occasion; or if you have noe use for him, that you will please to move his highnesse to grant him a companie for Jamaica, which is the earnest desire of
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.
I got leave to goe into the countrie for 5 or 6 dayes, which is the reason I omitted to trouble your lordship by the last post; and soe I might have done alsoe by this for any newes that I have to communicate to your lordship. Upon my comeinge to towne upon saterday night last, I met with a very stronge report of a great defeat given to the kinge of Sweaden, in a battell supposed to be fought betweene hym and the kinge of Poland; but haveinge narrowly examined my letters, I finde very little ground for this newes; for although it be true, that it be written from many parts beyond the seas, yet the originall thereof is from Dantzicke, an enemies towne; and mr. Rolt, who came upon saterday was senight from Hamborough, sayeth, that this was contradicted there before his comeinge from thence. It seemes to me by the letters, that there hath beene noe battell betweene them.
Our fleet went out of Torbay upon friday was senight, since which tyme wee have not heard of them. They have had very faire windes, though high and stormy. In the meane while our letters from St. Sebastian say, that the plate gallions are arrived at Cadiz, being 5 in number, besides two other smaller vessels; but yet wee will expect a confirmation, before wee give full creditt to this.
Major general Whalley to secretary Thurloe.
I have hitherto forborne to write to you, that I might give you the better account of our transactions in these five counties after the circuite. And in the first place I must let you knowe, I am perswaded there never was any judge in this circuit got more applause, more the affections of honest men then judge Hale; who as hee is unquestionably an able, soe upon good grounds I judge him a godly man. I hope his highnes (as I have humbly desired in a letter to him) will give him more then ordinary thankes upon his waiteing of him. Colonel Chadocke hath assisted him in foure counties upon his owne charges. For his abilities, I beleeve the judge will give a very good testimony, if thereunto required. And I must add thus much to what formerly I have writ, I never knew any at his owne cost more willing to serve the present government then hee. When I was last in London, I told you, the not takeing rogues, such as our instructions ordered to bee sent beeyond the seas, off our hands, makes us neglect the imprisoning of them; a better worke for the safety and satisfying the country cannot bee: I wonder it should bee soe much neglected. The judge hath not bin free to execute any for horse stealing, but hath reprived them, and two for robbery; hath continued divers other notorious wicked fellowes in the goale in order to be sent out of the nation, if his highnes and the councell thinke well of it. Sir, I beseech you, let it not be forgotten, but consider how the goales may bee deliver'd for the ease and safety of the countreis. Capt. Bynnes one of the foure, that were at Rufford at the insurrection, that I acquainted you with, hath made his escape from the goaler. There is pursuite made after him. The other three have put in good sureties for their true imprisonment.
I have sent you inclosed the presentment of the grand jury in Leicestersheire, with my margent notes. There is the same consideration in all the counties under my charge. Litle is added, save that of enclosures, with which the grand jury in Warwicksheire agrees. I beleeve the rest of the counties, specially in Nottinghamsheire and Lincolnsheire, would have done the like, had they thought of it. I assure you, though I mynded them of other thinges, I mentioned not that. Their owne sensiblenes of the common grievance and oppression put them upon it. As to the petitions of divers in Leicestersheire, that were referred to mee and to my orders, I sent for all partyes concerned, and hope have made such a composure, as gives satisfaction to all; at least they seeme to be pleased. Upon the referring themselves to mee, I ordered two parts of three of their arable land should for ever be kept in tillage; the ministers liveings not lesse; the poor amply provided for; and upon these termes I hope God will not be provoaked, the poor not wronged, depopulation prevented, and the state not dampnified. For the performance of this agreement they are to give bond to his highnes and his successors in larg summes, which I have ordered to be taken in my absence.
I beseech you, sir, consider of the inclosed, what you conceave good and to bee made practicable; let us not want your assistance: it's a general grievance in all our counties, that the markett-bell should not ring, it may bee, till one of the clocke; before which time the country-man cannot sell his corne, which when the daies are short, gives maulsters in market townes such an advantage, the country-man being to goe home, it may be, ten or twelve miles, that they buy it at their own rates. If therefore his highnes and councill would issue out a proclamation throughout England, commanding all mayors, aldermen, and bayleiss of cities and corporations, to cause their market bell to ring by tenn or eleven of the clocke at furthest, the major generalls would take care it should be observed. And let mee assure you, this would give great satisfaction to the poore husbandmen, who diserve what helpe you can affoard them.
There are good lawes against false weights and measures, and for the reduceing all to one standard; as alsoe to punish inholders for their imoderate gayne, which they make of their corne and hay to travellers; but there being nothing, allowed to the informer, they become ineffectuall. It is therefore humbly desired, that something, according to the discretion of the justices, of the fynes belonging to his highnes at size and sessions, may be given to such as shall informe against such offenders; which would not onely tend to the taking away the abuses, but alsoe to the increasing his highnes fynes. Sir, it is high time to thinke of the rectifying these thinges, where - - - dare say in many innes and alehouses, having seen all their jugges they sell not above three partes of a pinte for two pence, as in the inn, where I lay at Stamford, which I shewed to the alderman and brethren.
I demanded of them howe oates was sold there; they told mee, for tenn pence the strike. I further askt them, how many peckes the inholders made of a strike; they told mee five peckes, but some say six, which I beleeve; and that they sold them there for eight pence the pecke, which not onely the alderman and his brethren assured me of, but alsoe the souldiers, that quarter'd there, complained of it as unsufferable. There is onely one thing more I shall desire of you, that as wee shall take a speedy and effectual course for the reduceing in these five counties the measures to one standard, to witt, that of Winchester; soe you would write to the rest of the major generalls, specially those northwards of us, to doe the like; otherwaies we shall very much prejudice these counties. Soe tenderinge all to your serious consideration, with expectation of your answeare soe soone as may be, that I may give satisfaction to all the counties under my charge, I remayne
Major general Haynes to the protector.
May it please your highness,
Soe soone as I had perfected the errand I went to Yarmouth about, I returned to this place, and providentially calling in at Eye, as I came, I understood there weare divers pastors of churches, as mr. Stanhum of Ipswich, mr. Habergen of Sylam, mr. Woodall of Woodbridge, and mr. Taylor of Bury, as also some other ministers and (as was informed me) divers messengers of churches both of Norfolk and Suffolk, but do veryly beleive by the names of some of those called messengers they will prove only those, that were dissatisfied with the late resolutions of the churches there; and having some hints, that there meetting was in prosecution of a letter to your highness, wherein they intended modestly to represent their grievances, and by some saide to comply verie much with the Welch declaration, I sent to mr. Stanhum, mr. Habergen, and mr. Tailor, to speake with them, and with a great deale of difficulty drew them to a discourse of the reasons and grounds of their meeting, which they professed to me to be free from designe or intendment of trouble, but concealed the particulars, as not being free to impart them. But I clearly found all highly dissatisfyed with the government, and under great apprehensions of a suddaine change; and mr. Stanhum more ingeniously or freely then the rest told me, that the present authority and the army especially had receded from their former publique professions for Christ and his kingdome of sayntes; instancinge in the sufferings of many of the saints, and the continuing of tithes to uphold a corrupt nationall ministry, verie un-like the example of those, that preached Christ in the primitive tymes, who went without scripp, &c. and Christ asked them, if they lacked any thing. I forbeare to mention what replyes weare made, because I would not give your highness needless trouble; this meeting being of the same persons, or many of them, that mett the last weeke at Norwich, (of which I should have given your highness an account, but that major Woolmer informed me, he sent it to mr. secretarie.) I presume they are resolved to appeare in publique, and this is but in prosecutinge of what then could not be perfected; and I shall soe conclude, unless I heare from them; for I judge I did a little startle them by assuring them, that they would be exceedingly deceived in their expectations of a party in the army, new raysed forces, or nation, to joyne in such a designe of breaking, as they weare carrying on; and that if they should (as God forbidd) prove disturbers of the publique peace, at such a time as this, when threatned with a common enemy, we should as heartely engage against them as others, who had bin of us, and had espoused that interest. Theise things, I was assured, they had confydently boasted of. Not knowing how the issue might be, I have appointed severall persons to enquire into the result; and as soone as I can gayne it, I shall hast it to your highness. There numbers are not many, and I hope the Lord will not leave them soe farr, as to act to any publique prejudice; yet if it might provoake all the Lord's people, who are not ledd by the spiritt, to have it uppon their hearts as a great burthen, and to be instant with him at the throne of grace, that he would deliver his poore ones being many that feare the Lord) under this great temptation, that is come uppon the verie churches of Christ, that soe the reproach brought uppon his name may be wiped off, there would be, I hope, (and I speake it with submission) less cause to feare our selves or them. The good Lord discover, why he thus contendeth with us. I thank the Lord (I speake it in truth, and lye not) I am in greater dread of spirit for them then for my selfe, observing their rash judgings of others, and frequent entitling God to all their actions, with strange limitations to his provydence. I most humbly begg your highness pardon for soe troublesome and tediouse a discourse, and remaine, my lord,
At the council at Whitehall.
Ordered, that colonel William Lockhart, who is to go into France as his highness's resident, be furnished with bills of exchange, whereon to receive so much monies at his coming into France, (for answering his necessary occasions there) as shall amount to four months allowance, after the rate of one hundred and twenty pounds by the month.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
This day the French embassador (being cal'd from Rom by his king) imbarkt here on a Genowes gally for Marcelles; so that Rom now remaynes without any publik French minister; and 'tis generally here reported, that the pope has sent to cal his nuntio out of France. The discontents betwixt them ar so great, that som French speak openly, that theyr king wil follow Harry the eiht's steps. They lament of the pope for not receaving the Portugal embassador according to promis, and for his preferring altogether the Spanish interest to theyr prejudys. In the mean tym the pope fortefyes al his sea ports, the rather becaus the French wer very importunat with him for one. 'Tis believed, that al the princes and potentates of Itally wil very sudenly enter into a legue for theyr own defence. The great duke absented himself from Florence, not to displeas the pope in entertaining this French ambassador in his passing that citty; but it was supplyed in a country pallas in a pryvat manner, wher the said ambassador had audience. Som Dutch ships ar arryved at Genoa in 13 dayes from Cales, whence they bring certain newes of the arryval ther of the plate fleet; and report the Spanyard was making redy 70 sail of ships to go out and fyht generall Blake's fleet. I wish 'twer true, conditionally theyr plate wer at stak betwixt 'um. In conclusion here is much rejoising at it's saf arryval. I understand, that most princes of Itally ar raising of soldiers, as if they expected som storm. I do not hear the lest nois, that the French do so much as begin to arm at Tollon. The Turks of Barbary hav bin very successfull. Thos of Argier hav taken the Spanish gally, that cam from Barsalona in company with don John de Austria, and two rich French ships laden from Smirna and Sidon. Thos of Trippolly hav taken 2 or thre rich ships lykwys, but God be thanked non of them ar Inglish. I hope befor generall Blake retorn hom out of thes seas, hi wil leav our nation fre of al danger from thos Turkish pyrats, which is the humble and ernest request of, right honorable,
The Swedish resident to the states general.
The resident of Sweden continuing in his endeavours for the preservation of all good confidence and correspondence between his majesty and their high and mighty lordships, doth find himself obliged to make known unto them the nullity of the reports, whereby the disaffected have endeavoured of late to disquiet the inhabitants of this state, as if some disgrace had happened as well to his majesty's person as his army. The last advice doth assure us, that his said majesty by God's powerful assistance was in as good a condition, as at the beginning, and as successful; also ready to expect what would happen, either for the continuing of the war and victory, or the laying aside of hostility, it being his majesty's intention to work out the second by the first, as far as he can do it with honour and security. Therefore it cannot but be acceptable to his said majesty all that shall be endeavoured therein with an upright intention by his good allies and neighbours, and after such a manner as used to happen amongst good friends, whereof a fresh example can be alledged; that when this state was deeply engaged with England on the behalf of his majesty, a mediation was offered to their high and mighty lordships with all amicable and neighbourlike expressions on the 20th of Jan. 1653, and by them on the 28th of April following civilly delayed.
The said resident is also informed by the common reports, that their high and mighty lordships will offer the like presentation of a mediation to his majesty by some of their own lords, who were already sent in embassy; but withall is very sorry to hear, that there is a resolution taken to send at the same time a considerable fleet of men of war towards the East land, which will give some kind of jealousy to the said embassy. And though the said resident doth not desire to penetrate in the qualities of their high and mighty lordships resolutions, yet he doth find himself obliged out of a profound hearty desire, and in performance of his duty, to preserve a good correspondence between his majesty and their high and mighty lordships; to represent with all affection unto them, that never in foregoing times, and especially not in annis 1627 and 1635, as when the like occurrences happened, as these at present, was ever the like proceedings used; and likewise not on his majesty's part by the above-mentioned proffered mediation, whereas then the navigation and commerce as well in regard of the Swedish inhabitants as others, did suffer some prejudice; which cannot be said now, in regard the navigation upon the East sea is yet in full peace, and their high and mighty lordships have also been often assured of his majesty's sincere and neighbourly affection and intention, not only by the lord Sparre and the said resident, but lately on the 25th of March last by the ministers of the duke of Brandenburg were fully assured both by word of mouth and in writing. Wherefore it would very much afflict the said resident, in case that by the unnecessary sending such a fleet of war to the East sea, it should occasion a jealousy, and occasion an alteration to the prejudice of the both sides well intended negotiation.
Resolution of the states general.
Was read in the assembly a certain memorandum of the lord Appelboom, resident of the king of Sweden, tending to the end, that the sending forth of the extraordinary fleet of this state may be superseded. Whereupon being debated it is resolved hereby to desire the lord of Ghent, that his lordship would go, and assure the said lord resident of the good intention and affection of their high and mighty lordships towards the said king, and their intention and design in equipping the said fleet to be no other, nor to tend to no other end, but to secure the free navigation and commerce of the inhabitants of these countries against all such, who shall go about with counsel, or otherwise to disturb and molest the same against all right and reason.
The news of the defeat and death of the king of Sweden doth vanish. On the contrary 'tis believed, that several parties of the Polanders have been defeated in several rencounters, and that their king is retreated as far as Podolia. We shall see what he will be able to do. If he doth not do some feats shortly, I shall look upon him as unfortunate.
The fleet of this state is preparing for sea with all the speed that may be, notwithstanding the request of the resident of Sweden at Copenhagen, desiring his majesty not to suffer the fleet of war of this state to pass through the Sound. They have not yet mariners enough, and much trouble they will have, before they have fully manned their ships; some of them being in the service of the king of Spain at Oftend and Dunkirk. Unless they would absolutely declare war against Sweden, they might very well dispense with their fleet, for though they do not assault Sweden, yet it will give him offence, who soon or late will be revenged: chi offende, non pardona: whoever offendeth is not to be pardoned. This night we shall have here monsieur Bonin from the elector of Brandenburg: I know not yet in what quality.
Courtin to monsieur de Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
The holidays of Easter having caused the assemblies of the states general to cease, we have nothing considerable to write concerning the affairs of this state. The humours thereof are employed about the affairs of Sweden and Poland; and according to the diversity of the inclinations, many wagers are laid, but at present the most fierce and most obstinate for the affirming of the defeat and of the death of the king of Sweden would willingly come to a composition, upon the last letters, which are come to the states from Prussia, Silesia, and from several places of Germany, but chiefly from Dantzick, from whence came the first bad news, where they are now assured of the contrary, having received a letter from the king of Poland of the 16th of March, which maketh no mention of this bloody fight, that was said to be between the two kings; so that now those of Dantzick themselves do confess this fight to be fictitious and imaginary. The general Steinbock hath writ very civilly to the magistrates of Dantzick, offering them very honourable conditions, if they will join with Sweden, and come to an agreement. They answered with much civility, without explaining themselves upon the offers that were made them, so that the said general will be obliged to besiege Dantzick, after he shall have made himself master of Pautzke, which he hath already invested, so that the Swedes are still victorious; and the states general being truly informed, they have now resolved to send away their fleet with all speed for the Baltick sea; but want of mariners may retain them yet a while longer. At the instance of the embassador of Spain, who complained with reason the states general did not dispatch away the embassadors designed for Spain, whereupon they have writ to a gentleman of this state in Spain to excuse the delay of the embassy to the king, to assure him of the amity of this state, and the quick dispatch of the said embassadors.
Les advis de Paris du 21 Avril  marquent entr' autres ce qu' ensuit:
La reyne d'Angleterre fut jeudy dernier a la cour, luy donner part de la nouvelle, qu'elle avoit eue du roy son fils, de la resolution, qu'il avoit prise d'abjurer sa religion, a l'exemple de la reyne de Suede; esperant que c'est la seule voye pour arriver a la reprise de son royaume. Le duc de Glocester suivra son exemple, & pourra bien arriver au cardinalat; ce qui a beaucoup satisfait leurs majestez. La majeste Britannique à desja congedié la plus part de ses domestiques de la religion reformée, pour en prendre des catholiques. Tout le monde approuve fort cette resolution.
A letter of intelligence.
The post, who should have come hither the last weeke on thursday, came not with the packetts from Francfort; but ridde out of the way, and (as hath beene found since) brought the packets with all the letters some where, where they have beene opened. Then the horse and the valize with the letters were brought into a meddow neare a miller's house, the postillion left them there, and went (as is reported) into the bishoprick of Paderborne. The post-master of this place having received two dayes ago the intercepted packetts findes, that the packetts containing the letters from Francfort hither hath beene opened, and that the packet also from Francfort to Hamburg hath beene opened; and all the Swedish letters taken out of this, and some other letters are also missing in the packet for this towne. The postillion is a subject of the elector of Mentz; the packets were opened in some place of his territorie, by which it is conjectured, that it hath beene done by his order, because it is not likelie, that any would search after Swedish letters, or the intelligence, which comes to this place, but hee, who is knowen to manage the counsels of the popish partie in chief. This is somewhat resented here, and what will bee done in it is not yet knowen. The prince and his princesse are abroad about Smalcalden a place of pleasure; it is eight dayes ago, since hee went from hence. He has written, that when one of the dukes of Brunswick, who has beene in Italie, and is now coming home, comes hither, that hee should have notice therof, that hee might come to meet him. Yesternight that duke came; but whether he will stay so long, till the landgrave come two dayes journey to see him, I know not.
The resolutions of those, who mette at Collen, are kept exceeding secret since their parting. It is given out at Collen, that they could not agree amongst themselves, but that is not believed; it is rather conceived, that they have formed a designe of a conjunction of forces in due time; and in the mean while to be leavying men underhand; but not to make any considerable leavies apparently; yet to bee in a way of leavying both horse and foot by single troopes and companies, which now some of the chief commanders are doing in the name of the duke of Newburg, who is the man who best can give a colour to the busines.
Concerning the Swedish affaires, there has been some circumstantiall relations written from Warshaw and other parts. The summe is this, that after the king had well refreshed his armie, hee found, that the Quartianer souldiers falling off, and the Polish nobilitie round about gathering together, did intend to cut of his passage to and correspondencie with his other forces in Prussia, and the quarters between him and Prussia; therefore, hee resolved to put himself in another posture, and tooke his march towards Warshaw, and sent two coronels and a secretarie before to warne all the troopes, which were commanded to come up to him, to stop at Warshaw, as if they were come beyond it to retire again thither. These coronels did this successfully, though with some difficulty in going down the Vistula, where they were divers times assaulted with many Polish boates; but having in their boat some musquetiers, they made their way through them. The king followed with his armie till hee came to the river, and then shipt his canon and heavier carriages in boats, which hee with the armie accompanied, marching along the river, and every night horse and foot lodged, where the canon and carriages were. Thus he went on, till hee came to a place, where hee understood, that the enemie was not farre off in a bodie; wherupon hee tooke 10 or 11 regiments of horse, and a competent number of his foot, and went to the bodie, fought them, and defeated them; and a waiwood afterward at a passe intending to dispute it with him, was also routed.
The only defeat, which hath been given to some of his troopes, is mentioned to have befallen the guarison at Sendomire, and the marquis of Baden, the king's brother in law, who was marching with some troopes to joyne with the king. At Sendomire the Jesuits practised with some of the Polonian nobility, to bring forces into the towne to master the guarrison; which was soe farre effected, that the governour and his souldiers were driven to make their retrait into the castle; but in doing this they fired the Jesuits colledge, which afterwards burnt up the whole towne, so that it now lyes in ashes. Hee beeing in the castle, the king in his march came that way, and finding the towne burnt, hee commanded the governour to come away to him, and leave the castle, which hee did, passing over the river with his men to joyne with the king. But because hee had a great magazin of amonition, which hee could not transport, before hee went, hee shutte it up in a strong vault, and barred the dore, and made the entrie soe difficult to be opened, as hee could possiblie, with locks and iron bolts, and put a lamp, which would last halfe an houre burning, before it should come to the gun pouder after his departure. When hee was gone, hee left the castle open, and all the Poles flockt in, and most of the Jesuits they put up their banner upon the castle in sight of all the Suedish armie, which was on the other side of the river; and beeing about the spoile, which the Suedes had left, they that were chief contested one with another, who should possesse the vault, which was so carefully shutte, imagining the best things to be there; and whiles they were in this contest, the gun powder took fire, and blew them all up; some say a thousand of them at least, almost all chief men, and Jesuits of note, some say two thousand.
The marquis of Baden his defeat is reported thus; beeing upon his march with two regiments of horse (as I take it) hee met with 12 thousand Polish horse. These fell upon him and routed him, after a fight of two houres continuance, wherin hee made his retrait good to a cloister, and there defended himself two dayes, till the Poles despairing to gette him out of it, left him to take the spoile of his dead men and cariages. They beeing gone, hee returned towards Warshaw. This fight hath made the great noise, which is raised, that the king has beene routed and wounded deadly. It is believed, that the Poles by the emperour and popes procurement are putting themselves in a posture to bring in Casimirus againe; and that the seat of the warre this summer will bee between Cracow and Warshaw, and thereabouts. The last newes mention, that the Cosaks sent two of their chief priests to the king, who in his march came to him, and had audience. They promise, that Smielinsky will assist him with 50 thousand men, as soone as the grasse is in the fields for horses to live. The popish clergie at Collen make those reports, which they have from Vienna, very great, to encourage their partie; what they will further intend, tyme will shew. I have great hopes to get a great furtherance of my busines from the dukes of Weymar. One of duke William's chief counsellours has written to me very heartily, and offers all his cooperation towards those of his partie; and has given me advice, what to doe to gaine my aime. This day I intend to send an expresse to him, with letters to those princes, to get their declaration, and draw them to a resolution; but I intend not to stay for an answer, only I purpose to leave order, how it may bee sent after me into Holland; for till I have beene there, and with you, I cannot with good ground proceed further with that side; and that the best affected of that side may prepare the rest some tyme is requisite. This is at present all, which is incident. I rest,
The prince of Condé to Barriere.
Monsieur le marquis de Cugnac, who arrived here three days since, delivered to me your letter of the 14th current. In regard that the earl of Fuensaldagna is still at Antwerp, I know not what he hath done in your business, which I recommended to him before his departure, and have writ to him about it now he is there, but have received no answer. In the mean time I expect every day orders out of Spain (that fleet being arrived) to receive money here upon my bills. Therefore pray let me know how much you must have to redeem my jewels; and as for your other business, I will take as much care of it as my own.
Marigny to Barriere.
The king of England went hence two days since. He sent to visit the prince by his resident, and the prince returned him a compliment by monsieur de St. Estienne. We still expect some further intelligence of the battle fought by the Polanders, which doth still continue to their advantage; but we do not know yet any particulars. The archduke hath been to take his leave of the prince, who will go to see him to day or to morrow. It was believed, that he would have departed on monday next, but his journey is defer'd; for as yet there is no news of don John's arrival at Inspruck. Monsieur de Coligny is gone to meet him upon the frontiers, and he hath order from the prince to guard him with his troops. He carrieth very civil letters to him from the prince.
To col. Bamfylde.
If I had not been informed by some of your friends, that you were still in England, I should have concluded, that you were gone either to the new world or the other world; for who could have imagined, that you should have been so obstinately silent, when you are assured, that your letters should be welcome? I pray, sir, amend your fault, and put some issue to your business; else the court will be gone hence, they intending to remove suddenly. If my brother be not in London, then I pray give your self the trouble to signify your opinion of my retreat into England; for I cannot suffer the insolent oppression of those, who are in credit, any longer; and upon mature consideration I believe myself absolved in conscience from any longer attendance upon the king's fortune; and I dare promise my self to be esteemed by those, who are in power in England, for those qualities, for which I am persecuted here.
Sir John Berkeley will be at Calais the end of this month, where he will stay 7 or 8 days; and if you come over in that time, you may have his company to Paris, where you will be very welcome to your friends, and more particularly to me.
Mr. H. Morrell to secretary Thurloe.
Wee have newes heere from good hands, that the king of Sweaden is in health, and his brother also; though former reports gave dead, yea both, and utterly defeated, which is falce; only they have daily skermishes, and may suddenly ingage.
The court heere resolve the rise of coyne shall pass, and sundrey of this parliament are exiled. The lawyers intend to desist pleading. Itt's feared the Spanniard and Jesuitts blow this cole. What may bee the issue, tyme will tell us.
This weeke by accident I met mons. Lestrade the cardenal's favorit, (a wise man) and of great experience. He fell againe on our attempting on Flanders; and wondered our persevering so for the Indeys at such vast expences. I replyed, our nation was not in esteeme, nor knowen, nor dreaded untill now. I conceve they apprehend what may bee the issue, if wee prevaile.
He grew inquisative, whether Spaine and wee were enemys. I replyed yee. Said hee, have your marchants trade there? Yee wee have. I finde they feare our closing with Spaine yett. You heere the duke of Modena, the cardenall's nephew's father, hath signed the leage with the pope; in which may bee a mistery, that I cannot reede. Some gess itts pollesy to bee of both sides, and to declare, when the strongest is knowen. Ife Poland recover, itt will change the fase of things in Europ. I hope the Sweads act for our religion, which God will prosper in his tyme.
Now say our marchants heere, the plate fleet is in safty at Cadis. I cannot beeleeve it; ise so, itt may make hott worke in Flanders this sommer, and bee good prudency to quiet whom discontents heere beefore they take the feeld. These new coyne may ells cause discontents. I wish them quiet, that trade may goe on prosperosly.
Since what is written, all letters being compared make up the king of Sweeden to bee in a good posture, and the plate fleete not arrived, only reports to keep up the sperritts of the Romish faction. Our fleete is said to devide ittself in three squadrons, 15, 15, and 15, to attend itts approching; but that for feare, they are harbored, and doe hope by the favor of a strong winde, or storme, to make an escape. Instantly I saw a print from Roome, a letter from the little cardenall de Retts, greate in power and favour with his hollynes, (ther stile) inviting all the French clergy Romish to prayers for a conjunction of catholick princes to a pece gennerall for exterpateing the hereticks, (that is protestants) ther prares are for blud (bluddy praiers) a theirstey generation; which nether wine or water will coule, only blud, ruin, and masaquers. I hop God will prosper the prodestant party so, as they may teach them a new lesson to overcom by life and doctraine, not fire and sword. I feare you will chide both my length and my presumption, for which in all humillyty begg pardon, and as in duty remaine
Count Brienne to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Your letter of the 10th current being delivered to me on the 14th, I thought fit to let it pass to the holidays, without signifying to his majesty the contents thereof; and besides being persuaded, that upon the most material point his eminence would not forget to let you know the intentions of the king, who hath not yet resolved upon the day for his departure from hence. I hoped to have accompanied this letter with many verbal processes of the prizes taken from our merchants, who are here in this city; but it is thought fit to take copies of them first, and in the mean time the rest are expected from all parts. I have writ to the commissioners at St. Malo and Roan to hasten their departure.
We are told, that several Irish side with the Flemings to wage war against the English. If this be true it will be of - - - - - to consider how to prevent it for the future. This is all you are to expect from me at present, not thinking it just to oppress you with businesses, till you are established in your embassy.
To monsieur Petkum.
Here is a report at present, but few believe it, which is, that monsieur de Lyonne embassador to the pope at Rome is here incognito, the pope having sent him back by reason of the king's coolness to the general peace.
Monsieur Bordeaux hath writ word to the court, that he was so well received at London, that there is all the reason in the world to believe the confirmation and observation of a good alliance with the protector, who cannot persuade himself, that the silver fleet is escaped. It is not yet determined when the king shall depart; most of those of the court believe it will be the 4th or 5th day of May.
The queen of England was thursday last at court, to give notice there of the news, which she had received from the king her son, of the resolution which he had taken to abjure his religion, after the example of the queen of Sweden, perceiving that to be the only means for the regaining of his kingdoms. The duke of Gloucester may chance to follow his example, and may be honoured with a cardinal's cap. This news did very much please their majesties, although there be no other particulars of it, only that his majesty of Great Britain had turned away his protestant servants, and had taken those of the Roman catholick. Every body here doth approve of this resolution.
Consul Van Hove to the states general.
High and mighty lords,
On the 19th of this present month I wrote last to your high mightinesses by land, whereby I gave notice of the departure of the vice admiral de Ruyter and commodore Mangelaer with the ships under their command. These presents I send by your high mightinesses ship Vlissingen commodore Corn. Evertsen, who is going home again with a few merchant ships: the Lord grant him a safe passage thither!
On the 19th and 20th was published here by a placart of the catholick king, that every one, who has any English goods, shall register the same within fifteen days, and dispose of them within the space of six months afterwards, after which time the same shall be deemed to be prohibited goods; and that the goods of the Netherlands, whereof the like are made and manufactured in England, shall be sent with authentick proofs; as also, that all the English, Scots, and Irishmen, that are not of the Roman catholick persuasion, shall be obliged to withdraw out of this city and out of the kingdom within the space of thirty days, without leave to take any effects along with them, (since the same are condemned by reprisal) and that they upon pain of death shall not return in these kingdoms; and upon the same penalty all English, Scots, and Irishmen, that are Roman catholicks, and intend to remain in these realms, are charged, with their families and domesticks, to withdraw themselves within 30 days more, to any town or place, which they shall chuse, situated 30 miles from the sea. According to the reports here, it is said, that the English squadron is upon the coast.
Vice-admiral Goodsonn to secretary Thurloe.
On the 26th January the Wildman departed this port, bound for England, by which convayance answered your honour's of the 30th October received by the Marston Moore, wherin gave you an account at large touching the transactions of affairs here, as you will perceive by the inclosed duplicates; sence then have not much to advise your honour. The 5 ships intimated in my last sent to lye between Carthageane and Portabell are returned without taking any thing, as your honour will understand by the inclosed diurnall from our other ships, which have been employed to lie on the north and south side of this island, by whom some prisoners have been taken with one periager, which was going for Cuba with passengers. The people, that were taken, were miserably poor and sickly; and so report the rest to be, that are scattered in the land. Our people have burnt many of their small houses and hutts, which they have built; but the enemy, as their usual manner is, fly into the mountains. We have been informed by some of them, that they received intelligence from a small vessel, which came from Carthageane to Point de Pedro thirty leagues to leward of this place, and brought them a little corn and wine, that within a month or six weeks they should expect a thousand men from thence for their assistance to beat the English of the land; but, as they themselves say, they dare not believe, that Carthageane could spare a thousand men; neither doe I, notwithstanding have sent two ships, the Arms of Holland and Cardiff, to lie to leward for the encountring any such; the Paul and a brigantine one the north side for present, lying to windward of this island the Marstonmore. As to the Spanish fleet mentioned in your honour's, have heard nothing of them, have sent over to Carthageane two clean frigats, the Dover and Selby, to discover, whether there be any such arrived. The ships that were left here by general Penn are all careened; only my self and Falmouth now upon the careen, the great Charity, and Welcome careened. As for the ships, which were let here, first we find their sheathing to be much eaten with the worms; and for want of doing some work to them, they should have done, when they were sheathed in England, if they should stay long out, it might prove dangerous. Our men through mercy better in health then formerly. As our number of men, quantity and quality of provisions, with what remains of naval stores with us, have sent an account thereof to the commissioners of the admiralty and navy. As to the soldiery, they do by the report of their officers recover much, and gett strength, having in number, as near as I can gather, between two thousand four hundred and two thousand five hundred; but this I conceive your honour will have from themselves more exact. They do again pretend, seeing it is his highness pleasure to settle this island, and that they must remain here, that they will now settle themselves to planting. I do heartily wish, that they do not plant, as they have fortified, having been 5 months about setting up pallisadoes about the town, which 500 men would have done in one day; and as yet hardly accomplished. They have between 4 and 5 months provision, as far as I can understand; and I humbly conceive, if there be not timely supplies sent them out of England or elsewhere, that notwithstanding all they plant, if not starved, yet put to very great hard shifts. They have been so prest to this work, that shame puts them upon it rather then any affection to it; for indeed there is found a very great aversness and indisposition in their officers, as is declared by the commanders in chief, and some others of them of more publick spirit, which is a great discouragement to the soldiery in general. They have of late pretended, they have not had their land set out to them, which was given them by the former commissioners. Upon which we have had lately a meeting, and taken it into consideration, what a great quantity of land it would amount too at 50 acres for every soldier, and so pro rato for every officer. The commissioners in chief and the principal officers were contented to rest satisfied with 30 acres for every soldier, and so pro rato to the officers according to their pay, which is immediately to be set out to them. I believe this island is not rightly understood, for if the land then given to the soldiery living had been set out to them, it would have contained more plantable land then the north side of this island doth afford: all mountains, drowned land, and favanoes excepted; I conceive this island is not half plantable land. In company with the Grantham we are sending the Hope fly boat capt. Martin to New England for masts, deal, tar, and other provisions useful for the fleet; as also to give passage to what people are willing to come hither from thence, or any of the windward islands. Thus humbly craving your honour's leave, remain
Major general Boteler to secretary Thurloe.
I thought to have had the honour of waiting on you at my lord cheife Justice St. John's, where I was informed, I might very probably finde you on thursday last was 7 night; but the unkinde floudes prevented many of your freinds (as well as my selfe) of that expected happiness. If I had then waited on your honour, it would likely have saved a motion or two I have humbly to make to you; the one is, that you will please to afford us your favour in procuring the officers and souldiers of the militia (as soone as may be) one halfe yeare's pay. The officers well know, that it is hard to come by, in as much as we fall so short in our owne countyes; and therfore would hartily wishe (and so could I) if it might seeme good to his highness and councill, that the troopes were reduced to sixty a peice, to facilitate the future payment of them. And truly those men might be so choice, that I thinke 'twould do as well as 100 in a troope, as now they are. But this with all submission. The other humble motion is, that you would please to help me to a vent for those idle vile rogues, that I have secured for the present, some in one county, and some in another, being not able to provide security for their peacible demeasnour, nor fitt to live on this side some or other of our plantations. I could help you to 2 or 300, at 24 hours warning, and the countreys would thinke themselves well ridd of them. I beseech you, let me humbly leave theise things to your serious consideration. I remaine,
Advice out of Stettin, the 15/25 April, 1656.
Because that it should be known from word to word, how much of the last rencounter between the marquis of Baden and the Poles was made publick in print, as also what doth concern the retreat of the king and the loss of Sendomir; I do send herewith two copies; but you must know, that the original letters, according to which these advices are printed, do speak much more, as I am certainly informed; but I could not procure a copy thereof at this time, in regard the same are kept very secret. They did first fashion here at court all this news, and contrived it as they thought best before it was published, for the business doth sound too much to conceal it. 'Tis certain that a great alteration is happened, and that the luck is changed at present; but whether the Poles have understanding and confidence enough to improve this fortune, and to make use of it, is to be seen hereafter. What way the king of Sweden (breaking up from Jarislaw over the San and Wiepren) made for Warsaw, is to be seen in the map. As the secretary of the earl of Coningsmark told us, there are not above 600 Poles (besides some great persons) blown up in Sendomir, although they say here a 1000.
Now what concerneth the defeat of the earl of Baden, the same is such, that it is held for a truth, that there are above 2000 of the Swedes slain, and all their baggage lost besides. The lord embassador of Sweden here told a gentleman of the earl of Oldenburgh, who told it me again, being lodged in the same house with me, that the regiments of the earls of Baden, Waldeck, Woldemar, Allevelt and the earl of Sultsbach were totally defeated and ruined, and very few escaped: the marquis of Baden with much ado had escaped, and was got to Warsaw. The earl of Schippenback, colonel of the king's lifeguard, is said of a certain to be dead: he was in my mind one of the finest and bravest men that the king had in his army. The earl of Sultsback is also said to be dead, but thereof there is no certainty as yet. Of Wittemburgh and Douglas there is no news.
It is said here, that the emperor doth intend no good to the Swedes with his new raised forces, and that he only expected the arch-duke Leopold to deliver up his troops unto, to assist the king of Poland.
The Muscovites are said to be come with 40000 men upon the frontiers of Lysland, and to begin to proceed into Littauw, and were very much feared by the Swedes. The king of Sweden is held to be at Warsaw, and the king of Poland at Ruslemborgh.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
Th' inclosed paper presents you with what hath reached this place since my last weeke's letter, to which I have nothinge to ad, but agayne to request your honour, that if his highnes letter to this senate be not sent me, when theise come on, yow will be pleased to hasten it, or one from your selfe to syndicus Peterson, as in my letter of the first of this moneth I desired. Truly, sir, if this last affront from Townley (of which yow then had the accompt, and by which in the judgement of all men heere he hath soe outfaced and dared his highnes authority) should be past over, or the punishment thereof delayed, as formerly have beene, I must not then thinke of stayinge longer heere, it beinge most apparently his and his partie's designe to lay me soe lowe in the eyes of strangers, both by publique and private indignities, as that I shall be forced hence, as not able to mayntaine the respect due to the character I beare. And how can it indeed be otherwise, whilst they see me soe rudely and indignly dealt with by his highnes owne subject from tyme to tyme, without any thing done to them for it?
I conceive Townley may be most suitably dealt withall by this senate for this last affront, they being very sensible of it, and the inconveniencyes, that may arise from it to themselves, if suffered: besides the witnesses are ready to prove what he now most impudently denies and extenuates, pretendinge most falsly, that I provoked him, thinckinge I shall be called over to answer it, where by such pretences he may make a longsome busines of it, amidst your more weighty affaires of state.
Mr. Baron hath writ to the company heere, that he would gladly serve them as deputie, if the company at London would approve thereof, whose approbation he had not yet obtayned. However they expect him over in the companie's ships, and intend he shall execute the place.
A letter of intelligence.
Les nouvelles des plus considerables, qu'on a eues sepmaine d'Italie continuent generalement, & en substance, scavoir ceux de Rome du x Avril, que la femme de monsieur de Lyonne en est partye a nostre dame de Loretto, d'ou elle ira á Florence y rencontrer son mary, & toux deux de la a Livourne s'y embarquer, pour retorner en France: Ceux de Genes du 8me, qu'a Madrid on avoit fait un nouveau partie de 470000 escus pour envoyer en Flandres, qui seront employes comme il plaira au roy d'Espagne, qui est resolu d'y maintenir son fils avec honneur & esclat, de laquelle somme la ville de Madrid a fourni 150000 escus.
De Venise du 10 Ap. que le general Bembo avec son esquadre de 12 grand gallions doit joindre au capitain general Marcello, qui va avec 16 grand vaisseaux de guerre, 6 galleazes & 77 galeres serrer le canal de Dardanelles sur l'advis, que les Venitiens ont receu, que les Turcs le voloyent passer avec un rensort de leur armée navalle, & qu'on avoit fait dans l'arcenal de Constantinople six Mahomes d'une excessive grandeur pour composer l'avant guarde de tous leurs grand vaisseaux, & que le senat a choisi le prince Horatio Farnese frer du duc de Parma pour commender en Candie, ou il doit aller en diligence avec deux vaisseaux charges de quantité de munitions de bouche & de guerre. De Turin du 12 Avril, que les trouppes avoyent receu ordre de France de se mettre en compagne le 15 du courrant; mais a il leur estoit arrivé un autre ordre, qu'elles ayent a demeurer dans quartier d'hyver jusques au 15 du mois prochain.
Les nouvelles qu'on a receues d'Allemagne dimanche dernier par la voye de Strasbourg du 15 perme confirment encor le rencontre des partyes Suedoises & Polonnoises, la disant avoir esté si chaudè, que les Suedois ont perdu pres de 4000, & que sans la vigilance du roy de Suede, qu'on mande avoir en teus deux chevaux sur luy, le tout courroit risque de son costé d'estre perdu, mais qu'apres avoir raillé ses trouppes, qui s'estoyent trop avances en la poursuitte de leurs ennemys, lesquelles ayant fait mine de fuir les avoyent attiré dans un embuscade, & les auroyent rechargé de la sorte, qu'a la fin les Polonois auront este contraints de quitter le champ de battaille, & de laisser la victoire (quoy qu'assez sanglante) à sa dite majestie de Suede. Qu'apres la prise de la cittadelle de Marienborgh le general major Steinbock avoit pris le fort de Putzko appartenant à la ville de Dantzick, ou il y avoit pres de 1000 hommes, qui ont tous esté faitz prisonniers de guerre, & fait piller un des meilleurs villages de la ditte ville, & par ce moyen luy a declaré la guerre.
De Cologne, que les peuples dans les Pays Bas tesmoignent de mescontemont a cause du changement de l'archiduc Leopolde contre dom Jean d'Austriche; que le roy d'Angleterre se doit embarquer à Dunkerquen pour aller avec le prince Robert faire une diversion du costé d'Escosse, avec une flotte, qui porte 6 ou 7000 Espagnols, dont le prince en est admiral.
Le bref que S. S. a dernierement envoyé avoit fait courrir icy le bruit, que monsieur l'archevesque de Norbonne avoit esté arresté prisonnier, pour en avoir fait la lecture à l'assemblée, sans en avoir donné auparavant la communication aù conseil d'enhault; mais on n'a point entendu sur la liberté de ce prelat, qui depuis peu a esté fait ministre d'estat. Il est bien vray, que monsieur l'evesque de Toute sut vendredy dernier dans la cour du pallais arresté par 50 hommes insolament dans son carosse, avec le commandeur de Neuschaise, & apres l'avoir pour mené par diverses rues dans son propre carosse ils le laisserent dans un eglise, & en suitte ammenerent son carosse & ses chevaux. Deux de ces canailles ont esté faitz prisonniers, & l'on croid que le mareschal Faucault trempe en cette affaire. Mr. le chancellier en ayant envoyé faire le proces verbal par un huissir de la Chaine, 4000 s'assemblerent, & peu s'en failloit qu'ou commencat une sedition. Monsieur le mareschal de Turenne doit partyr au commencement du mois prochain pour commender l'armée de Flandres, & se confirme que le duc de Mercoeur est destiné pour general d'Italie.
Le roy a fait retirer son edict cy devant public, par lequel il a enjoinct a tous Francois, qui sont au service du cardinal de Retz, & a ceux qui ont correspondence avec luy, de s'en abstenir, & se remettre à l'obeyssance de S. M.
L'on va faire revenir les conseillers & presidens du parlement, qui a remis de s'assemble demain mecredy. La cour insiste tousjours à ce que mr. Thalon advocat general baille la demission de sa charge, la quelle a esté offert a messieurs de Montalon, Bluis, & Guemont, advocat de l'encercer par commission, mais on dit, qu'ils s'en sont dispenses: le bruit court neantmoins, que le sieur Levin advocat l'a accepté: cependant le palais a este fermé pour les advocats jusques a present, qui se voyant prives de leur chef, sont demeurez en le silence.