A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 5, May 1656 - January 1657. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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June (7 of 7)
The Dutch embassadors in Denmarke to the States General.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, the marchent men bound for Dantzick, which were lying in the Sound, being admonished, that Dantzick was besieged by sea, having resolved thereupon to put off their voyages, are since our last gone to sea, by reason they heard that the river Weyssell was yet open and unmolested. The embassador of Muscovy told us, that not he, but another, was to be sent from the great duke to your high and mighty lords, and that he wondred we had no newes of his arrival. We understood by him, that the design of the great duke his master is to divide his army into six bodys, and therewith to prosecute the war in Lyfland.
The council of Ireland to secretary Thurloe.
By your letter of the 17th of April last we signified unto you the reasons inducing us to imploy Mr. Evan Vaughan, as your deputy in this nation. Ere this (we suppose) you have received from him an account of his proceedings here, as to his settling the post stages. Since which we have received yours by Mr. Talbot, and shall not be wanting to give him, or any whom you appoint, all due encouragement towards the perfecting so necessary a business. And seeing the trust of this work is now devolved upon you, we thought fit to acquaint you, that by an order of the late commissioners of parliament for the affaires of Ireland for the better dispatch of this public service, the treasury here was charged with the allowance of well nigh 100 l. per annum unto major Swist, postmaster at Hollyhead, for and towards the maintenance of four boatmen to be added to the packet boats at the rate of 8 d. per diem for dyet, and of 18 s. per mensem to each man for wages, which to this time hath been continued. But considering our present necessities, and that this charge doth belong to that office, we conceive it fit to charge that burthen on its proper issue; and doubt not but you will take care, that what doth necessarily belong to the post-office shall be undertaken and discharged by the profits of that office, and the state to be at no further charge, having never formerly been put upon the Irish treasury. And for the better incouragement and expedition of that service, we are informed, that it would much conduce to the expedition and quicker dispatch of the packet boats between Hollyhead and Dublin, if for the future one half of the men belonging to the pacquet boats were Dublin seamen, and the other Hollyhead seamen. But this we shall leave to your consideration, and shall only add, that we are,
Your assured friends and servants,
R. Pepys. Miles Corbett.
Mr. W. Bird, to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your honor, that in my last I gave you a brief account in what conformity the kinge had ordered the payment of the 50000 l. due to his highnes, and sent a copy of his a Luara.
Since Mr. Tho. Maynard's ariveinge and bringinge his highnes ultimate resolutions
touchinge the kings confirmeinge the articles of peace agreed upon by his ambassador in England, his magesty hath at last assented thereunto (not without much opposition of the clergy)
fower dayes before the generalls comeinge to ancher in Caseais roade. The agent goinge
aboard, and being with them, it was resolved upon by them, that the mony shold be forthwith payd in, and sent aboard two friggats to be conveyed for England; to which end the
generalls ordered in two, and the agent pressently demanded, that free possession might be
given me of what mony was depossited in my house; the captaine and guard of soldiers thereupon to be dismist, and the remaynder to be payd in without delay, which was assented to;
and such was the ernestness of the generalls to have the money sent abord, that I cold not
be permitted tyme to seperate the same, as to have exchanged the small moneys and crownes
into peices of eight, soe that it goes mixt one with another, and upon thirty thousand crownes
in gold, by which his highnes will receive noe small dammedge, there beeinge much difference betwixt new money and peices of 8/8, and extraordinary losse upon the gold. I heerewith sende your honnor the contents of the mony, beeinge one hundred seventy and one
bags, put up into 73 chests, to witt of 44 chests put aboard the Colchester friggat, capt.
Blake in this river, and reshipt on the Phœnix capt. Whetstone; and of 29 chests shipt on
the Saphir capt. Clay, which I rest assured wil be founde right to a farthinge, beinge very
carefully towld over, every baggage sealed and nombred. If the like care be had there in
passinge the same, and receaveinge the bags sealed in conformity, as were put up, as I
doubt not but that the agent will give a more large accompt there about it; soe I thought it
my duty to give your honnor an accompt of my proceedinge as to the recovery of the
mony, beinge his hignes was pleased to authorize me to receive the first payment of 20000 l.
which imported 42,240,000 Portugall mony, and the agent gave me a power to receive for
him 30000 l. Wishinge it to arrive safe in England, and to your honnor all true prosperity.
From Lisbon, the 26th June, 1656.
This will be the last I shall write you out of Denmarke, in which I will take my leave of you; yet praying you to do me the favor, to write to me once a month of all that passeth in England. In the summer you may write by the merchants of England, who drive a great trade in Trundheimborgh, and at other seasons by land. The king commanded me to signify unto you, that he cannot send the horses, which he promised the protector, by reason of the danger at sea by the Dunkirkers. If you can find any other handsome excuses, you may join them to the first, to the end his highness may not be offended at the delay. The king is going with the prince into Norway, but the queen remaineth here by reason of her bigness, which will cause his majesty to return sooner then he thought.
A letter of intelligence.
Lieut. gen. Midleton is removed to Bruges, where there is frequent meeting of all king Charles friends, and of a certain have gott a satisfactory answer from the king of Spain, and all things agreed upon. Of this I shall inform you farther, when I come there. There are good thoughts here of the lord Lorne. The lord Belcarres is still in Cologne, and Sir Rob. Monroe, but are daily expected at court. The lord of Ormond is there, and Rochester, Wentworth, Gerard, Newburgh, and three knights of the Hamiltons, besides several other gentlemen, expect present employment. Don John of Austria has been with king Charles; and 'tis thought, will do much, for it is confidently reported here, that the king of Spain and king Charles are agreed, and both their interest one. If any commissions are sent into Scotland for any new stirrs, I believe I shall bring them over as I did for the last; and then you shall be sure to have them.
The information of Anne Hill, late servant to the lady Lucy Walter, otherwise Barlow, taken upon oath the 26th day of June, 1656.
Who saith, that this informant was servant to the said lady Walter in Holland about seven months, and about six weeks ago she left her said lady, and came to England in a Dutch ship, promising the said lady, when she sent for her, to repaire to her, which she accordingly did about a week ago; and saith, that the said lady came lately out of Flushing, hireing a boat to bring herself, two children, Mr. Justus Walter her brother, and Thomas Howard, gentleman of the horse to the princess royal at the Hague, and this informant saith, that she hath often heard, that one of the said children her said lady had by Charles Stuart, and that the said lady had no other means to maintain her, but what she hath from the said Charles-Stuart, although she lives in a costly and high manner; and saith, that for ought she perceives, the said lady maintains her brother. And this informant further saith, that the said lady, and her children, Mr. Walter, and Mr. Howard, lie at a barber's house over against Somerset-house, but the name of the said barber or his sign this informant knows not. And this informant likewise further saith, that she hath several times heard the said lady say, she hoped, that the said Charles Stuart would quickly have England; and saith, she knows no just cause, why the said lady should procure her imprisonment, but supposes it was, because this informant would discover the said lady; and saith that the said lady told her this informant, she was, a little before her coming over, with the king, meaning Charles Stuart; and this informant having conference with the said lady's brother about it, he swore the said lady had been lately with the king, meaning Charles Stuart, a night and a day together.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Here is newes this wiek, that the French army marching out of Piemont for Millan, being prevented of surprysing Vercelles, hav now besieged Vallanta, a very strong town in the state of Millan, but neir the confynes of Piemont: the Spanyard not being able to mak any considerable field-army, garrisons his townes very wel. The duk of Modena's forces being about 7000, ar marcht out of the duchy of Modena to meet and joyn with the French army, which together wil mak about 20,000. The sicknes at Naples is increast to 2000 per day, insomuch that the dead remayn unburyed for want of men to perform that offis. The infection of the very air at Rom hetherto has made no great progres; however thos fat prellats ar very fearful. The queen of Sweden would willingly get thence, if shi knew how. Shi intended to prevail with the pope for a couple of his gallyes to carry her for Marcelles, but the sicknes is in the gallyes; so shi dares not imbark. It is now talkt, as if shi would freit a couple of Flemish ships to carry her. What the event wil bi, we yet know not. This prince's state is yet, God be thanked, fri, but great dilligence is used in all parts therof. Not a man sturs out of any town, or coms in without a ticket. The greate duk's brother, prince Mathew, is gon to guard the confyns towards the pope, with 4000 foot and 1000 horse, that there bi no communication betwixt the states during the contagion. I hav heard this wiek somwhat strange newes from Florence, that the abovsaid prince Mathew is invyted by the emperor his cozen german to accept the kingdom of Polland in the condition it now stands; and that the great duk is dispaching an ambassage upon that bisnes to the emperor and king of Polland; but I rather think it is to treat and ajust a legue betwixt the princes of Itally and the emperor, for that is the chief thing thes princes desyre. 'Tis certainly bilieved, the Portugal ambassador wil bi sudenly received by the pope. Here is no further newes of generall Blak's fleet. The Hollanders fil this place with reports of 50 sail of our ships taken this last wick by the Dunkirkers in the channel. They say wi ar frends, but theyr language they use of us does not shew it. God, I hope, will lessen their mallis, or tak them shorter. I am,
Your most faithful servant,
A letter of intelligence.
This day from Swedes quarters came hither certain news of Warsaw being retaken by king Casimir by storm, but the castle by accord. The Swedes relief came too late, and approached not nearer than the Bouck, four miles from Warsaw, at which place they still lye. We have also certain news, that the Poles have met with a regiment of Swedes foot behind Thorn, which in regard they had not their matches ready, they cut them all off. Part of the duke of Brandenburgh's army is broke up, and gone for Litto, and the duke in person is suddenly to follow them. Articles of agreement betwixt the Swedes and Brandenburghs, I hope, next post to send you. Report goes, that the king of Swedes gives the duke for satisfaction of the militia for forces he lends him, part of Great Poland, as Palatinatum, Posnaniensen, Calissiensen, Lenciciensen, and Sendomerensem, &c. and to the heirs of the house of Brandenburg, which he is ingaged in four weeks to deliver, and give him in possession, by which the Swedes gain this advantage, to withdraw their garrisons in those parts into a body against their enemy; and the duke, by reason Great Poland borders upon Pomerania, can better defend it; as also when a new king is chosen in Poland, he having footing therein, may be put in nomination, whom the Pole may chuse before any other; but it's not safe to trust this matter at present to paper. Here are lately come on to Elbing several Swedes boats, which bring many great guns, swords, muskets, bullets, match, and all sorts of ammunition. Yesternight I was informed from a very good hand from Marienburg, that the king of France doth labour much with the Swede to persuade him to peace; and to that end mons. de l'Ombre, who all the time of these wars hath kept himself at the duke of Brandenburg's court as resident to that king, is now made extraordinary ambassador for to go to the king of Poland to the same purpose. To morrow he begins his journey. At the Swedes court remains also yet that ancient ambassador mons. le comte d'Avancourt, who, no doubt, solicits the king to peace. The duke of Courland also labours the same very much; to that purpose hath wrote his letter to each prince. Where the king of Sweden is at present, is yet unknown, only he was lately some days at Stransburg in Prussia.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The lord Rosenwinge is to have no other dispatch, but a recredential in the ordinary form. And in regard he said nothing of the two points, which kept him here so long, (namely the makeing good of all damages done to the Danish ships taken by the English, and the remainder of the subsidy) so likewise they said nothing to him of them. His chain of gold and medal is to be of the value of 100 l.
Those of Guelderland have spoken to endeavour to engage the king of Denmark before all things in the common defence of the Baltic commerce; but all rests till the report of the provinces. In the mean time they have writ to the ambassadors at Marienburgh, that they may continue to treat according to their instructions.
The lord Sasburgh, the future resident for Brussells, is here gathering up money, having sent his wife and family already to Brussells; and as soon as he hath got his money, he will go to Brussells, for the receiver Berkel hath this custom at present to give assignment; in so much that the state will not retain him here, till the embassy goeth for Spain, as hath been said. Of the 25th June from Copenhagen the ambassadors write for the second time, that the envoy of Muscovy doth not come hither, but returneth by sea by the way of Archangel towards Muscovy. He saith, that he had no order to come for Holland, but that he gave out so at Koningsbergh, fearing left the elector of Brandenburgh would have hindered him from going to the king of Denmark. But to go for Holland, he did presume, that the elector would not have hindered him.
The minister of Sweden hath insinuated unto the king of Denmark the like memorandum, as Mons. Appleboom hath insinuated here, not to sail towards Dantzick. The prince of Denmark was to go with five ships of war towards Christiana in Norway. It was uncertain, whether the king would go. At Stockholm they continued to equip 25 ships of war, besides the five that transported the queen.
The lord Vander Campelle communicated a letter yesterday, saying that the elector of Brandenburgh doth find himself very much sollicited by the king of Sweden to join with that king; but hitherto he would not hearken to it, but would stick firm to the treaty made with this state.
The secret correspondent at Koningsberg hath writ by this post, that he was almost kill'd with blows of a Polish hammer, which the assassin gave him: that doth redouble here the desire of revenging the like injury against a secret minister of this state.
The lord Knyff on the behalf of Friezland hath made overture of the advice of the said province, which is altogether conformable to that of Holland, yea somewhat more; for not only those of Friezland agree to the subsidy for Dantzick, but also to the acting of the fleet; yea, if it be necessary, to clear the river of Weyssell as far as Thorn. Item they have consented to the 50 thousand guilders for the fortification of Geneva.
To morrow there will be an assembly at Utrecht in Zealand. There is yet no convocation of the states; also little likelihood, in regard they have enough to do with their commissioners and civil and intestine divisions. For those of Goes will not rest at present till such time that they have reestablished the lord Vander Nisse in the States General, whereof he was formerly dispossessed by the lord Crommon.
The lord Sasburgh, instead of departing for Brussells, hath proposed four points: 1. Whether he must put on his hat before Don John. 2. Whether he shall have a minister with him. 3. Whether he shall follow Don John to the army. 4. In the absence of Don John, to whom he shall address himself. Upon all which a conference is to be held by commissioners.
There hath been also a particular conference about the affairs of Outre-meuse, whether and how they shall go about to compose them; upon which they will first expect the return of the lords Beverning and Mareignault.
The raet pensionary in the behalf of Holland hath proposed, that in this conjuncture it is considerable to have a good understanding with France and England, for fear that they should embrace the quarrel of the king of Sweden; to which end he hath proposed, that a league defensive ought to be made with those two kingdoms and common wealth; upon which a conference is to be held by commissioners.
The ambassadors of this state, who are at Marienburgh, do advise, that those of the elector of Brandenburgh had been to see them, telling them in effect, that the elector was necessitated to join his forces with those of the king of Sweden, by reason that the king of Poland had given order to Ksarnisky not to spare the said elector. That the king of Poland did only summon the said elector to turn his forces against Sweden, without offering to him one thing or another. That the envoy of the king of Poland had also a letter of credence to the states of Prussia. That that was taken by the elector as some kind of slighting. That the elector doth foresee some ill to him, if he remaineth neutral, whether the king of Poland or the king of Sweden be conquerors, for the one and for the other will use him as they are wont to do to little neutrals. Item that the necessity of affairs did urge the elector to cause the toll in the Pillauw to be raised. That he would do it however without any inequality.
Those of Guelderland have also declared themselves concerning the affairs of Prussia, conforming themselves only to the advice of Holland: 1. To the subsidy the city of Dantzick. 2. To cause the fleet to act. But for the rest, which Friezland doth add, Guelderland doth desire to be excused, as also Holland doth laugh at it; for to entertain an army in Prussia by land, that doth look far.
As to the four points proposed by the resident Sasburgh, there hath been already a conference held about them; that he is to lose no time, but to make haste to Brussells, for they are desirous here to know some news; but he is not to follow the armies; and as to the ceremony of taking off his hat before don John, or to keep it on, the said resident is to go and see Sir — Gerbier, who was resident of England with the deceased cardinal insant, to inform himself, how he behaved himself in his presence. The city of Amsterdam hath taken the resident Heinsius, who was in Sweden, for their secretary in foreign languages, chiefly for the Latin.
The said Heinsius hath this day signified in a memorandum, how the lords of Amsterdam would employ him in their service; that he would not engage himself without per mission and dismission, which he desired, with presentation to render himself in the mean time the better able to serve occasions hereafter: whereupon they have granted him his. dismission.
An intercepted letter to sir Edward Hyde.
Yours of the 2d July came to my hands; and truly you may justly conclude, that those favours, which are not immediately acknowledged, are never received. Since I perceive mine of the 13th instant came safe, I will follow the same direction, till you forbid me. Mr. Hadly is now in town, and presents his humble service to you. He is very sorry the debt remains unsatisfied, and for ought I perceive, his hopes of discharging it are less every day. He hath conferred with the parties, and finds them more backward, and less able than he could think them two months ago. Though your last mentioneth nothing of the commodity, I will not doubt of receiving it by the first opportunity, which I hope will be long before the auction in September. What the debauch'd people discoursed and hoped, is by honest men believed and feared, but the hint you give is sufficient authority to confirm it. I do not hear the accounts are adjusted between Lort and Covely, though there is all manner of fair quarter betwixt them outwardly. If the former be not so hasty to make satisfaction, as he should be, I suppose the latter hath more patience and temper than to compel him.
Lockhart, ambassador at France, to secretary Thurloe.
I have receaved yours of the 19th of June, but did not receive the list of pryses mentioned. The character, that signified a year, should have been 603, which is three weeks; and I intended Sexbye, where I wrote Reuxbye. I beseech you pardon both these mistakes, occasioned by the haste I was in for fear of missing the post.
Since my last I have not been verie well. I think my indisposition did partlie proceed from the dissatisfaction I have for my being so little usefull to you, and partlie from the little ingenuitie I meet with in the way of proceeding heare. The papers I mentioned in my former are yet under the cardinall's consideratione. He promised their return to me, with his approbatione of the particulars they contained, within a day or two; but I can heare nothing concerning them; so that I despaire of bringing that business to anie certaine conclusion, till that of Valenciennes be at end; and if that seidge consume much more tyme, the season for the other will be so farre spent, that I shall looke upon it as a thing not feasible, tho' never so much intended.
I shall use my best endeavors for a in 355 182 telligencer 216 179 150, but it must be a worke of some tyme; and shall not faile to acquaint his eminence with what you have heard touching the other affaire.
Sir, your goodnesse in excuseing the businesse of the merchand givs me just occasione to
accuse myself for the redresse of these trubles I have made bold to give you in things of so
small importance; and yett I must humblie acknowledge, that the confidence you command
me to have in your affectione to me is the greatest happinesse I can pretend to, except that
of my being fullie assured, that I ame,
Your most fathfull and obedient servant,
Major general Haynes to secretary Thurloe.
I Received yours of the 26th, by which I understand, there is liberty now given to discourse of and try the tempers of men as to a parliament, which I shall faythfully endeavour and give you an account. The assizes being soe neere at hand, there wil be oppertunyty given of knowing much the mindes of men. I am glad to heare the peace with the crowne of Portugall is over. I hope it wil be welcome newes to our clothing townes, now their trade with Spaine is shutt up. I humbly beg your honnor's minding of the commissions for theise four countyes with the alterations desyred, and that in Suffolke one more may be left out, by name Robert Lane, being a person highly disaffected, and one in whom neyther the justices or honest men have their satisfaction; and that I may be in the better capacyty to serve the publique, I earnestly entreat, that speedie consideration may be had of the payment of our militia troopes, for they are the persons, whom we can mostly conside in, and must imploy in that affaire; and it is some disgust to them, that a whole yeare should passe, and not one penny assighned them for satisfactione, when they weare promysed at first to be payd quarterly, and then halfe yearly, and now two halfe yeares past, and they unsatisfyed. I am unwilling, lest I should be thaught to soment discontents at soe inconvenient a season, to acquaint you, how much I have to doe to persuade them to a confydenc they shal be payd, haveing bin soe often fayled; and I suppose their promyses to their souldiers, which they are not capacitated to performe, occasione much of the discontent; for want of which I durst not yett muster them; and if speedyly assignments might be sentt us, according to the late order and declaration of his highness and councill, they might be suddenly drawen together, and thereby a verie considerable advantage (I humbly conceive) might be given to helpe on the choyse of the persons for the parliament. Please to pardon this great intirruption, being somewhat eased in my spiritt, that I have made your honnor acquainted therewith, knowing oppertunities are in your hand to helpe therein. I hope all possible care wil be had in making the doore streight enough; else will the hearts of those, that have cleaved to you in your late streights, be sadde, and a complyanc to other persons wil be but as the daubing with untempered morter. I must againe begg your honnor's pardon for my plainess, I mencioning theise perticulars, not out of distrust, but that I might have to satisfie the scruples of those, that wil be enquiring, and whose feares are exercised for the welfaire I have done. The good Lord out of his infinite wisdome direct all your councills and resolutions to his own glorie, and the good of those, that feare him in the nation; and for this shall I not cease to pray, who am,
Sir, Your honnor's truly humble servant,
Major general Haynes to secretary Thurloe.
Yesterday at the meeting of the commissioners there weare divers honest people, ministers and others, preferring their complaints against one Mr. Robert Lane, a justice of the peace for this county, as a person that mostly makes use of his authority against good men, countenancing actions and sutes against them, and gratifying the malignant party with his warrants to apprehend the persons imployed as sequestrators of a liveing, out which a wicked minister had bin cast out lately, as under the notion of ryotters, and verie uncivelly calling them in his warrants at his pleasure. A tast of the man's spiritt you may have by the enclosed, which was his warrant for the minister imployed by the sequestrator in the place, untill the vacancy should be supplyed. The truth is sir Tho. Barnadiston, Mr. Clarke, and all the justices present doe agree him a desperate malignant, and enemy to good men; and desyred me to endeavor his being putt out of comission with the first; for honest men stand in that feare of him, that they dare hardly venture home to their owne houses, least he should imprisone them. Wherefore I humbly begg your directione to Mr. Nutly for his being put out of the next commission for the assizes; and least your occasions should not permitt you tyme to give directione in it, I have made bold to enclose theise two lynes to Mr. Nutly, begging your assistance herein. I remayne,
Sir, Your truly humble servant,
If you judge not the enclosed convenient to be sent Mr. Nutly, please to cast it by; if your honnor shall concurr with it, forward it with your fiat. All the fifth monarchy party are at present as quiett as lambs, and seeme to repent of what was done; yet I'll not promyse for them. Anabaptists and Quakers make worke for all the rest.
Commissioner Pels to the States General.
They write from Koningsberg, that on the first instant the city of Warsaw was surrendered to the king of Poland upon articles. We shall now soon see, whether the king of Sweden will return back hither or no.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
I Writ you in my last the result of the assembly of the states of Holland, since which Friesland hath more than conformed itself with the states of Holland contrary to their custom. For usually and heretofore Friesland was wont to contradict whatsoever the states of Holland desired; sed in promptu causa est. Grave William is a little low, and seeing that grave William doth favour the Brandenburgher, those of Friesland do all that they know will displease grave William. I know not how Cromwell doth interest himself; but I know very well, that the chiefest ones of the states of Holland do speak after that manner, as if Cromwell could not oppose the design of the states of Holland, and although Cromwell should oppose it, or be against it, they will not forbear doing what they are about in spight of Cromwell.
Here is at present a Scots lord, called Newburgh, for (as is said) to make love to Mrs. Lane, she who sav'd the king of Scots after the battle of Worcester; and my lord Culpepper is also still here, and it is said, that the Spaniard hath set open to Charles Stuart all his harbours. Those followers of Charles Stuart cannot effect much with those; that are affected to the elector of Brandenburgh at least not yet a while, but it is very probable, that they come with all the knowledge of Spain to try the well affected of Holland at least the raedt pensionary.
In short the states of Holland do make a shew as if they were wholly bent against the Swede, yea to drive him back again to Sweden, which however will not be done very easily, unless that the resolution of the states of Holland do meet with some followers and assistants, for it is probable, that the emperor seeing the example of the states of Holland, will also follow him and declare against the Swede; and Dane may follow the same example; the Muscovite being already very much animated against the Swede. Now I say again, I know not how that Cromwell doth interest himself, but since that Cromwell doth see, that the states of Holland will have all the commerce, and that by the means of the Dane and the emperor (the Muscovite also added) the the states of Holland may be able to bring under the Swede, and exclude the protector out of Brandenburgh. It were convenient that Cromwell caus'd a serious office to be past with the ambassador of the States General to the end that the Swede should not be oblig'd to agree to the States General the commerce to the prejudice of Cromwell and others. France in all likelihood will not agree to the States General any thing to the prejudice of Cromwell concerning the commerce, but in regard it is very certain, that the states of Holland do aim to stipulate some advantage for themselves in the commerce, yea to the disadvantage of all others (for the States General will not do any thing for nothing to Dantzick and commerce of Dantzick and Poland, so likewise the Swede, seeing himself abandoned of all, yea of the protector, will agree to the States General all what they please, and therefore I do not see how that Cromwell can be altogether satisfied and at rest about this business; and likewise the Brandenburgher seeing that, will also turn his coat; and constantly all that depends upon the Brandenburger,p. of Orange, friends of princess of Orange who for the most part (at least those of Brandenburg, and princess dowager, and grave William) are at present reasonably well affected to Cromwell. But if fortune (I say the Dane, the emperor, the Pole) turn her back upon the Swede, the Brandenburger as well as the rest will also turn against Cromwell (who already here doth begin to gain the friends of the princess of Orange) will lose them, and have all the same enemies which the Swede hath. This doth deserve some consideration. It is very certain that raedt pensionary was lately at Antwerp, and that he was made much of there, and all these things happen per numeros gradusque suos.
Having writ the above mentioned on the 3d current, I have found since the truth of my opinion by the resolution of Friesland, wherein it is expresly seen, that the states of Holland (for Friesland do not propose that but to imitate and follow the prescription of the states of Holland) have a design to draw to themselves all the advantage of commerce in Poland, and will endeavour to do the same harm whereof they accuse the Swede.
And the states of Holland seeing or fearing that Cromwell will formalize himself about it, and that as
well Cromwell as France will embrace the interest of the Swede. The states of Holland have another design, which is,
that they endeavour to cause to be proposed as well to Cromwell as to France a new alliance, which
shall be special to tye protector, France, and the States General defensively, or to a mutual defence that was
proposed the 4th in to the States General, and as you know that will be examined by commissioners, and according to the common method will go slowly. If the States of Holland can by this means separate the
protector and France from Swede, that will be a great master-piece of state, and very prositable for
the states of Holland, but there are some in the States General who (though they be not affected to the Swede) yet do fear, that
they make this negotiation of an alliance as a merchandize too common and vulgar; and as a
merchandize fair to the eye, but deceitful, and wherein, when it is bought, they find themselves deceived ultra dimidium justi pretii, being a business of no continuance. Likewise
there are made so many alliances that are contrary, that to reconcile them there must be so
many distinctions as there are in sophistical philosophy, and these things go, as we say, end
against end: Brandenburg hath learned the art of the states of Holland, having now also made a new alliance with the Swede
by virtue whereof the Swede and Brandenburger have joined their forces, and notwithstanding saving the
alliance, which the Brandenburger hath with the States General, so that the States General doth find themselves surprized to see that the Brandenburger
hath read Scaliger De Subtilitate as well as the States General, and in the mean time the Swede and Brandenburger do also
in that a master-piece of state, which will put the States General into a new perplexity, but the Pole must
have a mighty army, and the Swede is going against it, and that may decide the quarrel.
8 July [1656. N. S.]
The siege of Valenciennes doth still continue with some heat. The besieged defend themselves courageously, and the French do assault them suriously with great loss. They took a half moon with great loss, and have lost it again with no less loss on both sides. The French want provender for their horse in their camp.
The Spanish army lies within musquet shot of their lines, and ready to assault them every hour. There is hazard enough for the one, and the event is expected every hour, which will either be the raising of the siege, or the taking of the town.
To the Venetian agent.
We have not much of news to write since my last. The fiege of Valenciennes is still in the same condition; the Spaniards being resolved to relieve it. The French have not yet taken any fortifications without, and have suffered great losses by the assaults and fallies, that have been made out upon them by the besieged. They say here in general, that the place will not be lost, and none doth contradict it. If the French do not take this place, they will not do any thing else this summer; but the Spaniards will not be contented with relieving the place, but will undertake some other design. These are the opinions of the people here.
Warschawia a Suecis per compositionem reddita Polonis: hoc certissimum, sed nondum scimus quo se converterint præsidiarii Sueci, siquidem Poloni contractum a Dacibus assentiente rege factum nullatenus observandum tumultuantes vociserabantur, adeo ut multi existiment captivos detineri omnes cum ducibus suis & ministris regiis, nempe campi ductore Wittenberg, legato Oxenstern, consiliario Esken, secretario status Canterstein & aliquot tribunis; quà de re certiorem tabellarium expectamus.
Hodie rex noster cum aliquot legionibus ad nos accedens spem nostram recuperandi Warssawiam & rem prope deperditam restituendi admodum auxit. Sapiecha interea cum multis millibus inter flumina Buck & Vistulam confedit. Quartiani duce Czarnecio regem suum & Warsaviam tuentur. Cras Sapieham aggredietur. Rex noster elector lentè cum suis progreditur, quasi illum contractûs seu fœderis cum Sueco initi pœniteret. Aiunt eum fines Prussiæ excedere nolle: hoc si verum, ægrotabit Suecus. De Moscho certi nihil, licet quidam obsideri Noteburgum, sed falso clamitent Wittenberg, &c. adhuc Warsawiæ detinetur speciosa captivitate.
The Venetian resident to secretary Thurloe.
Besides the letter, which I have had a long time to present to his highness, I have lately received another from the most serene republick concerning other affairs. Therefore I desire, that his highness would be pleased to grant me the honour of an audience. To obtain it I address myself to your incomparable goodness, humbly desiring, that you would procure it for me as soon as possibly you can. I also beseech you to reflect upon the business I lately communicated unto you, being very reasonable to punish so great an affront done by a constable to a minister of a republic so affectionate and interessed for the exaltation of this most powerful state. By your means I hope for the favour of his highness incomparable justice, and shall always testify myself,
Your most humble and most obliged servant,
Col. Barkstead, lieut. of the tower, to secretary Thurloe.
Yours together with his highness's warrants I received. The lady faith, she had a son by Charles Stuart, which is dead; that the twoe Children she now hath were by a husband she had in Holland, whoe is alsoe dead. That she came over only to looke after 1500 l. left her by her mother. That she came from Flushing about 3 weeks since. That she hath not seene C. S. this twoe yeares. That shee mett colonell Howard, as she tooke shipping at Flushing. That she hath not as yet received any of her petition. Mr. Justus Walter saith, he went out of England about twoe months by past, and had a passe from the councell to travell for Italy; but meeting with his sister comeing over, he came with her: that before he went over, he belonged to the temple. All that I can gett from collonell Howard is enclosed. I am,
Tower Lond. June 28th, 1656.
The examination of Thomas Howard esq; taken the 28th June, 1656.
Saith he did see Charles Stuart about a year since at Cologne, and not since. Saith he hath been about 5 or 6 years out of England. Saith he was ingaged for the late king at Oxford, and commanded a regiment of horse for the said king, and after Naseby fight went over into Holland, and there had a troop of horse given him by the prince of Orange's grandfather, which he now hath. That he is now and had ever since the said time been master of the horse to the princess royal. Saith he took shipping about 3 weeks since at Flushing, and so came for England. Being asked, how he came into the company of the lady Lucey Walter, alias Barlow, faith, he met her on shipboard in the ship, in which he came over into England, with whom he came over, and took lodgings at the same house with her. Saith that since he was at Cologne with Charles Stuart, he hath been in France with the princess royal, on whom he waited, and from Paris went to Havre de Grace, intending for England, but by storm was driven to Rotterdam, and from Flushing, whence he returned as aforesaid. Further faith not.
To his highness the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, &c.
That your petitioner hath purchased from the trustees of the commonwealth impowered by act of parliament for sale of delinquents estates, the castle called Powis castle, or Redd castle, in the county of Montgomery, being the inheritance of Sir Persy Herbert knight, and exposed to sale for his delinquency; and hath paid the whole purchase money for the same; but cannot get the possession of the said castle, it being continued in the hands of about a dozen soldiers, though altogether useless for a garrison, or may easily be made unserviceable, which your petitioner is contented may be so done.
The Dutch ambassadors in Prussia to the States General.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, just now we receive a letter from Thorn of the 7th current from our minister, who is gone thither for some days about his particular affairs, wherein he writes, that Warsaw on friday last was eight days was taken by the Polish army, after they had made five assaults upon it; and all that they found in arms they put to the sword. General Wittenberg and some others, who were retreated to the castle, were forced at last to yield the same upon articles; and thereupon marched away, although the nobility of Poland would have had them likewise massacred, notwithstanding the articles and parole given, which the king prevented not without much trouble.
The Swedes had sent away privately some treasure out of Warsaw, but the same was discovered by some boors in a country village, who fell upon the convoy, and putting them to the flight, they made themselves masters of the treasure, which they buried not long afterwards. The Swedes coming to the knowledge thereof, they fell upon the village, and took the boors, and tortur'd them, till they declared where the treasure was; and having found it, they afterwards first plundered the village, and then fired it.
A letter from Mr. W. Aylesbury.
I Must crave leave to adde one thing more, of which major generall Sedgwicke tooke greate care in his letters of the 12th of March to the commissioners of the admiralty; and therefore if I had no other regard, I should think myself obliged to mention it to you. But the consideration of the admiral, whose concernement it is, makes me the more bold to acquaint you therewith. Hee it seems by order bought a parcel of cloathes upon the state's accompt to supply the fleet, which might have bin, and were disposed of by order at least some of them; yet the defect thereof, or what remaines, is lest upon his hands; which being a business, wherein he got nothing but trouble, and tending to the ruine of himselfe and family, very much afflicts him. Yet I assure you he ought not to receive any discouragement, for he hath burthen enough upon him here by his employment; besides he is a person of that integrity, that it cannot be imagined he would disowne an act of his own. Wherefore you may be pleased to take his busines into consideration, that he may not suffer by mistakes. I suppose he hath writ to you of it himselfe; and therefore I need say no more, but that I am
Your most faithful and most humble servant,
General Mountagu to secretary Thurloe.
The 19th of June capt. Lloyd sett saile with the Phœnix and Saphyre out of Cascais rode, and by him I gave you the trouble of many lines, perhaps divers more then needed; but I hope they the capt. and shipps are well arrived with you before this tyme, and then I presume you are fully informed of our affaires here, untill that tyme of his departure hence. The sunday followinge beinge the 22d of June, the kinge of Portugall's fleete came out of the river (they beinge 8 in number.) The admirall and all the others gave us many gunns, and wee were forced to spend powder to answer them, and both of us mutually strucke our flaggs untill our salutation was over. We had newes from Lisbone that day, of one of the Portugall East India shipps, that had beene in fight with 5 Flushingers 3 dayes in sight neere Oporto, and was miserably torne, and feared they would carrye her. They say she is worth as much as halfe their fleet. Munday the 23d of June wee weighed anchor; and sett sayle for Cales, where we arrived (through Gods goodnesse to us) the 28th of June in the morninge early, all in good condition (except the shipps sent to Vigo, and 2 or 3 that wee appointed to other places, whereoff yet noe newes.) Wee find all thinges here as to the Spaniard in the same case wee left them. There are 2 marchants come out from Cales; who are pretty sober men; one of them (Mr. Prideaux) saies he will waite upon you, and by him will understand perticulars. This morninge June 30th the Griffin came in to us with your letters from England and gen. Blake, and I have made what haste wee could, and used our best skill to obey his highnesse directions, as you will perceive by our joint letter. Wee have also considered, how this fleete here might be best improved to service, since nothing is in our eye to be done against the Spaniard; and wee have (in a manner) resolved to appeare in the Streights with 12 or 13 saile up as high as Tripoli, and make a league with that place, if we can, as also Tunis, it may be. Wee judge it of greate importance to the trade of England, many rich shipps beinge taken and endangered by those of that place. Wee shall still leave the vice-admirall with 13 saile of shipps, some of our greatest here, to keepe in the Spaniard, or hinder provisions of warre cominge to him; as also to send to Sallye, and prepare an accomodation with that place against our returne, (when God shall be pleased to grant us it.) Indeed it is in my judgment a very bootelesse thinge to lye here: the Spaniard prepares to set nothinge out this yeare, unlesse it be 4 shipps for the Indies, which they say must be gotten ready against October; and he expects nothinge home this 12 moneth; and for trade, it would anger one to lie here, and see the Dutch; Hamburgh, Genoeses, &c. come to and from and trade with the Spaniard, which wee cannot hinder, unlesse wee should fight with all the world; and to search them for counterband goods, is to little purpose (though wee doe our best,) for such goods are alwaies stowed lowest, and to unlade a shipp of any considerable burthen is noe small trouble, and requires noe small tyme, and to be alwaies doinge is no pleasinge employment; and when one has rummaged a shipp, and finds nothinge, it begetts a greate deale of ill will: in short is the worst peece of worke wee meete with.
I thinke a dozen or 15 saile of nimble fregates kept in these seas constantly will secure your Streights trade, mischief the Spaniard most of all, and more probably light on his plate-fleet then a greater number; and they will probably be alwaies catchinge somethinge or other to advantage, and the charge not soe greate to the nation at home; and they have the benefitt of Lisbone to careene and keepe themselves alwaies cleane.
Doe mee the favour as to present my most humble service to my lords of the councell. Since I wrote this letter, the wind is turned about from the westwardly to a strong Levant, which if it last longe, may happily hinder our intended voyage, least wee should be putt to farr backe in the yeare for our returne seasonablye.
Major general Goffe to secretary Thurloe.
I Have received yours of the 26th instant, and thanke you for your promise to take some care to gett the countryes money reimbursed. I hope in your next I shall heare something of it, as alsoe of the settling of the establishment for the payment of the militia forces, and the other incident charges relating thereunto. Oh! how much were it to be wished, that things might be done seasonably, that wee might not suffer soe much by unnecessary delayes?
I hope the peace with Portugall at this time may be reckoned a seasonable mercy: I thanke you for the newes of it. I perceive, that wee are like to have a parliament in September next (though as yett none in the country speake of it;) the Lord grant it may bee for his glory, and the good and peace of this poore nation. I hope it's resolved, that the govern ment be strictly adhered to, that wee may not spend our time, as we did the last parliament. But alas what doe I meane ? wee and all our affairs are in the hands of the Lord; and what he hath determined shall come to passe, what ever become of us, and it's good, that wee say, Lett him doe with us what seemeth good in his sight, and if, for our ill improvement of the opportunity hath beene in our hands, he shall cast us off, and say, He hath no pleasure in us, his will be done.
The inclosed is from one of the commissioners of Sussex, and one that I think is a very honest man. What he writeth about Sir John Pelham, I leave to your consideration. This letter is all the knowledge I have of him.
Sir, it may bee I may bee called to bee at Westminister this winter: if his highness will be pleased to favour mee with lodgings in Somersett house, if there be any to spare, it may be a conveniency unto mee. I heere coll. Cooper's lady is lately removed: it may be those lodgings may be voyd. You see how bould I am with you. I begg your pardon, and hope you will not trouble yourselfe, except you find a good opportunity. It may bee my lord Strickland or Sir Gilbert Pickering may shew you the way.
I have nothinge to communicate from these parts worthy your trouble; and shall therefore
heere recommend you to the grace of God, and remaine
Your most affectionate friend
and faithfull servant,
Lockhart to secretary Thurloe.
My last mentioned a message I had then received from his eminence, wherein he desired my waiting upon him. Next day I did myselfe that honor, and found him seeminglie kind beyond ordinarie. He excused his long detaining the papers formerlie mencioned, did much regrate his unhappynesse in that he was not then in conditione to give his assent to the particulars contained in them, professed he had nothing materiall to object against them, but could not engadge himselfe further in that businesse, till he had seen the issue of the seedge which he would certainlie know once this week, for if before this day fortnight he did not carrie the place, he would be forced to relinquish the seedge.
He told me the armies flow successe before Valenciennes had oblydged him to treat in this businesse after another manner then was agreable to his own inclinations, he knew the delayes he had used had rendered his way of procedure suspitious to me; and if my representations of his deportment were not favorable, he did foresee, that my master might be possessed with disadvantageous thoghts of him. And at last with earnest asseverations did protest the reallitie of his intentions in that particular, and the greatnesse of his desyers to serve his highnesse's intent, not onlie in that, but in everie thinge else, that reasonablie could be expected from him.
I answered, I knew his highness was more generous then to resent those late delays, that now with some reason might be evinced to proceed from necessitie; but I thought his highnesse had just cause to be disatisfied with his undertaking that seege, seeing by his own command I had in my first from Compeigne assured my master, that his eminence's resolutions were to march into the hart of the provinces with a considerable force, to attacque no place in particular, but to endeavor by the reputatione of his arms to favor a generall revollt, concerning which he then seemed to have great hops, which if not answered there, he would attempt some considerable place upon the coast of Flanders, such as should be agreed upon, where the force of France by land and of England by sea might have assured the successe. Upon the assurances I had unhappilie given, that this was reallie intended, his highnesse had not onlie putt himselfe upon verie expensive preparations for an enterprise of that nature, but had also been diverted from one other desyn, which if it had succeeded, as most probablie it might, would have proved both more honorable and more advantagous to him. I also told him, that I was much afflicted to see the weak endeavors I had used in that bussinesse, wherein I had regarded the good of France as well as that of England, were by their ill successe so uselesse to both, and so unfortunate to myself. He said, that matter was not in so desperate a state as I seemed to apprehend it; he doubted not, but he should be able to keep his word, whatever the successe before Valenciennes were; he had yet no great cause to feare it would be badd, and had never undertaken it, if marshall Turrein had not engadged himself to carry it in lesse than a month's tyme.
I told card. Mazarin what I had heard of his designe with Spayne. He said, there were manie, whose enmitie to the present good will betwixt France and England made them industrious to sow the seeds of jealousie; assured me, there was not the least ground for anie such suspitione. If ever any such thinge be intended, I shall be one of the first, that shall be made acquainted with it. There are some bigott fr i ers, that busie themselvs to bring propositions about it sometyms from the pope's nuntio in Spane, sometyms from the pope; but they are so ridiculus, as he neare doth spend a thoght about them; onlie commends their zeale, and professeth his desyers for it on reasonable tearms.
His eminence labors hard for an agreement betwixt the Swed and the king of Polland:
he doth not own his having sent anie monie to the king of Sweden; saith he will lend him,
if he see him in distresse: he is not free with me in that businesse. I beleive, if the Swed
can preserve ane interest in Prussia and Dantzick by a peace, he will be more usefull to his
allies, then when he hath all Polland. I have a little knowledge of that contrie, and the humors of the Pollanders; and am consident, that the conservatione of their interest in Polland will alwayes take up the greatest part, if not the whole of the strenth of Sweden; but
to have said this proceeds rather from my presumption than prudence, being onlie bound to
lett you know, that this agreement is stronglie endeavored, and they want not their hops
of effectuating it. Sir, I beseech you pardone the prolixnesse of this, and all other weaknesses of,
Right honourable, your most faithfull
and obedient servant,