A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 5, May 1656 - January 1657. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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July (5 of 6)
A letter of intelligence.
Noble dear sir,
The best news I hear is, that the long expected courier is come from Spain, but they do not say what he hath brought. Little news hath happened here since the last I sent you, but that the Spaniard hath blocked up Condé, and keeps the field, with his army ready to fight us, which we shall do very suddenly, as soon as our army is in a condition, which increaseth daily, or else we must see the town lost before our face, which we shall not brook. Here is a rumor, that the Spaniards have met with a convoy of ours of 2000 horse, which they have defeated. You hear, I am confident, of the Pole's great success, and that he hath taken Warsaw, and that Sir Thomas Rookesby is general of an army, and is now before Cracaw with it.
An intercepted letter of Rob. Sibbs to David Frizell.
The Spanish ambassador to the States General.
I The subsigned ambassador of Spain have received orders from the king my master, by one of his last dispatches of the 20th of May, to give the General States of the United Provinces notice, that his majesty hath advice of many sure hands, that the league, which hath been made betwixt the king of Sweedland and the protector of England, is principally against Denmark and this state; and taking their parts as their good friend and consederate, to their conservation hath resolved to give the said General States some advertisement thereof, to the end that they may betimes seek for the remedies, and wait them for the danger, which threatens their states to suffer some damage or prejudice by this union; that he will hope from the great prudence of the General States, and that they thereby would take a proof of the sincere amity and friendship of his majesty his master.
Copie d'une letter ecrite par le gentilhomme, qui est a Bruxelles, a mons. Stouppe du 29 Jullet, 1656. [N. S.]
Je vous asseure, que la traitté entre le roy de Espagne & celui d'Ecosse est fait & ratisié en Espagne, d'ou la ratisication est venué. Jeudi dernier don Juan d'Austriche envoya un gentilhomme au roy d'Ecosse pour scavoir de lui le lieu, ou il desiroit qu'ils se recontesient pour signer la traitté. II n'y a pas fort grande & estroitte liaison dans ce traitté. C'est principalement pour luy donner retraitte dans ces etats & a des navires qu'il pretend d'avoir dans les ports des Flandres, & pour avoir de l'argent pour voire. Je n'ay pas encor pu scavoir, quels sont les articles du traitté. Monsieur le prince ne lui sçait pas luy meme. Mais je suis asseuré, que je les scauray, & allors je vous les ecriray. Je ne peuse pas que le roy d'Espagne soit en etat de donner beaucoup de secours au roy d'Ecosse.
Quoyque les succes, que les Espagnols ont eu in Flandres & en Italie leur ensle fort le courage, les peuples de ce pais sont si satisfaicts de leurs nouveaux governeurs, qu'ils donneront joicusement tout ce qu'on leur demandera. Monsieur le prince de Condé particularement est aimé, & reconnu d'un chacun, comme celui, au quel on doit la gloire du succes de Valenciennes.
Assurement le roy d'Ecosse n'a pas beacoup d'esprit ni de conduit: dans son conseil il n'y a pas non plus de gens fort prudens; tous les Anglois qui sont par de la mer, sont mal satisfaits de luy: . . . . favori, & il meprise tous les autres.
Notre armee, qui etoit aupres de Quesnoy pour sucure mons. de Turenne, est maintenant revenue pres de Condé, que je croy maintainant assiegé. Il y a beaucoup de gens dedans, mais peu de vivres & de munitions, & quantité de blesses & de malades, car c'étoit la qu'ils les mettoyent durant le siege de Valentienne, de sorte que je croy que cette ville sera prise dans peu de jours.
Col. Tho. Cooper to secretary Thurloe.
I Receaved yours of the 8 July, by which I perceave myne came safely to your hand, in which I did at your desire give you a faithfull account of what you desired; and indeed my conscience beares me witnes to the truth of what I sayd, and I did it without partiallety. That which I desired you secresie in, was onely to what I offered to the councell heer; and I did that, because it was a matter to high for mee to medle with, and I should not had done it, had not you so earnestly desired mee to use freedome with you. All things in these parts are very quiet and peacable; a single man may ryde alone with the greatest charge without the least danger. Here is great talke heer and expectation of writts for electinge of parliament men. It's a worke of that nature, that hath fill'd mee with many thoughts, and almoste as many fears; but I am glad to hear what you say as to your hopes in England of a good choyce. I thinck it many respects better to have it this year then next. The Lord, that hath the hearts of all men in his hand, rule, and overrule them for good in this great matter; and he that gave water out of a rock, give setlement out of all our unsetleness, is the desire and prayer of him, who is, sir,
Carricksergus, July 19th, 1656.
Major general Lilburne to secretary Thurloe.
I Understand somewhat more than when I writ my last, of the grounds of sir Arthur's complaining against Mr. Mickelton. It seems he is an attorney, and retained by the late bishop of Durham's tenants of Weerd all against sir Arthur their present oppressive landlord, as they call him; wherein he having shewn himselfe faithfull to his clyents, they have given check to sir Arthur's furious demands; and he being pincht, and, as I heare, has received a foyle, makes him complaine in this manner against Mickelton, though he very well knew, as I am assured, that Mickelton upon his appeale had releife, and stands discharged both from delinquency and sequestration, and has borne office, as I am told, several times for the parliament since, and for ought I can perceive, has the greatest practice of any attorney in the country. But, sir, if he have demerited in any thinge, I neither owne him nor stand by him, but leave him to the hands of justice; and did I know any unworthyness by him, I should be as ready to appeare against him, I thinke, as any man; and it is much against my judgment, that any man justly reputed unworthy, or a cavillier, should in these tymes have preserment; and I hope I shall sett a watch against them, to prevent them, so far as I am able, or as at any time concerned. I hope to send you a copie of the said discharge by the next, and remaine,
Yorke, July 19th, 1656.
Major general Haynes to secretary Thurloe.
I Received your honour's of the 10th instant, with your direction to consult the judges and justices about the Quakers, which I shall carefully doe. It was but the last night the judges gott this place, and hence they intend to goe on wednesday next. In my last I omitted to trouble your honour about the complaint was made of the judges in their last circuit, wherein I have laboured my most to informe myself of the truth thereof, and therefore at my lord St John's desire did acquaint the sheriffe with it; so that upon the whole I find that some things, which were intended as a civilitie to the sheriff (as the judges giving him liberty to go hence, if he would, rendering the reason of it, that they should have no need of him) was construed to the worst sence, as if they had slighted him; but the contrary being owned, I suppose doth satisfie. That which had most reflection in it, was the judges saying upon the bench to the sheriffe, more of his purse, and less of his curtesie; which my lord Atkins owned; but alleged, it's an usual expression of his, and he intended noe evill in it. The sending the sheriff's steward to buy some fowle of him is owned by the steward, but denyed by all the judges servants, soe that nothing can be made thereof, and the judges acquitt themselves of it. I formerly gave your honour my sence of it, and am still of the same opinion, that some had done ill offices between the judges and the sheriff, and the sheriffe being a person apt to putt the worst interpretation upon every thinge, all this was occasioned; and upon certain information of their deportment to the other sheriffs with great respect and satisfaction, I was then and am still of the same belief, that there was too critical a sence putt upon things. I am ashamed I have bin so tedious herein, but am more particular, that the fuller satisfaction may be given. I would be glad I might have but one hint, that some care will be taken as to the encouragement of honest men in their choice of parliament men before and after the election. I now begin to feare Suffolk, finding soe malignant a grand jury, who will have a great advantage to posses the country, and all occasioned by a malignant simple high sherriff; which was ill advised at such a juncture of tyme, and I suppose his highnesse may thanke Mr. Bacon for it; yet will honest men doe their utmost, as they assure me; but as the case stands, will be compelled to take in with the Presbiterian to keepe out the malignant. I purpose to be in Norfolk on the day of election, yet if I shall be otherwise advysed, I shall submitt it. I have not bin in Cambridgeshire or Essex yet; I am going thether, and as soone as I can informe myself of their temper, I'll acquaint your honour with it. If our troopes had been putt into a condition of service, they would greatly have swayed the choyce by their interest, but now it's too late. I humbly begg your pardon for theise, and remayne
Mr. Francis Brewster the elder was left out of the commission, a right honest man as any in the country, and the ablest to serve the country of that name: by what hand it was done I know not: he and his friend feare it was by the knavery of some of the clerks of the office. I was advised to putt him in, that so the country might not take notice of it, but he may not act till orderly inserted. Please therefore to give your directions therein, for we have but few honest men, and would not willingly they should be discouraged.
A letter of intelligence.
Trois lignes seront a præsent tout l'affaire. Sa serenité elect. joignit son armée a celle de roy ce 28 du præsent proche de Nowodwor dans son camp. Ces deux armées passerent au meme jour le Bucq, par dessus un pont, lequel le roy sait batir & achever en temps de cinque jours. Elles arriverent devant cette ville environ sur les neuf heures du soir. A peine estoient elles arrivées, voies les Polonnois, qui estoient retranchez jusqu'au nombre de cent de trente mille hommes tiroient sur nous par des coups de cannon repouvantables, sans nous donner le loisir du planter le nostre. Le combat commenca une heure apres, & se sit avec tant de suitte & de succes, qu'il ne dure pas seulement jusqu'au troisieme jour, mais encore, en sorte que nous l'avons gaigné, que nous avous emporté la victoire, vaincu les ennemis aveque prise de leur camp, leur cannon, & le Fauxbourgh de cette ville, chassé de la ville & le roy & la reyne & tous les bourgeois, qui ayants laisse leur ville a l'abandon, nous ont laisse la liberté d'en faire ce qui bon nous en semblera, il n'y a que la riviere qui nous empesche d'en prendre possession. Si je ne me trompe, le roy & sa serenité electorale ont resolu de bastir ou plustost de reparer le pont, lequel les Polonnois apres s'estre sauvez ont bruslé pour faire passer toute leur armée avec dessein de poursuivre leur victoire. Ensin je croy que depuis que le monde est monde, on n'a pas parle d'une victoire de cette nature, si avantageuse qu'elle est pour nous, & qui nous a cousté si peu de gens, asseurant que je ne croy pas que nous ayons perdu plus de trois cent hommes en tout. Je ne regrette autre chose, si non d'avoir pas le loisir de pouvoir raconter le commencement & la fin de la bataille, & tout ce qui en depend. Je le seray aveq la premier commodité aveq laquelle je raconteray le tout au large. La serenité electorale a combatu de sa propre main en vray heros aveq des actions si belles, que tous les spectateurs ont en de quoy l'admirer; graces a Dieu elle se porte fort bien. Elle m'a commandé de faire ses tres humbles recommendations a V. A. d'excuser son silence, & de luy promettre une lettre de sa propre main par la premiere commodité. Canenberg est blesse d'un coup de cannon: mais sa blessure n'est pas mortelle. Je finis, mons. en abregeant, & me reserve une ample depeche avec la prochaine. Le bon Dieu, qui nous a fait marveillement triompher sur nos ennemis, garde V. A. & la maintienne dans sa sante protection.
Mr. John Arden to Mr. Robert Bostocke.
Mr. Rob. Bostrocke, and loving friend,
Yours of the 18th July old style I have well received, but it had been broken open before it came to my hands. I take notice what you write, that my letter was seen of great persons, for which I am glad; for I write nothing but truth, nor nothing so bad as I have heard both from the prisoners in England and the prisoners here. I believe it is bad enough on both sides for poor prisoners, but these prisoners here think it very harsh and hard, that some of them having been 17 or 18 months on a voyage, and lost all that ever they had, and now for to be kept long prisoners, and not to be exchanged for men of war's men, say, that if these are so flight esteemed of in their own country, before they will serve in prisons, will take up arms to serve the king of Spain against my lord Cromwell. Next I have sollicited hard for George Ellies the surgeon's freedom, but cannot procure it of the judges of admiralty, saying, that they will not release one man more before those of England do send over captain Erasmus Brewer and his company, for that they have sent over a hundred prisoners more than they have received from England; and the judges give me for answer, that they will neither write nor send one prisoner more before they have here some sent out of England; and here are in Ostend and Dunkirk prisons above two hundred prisoners, and daily prizes brought up here. The prisons are here so full, that the judges of admiralty are sending prisoners to other parts, as to Burges, St. Wenox, Ipres, and Bruges. On the 26th of this present month here is brought up to Dunkirk by two men of war three great prizes with sea-coals coming from Newcastle, and bound for London; their names, viz. one Mr. John Humsrey, master of the Primrose of Ipswich; one Mr. Edward Jolly, of the Delight of Ipswich; one Mr. Edward Harrison, master of the Desire of London. This Harrison forsook his ship, and went ashore. For the surgeon George Ellies, his poor wise is here still by him. I should bail him out, that he may have the liberty of the town; but the poor man hath no money for to pay the charges of the pass. Last there is a friend of mine that will bring you a pair of knives for to send me. I pray you for to do me the favour to put them in the mail, and to put franks on them, and then Mr. Hayes will deliver them unto me. Nothing else arriving, do rest
Your friend and servant,
Resident Sasborg to the States General.
My lords. Here is printed the defeat given to the French in Millan, whereof, according to my duty, I send your high and mighty lordships one here inclosed. This day I visited the resident in the behalf of the king of Scotland here; and after some compliments for my visit, I desired to be informed of his honour, after what manner the residents of crowned heads are received by the governors here in the behalf of the king of Spain; as likewise how they are to behave themselves in speaking, whether covered or uncovered. His honour was pleased to make answer, that the reception here consisted of very few ceremonies; and what concerneth the speaking, that the residents spake uncovered. Thereupon I asked him, whether the residents of crowned heads, or of the commonwealth of Venice were used to do so. He told me, that he had always spoken so. I then replied, and asked, whether the governors were also uncovered. He said, sometimes they were, and sometimes not; and his honour also added, that he had sometimes spoken with don Francisco de Mello, that in the chamber were set two chairs, both alike, whereof don Francisco took that which stood on the right hand, and gave him the other; and that at his going away he was conducted by don Francisco to the door of the chamber; that his honour had never saluted the cardinal infant, that he was just gone away before he came, nor had not yet seen his highness, but that he believed they were not to be used with less respect than the former governors, but with much more, as being the king's son. I said at last, that it seemed strange to me, that residents of crowned heads should speak to the lords governors of the king of Spain here uncovered, since that these lords are only delegated, and no sovereigns; that in the assembly of their high and mighty lordships, who are sovereigns, the residents of crowned heads do speak covered. I then asked him, if mons. Gerbier had spoken uncovered; he answered, yes. He asked me at last, what instruction I had from your high and mighty lordships concerning it; I did not answer any thing positively upon it, but only to follow the custom and practice of the ministers. His honour was of opinion, that I ought to make known my arrival to don Alonso de Cardenas, to whom most of the power is lest during the absence of his highness, and then the said lord would signisy it to his highness: and this is all that I have been able to do hitherto in this business, whereof I have thought it my duty to give your high and mighty lordships an account, with an humble request, that your high and mighty lordships will be pleased to send me credentials to don Alonso de Cardenas with all speed to make myself known by provision.
To Bordeaux, the French ambassador in England.
The armies are still in the same place, namely that of the king near to Quesnoy, and that of the enemy between Valenciennes and Querrerein: they make as if they had a design to besiege Condé. Endeavours are used to reinforce the army of the king in it; in a little time it will be very considerable again.
Lockhart, embassador in France, to secretary Thurloe.
I Shall not have much occasione to truble you with businesse, untill I have a return of your pleasure concerning the particulars mentioned in that I sent by the expresse; and I have nothing of news to acquaint you with, save that the king intends to goe to the armie so soone as it is recruited. His majestie and the cardinall are resolved to be present with the armie in their next undertaking; and I will be oblydged to follow them, except I receive your orders to the contrair. The duke of Orleance is expected to be at court once this week: he brings duke de Beausort along with him: he will meet with extraordinarie caresse from the whole court, and they have hops to perswade him to goe along with the king unto the armie; but their are for all this manie, who doubt of his comming to court at this tyme. If he doe come, I must begg your commands concerning my caryage towards him. If it be his highnesse pleasure, that I make anie addresse to him, mons. the king's brother will expect the same civilitie showed be payed him.
Sir, having now the leasure to doe it, I am tempted to make use of this opportunitie for mentioning my own concernments. I have since my comming into France lived as handsomlie and savinglie as was possible for me, but my equipage stood me in above 1500 l. and the first week after my receptione was excessivilie chargeable unto me, their beinge a great manie, who waite upon the court heare, who at such tymes doe expect presents or monie with as great confidence, as if they were due to them. They have the impudence to demand it as their right, when they doe not synd it freelie offered; so that necessitie and not choyce constrayned me to a vast expence at that tyme; and since my being heare I am visited everie day by some, who using the French freedome, tell me, they come to dyne with me. They are for the most part Protestants, and are either of their deputies, or other persons of qualitie, who never faile to see me, both as they goe to, and return from court.
My reluctance against the conclusione hath made me lengthen the premisses to this tediousnesse; and when I reflect upon the little service I have done for what I have already received, you will not beleive what strugglings I have to force myself to lett your honour know my present need of moneys.
In my last save one I gave you ane account of 250 l. I had laid out. I tooke up that summ, with as much more upon my own account, from the treasurers heare, and gave them a bill for it upon Mr. Williamson's correspondent at Paris, who payed it upon sight. I have also given Mr. Williamson a bill upon my friends in Scotland for the whole, but have ordered him to know your pleasure concerning the 250 l. before he charge the whole 500 l. upon them.
I shall end this unsavory discourse with a humble desyer, if you thinke the councell will not well rellish a motione for mony, that your honour will be pleased to forbeare mentioning it, for my creditt will hold out for a month or two to come; and I would not purchase anie monie att so deare a rate, as that of giving them anie just cause of being ill satisfied with,
A relation of 5 ships of war English with a fire ship, which came into this port of Malaga the 21st July, anno 1656.
They came in at 12 of the clock in the day with colours and pennants flying, anckerd between the bulwark and the peir head one after another in three fathom water, the wind being easterly: the people on shore said, they were ships come to render themselves up into the king of Spain's service, because they were so near the shoar, that they hard their trumpets and other musical instruments. They sent presently word to the Genoa galley to come forth, or that they would fire all that were within the pier. The Genoa gally advised the Sicilia galley, and they went both out together; the Genoa not saluting them nor going to them, but rather would serve for a buckler to the Sicilian galley; whereupon just half an hour after one of the clock they began to give her such a charge, as that they broke her rudder and killed above 40 men, and broke their oars; whereupon she returned into the peir, and the Sicilia escaped away. In this time they put the fire ship into the peir, fastning her unto the other, which all burnt, and besides a vessel to set masts, and the fire took in the prow of the galley: in this consusion the captain, with part of the moneys, got into the boat, which sunk with the weight of the many people which entered; the rest set themselves to rifle the galley, and at their coming ashore they sack'd them, and others entered into the galley and took what was left; by which means fifty thousand pieces of eight, which he had to carry to Genua, belonging to particular persons, was lost; their slaves got away, of which they got 50 Moors again: the galley is unprofitable, unfit to sale. The fire having ceas'd, the enemy desired to pillage. Likewise having put fire to the ships, 12 men skipt ashore and spik't up 8 pieces of ordnance, and returned back to their ships; and till five of the clock in the afternoon they shot towards the pier and the city, above a thousand shot, killed 7 or 8 people, and damnisied the tiles of their houses. The city made above 100 shot at them, and killed their admiral, about 6 men, which were so nigh the shore, that the ordnance could not offend them, and they returned to get out each ship, having two great boats a head towing of them. The consusion in the city was so great, that if 4000 men had been landed, they might have sack't it; for most of the gentry with their familys were fled, others stowed themselves in bodegas and tunaxas, vessels set into the ground of great bigness to keep their wines and oils in, but the enemy intended only to fire the ships in the peir, because two were English prizes. They withdrew themselves into the road out of the reach of the cannon the whole day, and they sailed afterwards with a fair wind, where Blage passed by with twelve sail of a Holland ship, who spake with him, brought word into Malaga the 23 July.
Major general Whalley to secretary Thurloe.
I Purposed at this day to have gonne towards Coventry, and so to Warwicke, to have mett the judges there, and to have attended them, as before, throughout their circuite; but it pleased the Lord so heavily to afflict my wyse, that I cannot leave her. About 7 of the clocke at evening, on fryday last, my wyse sell suddenly ill, and continued in that extremitie, as that two doctors set up with her all night, and much adoe they had to keepe lyse in her. It proved to be a miscarriage, and she is very weake after it, so that at present I cannot leave her. Soe soon as may be, I shall goe into Warwicksheire and Leicestersheire. Ever since my last coming downe, I have been in the other three countys about the publique account; and the general temper of men's spirits are to have a settlement. I trust in the Lord, wee shall have a good parliament. Sir, I thanke you for your newes; I engross nothing to myselfe, that I can any wayes improve for your advantage. I pray you, when any more, that is considerable, shall come to you, yf leasure will permitt, honour him with it, that is,
Major general Lilburne to secretary Thurloe.
Since my last I have received this inclosed paper concerning Mr. Mickelton, which will give you the true state of his case; and my neighbours in the bishoprick do thinke, that it is meere malice in sir Arthur, because of his being active against him in the behalfe of his clyents; but if there be any just exceptions, I wish he may suffer, and a more fitt man receive the place.
If it were convenient to speak of it at this time, I am informed of several things against Farrar, which I conceive general Desbrow knows not; but if he did, I thinke he would hardly appeare for him. It seemes the justices of the sessions have commanded the records from him, and with much affection owned Mr. Gilpin; and whatever other informities he may have which are unknown to me, I am realy perswaded he is a very just man, and will discharge his place both with faithfullness to the state, and all parties concerned; but I should not give you this great interuption, were it not to free you from further trouble, which peradventure may unnecessarily be put upon you by the pressings of some, who you may hereby be better able to answer: therefore I hope you'l pardon this trouble in him that desires to expresse himselfe,
Capt. H. Watson to general Monck.
The newse of these parts is not very pleasant, the country beinge filed with the noyse of pyrats, and the much harme done by them, amonge which these isles have sustained great losse. Fower of their shipps being taken lately out of one of the harbours in Norway by an Ostend man of warre, being brought in upon them by a boore of the same place, three of the masters applyed themselves to the deputy governor of Bergan for redress, whoe not only refused, and scoffingly tellinge them, they need not blame the boore nor the piratt, but my lord protector, whoe they had made their kinge, for fallinge out with the Spanyard without cause, but alsoe denied the poore men a pass, except they would give him fower rix dollers, who had not one lest them to by them bread; soe they were forced to come away without a pass. Thus much the masters of the said ships themselves informed mee, and I judged my duty to acquaint your honour with. Not else, but humbly desiringe your honour to consider these few thinges I mentioned in my former, and remaine,
The Dutch ambassadors at Elbing to pensionary de Witt.
In regard we judged by several circumstances and discourses, that the time and occasion began to approach to move about our new commanded charge concerning the inclination of the town of Dantzick; it was thought fit by us, before we entered upon the same, to enter into communication with those of the magistrates of Dantzick, to understand by them how they were inclined; whereupon the lords Slingelant and Huybert took the care and journey upon them, and went from hence on sunday last; who without doubt will write to their high and mighty lordships from thence what shall be concluded and thought fit to be done. Notwithstanding the absence of the two said lords we continued our conserences this day with the lords commissioners of the king of Sweden; and after we had consulted with them about the point of the free navigation and commerce upon the east sea, as also upon the tolls in the harbours there, the said lords did shew themselves inclined to give us a reasonable satisfaction upon them, whereof we shall be able to send their high and mighty lordships the particulars by the next post, being ready to take our leaves of the said lords. They told us they did admire to hear of such a mighty fleet of their high and mighty lordships that was come unto the east sea and in the road of Dantzick, desiring of us, that we would let them know what their high and mighty lordships intentions were to do with it; that they, in regard of our protestation concerning the good affection of their high and mighty lordships to observe the alliance with his majesty, did not expect the same there, at least not without giving first notice thereof to the king. We did endeavour, with reasons serving thereunto, to cause them to have a good opinion of their high and mighty lordships designs, maintaining, that by the prosecution of this treaty now began, the business would be brought to a desired end, whereby the old confidence would be reestablished; whereupon the said lords made answer, that they were ready to continue in the same conference, and in the mean time they would expect to see how they should be instructed by his majesty upon the arrival of the said fleet in these parts, in regard they had already sent their letters to his majesty about it.
A letter of intelligence.
The rumor of the bad state of the Swedish and Brandenburgh army, whereof I made mention in my last of the 25 of last month, begins now to be a general report, which gets the more credit, because no tidings are arrived here at court from the same in a longer time, than the same could be had, which causes no small grief there, as it is observed, and especially in the electress. This is perhaps the reason, that the said princess takes great pains, that every thing may be prepared, which any ways may be serviceable for the defense of this city, the walls of the same being fortified, and the parapets erected on the same. There is also designed and laid out a regular fortification on the side of the town, where, they made last winter some wooden walls, as I then mentioned: but a great many are afraid, that the enemy will sooner get over the same, than they can be made. However for the better advancement of the said work, the said princess goes sometimes thither herself, to encourage those that work on them. And it happened, some days ago, that she gave a ducket to 30 of the said labourers to share the same among themseives. She has caused also the citizens to come to her in the out court of the castle with their arms, and assigned to every company their post on the walls, in order, in case of necessity, to occupy and defend the same; the number of the citizens may be about 6000. In the mean while it is told here at court, that mons. de Lombres, who was resident here, is appointed ambassador extraordinary of France, and has followed the elector, and being arrived there, should use his utmost endeavours, that the contending parties might be disposed for peace. They will send also from here a minister to Marienburg.
One can get no information here, how the affairs in Livonia stand between the Muscovites and Swedes, since the postboy is now twice successively robbed of his letters by the Samogitians, notwithstanding he intended to go from Riga to Memel by water.
Extract of the secret resolution of the states of Holland.
Being again produced in the assembly, in pursuance of their noble great lordships resolution of the 25th of the last month, the letter of the duke of Brandenburgh, writ to their high and mighty lordships from Koningsburgh in Prussia, of the 6th of the last month, containing particular information, as also some large deduction of reasons how and why he was necessitated to make a further confederacy with the king of Sweden, with this addition, that since there had been declared at large to their high and mighty lordships, they will have perceived in what manner the said duke was forced to this work of defence; that he therefore could not doubt, but that their high and mighty lordships, in case of necessity, by virtue and pursuance of the treaty of alliance made between this state and the said duke, in July the last year, will assist him with advice, and also second his interest upon all occasions; and likewise, that they will generally behave themselves in such a manner, according to the constitution of time and affairs, as he can justly expect the same, with firm belief in their high and mighty lordships, his confederates, old friends, and neighbours. Whereupon being debated and hereunto applied, the resolution taken to day upon a certain advice declared by word of mouth on the 20th of the last month by the lords their noble great lordships commissioners for the affairs of Sweden, it is resolved and understood, that this business shall be directed to the generality, to the end that an answer be writ to the said duke's letter by their high and mighty lordships, that the lords extraordinary ambassadors of this state being at present in Prussia may be fully authorized and instructed to make overture to the said duke of what their high and mighty lordships, upon this present conjuncture of time and affairs would best advise the said duke, both for the good of him and this state, and for the preservation of both sides interests, as also of what their high and mighty lordships by accepting of the said good counsel, are inclined to do and act on their parts, to obtain the scope thereof, for a more quiet condition; and likewise, that a letter be writ to the said lords ambassadors, therein signifying their high and mighty lordships good intention to be, that they will explain themselves to the said duke, upon the ingredients of the said letter, and upon the request made therein, in conformity to what was taken to day in the abovementioned their noble great lordships resolution concerning this more at large exprest.
Petkum to the king of Denmark.
On friday last the ambassador of Sweden took his leave of the lord protector, and the next day following his highness entertained him at Hampton-court, and knighted one of his gentlemen; he is also to be presented with a golden chain and a medal.
Two days since the ambassadors of the lords States General came to see me, and declared to me, that his superiors were very well satisfied with the good usage, which the ambassadors have received and do receive from your majesty to treat with them.
Every body doth very much admire here, that the elector of Brandenburgh should be so ill advised to join with the Swedes, at a time that fortune beginneth to turn her back upon the king of Sweden, with whom he is engaged; and that he hath been so long resolving to signify to the lords States General the reasons, which obliged him to it; on the contrary, every one doth highly extol the prudence and wise conduct of your majesty, in doing as you have done.
The ambassador of Sweden is also more humble than a while since: he doth no longer threaten the kingdom of Denmark, by reason that your majesty suffered the fleet of the States to pass. Likewise he doth no longer dispute your legitimate succession to the earldom of Oldenburgh, as he did formerly; yea, against the ambassador of the lords States General he singeth now another song, and faith, that his king cannot resist so many enemies, if God doth not assist him miraculously.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
Haveinge no letters from you of late, I shall onely at present give you the truble of the inclosed paper of intelligence, expectinge that at least by the next post I shall either heare of the council's resolution in Mr. Townley's business, or know from your honour what occasioneth the delay thereof, by which haveinge sufferred soe much and soe longe formerly, I am now reduced heere to the condition of a useless and despised servant, labouringe under intollerable insolencies, in the dayly danger of my lyfe, every villaine being ready to attempt him, who seemes abandoned by the states he serves; besides the dayly false and scandelous aspersions I am laden with by my malicious adversaries, whoe, I heare, find creddit therein beyond what I could have imagined. I remayne
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.
I cannot by this give your lordship any account concerninge the affaires of Ireland, then I did by my last; nor will it be necessarye, seeing sir John Reynolds will be with your lordship before this, he goeinge hence two or three dayes since, who will be able to tell your lordship perticularlye, what the intentions are here. I was bold some tyme since to write to your lordship concerninge the value of an estate intended by his highness to be setled upon the grand-children of the late archbishop of Armagh; but hearinge nothinge of it, I doubt whether that letter ever came to your lordship's hands. I humblie desire to knowe, wheither it did yea or not, in respect I am very much pressed in it; and if that letter be miscarryed, I must trouble your lordship with another to the same purpose.
Here is a storye told here of a very great peice of valour, which the master of the ship shewed, who brought in the prize your lordship mentions, with 30 Irishmen. It's sayd he killed the pyrate 50 men, he hymself haveinge but 30 or 28 in all. If this be true, his highnes will give him the ship he tooke, and some other reward besides; and therefore his highnes desires your lordship will please to informe yourselfe of the true matter of fact, and the merit of the man, and let hym know it; and for the 30 prisoners, they must be kept, untill further consideration can be had of them and others in the like cases. It was debated, but could not be agreed at this tyme. There is great striveing here for parlament men. I am glad to heare soe good an election is like to be made in Ireland. I wish wee doe as well here. This weeke hath not afforded us any newes at all, and therefore I am bold to end with subscribeinge me
The council of Ireland to the protector.
May it please your highness,
The inclosed report from the commissioners at Athlone represents unto your highness's consideration the state of the case of sir Thomas Sherlock knight, wherein (as we humbly conceive) appears a constant series of his good affection and adherence to the English interest, manifested by his public actings for them against the rebels in and through the worst of those times; and nothing (in all the evidence taken in behalf of your highness and the commonwealth) appearing against him, but subscribing the oath of association, concerning which the said commissioners report themselves fully satisfied by the whole evidence, as well on behalf of your highness as the said sir Thomas, that the said oath was subscribed by him, whilst he was in prison with the rebels, after many refusals formally, merely to gain his liberty; which having obtained, he forthwith repaired to Dublin, and never after returned to the rebels quarters. Upon consideration of all which, and for the low and distressed condition the said sir Thomas is now reduced unto, after all his faithfulness and sufferings, we have thought fit humbly to offer the same to your highness, and in the mean time have by our order of the 12th of June last, given directions to the surveyor general to certify unto us, what lands sir Thomas Sherlock claims as his property, what part thereof is let out unto the soldiers, and what rests unset out, together with the quantity and yearly value of each as returned; which is accordingly done by him, and now remains by us; the quantity of the lands by him claimed by way of mortgage, being certified to be 651 acres, and the yearly value (as in 1640) 61 l. the quantity of the lands of inheritance by him claimed being likewise certified to be 5843 acres, and the yearly value (as in 1640) 3961. 6 s. lying and being in the county of Waterford, and in the barony of Gualtier, Middlethorp, Upperthird, and Decies: and also by our order of the 23d of June last, this surveyor general hath been required to withdraw the lands of the said sir Thomas Sherlock (amongst others) out of the credit of the adventurers and army, and secured from disposure. Concerning the said sir Thomas, and our further proceedings in relation to him, we humbly desire your highness's pleasure may be signified hereunto.
Inclosed in the preceding. To the right honourable his highness the lord protector's council for the affairs of Ireland
May it please your lordships.
In obedience to your lordships order of the 17th of March last, contained upon the petition of sir Thomas Sherlock, we have considered the allegations in the said petition contained, and have received the evidence against him on the behalf of the commonwealth, and the deposition taken in his behalf, and find the case to stand thus:
Secondly, it is proved by the deposition of Dr. Henry Jones, James Wallis esq; Morgan Jenkin, John Hagherim, Tho. Coote, Catharine Whealon, and several other protestants, and others, taken on the behalf of the said Sherlock, that the said sir Tho. Sherlock, after the breaking out of the rebellion, hearing of a party of the rebels landed out of the country of Wexford at Faithlecke, sent notice thereof to sir William St. Leger, who thereupon came with a party to the said sir Thomas's castle at Butlerstowne, and being accompanied by the said sir Thomas, his son, servants, and followers, went to Faithleck aforesaid, where they met with the said rebels, fought them, and killed and took about one hundred of them; and that the prisoners so taken were carried to Waterford; where by a council of war (wherein the said sir Thomas had his vote) they were sentenced to dye, and accordingly were executed. That the said sir William St. Leger at his departure from Waterford lest the said sir Thomas and John Power of Killmeadana in commission for martial law, and in two days after the deputy Coote came to the said sir Thomas for a warrant against some of the country that had taken some of his goods, which the said sir Thomas willingly granted, and desired the said Mr. Power to join with him therein, which he refusing, the said sir Thomas in a chase said, I hope to see them all hanged. That whilst Waterford stood out against the rebels, the said sir Thomas trailed a pike therein for the defence thereof; and in December 1641, when the same was surprized by the lord of Mountgarett's son, the said sir Thomas went to his castle of Butlerstowne, and made use of masons and carpenters for the fortifying thereof; thrashed up his corn, and stored himself with other provisions to stand out against the rebels, and endeavoured to preserve his English neighbours. That in the beginning of the rebellion Jeffery Barron, sir Nicholas Walch, and Richard Buttler of Kilcash came to Butlerstowne to borrow money of the said sir Thomas to send into France for ammunition, but he refused to lend them any or to treat with them; and about Easter 1642, captain Blanchfield and Theobald Butler, with about two hundred men, besieged the said sir Thomas his castle, and after some time took the same, and possessed themselves of all that was therein or thereabouts that belonged to the said sir Thomas, turned him out of doors in his slippers without stockings, leaving him only a red cap and a green mantle; so that himself, lady, and children had not so much as their wearing clothes left, nor any relief, but depended on their friends for the same; and that his losses sustained by the rebels was to the value of four thousand pounds. That the rebels, before they had taken the said castle, offered the said sir Thomas all his goods, the government of the said castle, and of that country, and to make him a great man, if he would join with them; but he answered them, he would rather be hanged than to join with them. That the said sir Thomas, after his castle was taken, betook himself to his shepherd's cabbin, whither a priest came to him, but denied to say mass with him, because he joined with the English, and refused to join with the Irish; and after the said sir Thomas, by warrant from Nicholas Plunket, speaker of the Irish assembly, was apprehended and carried to Waterford, and for refusing to join with them, and to take their oath of association, was imprisoned, and about a week after released upon security; but during the said sir Thomas his imprisonment, neither his lady nor any of his relations were admitted to speak with him. That the said sir Thomas his tenants being in the year 1641 compelled to pay money to support the rebellion, desired an abatement thereof in their rents; but the said sir Thomas refused to allow them one penny; whereupon several of his tenants deserted his lands, and some of them became waste; and then the country council ordered, that so much of the said sir Thomas his estate that was inhabited, should pay for the waste part and itself, and by that means the inhabited part of his estate, came also waste. That whilst the said sir Thomas was in the said cabbin, one Philip Merry reproved him for not joining with the country; whereupon the said sir Thomas said, Thou art an old doating fool; I had rather see thee and myself hanged with them; and if live but few days, I shall have an estate when they have none. That the said sir Thomas, after his being released from prison, returned to Butlerstowne, where he remained for about six weeks, until he could make his escape, and then in the night time, with two of his men, went privily for Dublin. That in February 1643, the said sir Thomas came to Dublin in a bare suit and a mantle, where he was well esteemed of, and received by the English and protestants, and reputed a real adherer to the English, and a great sufferer by the rebellion. That the said sir Thomas continued in Dublin for about six years, and until proclamation was made by lieut. gen. Jones, that all papists should depart that city; and then made his application to the said general Jones, and desired, that he might not be turned amongst the Irish, but be permitted to repair into England; which request being granted, the said sir Thomas left Dublin, and went for England, and there continued until after the reduction of Waterford; and then returned for Ireland, where he was received by the English as one that had been a constant friend to their interest, and the only great sufferer in these parts. And upon consideration had of the whole evidence, as well on the behalf of his highness as the claimant, the court was fully satisfied, that the said oath was subscribed by the said sir Thomas whilst he was in prison with the rebels, after many refusals formally, meerly to gain his liberty; which having obtained, he forthwith stole away into Dublin, where he was chearfully received, and never returned again unto the rebels quarters any more: nevertheless the court at that time apprehending it a case of some difficulty, in regard they found his name subscribed to the oath of association, which was the only reason why he was not adjudged to have manifested constant good affection, did then humbly represent the whole state of the matter to your honours to the same effect as at present, and remaine
Commissioner Pels to the States General.
High and mighty lords,
Here hath happened nothing since my last, only that the lords ambassadors Slingerland and Huybert arrived here yesterday, and yesterday they conferred with the lord admiral Opdam, who cannot yet come on shore by reason of his leg, which is hurt.
The letters from Koningsberg, which arrived just now, do give some certain information, that there hath happened a fight between the two armies of Sweden and Poland, wherein 6 or 7000 of the duke of Brandenburgh's forces are said to be killed upon the place.
Ommeren to the States General.
Since it hath pleased your high and mighty lordships to command me by their resolution of the 28th of the last month, that I should draw out and put in writing the points of consideration resulting from the report made by me in the illustrious assembly of your high and mighty lordships; therefore in order to my duty I shall move some points, which for their consequence do deserve a serious reflection.
The request made thereupon being grounded as well upon the great uncertainty, and the mistrust and diffidence, in which they continually live with the popish cantons, who as well as themselves, as particularly by the instigation of the pope of Rome and several other neighbouring potentates, do only wait for an opportunity to fall upon them; as upon the far remoteness of your high and mighty lordships, whereby they are prevented timely to enjoy the good effects of their holy endeavours and their subsidy; and in regard the preservation of the protestant cantons is of very great consequence, not only in regard of the body in itself, but also generally of the reformed churches in those parts, which infallibly must be ruined with them; therefore it is judged, that the Christian charity cannot be better employed, nor to more advantage of God's church, than to them, putting into their hands such means, whereby they may be capable to prevent not only the machinations against the true religion in their own regard, but also against their neighbouring religious consederates, as well elsewhere, as particularly in the Grison, where chiefly the true worship of God doth run most danger in time of need.
Of the like consideration is the request of the subsidy made by the city of Geneva, who having their works not strong enough, and very irregular, and on the other side being surrounded with suspicious neighbours, do live continually in dangers and care, and consequently subject to great charge, which their small revenue, though exactly and frugally managed, will not well bear; the importance of the place in order to the protestant Switzer cantons; the great services, which God's church alone doth receive from the many and famous teachers, and especially now lately by assisting the poor Waldenses with effects and counsel; and adding herewithall the singular affection to the state of your high and mighty lordships, will without doubt be taken into due consideration by your high and mighty lordships.
The poor Waldenses, in whose behalf your high and mighty lordships have been pleased to give a strong proof of what the reformed Christians can expect from their imparable affection to the church of Christ in times of need, do not only remain suppressed by heavy and hard conditions by the treaty of Pigneroll forced upon them after so cruel and bloody perfection; but their patience is also daily tried by the violences of the garrison of the fort de la Tour, built up since the pretended treaty, only, as it appeareth, the better to accomplish upon some convenient opportunity the barbarous intention, which they had lately; and in regard their only comfort and peace do depend upon the intercession of your high and mighty lordships, and the lord protector, in the court of France, where they have also made known their grievances; and that already coll. Lockhart, envoy of the said lord protector, hath obtained of the lord cardinal Mazarin a favourable answer; a good issue is expected and hoped for those poor people by the continuation of your high and mighty lordships pious offices in the court aforesaid, for the redressing of all such their grievances, as they caused to be sent to the king by the hands of mons. de Bais, or at least of the heaviest and most essential; but since on the one side the proceedings, which were used against those people, are insupportable, and on the other side these people only relying upon the good effect of your high and mighty lordships intercession, cannot accept of the pretended patent, and consequently dare not rebuild either their churches or houses, nor cultivate their lands; your high and mighty lordships will be able to judge how necessary it is, that they do use all earnest endeavours, with as much speed as may be, for their relief, as also that the remaining collections may be sent over to them, as well in regard of the miseries, which for the reasons aforesaid continue, as also for the settling of a revenue for the maintaining for the time to come, some scholars, schoolmasters, and ministers, whereof I have formerly advised your high and mighty lordships: and in regard your high and mighty lordships good will and affection to the reformed in the said parts is so great, they did think fit for high considerations to settle at Geneva an able and fit person, and born in that town, to advise your high and mighty lordships of all that passeth in those parts from time to time, which the magistrates of the town do take extreme well; but in regard he is a native of the town, their laws do prohibit one, that is in the service of the town, to take upon him the service of any foreign state; wherefore they humbly desired, that a native of this state might be employ'd in that office, wherewith I judge to have finished the first branch of your high and mighty lordships resolution. Thus ending, I shall pray the almighty God to bless the flourishing state of your high and mighty lordships.
Resident Sasburgh to the States General.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, it seems the business of Condé will not be ended as soon as was expected and hoped. Yesterday night arrived here from the army a certain military person, with whom one of my acquaintance hath spoken, who relates, that he came from the Spanish army that day; that they begain then first to approach to Condé; that they could not undertake the same any sooner, in regard a little place called Harsy did lie between it, which had a very strong fort belonging to it, about a musquet shot from it, which had made great resistance before it was taken: many of the Spaniards were slain before it. Entering the castle, they found one man: in all likelihood the rest were fled. The reason why those within have been so wilful, is said to be by reason they were continually seconded with fresh men from the town.
All the citizens are turned out of Condé, to what end is not known; only the garrison remaining in it, consisting of 500 horse and 800 foot, and the place well provided. The Spanish army is said to be in want of many things, especially straw: the said person also confessed, that the Spanish army would have a fortnight's work before they would be masters of it.
Commissioners for Lancashire to secretary Thurloe.
Yours of the 3d July instant in the case of major Wildman we have received, and according to his highness's pleasure thereby made known unto us, we have sent directions to the persons employed by us to cease their further proceedings upon his estate within this county, and have made bold to give his highness an account by the inclosed of our proceedings in the affairs of this county since the death of major general Worsley. We shall humbly crave your assistance in obtaining his highness's pleasure to be signified unto us in those things we have made bold to present unto him, if he so please, whose appointments we shall be ready to observe, and do also crave your pardon for this boldness, and are
Major general Berry to the protector.
May it please your highnesse,
Haveing seene a scandalous petition to your highnesse referred by the maister of requests to my most serious consideration, requireing my opinion therein (it is concerning Red castle in Mountgomeryshire) I make bold to give your highness this account. The castle is indeed (in despight of opposition) continued in the hands of a governour, who it seemes the petitioner takes to be a souldior amongst the dozen, and is somewhat useful in these partes, where men will rule, if they be not ruled. There is noe doubt of it, some men would be content all the garrisons you have should be made unserviceable; but I humbly pray, that your highness would hence take occasion to consider of some way to make these places more considerable, and now in good earnest take my thoughts. Though the mountains of Wales be somewhat smooth, yet it may not be amisse to keepe it from being quite levelled; and to that end here and there a castle will doe well; and to keepe them from contempt, and make them servicable to you, I doe seriously thinke it would be your best course to let col. Price have a company in some regiment of the army, and that therewith he might strengthen this place, and Denbigh, and some other of those places, that stand in neede; by which meanes you will have the places preserved from ruin, which now they are lyable to by change of souldiers, and the governour wil be able to command them better then at present. He is a very honest trusty fellowe, and deserves some incouragement; but I shall not trouble your highnes further at present, but beg your pardon for this boldness from
Captain R. Clarke to secretary Thurloe.
After my respects presented to you, acording to order, thought fitt to acquaint yow of my arrivall with the ship Unicoarne nere unto Dover; and with me in company the Dragon, captain Haddocke commander; the Jerze, captain Seaman commander; the Ould Presedent, captain Tattnell commander; and the John kech, which by order of the right honerable generall Mountague and generall Blaicke wee sett sayle from before Cadiz the 4th instant, wher the generalls lay with a greatt part of the flet. Other frigatts were ordred to have come in company with us, but were not at that present ther, for that one tewsday the first instant the wind was att est-south-est, and did blowe a meere stoarme of wind, soe that most part of ther flett were forst from their anckers and caibles, with loss of many of their boatts. The stoarme continewed untell the 2d att night: one the third in the moarning I lost our sheeate anker, the caible being cutt with rocks, our best boured anker being broke the day before. May it please you, sence our departur from the fleett wee have not ommitted any oportunitie, as wind and weather did permitt, for our advantage. Sir, one the 15th instant wee mett off the isles of Biona, some eight leags ose the shoare, the Portugall Brazell fleett, being in number 92 sayle. Theay were the pittifullest vessells, that ever I saw. I am confident, that 12 or 14 sayle of good frigotts would have taken and spoyled what theay pleased. Night being in hand, wee parted with them. Sence that day we spaick not with any shippe untell the 23d ofe Portland, which was the first land wee maid. This present day we mett with the Fagon frigott, and some other vessells in company, bound to the westward. Wee having little wynd, I have indeavoured to send the speediest I can att present, being nere unto Dover. Sir, I humblie taike leave, and remaine