A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 5, May 1656 - January 1657. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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May (3 of 6)
Mr. Longland to Mr. Samuel Morland, the English resident at Geneva.
I hav not yet had any answer of my last letters writ you about 20 dayes since. Here is arryved som ships from Cales and Lisbon, which bring no newes of our fleet, althoh so long since departed Ingland; which make thes Itallians desiant much, whither they should bi gon. Som letters from Rom say, they hav bin sien on the backsyd of Ireland bound norward about Scotland for the Baltik sea, to help the king of Sweden against Danzick: others say, they ar gon for the West Indyes. It cannot now bi long er this dout bi clear'd. The noiz of the king of Polland's victoryes over the Swed ar stil here in every man's mouth, without any great foundation that I can se. Wi hope a few dayes more wil resolv this dout. However the king of Sweden has not shewed himself a good captain to giv the king of Polland so much opportunity, as to raiz another army, and disput the bisnes anew. The Spanyards labour hard at Rom to unyt the pope and the princes of Itally in a legue with the Austrian family. The queen of Sweden has discarded al her Spanish retinue; and now taks Itallians into her court at Rom. Wi heare not of any preparations for Itally, that the French mak by sea. If they send a good army by land, they may find a freer acces then last year; for the Spanyard has no fleet in thes parts to bring soldiers for theyr succour; and (which is wors for him) the sicknes is discovered to bi in Naples, so that if hi should endevour to bring soldiers thence to succour Millan, they would not be received, nether would any prince giv them pas throh theyr country. Thes considerations mak much for the French, if they mak use of it, but I hear they ar in som divisions at hom about the raising the vallue of money, which I dout is scarce amongst them by theyr bad government. I cannot understand, whether the king of Portugal has underwrit the articles to the protector. Here is som talk, that the pope labours much to hinder it, and mak a legue 'twixt Spayn and Portugal; and then his ambassador shal bi received at Rom. The quondum king of Scots it siems is received into the Spanish servis in Flanders, whos vicinity to Ingland wil affourd som trouble. This is what occurs. I am
Your faithful servant
Lego. 26 May, 1656. [N. S.]
Al illustrissimo sign. mio Padrone e ottimo, il sign. Samuele Morland, residente per il serenissimo Protettore d'Inghiltorra, Geneva.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorne, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 411.
This week it has bin here made known from Civita Vechia, the pope's towne, that the sicknes is discover'd to be in Naples; whereupon this town has banisht al trade and comerce with that citty, althoh to our great prejudys; for since the war has brok out betwixt Ingland and Spayn, most of our nation, that resyded in Naples, ar retyred hether, and from hence only that citty can be best served with Inglish manufactoryes. But the sicknes now appearing wil break off al intercourse of trade. In such cases theyr severity and dilligence is here very great; they wil not upon any tearms admit of a boat or vessel, nor no manner of goods from Naples. If you ask me, how they precysely know it coms thence, it is and has bin a custom of long continuance throhout al Itally, not to receiv or admit any ship or vessel into theyr ports without a pattent of health from the citty or port from whence they com. This is accounted as a thing sacred amongst them, not to falsify theyr pattents; and is such a deceit should be discovered, 'tis punisht with the greatest severity imaginable. And althoh health bi the thing pretended to only, yet thes pollitians synd a farther advantage by it. If the French should now mak as great preparation, and invade Millan, as they did the last fommer, they would fynd better succes in al probabillity; for besyds that the Spanyard is now destitute of a fleet in thes seas to succour that state with soldiers, he could not now extract the soldiers from Naples by reson of the sicknes, for they cannot go to Millan without passing throh the Genowes country, which the Genowes wil not now permit on any termes, whylst Naples remayne under the lest suspition of the sicknes. But I do not hear the French mak any great preparation for war. What herafter they may do, I know not. A small Inglish ship that brouht fish hether this winter was sent by the Inglish factor, to whom shi was recommended to lade oiles in Puglia, which being in the kingdom of Naples, under the Spanish dominions hi puts in most part Ital lian marriners with an Itallian master, and wears this prince's flag, as if shi wer a ship of this place, althoh shi had her Inglish master aboard lykwyss, and som of her Inglish marriners. In her return back hether with her oiles shi was met with by Argier men of war, by them taken, and carryed away, I suppos, as an Itallian ship. It may be you wil bi sollicited about this bisness at hom from alderman Fredrik, to whom this ship belong'd. Wherfor I thoht good to giv you this short account of it. I hav not sien the articles of peace concluded with that piple by general Blake; so know not how it stands in this case; but had the ship had Inglish coullors, I am consident the Turks would not hav medled with her, and it may be they wil be so courtious, as to restore her. I hav writ to Mr. Brown to do what hi can therin for the interessed. The duk of Madena is going into the field with his army. Here is no newes yet of general Blak's fleet. 'Twas this week writ hether from Rome, that they wer gon about Ireland for the Sownd, to help the king of Sweden against Danzick. Others report they ar gon for the West Indyes. I am,
Your faithful servant
Lego. 26 May, 1656. [N. S.]
King of Portugal to the protector.
In the possession of the right honourable Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.
Serenissime protetor reipub. Angliæ, Scotiæ et Hiberniæ, &c. Nos dominus Joannes, dei gratia rex Portugalliæ, et Algarbiorum citra et ultra mare in Africa,
dominus Guineæ et acquisitionis, navigationis, et commercii Æthiopiæ, Arabiæ, Persiæ ac
Indiæ &c. Serenissimæ celsitudini vestræ salutem et perpetuam selicitatem apprecamur.
Die Maii elabentis undecima infeliciter accidit, ut Philippo Meadowe, celsitudinis vestræ
apud nos ablegato, noctu domum redeunti ab hominibus sceleratis, seu Anglicæ illis reipub.
potius, seu regni nostri, certe utriusque communibus et iniquissimis hostibus, serreâ glande
læva manus transverberata est. Qui nos casus, uti par erat, una et dolor acerbissime perculit, qui Philippum ipsum gratum habeamus, tum ob proprias dignas laude dotes, tum
vero præcipue, quod a celsitudine vestra ad nos pro publicâ pacis causâ ablegatus sit. Igitur quod mandari a nobis decuit, præsto assuere e nostris peritissimis, qui sedulo vulneri
mederentur, et undequaque prospicerent sanitati, quam gratulamur citra periculum esse.
Præterea vero quibus maxime viis usquam alias, de patrati sceleris authoribus conquiritur,
si constare de iis possit, ut ex merito plectantur. Celsitudinem vestram Deus optimus salvam et incolumem velit. Dabantur Alcantaræ 26 Maii 1656. [N. S.]
Vester bonus amicus
Serenissimo protectori reipublicæ Angliæ, Scotiæ, ac Hiberniæ, &c.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The 20th of May 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 437.
This morning the president proposed, that the lord ambassador of Spain had signified the arrival of don John of Austria, governor of the Low Countries, &c. Whereupon they have resolved to return him thanks by the lord Huygens; and if he had done it in a letter, they would have writ back a letter to the said prince don John.
Those of Holland do still debate about the resolution to be made to the elector of Brandenburgh, whereof hitherto they have not reported any thing to the States General.
To the lord Bonyn hath been delivered his dispatch, which is only a single re-credential, whereof the substance is, that the lord Bonyn hath endeavoured to make his negotiation to the consent of his electoral highness. In short, as yet this state is no wise satisfied with him.
There are come no letters to the ambassadors to the king of Sweden, who are gone from Dantzick towards Elbing; and it is written, that the king is gone from Elbing towards Marienburg. The rest of the news is as usually very much different; it being very certain, that the Swedish army is very diminished and harassed; and yet it is said, that they endeavour to find out the armies of Lubomirsky and Charnetsky. Here enclosed I send you the re-credentials of the lord Bonyn; which is all his dispatch, without having any other answer. He thought to have gone away to day, but he will stay one post longer.
I know from a very good hand, that Holland hath a good inclination for the alliance with the elector of Cologne and his associates.
This morning the lord Bevering made report of the conference held on the 19th currant with the commissioner of Dantzick, containing, that he doth desist from demanding succours, and the sending of troops, which was also the first point of his proposition. And that he doth still persist to demand a subsidy, whereof he made two heads; the one is, that he demands a loan at reasonable interest of half a million, or five hundred thousand guilders. The second is, that he demands a subsidy of six thousand rix-dollars per month to be given them gratis. All this is taken ad referendum to the provinces. And in regard the states of Holland are summoned but upon three points, the one about the employment of the fleet; the second for some new order to be given to the ambassadors, whether they shall also salute the elector, &c. and the third point concerning the alliance with the electors and princes of the Rhyne and Westphalia; it is feared, that the most part of the states of Holland will say, that they are not instructed upon that.
I forgot formerly a resolution, or in effect an instruction drawn up concerning the encounter of the squadron of vice-admiral de Ruyter in the chanel, which was sent to the lord Nieuport. This morning was again proposed the business of the water-licence, with great likelihood, that the same would have been concluded, but was suspended. Likewise, as well those of Borisleduc, as the receiver general Swerins, have signified their arrival, whereupon it is resolved, that they appear this afternoon before commissioners.
At last the lord Bonyn doth prepare to be gone to morrow. Holland doth still persist not to consent, that the ambassadors should make any compliment to the elector of Brandenborgh. And as for Dantzick they are of opinion, not to make any treaty with the said city imagining themselves, that Dantzick will do as the elector, and having treated with this state, will make their conditions the better with Sweden, and will laugh (as the elector) at this state. And as to the subsidy, which Dantzick doth demand, Holland is of opinion to answer in general terms, that in times of necessity they will give them some, presupposing that for the present there is no necessity; and that the king of Sweden cannot prejudice them.
They have had here a list of the ships, that are ready, to make the number of 48 ships. The most part of them are ready and in a very good order. And the opinion of Holland is, that they ought all to go to sea, at least as far as the Sound, to act further in those parts, as Denmark shall see cause, or according as it shall be resolved.
This day (by reason of the great number of new letters that came) nothing was concluded; but this afternoon was an assembly to conclude something.
This 26 May.
The lord Bonyn went away yesterday. He passed through Viane to salute in his passage the dowager of Brederode, and then returneth to Amsterdam, and from thence goeth directly for Hamburgh.
Yesterday the states of Holland held a very serious conference upon the articles, which the ambassador of Nieuport hath sent over for the composing of a maritime treaty.
This day the ordinary commissioners of Holland brought into the States General their provincial advice upon the points, upon the which they were summoned; especially concerning the alliance with the elector of Cologne. Wherefore they will endeavour to induce the generality to declare, that this state is well inclined and resolved to treat for such an alliance; but there are other provinces that do declare themselves not to be instructed about that point.
As to the business of Poland or Dantzick, they have advised to give a declaration in general terms, that they will assist the city of Dantzick; but in what manner, and how far, they will advise upon hereafter.
As to the fleet, all is to go forth for the Sound, there to receive Orders from the ambassadors, and the ambassadors are to advise about it with the king of Denmark.
As to the articles of the maritime treaty, they will write to the lord ambassador Nieuport to do his endeavour for the obtaining of such articles, according to the instruction, which the said lord ambassador had formerly about them.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 419.
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In answer to yours of the 12/9 May, I will say, that just at that time the states of Holland were about to adjoun, when the lord ambassadors of the States General sent the articles of the maritime treaty which the said states of Holland undertook to examine, finding very much in them to contradict, that protector will not admit of the rule of free-ship, free-goods. Item, upon the exhiting of certificates, to let them pass; upon which I will not say any thing, having so often laught at the wisdom and prudence of the States General being not willing, that the same should be done to themselves or theirs, which they have done to all the world.
As also the Swedes say, that it is strange, that the States General will send a fleet into the Baltick sea, to hinder the king of Sweden from taking imposts of all that is imported and exported out of the territories aud harbours, which the Swede possess; as much as if the Swede would hinder the States General from taking imposts of all that is imported into Amsterdam or the like place of the states of Holland As likewise these good States General would dispute with protector his acts, called encrease of shipping. Item, the prohibiting the navigation to the islands and territories, which England hath in the West Indies. I am very much of opinion, in case that England should agree that which the States General pretend, that afterwards they would laugh at the protector, as at the same time they caused complaint to be made to the protector of the rencounter, which Ruyter had in the channel; and here they laugh at it, saying that England ought to have had more strength to have made such a speech to Ruyter; who also doth believe to have saved his conscience, in saying, that of his knowledge there was no silver in his fleet, which did belong to Spain, when States General do that. This is one of the seven liberal arts, in quibus sunt magistri. But when others do it it is a crime, et morte piandum. Of that lord, whom Ch. Stuart hath sent hither, I have not seen any thing nor taken notice. I do also believe, that Ch. Stuart is not had in any consideration with Spain himself, but is there uti signum pictum in pariete; and that which Spain will not persuade, the Sc. king will yet persuade less.
The states of Holland will not so easily imbarque themselves in an union but to draw any profit and gain out of commerce without much wetting their paws. Therein they will not fail, as formerly they quitted the Bremen in need. The same I fear of Dantzick, giving nothing but words; and for Dantzick to undergo all the charges, is impossible, being without commerce.
He, who from Dantzick is here, doth threaten to go to England, in case that they will not give here money not that he doth hope more of England; but to give jealousy to the states of Holland the states of Hol. presently fear, that Dantzick will use those of England better than those of the states of Holland.
I fear very much, that as well the states of Holland as Dantzick do reckon without their host, believing that the Swede is low; and that his army is very much defeated: that is purely ridiculous. It is true, that by the second and third marches in the middle of winter his army did suffer very much, and the separation of the quarters or militia of Poland (who formerly were with the Swede) hath very much prejudiced him. But he never made any great accompt of those Quartiens, and it must needs be, that as well Lubormisky as Charnitsky have no great forces, since they do retreat; whereas they ought to advance into Prussia, which would very much incommo date the Swede. It would oblige Brandenburg to quit Sweden and encourage not only Dantzick, but the Dane and the States General.
The truth or falseness of all this will be soon seen. And also I do fear, as formerly,
that all these ships of the States General are only a rumour, and a pure threatning without any blows.
As also the business in Prussia royal is not to be redressed by these men of war, but by an army or by money.
And I see no likelihood for the first; and for the second, very little; saying that Brandenburg hath
deceived them, having made use of the money of the States General to obtain so much the better conditions of
the Swede, and that Dantzick would do as much: as yet at least they are upon these terms. I am,
26 May 1656. [N. S.]
Your most humble servant.
An intercepted letter of Mr. Windebanck to one Jones.
Calais, 26 May 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 415.
I Received yours of the 24th May, and in it one enclosed from my cousin Westwood; wherein she writes, that her son did appoint to be in London on Tuesday last, and that he would stretch his credit to furnish me with one hundred pounds worth of commodities for my new trade, which can no way effect my design to go to my factor, and set up in that country, where I have no credit. Besides I must deal clearly with you, but keep it to your self: I am of opinion, that Mr. Tho. is so wise and wary a gentleman, that he will not stretch his credit at all, if you do not press him earnestly to it. I confess, I am so discontented and vexed, that I cannot discharge my business here, and go away to my factor; that I am at no rest night nor day; for you know with how much patience I have desired to be gone from this place, and to be with my factor, to see and know how he manageth his trade. Wherefore pray pursue those instructions sent you, and I beseech God to give success.
Courtin to Bordeaux, the French ambassador in England.
Hague, 26 May 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 431.
Here is no more doubt made of the life of the king of Sweden, in regard several letters are come from many credible persons, who both saw and spoke with him. He is at present at Marienburg with the queen, where news hath been brought him of a fight, which the general prince Adolph his brother, assisted by general Wrangel, hath fought against Charnetsky, Lubomirsky, and Koningspolsky, who commanded each of them 10000 Polanders. The victory was still uncertain, and yet it is writ, that the Swedes had the better of it, and that Koningspolsky being taken in the rout, was cut to pieces at the head of the army, by order of some Swedish generals, who past this sentence upon him, for having violated his oath of fidelity, which he had given to the king of Sweden. If this news proves true, the king of Sweden will become invincible, his conquests assured, and the king of Poland utterly ruined. The Swedes are still of opinion, that the Cossacks will be for them against the Pole, and that they need not to fear any thing from the Muscovite.
The fleet of this state is ready to set sail for the Sound. Tromp expects only a wind to set sail with 15 ships. De Ruyter is to follow with 8 more, and Peter Florissen is to command 7 or 8. Their departure is resolved upon.
Hague, 26 May 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 427.
We have here other news concerning the treaty between Portugal and England, than what you write; for it is held for ratified, yea with the article, which doth concern the inquisition. It is now very certain, that the king of Sweden is not dead, but alive and in health at Marienburg, where he arrived on the 11th current. The Holland ambassadors being upon their way for Elbing, and hearing of the king of Sweden's coming for Marienburg with the queen, they intend to divert their journey thither, and being come near the place, they have sent to the lord chancellor Oxensterne, to know what orders there will be taken for their reception and audience.
The fleet is for certain to be sent away very suddenly for the Sound; there are some 30 ships ready.
The Spanish ambassador hath signified to the state the arrival of don John, and his sincere intentions for the entertaining of a good amity with this state.
The bishop of Munster hath been here incognito with three or four gentlemen. It is said, that the duke of Lunenburg will make the like vagary. I do not hear, that any thing is concluded concerning the defensive league projected by the ecclesiastical electors, united with the duke of Newburg and the bishop of Munster.
Lockhart, the English resident in France, to secretary Thurloe.
In the possession of the right honourable Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.
Their hath not a day escaiped me this week, wherin I either have not sent to (or receved a message from) the cardinall; but notwithstanding all my importunities, I am still putt off with delayes. . . . . . This day he sent a gentleman to me, who gave me manie good words, by whom the cardinal did exceedinglie seeme to regraite his unhapp . . . ing necessitated to goe from Paris without seing me; earnest . . . . would meet him at Compiegn wher he would make his . . . . and entertain me at great lenth, so as he showld wearie me . . . . companie.
Sir, tho' I may be a little discouraged, yett if it . . . . resolve to sett forth to morrow towards Compiegne . . . . first from thence give you ane account of the cardinall's . . . . I have this comfort (if it be one) that all the rest of . . . . sters heere complain of the same usage. I have mett . . . . hear of none that are invited to goe one to Compiegn . . . . self, where I intend to stay, till I receave the honor of yowr commands concerning my further deportment.
I am much ashamed, that I showld mentione anie thing of monie, at a tyme when I
give yow so poore an account of businesse; but reallie my private creditt will not goe much
further then it hath done alreadie: my equipage stood me all the monie that was allowed
for it, and the four months advance. What I have spent since, I have been forced to
borrow at London and heare; and if it be his highnesse pleasure, I follow the king this
campagne, it will be a verie expensive jorney. Sir, I throw my selfe upon yow, and shall
be satisfied with whatsoever yow shall think fitt to represent concerning me in this particular, and shall humblie beg you may beleeve, that their is not a person living, who esteems
himself more oblyged to be,
Paris, May 26th, 1656. new style,
Your most faithfull and affectionate servant
For the right honourable Mr. secretary Thurloe, these att Whitehall.
A letter of intelligence.
A Paris le 26 May 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 435.
Les avis de Londres du 18 May portent, que le protecteur prend grande jalousie contre les Hollandois, depuis qu'ils ont escorté l'argent, que les Espagnols ont fait passer en Flandres. Le sieur Cojet envoyé de Swede a pris congé du protecteur, qui l'a fait chevallier, et luy a donné une Medaille d'or, où est le portrait de son altesse dans une boete enrichie de diamans. On dit à Londres, que si les Hollandois ne peuvent obtenir satisfaction de Swedois touchant le peage dans la mer Balthique, ils se hazarderont à faire quelque enterprize contre sa majestie Swedoise, qui n'apprehende point les menaces des provinces unies, disant, qu'elle pourra faire la paix, quand bon luy semblera avec la Pologne; et le protecteur est en impatience de voir esclatter le dessein des Hollandois. Les Anglois commencent à s'establir dans la Jamaique, depuis que la maladie d'epidenne, qui regnoit en ce païs la, a cesse. On n'entend rien encor des troupes Espagnoles dans la Flandres, si non que le marquis de Caracenne a la place du comte de Fuensaldagne a donné ordre aux officiers des, trouppes d'aller incessamment à leurs rendevous.
Ceux de l'armée Francoise seront à Chaulni; le marquis de Castelnau commandera sous monsieur de Turenne, et le marquis d'Uxelles sous le mareschal de la Ferté, le marquis de St. André sous monsieur de Mercœur en Piedmont, et le comte de Broglio sous le duc de Modene en Lombardie. Le marquis de Vallevoire commandera la cavallerie, et les sieurs des Hayers et St. Hilaire vont conduire l'artillerie en Flandres, St. Martin dans l'armée de la Ferté, Doradour en Italie, et le marquis de Birague en Cathalogne, où le prince de Conti sera generalissimo, et le duc de Candale general. Monsieur de l'Estrade fait seul le lieutenant general, et part pour s'en aller pour Bourdeaux.
Mescredy matin monsieur le cardinal estant allé à l'assemblée du clergé, il y fit sa proposition, sçavoir que son eminence estoit venue la pour prendre congé de la compagnie, et pour l'asseurer de son affection. Que le roy desire prendre leurs avis sur la response, que sa majesté avoit à faire au pape, sur les instances, que sa saincteté luy faisoit faire d'obliger l'archeveque de Sens, evesque de Beauvais, et de Comminge de se conformer à la constitution du pape Innocent Xme, qui condamne les cinq propositions de Jansenius. Que les rentes fussent payées à l'hostel de ville sans discontinuation pour le sieur de Menevillette, en attendant que le contract seroit renouvellé avec sa majesté. Que la compagnie eut à travailler promtement à l'expedition des affaires, et à terminer l'assemblée, affin que le roy peut avoir le secours, qu'il esperoit du clergé pour s'en servir dans la presente necessité de ses affaires. Qu'en fin sa majesté avoit chargé son eminence de proposer à l'assemblée, s'il ne seroit plus à propos, qu'elle suivoit la cour, ou du moins qu'elle s'approchast jusques à Soissons, affin qu'elle peut plus commodement scavoir les volontes du roy, asseurant en outre la compagnie, que son Eminence employeroit aupres de sa Majesté pour la faire maintenir.
On travaille fort à l'accommodement de l'affaire du curé de St. Germain de l'Auxerrois. Il y en a qui disent, que sa cause est bonne, et que les rois sont sujets aux curés des paroisses, ou ils se trouvent, si ce n'est quand ils sont dans un pays ennemy à la teste de leur armée, et en ce cas le grand aumonier peut faire la function d'un curé dans le lieu, où sa majesté se trouvera. Hier le procureur general Foucquet traitta le roy et toute la cour dans sa maison de St. Made. Le festin etoit de 2000 escus. Monsieur de Lyonne arriva avant hier au soir, et à vu le roy.
Monsieur Talon arriva aussy hier au soir de son exil, et est entré aujourdhuy au parlement. La cour part demain pour aller disner à Senlis; et dela à Compiegne; on dit, que le roy s'advancera jusques à Calais.
Major general Lilburne to the protector.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 409.
May it please your highnes,
I should have obeyed your highnesses comand in giveing my attendance, but that an appointment for the commissioners to meet on Thursday last prevented mee; and indeed expecting a good appeareance of them, and hopeing to make a good progresse in severall businesses, that lay before us to be determined, wherein there would have been little or no proceedure without mee; I could not (without a very great disappointment to the commissioners, and those affaires we have now dispatch't) be absent; and I hope a good improvement has been made of these two dayes; for besides the determining of severall other businesses, we have proceeded against fourteen of the late plotters, and sentenc't them, according to the first article of our instructions.
This, I presume, would not have had a dispatch without my attendance; wherby your
highnes will perceive I have not willfully absented my selfe, and will, I trust, prevaile with
your highnes to pardon me, that I came not precisely at the day your highnes appointed;
but, God willing, on Thursday or Friday next I intend to waite upon your highnes, and to
bring Mr. Place along with
Your highnesse's most humble servant
York, May 16, 1656.
Stettin, May 27, 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 453.
The affairs in Poland do not yet go better for the Swedes than formerly. They write from Thorn, that his majesty of Poland, leaving Cracow behind, was arrived already near or about Warsaw, and that count Wittenberg with his troops had retired into the said city. However, a certain Swedish officer told me this morning that he had heard from a good hand, that his majesty of Sweden having resolved to draw together about Posna as much as possible of his army, had sent orders to the said count, to come thither with some regiments: The said officer assured me likewise, that most of the bagage, when the king coming from Jarislaw marched from thence to Prussia, was left at Warsaw to make their way with the more speed; and hitherto, because the Poles are every where in arms, they had not yet been able to fetch the same from thence. It might easily happen, that for that reason their said city will be attacked sooner than any other, in case, as it seems now pretty likely, the king of Poland intends to undertake something of consequence, which will soon be seen. The troops of prince Adolph make their incursions as yet along the Warta, chosing several quarters, where they find the best provisions and provender, however without going far from Posna: they are at present believed to be at Prysdy, about seven miles from Posna.
Charnitsky having sent part of his camp somewhere else, lies still with 8 or 9000 men betwixt Jesouw and Kalisch. Some are of opinion, that when prince Adolph has received some more troops under him, he will endeavour to attack Charnitsky anew; but others believe and maintain, that henceforth they will rather endeavour to disturb the city of Dantzick as much as possible, than to hunt continually after the Poles, who (if they come once to a right knowledge of themselves) will not so easily be routed or dispersed.
The waywode Grudsinsky continues still with 3000 horse about Costiaen, and has killed and put to the sword a pretty many of those, that not long ago intended to march thither from Posna.
The waywode Weyer is retired from Kopa (where he appeared of late with a troop of horse, and sent out his parties as far as Stargard) to Klockaw with 2 or 3000 horse. They say that he has 600 men out of Dantzick, among his troops.
They write from Dantzick of the 24th instant, that the Swedes now begun to approach nearer to them than formerly, and had drove away some cattle about Praust in the little Werder, as also that they had passed the Motlau, and were marching against some troops of the garrison which lay there: how this would succeed, they did not know.
The waywode Weyer has been with about 1200 men before Conits, and burnt the suburbs; some conspirators had attempted the same within the said town, but were discovered, and the jesuits secured on that account.
The elector of Brandenburg has order'd all the governors of the frontier towns of Pomerania and the marck Brandenburg, to let no body pass from the Swedish camp, without having a due licence or pasport. Here at this place they have likewise, during some days, made a very strict enquiry thereof, since many that came from thence, both officers and common soldiers, under pretence of securing here or hereabouts their booty, have left the camp without any intention of returning there again. It seems that the making of any considerable booty in Poland and Prussia is past, and that many of them are tired to live there longer.
The regiment of the duke of Mecklenburgh consisting of eight companies, in all 500 horse, marched through here last Wednesday. The troopers shewed themselved dissatisfyed, that they should march before they had received any money, saying, that they had entered themselves upon that condition, and were come hither upon promise that they should not pass Stettin before they had received some money, however they got them out by force and fair words. They intended to rest a few days about Stargard in the territory of the elector of Brandenburg, but they were told by the officers there, that they should decamp and march either one way or other, since his electoral highness had expresly commandes, to suffer no Swedish troops to lodge themselves any further in his territories. Wherefore they intend to join prince Adolph together with count Koninksmarks regiment, and 300 new raised dragoons, but it is questioned if this can be done.
A french nobleman called baron d'Aubry, who travels for his pleasure, arrived the day before yesterday at my inn, having taken his tour through Hungary, Austria, and Silesia: he relates, that he had seen every where in the said countries many of the imperial troops as well horse as foot, and found the same exceeding beautifull, 7000 of them were made over to the king of Spain, whose ambassador was listing 2 or 3000 men to the same. Tis near six weeks that the said Baron set out from Vienna, at which time they spoke at the emperor's court of a marriage between a daughter of Spain and the arch-duke Leopold.
Prince Ragotsky, as he says, has actually 35000 men in arms, and is caressed by all the powers, and visited by several ambassadors, viz. by those of the emperor, the kings of Poland and Sweden, the great duke of Moscovy, and of the elector of Brandenburg; but hitherto has declared for none of them.
They write from Koningsberg, that there is again arrived a Russian envoy: however it was not yet known, what he had to propose to the elector, or what his negotiations might be. It is said that a sort of pestilential feaver begins to reign in the Swedish camp and garrisons, as also that Mr. Legate is to set out from hence in a few days, to the king of Sweden at Marienburg.
Commissary Pels to the States General.
Dantzick, 27 May 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 459.
High and mighty lords,
Since my last of the 24th currant his majesty of Sweden, through the taking in of Grebbin, and the total ruin of the fort called the Dansicker Lager, wherein were lost 3 or 400 men, hath made himself master of the Werder of Dantzick. Afterwards also by possessing of the head, being the point, where the Weysell doth divide itself, partly towards Dantzick, and partly towards Elbing, he is master of the sea shore. And notwithstanding, that the king of Sweden sent letters yesterday by a trumpeter, full of protestations of amity and affection, and laid the blame of hostility upon this city, and made offer of an accommodation; yet this town doth remain resolved to stand out the siege, and to remain faithful to king Casimir, according to their oaths, hoping to be relieved by him or Charnitsky.
The Swedish ships of war have order to come into this road; but are not yet come.
Letters of intelligence.
From Hamburgh, May 27, 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 483.
We receive from all parts the confirmation of the fierce encounter between the Swedes and Polanders, wherein prince Adolph John, and the generals Wrangel, Duglas, Myller, and Wreseviz, were in person. We expect to know by the next the particulars of that fight. Some say, that the Poles have lost 3000. They did retire very orderly for about a league from the place, where they were set upon, and did face about three several times, fighting gallantly; but at length they were put to flight. Nevertheless, they had the wit to set the bridge of Wark on fire, to keep the Swedes from following them further. We have heard, that general Wrangel, who had the command of the left wing, did give the first onset, and at the very beginning killed colonel Sonbeck with his own hand, and took away one standard from the enemy, whereby his soldiers were mightily encouraged.
The Swedish army is encamped at present at Rurmack something above Posna near the river Warke, where they expect 3000 English from his highness my lord protector. It is said by some others, that the Polish king is about Warsaw with 30000 men.
From Silesia, 27 May. [N. S.]
We hear from Koningsberg, that the grand duke's envoy having obeyed his commission there is gone towards Marienberg with a retinue of seven persons. The ambassadors of Holland, who were sent to Dantzick, are now at Marienburg, where they have been received with great pomp and ceremony. Their commission is to mediate between his Majesty of Sweden and the city of Dantzick; yet notwithstanding some of the said city have set upon a fort of the Swedes in the great Werder near Guisterau with such fury and violence, that the Swedes were fain to retire into a house not far off, from whence they were likewise driven away by the great guns of Dantzick.
The waywode James Weyer is also gone abroad with those of his faction. His design is against Lawenburg. We do long to hear the success thereof. We hear also, that both nobles and peasants in Samoite province of Poland are revolted from the Swede, and have seized upon some small towns there, where they have not only put the Swedes to the sword, but also all the inhabitants that were Roman Catholicks, and all such as were like Dutchmen either in their looks or habit. 'Tis reported also, that the general Erneski and Lubomirski were going to join with the king of Poland.
From Vienna, 31 May. [N. S.
His imperial majesty is still at Luxenbourg in very good health, thanks be to God. The Spanish resident is preparing for a retreat, his successor being at Lints already.
The 28th instant there went out of this city a fine train of artillery for Silesia, from whence we hear, that the king of Poland is marching in great haste towards Warsaw. 'Tis thought, that the emperor and the great duke of Muscow will endeavour conjointly to mediate a peace between these two crowns.
From Breslaw and Thorn.
The Swedish army is before Dantzick, but we hope, that the ambassadors of the States General, who are now with his majesty of Sweden, will mediate an agreement between the king and the said city, and that they intend also to make some treaty with the Swedes concerning their traffick upon the Baltick sea. The king of Poland is in the field with an army of 25000 men, intending to fight the Swedes as soon as he can. The Swedes are no less desirous to fight with him. They are expecting daily the English forces, which are said to be in Pomerania.
The queen of Poland is gone from Silesia to her husband. She of Sweden is with the king at Marienburg.
To the Venetian agent.
Antwerp, 27 May 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 479.
By the last letters from Madrid we had no advice at all of the two gallions that are wanting; so that 'tis believed, that they are either lost, or returned to St. Domingo or Porto Rico.
We do very much long here to know, whether the Hollanders will yield to have their ships visited at sea by the English. The king of England is not far from this city. The marquis of Caracena gave him a visit to day, and within a day or two is to go to Brussels. The duke of Glocester is still with him, and many English do flock to him from all parts.
Endeavours are using here to hasten the army into the field. The French are come already between Arras and Cambray.
A letter of intelligence.
Paris, 27 May 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 481.
This day the king is gone to Compeigne, and so to the army. It is already given out, that the first siege will be laid to Tournay.
The English envoy is also gone to Compeigne, to receive his audience and dispatches at the court, which suddenly removes to Peronne. The French will certainly put a great army into the field. All things are very quiet here, though much rumour and many apprehensions were conceived of disorders and disturbances to be had in Paris; but all is vanish'd in Flanders.
We hear of nothing by the last post, but of the magnificent entertainment of the new governor don John. The Scotch king is expected at Brussells to congratulate him; but not a word is said of his acting or doing any thing. They talk here again of a general Peace; but upon what grounds I know not.
H. Cromwell to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 489.
The horse of the army havinge bin much wearyed, and his highness affayres much prejudiced for want of a post-office to convey publique letters, the councell thought fitt to give encouragment to Evan Vaughan, the bearer heerof, he having formerly bin imployed therin, to undertake that care; who hath now with noe lesse charge than trouble soe well setled the stages, and thereby so eased the horse of the army (who were formerly the only post to convoy publique letters) that severall officers and others have importuned mee to mediate to you in his behalfe for his continuance therin, which I am the more encouraged unto, as to publique conveniency and the person's fidelitie, soe likewise as to your owne concernments, which will be more advantaged by imploying him, that is knowinge, then any other therin; which if it may stand with your conveniency, I should be glad it may have your approbation.
Your affectionate freind to serve you
May 17th 1656.
An intercepted letter from colonel Sexby to major Wildman.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 499.
My Deare Freind,
Its now about a yeare and two month since I left England, and longer since I writt to thee, and received any from thee. I pity thy condition, but prithy be of good comfort; all hopes of liberty is not utterly lost and gone; nor I doe not yet dispaire, but shall see England againe, and thee too, before I dye, yea before many yeares passe, I trust many months; neither in this doe I feed my selfe with a fantastick dream, but for what I have good grounds, as thou shouldst understand, if it were possible for this to get to thy hand, and thou wouldst send me a cypher, and orders how should direct mine to you. Your paynes, labour, and other inconveniences met with in doeinge this, would be recompensed by what might possibly be imparted; though I hope thou question not my love; and this I assure you of, should not say that to any in the world I would to thee. Oh! what would I give for an houres discourse; but knowinge that cannot be, let us converse this way, I desire, if possible. I understand thou art much dejected; I cannot but excedingly blame you for it: you have as little cause soe to be, as ever prisoner had in his condition; for though your unrighteous judge and his janesaries thinke they sitt soe sure, their's noe danger of fallinge; yet I tell thee, he will not be himselfe of that oppinion longe; and then I am sure you would not, if he knowe what I can tell thee, and faine would, if thou wouldest send me a cypher, and thy faithfull engagement to secrese. That apostate think he knowes me, but if as pretend, would not be jealous of me, beinge in any pettie designe, I hate foolish buissinesses; those undertakinges, and only such can render hym in this fallinge condition. He is inconsiderable, marke what I say to you; his way within few months will be hedged up by that necessity his owne designes will bringe upon hymself: beinge frustrated therein, his soule (though as proud as Lucifer's) will faile within him. This will be given to thee, if possible, by a hand thou knowest; if thou hast it, send to me by that person thy character. In my next to you shall tell you, how and to whom shall direct thyne for me. I shall not further enlarge, when told thee, that I am and for ever shall remeyne, my worthy freind,
Thine to comand till death,
Antwerp, May 28, 1656. [N. S.]
The letter was writt by Sexbye unto major Wyldman, and delivered to me G. C. the beginninge of July 1656.
Generals Blake and Montagu to Mr. Philip Meadowe, the English resident at Lisbon.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 493.
We have received your of the 13th instant, saluteing us with the good newes of the conclusion of the peace with his majesty of Portugall; which we are glad of, and doe very much long for a consummation thereof, as a thing desired and expected for these many yeares. And for our parts shall not be wanting in any thing, that may lye in our power to contribute thereunto. But some particulars of moment occurring to us touching the manner and forme of giveing his majesty satisfaction (which we are very desireous to doe) requireing more time to consider of, then at present our affaires (being but newly returned hither) or the bearer's importunity for his dispatch will well admit of, wee have therefore thought meet to returne him with this expresse unto you, intending to send our further answer by a frigatt of the fleet, which possibly may be as soone with you, as this comeing over land, if not before. We are
Naseby in Cadiz-bay,
18th of May 1656.
Your very loving freinds
sent by Mr. Smith.
The ministers of the church of Dantzick to the embassadors of the States General.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 511.
Illustres, et excellentissimi domini, domini gratiosissimi,
Bellum hoc, quod in septentione nostro, fama ubique notissimum, eventu anceps exarsit, magnis malis ac difficultatibus, ut Poloniam universam, sic in eâ ecclesiam nostram implicuit. Neque enim hæc communem tantum experitur martis furorem, qui usitatè per rapinas, vastationes, atque incendia villarum oppidorumque desævire solet, autor paupertatis miseriæque omnigenæ, omnis contra pii bonique moris hostis ac turbator; sed præterea adversariorum nostrorum odium per se alioqui nimis vehemens, armis istis, quæ illi hæretica vocant, acuitur, tantoque atrocius in homines nostros virus acerbitatis suæ effundit. Ut alia jam taceamus, horribile prosecto est, quod in majore Polonia nuperrime, atque imprimis Lesnæ, et ei vicinis locis, sævitiæ datum est specimen: seculum jam alterum labitur, ex quo civitas ea reformatam religionem secundum ritus consessionis Bohemicæ amplexa est, quam et retinuit semper, ecclesiarumque ejus confessionis per majorem Poloniam quasi mater quædam exstitit. Isthuc ante annos prope triginta Bohemi, Moravi, Silesii, exules magno numero fortunularum suarum cum reliquiis sese intulerunt; exilii et paupertatis ærumnas integritate conscientiæ, et quanquam inter perpetuas adversariorum minas inoffenso tamen hactenus religionis exercitio sese illic solati. Et postquam omnis in patriam redeundi spes præcisa erat, in hac saltem Pellâ vitæ et miseriarum finem tranquillè attingere posse speraverant. Sed nimirum hunc quoque portum exulibus Satanæ rabies invidet, et quicquid vitæ solatiorum restabat, id paupertati corum una cum lare hospitali plurimis et cum vitâ ipsâ permissu divino, vicinorum efferorum truculentiâ indignis modis ablatum est. Cum enim nuper rumor percrebruisset, regis Succorum exercitum in sinibus Poloniæ cæsum esse, factum est, ut nobilitatis pontificiæ exercitus rusticana colluvie permistus in minore quidem Polonia supra 120 familias intra unum fere mensem miserabili lanienâ extinxerit; in majore autem Poloniâ civitatem Lesnam sub finem proximi mensis Aprilis subito occuparit, expilarit, omnesque obvios internecione delerit; flammis denique arcem haud multum munitam, quatuor templa (atque in his etiam novum à reformatis civibus peregrinorum fratrum subsidiis potissimùm recens exstructum) aliquot scholas, curiam, adeoque oppidum universum prorsus exusserit. Duravit hoc excidium triduum totum, incendiariis, ut ne tunica quidem domus superesset, admodum attentis; cives, qui periculo animadverso noctu sugâ elapsi incendia hæc eminus per unum atque alterum milliare spectabant, posteaque agminatim accurrebant, seu flammas residuas extinguendi, seu iisdem aliquid eripiendi (plerique enim vacuis aufugerant manibus) desiderio, ab iterum superveniente hoste, strenuè licet sese defendentes, et multos hostium sternentes trucidati suere multi, sicut et sequentibus diebus, cum pagi vicini a reformatis colonis habitati pari truculentia in cineres redigerentur, ut sic evangelicis in hoc tractu nihil effet reliquum, nec haberet quisquam, quo se reciperet. Nondum iniri numerus eorum potest, quos in hoc horribili invasione, partim gladius, partim flamma, partim denique in fugâ paludes et cœli injuria miserè absumpsere. Cæteri, etsi ægerrinè et prope nudi e fugâ residui vivant, nisi tamen clementia divina humanaque singulariter et prospere subleventur, ad longius quodammodo supplicium et ipsissimæ mendicitatis extrema servati videntur, quippe non vitæ tantum necessariis alimentis, sed omni etiam receptu (cum omnia sibi tam in Poloniâ quam in Silesiâ infesta videant) destituti. Quo magis cunctorum, qui humanitatem non exuerunt, atque imprimis fratrum suorum, ejusdem scilicet religionis sacramento ipsis conjunctorum, merentur misericordiam.
Nobis quidem, qui multorum ex iis invalidam ætatem et canitie venerabilem senectam, nonnullorum et præclara de ecclesia ac bonis artibus merita, plerorumque autem insignem pietatem
integritatemque morum, propius et novimus et expendimus, penitissima profecto præcordia intime commoventur, et ista eorum fortuna tum lachrymas gemitusque acerbissimos excutit, tum
manus ad opitulandum, qua licet, expandit: sed tantus est miserorum istorum numerus (soli
enim reformati ad aliquot millium numerum assurgunt) ut a cœtu nostro hoc potissimum statu
rerum, quo et nos violentia martis indies magis magisque premit, omnibus prospici haud possit.
Quare aliorum quoque opem interpositis precibus nostris conciliare iis quærimus, maxime
cum intelligamus, eos passim dispersos et latitantes convenire, nondum posse, ut ipsimet vel
per literas, vel per delegatas aliquas personas, misericordiam aliorum implorare queant. Ne
igitur mora auxilii longiore reliquiæ illæ miserorum exulum male pereant, vicem eorum sic in
antecessum subire voluimus illustres et excellentissimas Dominationes vestras enixè obsecrantes,
ut fratribus istis prorsus ad incitas redactis viscera misericordiæ aperiant, et pro eâ qua apud
illustres et præpotentes Fæderati Belgii ordines pollent authoritate, procurando aliquod subsidium, opitulari festinent. Scimus, uti alios in consimili persecutione, constitutos, ita et eorum
aliquos jam ante benignitatem munisicentiamque inclytæ vestræ gentis expertos; eo minus
vero destituendos istos jam putabitis, illustres et excellentissimi domini, cum multorum inter eos
geminatum exiliumque, omnium vero ad summum apicem evectus calamitatum cumulus tanto
et promptiorem et largiorem desideret manum. Unum restat, quod ab illustribus et excellentissi
mis dominationibus vestris peculiariter insuper oramus dignentur quæsumus contritionem
Josephi, pro eo quo erga religionem reformatam flagrant zelo ita cordi habere, ut commodam ex sua hac amplissima legatione captantes occasionem, pro miseris illis apud serenissimum Pol. et Suec. regem intercedant, securitatemque publicam extorribus et propter vicinorum truculentiam ad cinetes etiam suos redire non audentibus impetrent, efficiantque, ut
propediem tuto et sine cujusquam impedimento vel alienis subsidiis adjuti collapsam Sionem
restaurare et patrias sedes reparare possint. Gratiam hanc exosculabuntur miseri: Deus vero
cælesti remunerabitur benedictione, cujus tutela illustres et excellentissimas dominationes vestras diligentissime commendamus, Dantisci 29 Maii anno 1656, illustrium excellentissimarumque dominationum vestrarum
Studiosissimi pastores & ministri eccl. reform. Dantiscanæ
Casparo Conradus Cruciger,
Erasmus Scultetus, S. S. theol. licent,
Rationes ob quas Muscoviæ dux animum ad regnum Poloniæ adjicere non debeat, concinnatæ à Petro Bougolt Galliæ legati sacellano.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 519.
I. Quia domus Austriaca ex longo tempore maximo studio et infinitis sumptibus eò allaboravit, ut tria illa regna, Poloniam, Bohemiam, et Hungariam, unicum sceptrum revereri efficeret, hacque ratione monarchiam suam stabilire posset.
II. Quia aliqui senatorum Poloniæ egregiis titulis et speciosis pollicitationibus adducti, huic ambitioni domûs Austriacæ assensum suum præbuerunt.
III. Quia Poloni Cosacico, Moseovitico, et Suecico bellis implicati, domûs Austriacæ subsidia implorare necesse habuerunt.
IV. Quia domus Austriaca statim sub initium belli Suecici legationibus clàm ad Palatinatus et Quartianos subornatis successioni inhiavit.
V. Quia papa hoc Austriacæ domus institutum plurimum juvit, et ut causam hujus regni et religionis Romano-Catholicæ seriò fovendam susciperet, solicitè instigavit, eique pariter Poloniæ clerum facilem reddidit.
VI. Quia rex Poloniæ ex consensu senatorum anno 1655 mense septembri successionem imperatori detulit.
VII. Quia Poloni Moscovitæ successionem instinctu imperatoris, non eo consilio promiserunt, ut ea unquàm effectum suum nancisceretur, sed ut ejus spe allectus contra Suecos arma dirigeret.
VIII. Qui rex Poloniæ et senatores, nomine totius reipublicæ, imperatori solenni legatione coronam obtulerunt, statim atque Moscoviæ dux Livoniam intravit.
IX. Quia imperator, quamvis hanc oblationem in speciem declinaret, tamen privatim in præsentiâ filii sui regis Hungariæ, archiducis Leopoldi, legati Hispanici ab unâ, et Polonici legati ab alterâ parte, cam pro filio suo acceptavit, certis insuper pactis corroboravit.
X. Quia rex Casimirus Dantisci coram legato Gallico expresse fassus est, commissarios Polonicos non habuisse in mandatis, ut Muscovitæ successionem deferrent.
XI. Quia idem rex Casimirus Sueciæ secreto aliquo tractatu omnimodæ compositionis modum proposuit, et priusquàm Muscoviæ Zaar id requisiverit, juxta eum concludi petiit. Cui etiam rex Sueciæ certis conditionibus adstipulatus est.
XII. Quia rex Poloniæ ultimo Januar. St. Novo, cum Dantisco discederet, scripto per mediatores transmisso, non modo juribus in regno, titulo, et insignibus Sueciæ sibi competentibus se renunciaturum pollicitus est, sed et comitiis proximè indicendis; declarationem de transferendâ Livoniâ se obtenturum recepit.
XIII. Cum rex Sueciæ ad Poloniam coronam non adspiret, jure hæreditario in coronam Suecæ contentus; ideo rex Poloniæ optima spe nititur, si, præter aliquod additamentum etiam juri suo in Livoniâ et titulo Suecico renunciaret, fore ut pacificatio aliqua et unanimis conjunctio contra Moscovitas iniri posset.
XIV. Quia à Polonis et Austriacis intenditur, ne Moscovita prius arma contrà Suecos deponat, quàm hæc disceptatio ad finem suerit perducta.
XV. Quia Poloni id imprimis agunt, ut proximis comitiis domui Austriacæ de successione certò constare possit; hacque ratione Muscovitis alio quopiam obtentu illudi.
XVI. Quia præcipui senatores, ut domui Austriacæ satis sieret, multum conducibile esse arbitrantur, si pontisex Cæsareæ majestati authoritate suâ et cautione interpositâ nomine Polonorum et quidem sub pœnâ excommunicationis de successione, et quòd constitutiones in savorem Muscovitæ in comitiis factæ, nullum in domûs Austriacæ præjudicium vergere debeant, sidejubeant, cum quod tunc urgens suadet necessitas pontificia dispensatione immutari et revocari queat.
From the Dutch ambassadors in Denmark.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 495.
The Swedish resident here has told the chiefest ministers here that he had received repeated orders, to make his further applications, to the end that your high mightinesses ships of war might not be permitted to appear near the Sound. For severall days we have had here new reports of fitting out a considerable sea force at Stockholm, which is confirmed by some that come from thence, and contradicted by others, so that we can mention nothing certain in relation thereunto. The Swedish resident has been pleased to assure the lord rix-chancellor as well as us, that not one ship is fitting from thence, nor will be fitted out there. However letters from Colmar (as the lord high steward tells us) say, that the sailors of that town and thereabouts are summon'd; and the governor of Bahus, a place belonging to this king, laying near Gottenburgh, writes word, that the like orders were arrived there in the Swedish places, to raise all the sailors there, which news is the more credited, because there is some suspicion, that the Swedes intend to undertake something against Dantzick.
The Danish resident with the king of Sweden writes from Elbing, that the said king after the late battel with general Charnitsky near Gnesen had told him, that he hoped now, that the said general would at length submitt, and that his majesty was obliged to come to extremities with Dantzick. The Swedish resident here has given to understand, as if something was upon the carpet to force the said city, and would be undertaken not without hope of a good success. And altho' the Swedish affairs might perhaps not be every where in a condition to enter upon such a weighty design as yet, nevertheless these discourses and tidings cause some considerations here, by reason the conservation of that city is thought to be of very great moment. There is no answer here as yet from the lord protector to his majesty's letter, mentioned in our former, and the minister who petitions for the same is put off from time to time. They write from Sweden, that besides the ordinary tolls and imposts there has been layd lately half a rix-dollar the last on the ships which are going and comeing.
Sundry masters of ships arrived here within a few days from Riga, and among others a
sea captain, whom we happened to speak with, assured us with great unanimity for a certain and true tiding, that the Swedish troops in Lithuania and Samogitia have suffered very
much of late by the nobility and boors, that are assembled in great numbers in those parts,
and have taken to arms, and that count Magnus de la Gardie, having given orders to
raise some contributions by way of execution at St. Rawle in Samogitia, which being opposed, the said execution had changed into a most cruel massacre, whereby besides the men,
that were kill'd, 4 or 500 women and children by the firing and burning down of a large
house wherein they were fled, had most miserably lost their lives, and that the assembled
noblemen and boors, being to the highest degree exasperated thereby, had surprized all
the Swedish troops in those provinces on the 9th instant and entirely defeated. That the said
count by the way of Sudland was arrived down the river in a yacht at Riga in the night
time with a very small attendance, and was marched out again the day following, being
the 10th instant, with about 400 foot and 60 horse, but according to the tidings they heard
since, he had again met with such unfortunate success, that his lordship having had a narrow escape, was come back with but a very few men, and arrived at Riga, where there remained not above 500 men in garrison, and those, as the said eye witnesses report, most
boys and unsightly men. What may be the number of the said gentry and boors, cannot
very well be told: the reports at Riga make the same amount to above 20000 men, and the
said captain told us, that he heard from four Swedish troopers, who had been in the first
rencounter, that above 1000 Swedes had been kill'd, and that their affairs in those parts
were in a very bad situation. Of the designs of the Moscovites there were at present no
certain tidings. Wherewith, &c.
Copenhagen, May 8/18 1656.
High and mighty lords, &c.
Lockhart, resident in France, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 503.
I shall not add much to what I have said in this other of the same daite; onlie I shall beseech you to forgive the confusions of it, which are occasioned partlie by the haste I make to dispatch Mr. Swift, and mostlie by my being unaccustomed to give a di stinct account of businesse of importance, especiallie when I am necessitated to expresse much of it by cyphers. I have given but short hints of the fyve particulars, wherin satisfactione is desyered, and dare not presume to offer anie thing of my advyse concerning them. I hope the Lord will direct your counsells. I esteem myselfe bound to lett you know, that (in the repute of most men) Mazarin is look'd upon as a person of little ingenuitie; whether envie or his own miscariage hath begott him this esteem, I know not. If yow resolve to trust the cardinall therein, and see it fitt to give satisfactione in the particulars mentioned, the nature of that businesse is such, that much of its successe must depend upon your speedie dispatch of what is expected on your part. I was much pressed to send this by ane expresse, to the end a speedie and certan return may be had. I am,
Compiegn, May 29th, new styl, 1656.
Your most affectionat and faithfull servant
Notes of an answer to this letter in secretary Thurloe's hand.
To let the cardinall knowe,
I. THAT his highnes haveinge received your letter, and thereby the cardinall's proposition of beseidginge some sea-port in Flanders, and particularly that fort of Mardyke, although his highnes hath disposed of his designe against Spayne in another way, yet he will endeavour to bringe such a fleet before that place, as may be able to beseege it at sea, and keepe all releife from it that way.
II. For the 3 or 4000 foot to assist the seidge at land, you shall let the Cardinal knowe, that the condition of our affaires is such, that wee cannot spare any part of our standinge army, but that yet wee can spare the bodyes of men, which may be leavyed in a very short tyme. And therefore if the cardinall doe intend to be at the charge, which wee suppose he doth, for otherwise they can't be furthered heare, wee shall be able to send there 3 or 4000 foot, as shall be desired, under a fittinge conduct, who shall joyne with the French army at land, upon such termes as shal be reasonable.
III. As for the tyme of beinge ready to and with the fleet, wee do not doubt but to comply with the cardinall therein, both with the fleet and soldiers, sitting notice beinge given us of his intentions therein.
IV. In respect the place upon the taking or surrender thereof will be in the power of the French army, good assurance ought to be given to us, that the place shal be put into our islands, whereof you shall conferre with the cardinall.
V. Liberty of conscience shall be allowed.
VI. For the provisions to be sent them from hence for ready money, they shal be furnished with lead, match, and coarse meall for bread, in what quantities they please, at so reasonable rates as can be expected, provided we may know what proportions they will be sure to take, and at what certain tymes. The particular prises canot be most justly set downe, in respect this market cannot be tryed in soe short a tyme. And for powder, we cannot be obliged to furnish above 300 barrels per month for the three next months, but afterwards any reasonable proportion, provided we have timely notice.
24 May 1656.
Instructions for articles of peace betwixt England and France, in the hand-writing of secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 505.
That France shall be furnished with soe many ships of warr, as they shall stand in need of for their service in the Mediterranean, at the rate of 4 l. per head per month for every marriner.
That in case the shipp be lost in his service, that then he shall pay for the ship about six pounds for every tunn the ships is of; but more or lesse as the ships is better or worse.
That the money due for the hire shall be payed in the manner following; 2/1 moitie at settinge sayle of the said ships from England, and the ¼ moietie at three months after the certain tyme of the service is to be agreed upon; for the payment whereof security is to be given by merchants here.
That the ships shall not be compelled to take aboard soe many men, as may master the ships company; but that shall be at the discretion of the captaine of the ship.
To write about the standard of England:
That all prizes taken before they come to the rendezvous appointed shall be due to us, as also after their dismission, and upon their returne home. And that all prizes taken in the French servise shall be due unto them, they allowing to the mariners and seamen their shares as in other warres.
Two thousand men for France.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 529.
Stettin, May 30, 1656. [N. S.]
Whereas there are arrived here no letters from Thorn, nor any passengers from the camp of prince Adolph, we have hitherto no further news from those parts and the said Swedish camp is believed to be still betwixt Posna and Pysdry. Some are of opinion that the said troops are left there near the Warta, and count Wittenburg near Warsaw, with a view, to secure thereby as by two advanced guards, the chief avenues from Poland into Prussia, since it is said, that the king of Poland's chief aim was to enter Prussia in order to free the city of Dantzick from all further inconveniencies: if this should come to pass, it will not be done without blood, since they have talk'd already a great while of the said succours. One doth not know for certain, whether Charnitsky is still about Calish (or as some think) is returned to Crenstochorb. Of the waywodes Grudinsky and Weyer we have heard nothing further, and it is believed, that the first is still about Costian, and the other betwixt Schlockow and Conits. They write on the 12/22 instant from Riga, that the Swedes on the 17th had brought in there about 600 men Polish soldiers and revolted boors as prisoners, and that as yet the Russians did act no great hostilities against them. Not long ago they wrote from those parts quite otherwise, so that no great certainty can be put on those news, since the same have been for some time very variable, now good Polish, and then again good Swedish, according to the inclination of the writers. It seems still as it did before, that the design is layd chiefly against Dantzick, as being a dainty bit, for which so many hungry mouths have such a great while longed and wasted for. However, unless the dissensions within do them more hurt from within, than the Swedish forces have done hitherto from without, it will be a good while first, before they come to enjoy the same. According to their own advices of the 17/27 instant his majesty of Sweden is himself and personally arrived in the small Werder; some write that his army is 6000, others that it is 8000 men strong, and that the most part were Brandenburg troops. Whether they be Swedish or Brandenburg is not disputed here, but as to the number the same is not believed to be above 4000 men. His majesty of Sweden being arrived at Grebbin, where lay an ensign with 40 men, and the same retiring immediately to Dantzick without waiting for the arrival of the Swedes, proceeded further to the fort, which the Dantzickers for the security of the Werder had erected on the Vistula about three miles from the city, the first storm being repulsed, a cessation of arms was made, and capitulation was entered upon; but whereas during the said cessation, they fired two guns from the fort, whereof one going very narrowly over his majesty's head, killed a drummer, and the other an officer, the king order'd a second assault to be made, whereby the place was taken, and above a hundred men killed, the rest of the 400 men that lay in it, went over into Swedish service. Near Houet a bridge is sayd to be layd over the Vistula, whereby those of the city are deprived of the communication with Frische Nerung, as also with the Frische Haf, as also entirely of the use of the lands which lay between both. There are many here of opinion, and believe for certain, that his majesty will go forthwith to the fortress Weichselmunde, to attack the same, and thereby to straiten the Dantzickers to the highest degree, and to stop in a manner their heart's blood, in hopes that by those means the common people might grow discontent and rebellious, and thus to obtain what cannot possibly be done by force. However those threatned people write, that they are ready and resolved, to venture their good and blood for their liberty: if their deeds will answer their words, time must learn. Of the lords the ambassadors of their high mightinesses to his majesty of Sweden, they have here at present a very good opinion and firm hopes, that in case they will only mend their own interest and not that of the city of Dantzick, that his majesty will give and grant sufficiently good and reasonable conditions to our state. The regiments of the duke of Mecklenburg and count Coninksmarck are at present at Tramberg, a small town in Upper Pomerania, situated upon the small river Trage, a sign that the way to go to the other troops is not yet so clean, for otherwise they would not so long continue in these poor and lean quarters. The lord legate Oxenstiern doth sett out to-morrow for Wolgart, to pass away there upon his estate the approaching holydays, and to go from thence (as doth also the lord president Lillienstroom) to his majesty of Sweden; among the four vessels which they take with them to carry their baggage, one is laden with gunpowder, which is sayd shall be distributed on board of the six or seven ships of war, which shall within a few days be in the road of Dantzik, there are also four new large guns and two mortars which never as yet have been mounted. All the people are in expectation here of the taking of Dantzick, in hopes that his majesty will find there, what otherwise to their great loss must be found here in Pomerania or elsewhere. The goose that is pluck'd envyes the unpick'd her downy feathers.
P. S. Charnitsky is said to have retired to the frontiers of Silesia or to Czentochow; and prince Adolph they say is gone to Kalisch, to drive from thence some combined Polanders, that keep the same besieged, and then to proceed to Conin to attack the same; this small town lays betwixt Pysdry and Lauda on the Warta.
Commissary Pels to the States General.
Dantzick, 30th May 1656. [N. S.]
Vol. xxxviii. p. 525.
High And Mighty Lords,
Since my last of the 21st of May I have nothing to advise your high and mighty lordships; only here is come forth in print the Polish answer the Swedish of manisesto. I hope I have not done ill to send your high and mighty lordships a copy of it. In my last I told you of the king of Sweden's design of laying siege to this town, and how much we shall be disaccommodated by it. Here is report, that the Poles have taken Warsaw.
A letter of intelligence.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 527.
Dantisco, 30 Maii 1656. [N. S.]
Tartaricus delegatus Koningsbergæ audientiam habuit, et quamvis sit suspectus ac suppositus, satis honorificè habitus est, novisque vestimentis, quoniam mendicum veste præferebat, cohonestatus, propositum erat, ut elector ad partes regis Casimiri rediret, alioquin pro hoste habendus. Risum teneatis amici? inquit, Suecus. De exercitu Suecico ac Polonico ne [Gzy] quidem hodie. Pusilla manus, duce rege ac Steinbocko, Dantiscanis omnia fortalitia extra vallum urbis vi eripuit, videlicet Stibelow, Dribbin, Hoost, Studhost, et alia minoris momenti: præter hoc Vistulæ juxta Kesemark pontem imposuit, sperans se hâc ac aliâ viâ urbem ad angustias deducturum.
Viennâ scribunt exercitui Cæsareo præsuturum archiducem Leopoldum, invasurumque Poloniam, in favorem regis Casimiri, ne Suecis relinqueretur quieta istius regni possessio, et ut restitueretur Casimirus cum conditione, ut eo decedente regno, potiretur Austriacus Leopoldus vel alius.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 537.
This post hath brought me yours with his highness and the councell's order to examine witnesses, which I humbly thancke you for. Beinge the commissioners have not power to administer an othe, there's not any of Townley's party will testifie any thinge against him; they haveinge all but one soule are resolved to support their bad cause as longe as they can. Their treasurer Watson, and their secretary Misselden, have allready beene examined, but they now remember nothinge, though they were both present, and the treasurer one that reproved Townley, and was bid by him to hold his pratinge. Misselden haveing a little studied the law, and beinge wholy at the devotion of that party, since he penned their remonstrance for them, sets himselfe all the waies he can to uphold that party, and to please them, in hopes of the place for his reward, if neither Townley nor Baron prove sit for it; and noe doubt but he tells them, that till they come upon their othes, they may say what they lift. The best is, I need not their testimony. I shall sufficiently prove the charge by the well affected party, who in conscience to their duty will declare the truth being comanded; and though they are heere most intollerably abused for it by the other party, who are at such a height, as that they dare threaten and openly abuse both the commissioners and witnesses, that give testimony for the state, which I hope will shortly be redressed. At present the ships beinge upon departure, the merchants were necessitated to attend their affairs; but as soon as possible, I shall not faile to send your honour the charge against Townley sufficiently proved. In the meane tyme I have inclosed a copie of the narrative or parcel charge, which I sent you alonge in the ships with Townley, who is yet in the river; in which you will finde, that he then amonge his other peaisant like language called me a rouge, which I did not not mention in the first paper of his deportment, because I did not then knowe, that any heard him but myselfe. But now I shall prove it; though I must confesse it seemes to me somewhat hard, that I should be put to prove every affront put upon me by the subjects of the state, or sit down therewith; for you know, that cannot allwayes be done; I meane publique affronts, for as for private ones I have sit down with many a one since I came hither. I am glad to heare of the health of your men in Jamaica: the Lord keepe open that doore of hope to our nation. I shall doe what in me lyes to effect your order for more certaine intelligence out of Sweden and Poland's armies; but they suffer no posts to passe in those countryes, as Mr. Rolt knowes. The weekely intelligence I have is from the best hands in theise parts; and though in some things and at sometimes, when the posts from the borders of Poland faile, wee are in the darke, yet for the most part yow have the truth of those actions. I remayne
Hamb. May 20, 1656.
most humble servant
I heere inclose the answer from the Swedish resident touching the late exacted toll at Stoade. They pretend it was an arrear, and promise it shall be noe more required. I writt formerly, how Townley moved the company to passe by me, and apply themselves to this senate for redresse; and since I am told, that one of his party said, that they had rather loose their priviledges, than seeke to the resident to preserve them.
Generals Blake and Montagu to Mr. Philip Meadowe, the English envoy at Lisbon.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 533.
The bearer lieutenant Morgan, being a person in whom we confide, understands something of our thoughts touching the businesse we would speake with you about; to whome you may give creditt in any thing he shall deliver by way of relation from
Naseby in Cadiz-bay,
20th of May 1656.
Your very loving freinds
Note here, That it being not thought expedient to mention the sayling of the fleet in the letter, least it should be opened by the Portugalls between Cascais and Lisbone, the lieutenant of the Naseby was ordered to communicate it by word of mouth, and to lett Mr. Meadowes know, he should not need to goe beyond Cape-Pitcher, as the generalls hoped to meet them.
Generals Blake and Montagu to Mr. Phil. Meadowe.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 535.
According to what we intimated in our letter of the 18th instant, we have sent the Phenix frigott towards you; but for as much as some weighty considerations still sticke with us in the businesse you last writt of, which in our apprehension cannot soe well be explained to you, nor resolved again by letters, she onely brings at present our desires, that if it may stand with your health, you would make use of her as speedily as you can to come on board the Naseby, where we doubt not but a short conference with you will bring us to such an understanding of things, as that we shall suddenly returne you againe with a satisfactory answer to his majesty. In order whereto we shall expect you accordingly, and remaine
Naseby in Cadiz-bay,
this 20th of May, 1656.
Your very loveing friends
Indors'd: 20 May 1656.
Generalls to Mr. Meadowe by lieutenant Morgan in the Phœnix, which morning the fleet did also set sayle for Lisbone, but not delivered, the Phœnix being not able to gett up before the generalls were arrived with the fleet at Cape-Pitcher.