A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 5, May 1656 - January 1657. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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August (2 of 7)
The information of George Morris of the Tower of London gent. taken the 3d of Aug. 1656, before sir John Barkstead knt. lieutenant of his highness's tower of London, and one of the justices of the peace for the said county,
Saith, that this morning he was at a private meeting in Coleman-street, and did there hear Thomas Venner pray to the people there assembled; and during the time of his being in the said prayer, three several persons having bundles of printed papers in their arms, distributed to each of the people there assembled one. Saith, that he had one at the same time delivered to him, being the same he now produceth. Saith, that one of the persons, that delivered the papers aforesaid, was a young man, with a light brown hair, a cinnamon-coloured stuff suit, with white worsted stockings, of an indifferent stature; the other of them a tall young man, thin faced, with a black suit and cloak, black silk stockings, and green silk tops. That the other of them he had not so perfect a view of, so as to describe. Further saith, that making inquiry touching the said persons, he was informed, that the aforesaid young man in the cinnamon-coloured suit lodged at the house of one Kirton near the postern at Moorfields; and further saith not.
The information of George Morris, of the tower of London, gent. taken upon oath the 4th of August, 1656, before sir John Barkstead knt. lieutenant of his highness's tower of London, and one of the justices of the peace for the said county,
Saith, that yesterday in the morning, being sabbath day, he was at a private meeting in Swan-alley in Coleman-street, and did there hear Thomas Venner pray to the people there assembled; and during the time of his being in the said prayer, one Mr. Daniel Kirton, who keeps a strong-water shop at the postern-gate near the Tower, and one Edward Wroughton, who now lodges with the said Kirton in his house, and another person, whose name he knoweth not, nor where he liveth, having bundles of printed papers in their arms, such as he now produceth, distributed to each of the persons there assembled one; and saith, that he had one at the same time delivered to him by the said Edward Wroughton, being the same he yesterday delivered to the lieutenant of the tower; and further saith not.
The examination of Daniel Kirton, of the liberty of the tower of London, distiller; taken the 4th of August 1656, before sir John Barkstead knt. lieutenant of his highness's tower of London, and one of the justices of the peace for the said county,
Saith, that about three or four weeks since one Edward Wroughton came to lodge at his house at the postern-gate. Saith, he hath known him near upon three years. Saith, the occasion of his lodging was, because his master Pitman, with whom he lived near the meal-market in Southwark, had parted with him; and that the said Mr. Pitman's wife lay in. Saith, he hath lived in the liberty aforesaid four years. Saith, that a certain paper, entitled England's remembrancers, he had about half a dozen given him at a meeting in Coleman-street, where he was present yesterday, by a person he knoweth not, which he there gave away to some persons, that desired them of him. Saith, that he knoweth not any thing more of those papers; that the reason of his lodging the said Edward Wroughton is, because he is in church-fellowship with this examinant.
The examination of Edward Wroughton, taken the 4th of August 1656, before sir John Barkstead knt. lieutenant of his highness's tower of London, and one of the justices of the peace for the said county,
Saith, that about June 1656 he left his employment in the army, where he was a soldier under general Monck, and came out of Scotland to follow some employment for his livelihood at London. Saith, that he hath known Mr. Kirton of the postern-gate this three years, whom he saith is in fellowship with another church of the same faith this examinant is of. Being asked the reason of his lodging at the said Mr. Kirton's house, saith, in regard that Mrs. Pitman, a haberdasher's wife near the mealmarket in Southwark, where he formerly lodged, was three or four weeks brought to bed; since which time he hath lain there. Being asked, whether he dispersed any of the papers intitled England's remembrancer, about the city or suburbs, saith, that yesterday being at a private meeting in Coleman-street some papers were put into his hands by a person he knows not, with which he immediately parted to the people there assembled. Being asked, if he had any of the said papers before that time in his custody, or did disperse any of them, saith, he thinketh not fit to answer thereto. Saith, that the papers he delivered in Coleman-street aforesaid had an expression in them, which he seeth now in the book intituled as abovesaid, but knoweth not whether they are the same now produced. Saith, that he then looked not on the title of them. Refuseth to subscribe.
An intercepted letter to Mr. Windham.
We talk nothing here but of the Spaniards success; and I do not find, that the common people of France are sorry for it, because they hope it will bring on a peace, which is much desired by them. We expect here some men to be sent out of England, but I believe they will either come too late, or to little purpose.
If I may believe such letters, as I have seen, your friend's trade goes on beyond imagination; so that if God give but a blessing unto his endeavours, there is no doubt, but that he will give all his creditors satisfaction, and at his return be fit to bear any office in London. You know my desires. I need not repeat them. I long to be at the spring head to tell you, how the waters taste there.
A letter of intelligence from Bruges.
There is one come over, who gives this account to Charles from sir George Strode, that when the parliament you are calling sits, that they doubt not but to order it so, as to cause another protector, who shall be such a one as shall call in Charles. Ashburnham and lord Clare are of this knot.
Sir Robert Shirley hath sent Charles the copy of a declaration, that he would have Charles set forth; but it miscarried, and not come to his hands; and also desires him to name a man, that may be trusted with the monies, that shall be raised for him.
Sir William Compton and sir Richard Willis are the persons, that are to head the risings. Lord Maynard is in the design with them. They send word, they have hope of Portsmouth, Harwich, and Hull; and are to treat with the governor of the little island at Plymouth, but as yet they cannot make him certain. They treat also with some of your army, but I cannot get as yet, who they are. Most of those, that come over, come with the convoy of Holland, and return by that means. The man at the black boy at Gravesend sendeth some of their letters, and receiveth them. They are also settling a private post by the way of Calais, to convoy their letters that way. Things are carried very private at Bruges, where Charles had several sent to him by don John, and he is to be received publicly, and don John is to come to him there; but for the present he cannot, for the army hath blocked up Condé.
There is now one come, that bringeth certain news, that they have laid close siege to
Condé. Turenne's army grows strong again. There's great talk, that Charles will have
quarters given him in Flanders, and that he will suddenly raise men. Be confident, if you
send men into France, that most of them will come to him. They believe, that the king
of Spain will do what they desire of him. Ormond is gone to don John; O Neile is gone
with him. Sir, I fear you are angry with me, but for my life I cannot help it. My lord
of Bristol is come out of France, and it is thought shall be employed against you. There
is by the last convoy come over again the same man, who came formerly from Willis. He
is now come again from those, who are before named. His stay will be till Ormond returneth. When I can say more of him, I will not fail. They fear you have designs to
surprize some fort on the sea-coast, which you may easily do. It is to no purpose for me to
say how, for I see you do not trust me. However pray let me hear from you by the next,
if this come to you, directing it only as you did the last; and afterwards I shall give you a
better way, and more secure, for they open most letters. They get much money from England, and a great sum will come from those I have named. If this like you, I will be
faithful to you, and ever
14 August, 1656. [N. S.]
Col. Tho. Cooper to H. Cromwell, major general of the forces in Ireland.
I Am informed, that collonell Mervin intends to remove his dwellinge, whear hee is, unto Belfaste; and it's reported by himselfe, hee doth it to save charge, which hath soe litle of grounds in it, that I feare it may bee done upon some worse ground. I think it's hardly for his or any man's proffit to remove out of his owne howse, and from the midst of his owne tennants, above forty miles, to hire a house and sixty acres of land. This great affaire, that is aprocheinge, makes mee more then ordinary gelouse of him, and such persons, that may doe mischife, when they have opertunety. Hee hath a veary great interest, whear he is, of Ireish; and now by his comeinge to bee a tennant to the lord Chichester, hee beinge much to wise for his poore lord, may make his interest his own. Alsoe, if it should come to that, and Belfast is one of the considerablest quarters wee have in the north, whear three companyes of foote and a troope of horse lyes with veary good securety; but I think it's not meet, that such a man as colonell Mervin should have inspection into them. I thought it my duty to give your lordshipp this tymely notice, that I may receave your lordshipp's pleasure heerein; and remaine,
Your lordshipp's veary faithfull servant,
A letter of intelligence.
Mr. Richd Ettleson: Loving friend,
When I came from Dantzick, I left order about your debts. How basely the Dantzickers, that were indebted to us, dealt with us, is too long to relate here. God help us to our own, and then it is no great matter, whether ever we see Dantzick again. For news, it is certain the Polander is defeated and fled; Warsaw taken by the duke of Brandenburgh, whose army, with the Swedes, is in pursuit of the Poles. This will cause great alteration. God give for the best.
A letter of intelligence.
Mr. Rob. Searle, Sir,
Yours of the 18th ultimo is come to hand. In my last I wrote you, your cloth was all landed from Dantzick here; the doing of which you will no ways be offended withal, forasmuch as all men in general wrote to have their cloth removed; and that our protector did approve of what he did in reference to the Dantzickers demands; and he being commanded either to yield to their desires, or quit the town with our goods in so many days, which had we not done, for ought I know, all had been at their mercy, which would have been bad enough, if the Poles had gotten the better; so that what we have done, cannot be taken amiss; and for the safety of our friends goods, I conceive better here, for that of late the Poles army, consisting of 1000 men, have been beaten by the Swedes, Warsaw retaken; and it is confidently reported, the king of Poland is also taken with many great men; so that I look upon Dantzick worse than ever, and those goods yet behind in a worse condition than we can imagine.
A letter of intelligence.
Mr. Philip Travers, Sir,
I Have had none from you these fourteen days, nor did I write to you by the last. For news, be pleased to know, that the Swedes and duke of Brandenburgh have lately given the Poles a great overthrow, and are again possessed of Warsaw; for the Poles being beaten in the field, they again quitted that town without shooting one shot, which they were ten weeks a gaining with the loss of 4000 men. In this last business there is more than an ordinary providence, for the Poles were reported to be 150,000 strong, and the Swede and duke not above 40,000 at most. The Lord grant this war may tend to the good of the church of Christ, and then it is no matter though we suffer in trade.
A protest of the States General.
There being read in the assembly a further memorandum presented to their high and mighty lordships in the name and behalf of the lord Schroder, commissioner of the town of Dantzick, the respective provinces having hitherto consented and agreed in eventum as is agreed and consented by these, that in case beyond expectation, by the king of Sweden any difficulty should be made in concluding the presented renovation and amplification of the alliance, especially with inclusion of the town of Dantzick for their defence, according and in conformity of the resolutions taken concerning the same on the 7th of last month, or that his majesty should not resolve upon it presently after presentation thereof had been made unto him, that then the said town of Dantzick shall be effectually assisted and subsidied with the sum of 1200 rix-dollars per mensem, and that the same shall be continued as long as the said town is besieged or blocked up; and that the free course of the commerce is thereby prejudiced and disturbed; and therefore the provinces are to be seriously desired by letters to pay in their respective shares to the chamber of accompts of the said subsidy, by provision for the space of three months. Therefore their high and mighty lordships and the respective provinces have firmly undertaken and promise to free and protect the adjacent provinces, which lye open and naked from all assaults and invasions both by sea and land; and likewise give order betimes, that the frontiers shall be sufficiently provided and reinforced with men and ammunition, and so prevent all manner of inconveniences by God's assistance.
An intercepted letter of Sexby to Simon Fincham in White-fryers.
Dearest on earth,
I Have received thy letter. Next week I shall return 20 l. sterl. to thee, and give thee a particular account of my proceedings, and answer to thy whole letter. In the mean time I shall obey thy commands to have a care of my health, and be merry; I do desire and charge you to do the same by all the obligations of conjugal affections; and so with the utmost of my heart to thee, I am thine. I will write to Tibby next week, and thank her for her P. S.
Mr. J. Aldworth, consul at Marseilles, to secretary Thurloe.
The last post I gave you notice of the defeate of the grand signior's fleete by the Venetians. It hath since been confirmed by way of Levorne, the Turks having lost 24 ships, and 32 gallyes and galleasses. This morning arrived a barke from Malta, that brings advice the grand master is dead, and the grand prior de Nemours chosen in his place. Ten galleys and the like quantity of ships are parted from Genoa, and gone to Argere. Wee attend sudaine advice of theire enterprises. Att Naples have lately died one hundred and seventy thousand persons of the plague; and at present is spread over that kingdome, which tends much to the ruin of that country. Att Rome it daily increaseth also. The duke Merkure in probability will suddenly be master of Valensa, although is hardly putt to it. This being what the present offereth worth your honnor's notice, I humbly take leave, and remayne
In Marseille, 15 Aug. 1656. [N. S.]
Lockhart, ambassador in France, to secretary Thurloe.
I Have not been honored with any of your commands, since those I received by the French courier. By my two last you will perceive, what successe that affaire had, and may easily judge, how unhappy a hand I have in businesse; and I hope upon that account will be the more free to agree to my humble desyer of your mediatione for my being recalled.
The French army did decamp yesterday, and passed betwixt Quesnoy and Landrecy.
That march looks towarde Avesnes and Rocroy. It is not certain, where their attaqwe will
be; only it's probable, they will not attempt any thing against the Spanish army before
Condé, their lyns both of circumvalatione and cownter-valatione being such, as hath not
been often seen. They are 16 foot high above grownd: the parapet upon them is canon
proof: they have redowbts at every 100 pace distance. Their fosse is 18 foot broad, some
say 24. They have not as yet opened any trenches before the town; and its thought will
not, intending to starve it. The governor lately made a very happy sally, beat all their
advanced posts within their lyn of countervalation. It's supposed he hath provisions for six
weeks to come: he hath turn'd out all the inhabitants, save such as are brewers or bakers,
and such as were willing to bear arms. Their good fortune in that siedge hath very much
exceeded their expectations; and their army now is so considerable, that if the enemy take
the field, and dare to fight, it's probable your prophecy from Flanders may prove true.
I doe not repent me of the humble desyer I made, that the French may be gratified with a
levy of 2000 men. It's probable, they may doe their businesse without them; and a refusall of them in this pinch would exceedingly grate, and bring the reality of your friendshipp under great suspition. The duke of Orleans his being at Paris, and doated on by
that people, makes some beleeve, that this winter may proove no less dangerous then the
summer hath don. I am,
May it please your honor,
Your most humble and faithfull servant,
Col. John Clerke to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.
May it please your lordship,
I Understand your lordship hath had intimation of some unhandsome carriadge towards you from hence touching the non-payment of some freight for goods carried over for Ireland, and that with some slightenes and disrespectfulnes towards your lordship, and that myselfe should be therein concerned. My lord, I am troubled, that any such misrepresentation should be layd before you; and I should be much more, if I were not well assured, there hath not been the least occasion given for any such thing. True it is, there came (a long while since) a master of a vessell to the commissioners for the admiralty, demanding payment for some goods carried over for your lordship, upon a note or certificate from Mr. George; but they found themselves not empowred by any rules to defray such chardge, and it being not within their compasse, were necessitated to a non-compliance, but surely without the least thought or act of any reflection or disrespect to your lordship. And whoever hath represented any such thing, your lordship may be confident there is no truth in it, but rather some traducement to make their desires more attaineable. And for my owne part, as I know nothing therein, that may pretend to the breach of that duty and service I owe to your lordship, so I presume and hope your lordship will not please to harbor any thing, that may (causelesly) render me under offence, but reckon me still as one, that desires heartily to expresse himselfe
Whitehall, 5 Aug. 1656.
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Received your letter. Lieut. general Brayne came hither on saturday last: hee will have a speedy dispatch of his businesse, butt for shipping wee heare noe newes of them. Our men lye in a bad country, where they have but ill lodging, and noe market townes, which makes it the more troublesome; butt very forward they are to goe upon the bussinesse, daily expecting the shipping, and think it long till they come; but I hope they will come speedily. I returne you thanks for your newes. You have little in requitall. All the councill here are like to bee chosen members of parliament but myself. I have kept myself and major general Morgan from being chosen, because I know wee cannott bee spared from home; but it were well wee had a councill here to carry on our businesse. Therefore if his highnesse soe think fitt, it were necessary, that orders were sent in time to stay some of them heere. All thinges heare are quiett; only monies are scarce. My lord president, I think, will begin his journey from hence upon munday come fortnight; butt his friends heere are sorry to part with him, especially him, who is his and
Your most humble servant,
A letter of intelligence.
Mr. John Freeman. Sir, and loving friend,
The news continueth, the Swedes have the best. We should have had further particulars, but that the king of Sweden's letters to the chancellor at Elbing are intercepted between Warsaw and Thorn, the messenger killed by a wrangling party of the Poles, which shewed themselves before Thorn. Last week was some report at Elbing, that the king of Poland is since the late action taken prisoner, but the best intelligence knows nothing of it.
A letter of intelligence.
Mr. William Blake: Loving friend,
The operation of the planets, which are the tokens of war, it seems dispose the world in lying as well as fighting. Every post brings stores, and the Swedes coin-house, they say here, most plenty, and of the likeliest shape. These I leave to others. The history of the Swedes is blazed great with the retaking of Warsaw. Here they say, that the king of Poland deserted it, by reason of the plague, and some disorder amongst his people; and we will not allow it to be reported here, that the king of Poland is beaten, though it be writ of a certain from several places.
An intercepted letter of Barklay to col. Bennet.
Yours of the 21st of the last month hath been four days in my hands, all which time I have employed in finding out the person you mentioned in it, and have at last heard he is in company of Mr. Lockhart, the protector's resident in this country, and like to stay with him here yet a good while; for the present they are at court, with whom they lest this town above two months since, and are not like to return to it without them.
I am sorry to see my friends coldness towards me at this time, that I most need their kindness. Besides the present disappointment, I am troubled to see in them so visible a mark of their despair of ever seeing me useful to them; but 'tis cast away, to say more of this subject. I will therefore conclude, telling you we are not like to stay long in this country, but to leave it for good and all.
H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
You say in your laste of the 29th of July, that the Irish packet was not then come to you. I hope you have since received that week's letters, by which, in one to yourself, I then gave you my apprehensions fully.
Capt. Vernon landed here uppon the laste Lord's day, which was contrary to my expectation, and the rather, because his highness was pleased lately to hint to me, that it was intended, he should not suddenly returne. He boasts much to every body of his plaine or rather saucy dealeing with his highness.
We have bin of late more than ordinarily quiet. His return hath somewhat heightned that party, and revived their former writings and consultations, which have since been so frequent, that they have bin taken notice of by strangers. Whether he was instructed to communicate any thing to that partye (for none else were admitted) or that there meetings are to finde out some matter for Sankey to make a new clamour in Englande, I cannot well tell; but sure I am, these practises doe prejudice his highness interest and affaires here, and renew my discouragement. It is likewise upon his coming over confirmed, that Harrison and Morgan must be detained in England; and they say it is for some present contrivances transacted by myself and them, which are not judged meet to be made publique. How much I suffer in my reputation hereby, you may easily conjecture. I believe the hard measures I have mett with in my work here can scarce be parallelled.
Did I thinke these my sufferings to be in the least advantageous to his highnesse's interest or my lord deputy's service, I could the better bare them; but when I consider how much things of late have rather tended and still doe to publique prejudice, and to gratify and support a discontented inconsiderable interest here, it makes my burthen insupportable.
Sankey comeinge at the writeinge this letter to take his leave of me, and to purge himself from writinge or any way abettinge any thinge to my prejudice, with his frequent appeale to God as to his integritie therein, and his true respect to me, and full satisfaction concerning my management of affaires here, in his discourse tolde me of Harrison's stoppe, and
Morgan's being sent for, and made this observation uppon it, that such extraordinary
courses were not fit means to compose differencyes here. When he perceived, that I took
notice, and inquireing of him, from whom he had this intelligence, he would not tell me.
If there be any such reall intention (which I must confesse I have not bin jealous of altogether without grounde) you see, that he and others are more privie to your secret management of affaires than myself. We as yet heare nothing of sir John Reynolds, who perhaps
may acquaint us with things more then yet we knowe. I have nothinge worth your trouble
concerninge publique affairs here. Things are quiet here; much labouring by some here to
get into the next parliament; but I hope you will have sober persons sent hence. The choice
of Scott and Birch doe not portend much good. I am
Your most affectionate friend and servant,
A letter of the Dutch ambassadors in Denmark.
Yesterday was effectuated in our lodgings, according to the orders of their high and mighty lordships, and the inclosed copy of the treaty was signed by the lords ryxhosmaster and ryx-chancellor in the behalf of the king, and by us in the name of their high and mighty lordships; the ryx-marshal, who is at present in the country, is daily expected to sign the same likewise. As soon as that is done, we will send the original to their high and mighty lordships; and in the mean time we hope the enclosed copy will serve to hasten so much the more the ratification thereof. The ships, which brought the king out of Norway, are still in the Sound, which are kept there through contrary winds.
The lord ryx-hosmaster hath promised to us, that although the ships of his majesty before Dantzick, as his lordship said, could be thought unnecessary at this time, care shall be taken to give content to their high and mighty lordships about what is agreed. The secretary of Dantzick, who is here at present, hath well delivered his credentials; but not yet had audience of the king.
The commissioners of the admiralty at Amsterdam to the Dutch ambassador in England.
We have to our grief understood, what to our subscribed secretary, being thereof advertised out of England, was communicated; namely, that some owners and freighters of the English ships, which in May last past sailing out of the Texel, under the convoy of Peter Salomons, and the next day being met with two squadrons of Flemish private men of war, being twelve in number, were taken, have been imboldened to inform his highness the lord protector and council by a petition, that the said captain having promised to defend them, had not accomplished the same, but did suffer them to be taken without shooting one shot for them. And whereas the same is wholly contrary to the truth, and might operate some sinister impression in the high renowned lord protector and council, unless his high renowned highness and council were informed to the contrary by a nearer information, we have found it necessary to acquaint your lordship with the very truth concerning the same, to represent it, if occasion be thereunto offered, certifying your lordship, that the said captain being bound for Shetland to meet the then expected ships coming from the East Indies, it was then also ordered, at the petition of divers merchants and skippers, to convoy in his way the said merchant ships, which were bound for Lynn, Hull, and Newcastle, without distinction; and in pursuance thereof at the same time, though not one Dutch ship offered themselves to go under his convoy, he set sail with ten English ships; and the next day, in manner aforesaid, being met first by six Dunkirkers frigots, after some conference had with the commander, according to the custom of seamen, by sending his lieutenant to him, hath not alone actuaily desended the said ships by hard fight, wherein he could not act according to his desire, by reason it was very calm, and because the most part of the English ships were forsaken by their people, and that but few of them did their duty, but was notwithstanding resolved, recovering a little wind against night, to engage with them anew again, with hope to recover some or all the said ships again, but that he was prevented in that his design by the approaching of six other frigats of Ostend, who joining themselves with the former, in revenge of the suffered damage (the parties being unequal) have overmastered the said captain and ship, and brought him to Ostend, where he doth lye at this present, having had in the said engagement two dead, and divers wounded; as also suffered much damages in the masts, sails, and hulk of the ship, which had not been done, in case he had not defended himself, according to the pretended untrue information of the said people; and that alone is sufficient enough to refute their calumnious figments. What is passed in the said engagement we sent here inclosed, with a copy of the first letter written very ingenuously by the said captain to us, being bought up at Ostend, and a certification or affidavit of his officers, being thereunto required by our commissioner Bastiaen Janssen; hoping that your lordship will find therein sufficient matter to vindicate the truth, as we very earnestly beseech your lordship; and herewith recommending your lordship to the tuition and protection of the Almighty. Amsterdam, the 17th of Aug. 1656. [N. S.]
The answer of the States General to Schroder, the envoy of Dantzick.
The States General of the United Netherlands having read over and considered the iterative memorandum and proposition, which the lord Christian Schroder, envoy of the city of Dantzick, hath delivered to their high and mighty lordships, they do declare to be resolved on their side, powerfully to assist the said city in their present inconveniency; and that to that end their extraordinary ambassadors residing at present in Prussia shall continue with very great earnestness their begun offices and endeavours, that by a speedy treaty they may be assured and quieted, that the inhabitants, as well those of the said city, as of these countries, shall not be disturbed or molested directly or indirectly, by or in the behalf of the king of Sweden, in their navigation and commerce upon the east sea; and likewise that they shall not be molested with any new tolls or imposts in his kingdoms and countries, than what were raised at the times of the last treaties made with Sweden; yea at least in case of raising the tolls and taxes, not to be taxed higher than the native inhabitants or others the least assessed foreigners, in case any of them should be favoured more than the native inhabitants; and likewise that it be especially endeavoured, that the said city of Dantzick be included in the said treaty, and that the said city also consequently shall not be molested directly or indirectly by the one or the other of the contracting parties in their navigation and commerce, nor also in their countries, places, dominions, rights, and privileges, but also that their high and mighty lordships have further resolved and already put in execution, that their whole fleet sent for the east-land shall be brought before Dantzick, to prevent as much as is possible, that the said harbour should not be block'd up by the Swedish ships. Likewise that their high and mighty lordships have writ to their ambassadors amongst the rest, that they should represent to the duke of Brandenburgh, how sensible it would be to their high and mighty lordships, that any of his troops or ships should be used to help to oppress the said city of Dantzick; and to endeavour as much as they can to dispose the said duke, to the end he would give such order, that the same may be absolutely prevented. Likewise that their high and mighty lordships have also charged their lords ambassadors in Denmark to make overture of all the abovementioned to the king of Denmark, and to move his majesty, that he will also be pleased to afford his assisting hand, especially that he would provisionally contribute a considerable number of men of war towards the preservation of the said city. That furthermore their high and mighty lordships from henceforward consented and agreed, that in case beyond expectation difficulty should be made by the said king of Sweden in the concluding of the offer'd or to be offer'd renovation and amplification of the alliance, especially with the inclusion of the said city of Dantzick; or that his majesty shall presently resolve after the date of the offer made or yet to be made, that the said city of Dantzick shall be effectually subsidied for their defence by this state with the sum of 12,000 rix-dollars per mensem, and that therein shall be continued, as long as the said city shall remain blocked up or besieged; that the free commerce from and to the same is thereby hindered, prevented, or molested. Done in the Hague, the 17th of Aug. 1656. [N. S.]
Copy of a letter written from the camp before Condé, Aug. 17, 1656. [N. S.]
Conde capitule depuis deux jours par faute de vivres. Il demandoit 20 jours, apres lequel temps ils vouloient sortir armes & bagage. On leur a repondu, qu'ils pouvoient sortir dans 3 jours; si non qu'on les veut tous avoir pour prisonniers de guerre. En fin ils se sont disposes à accepter ces conditions, de sorte que je croy, que nous entrons dans la place dans deux ou trois jours. Nous avons appris cette nuit, que mons. de Turenne marche vers Flandre. L'on dit, que c'est pour recevoir des Anglois, qui y debarquent, & pour entreprendre quelque chose en ce pais-là; ce qui a obligé nos generaux de faire partir tout à l'heure le prince de Ligne avec 4000 chevaux, pour aller mettre les places à couvert.
Pour les affaires du roy d'Ecosse il est certain, qu'on a fait un traitté avec l'Espagne; mais dans la disposition, ou je vois les choses, il n'y a encore aucun dessein formé, ni point de preparatiss pour aucune entreprise. Le roy d'Ecosse n'a encore point du tout de trouppes à luy, ni point de navires que pour pirater.
Mons. le prince de Condé n'a pas encor receu un sou; & puisque l'Espagne n'a pas de l'argent pour luy en donner, il n'y a point d'apparence, qu'ils on donnent beaucoup au roy d'Ecosse, qui ne leur est pas si necessaire. Nos victoires ne diminuent pas nostre pauvreté & misere, qui est inconcevable.
A letter of intelligence.
Severall I have written to you, which I houp will come to your hands. Of the reseaipt of them I should bee glad to heere. This is a copy of myne of the 12 current, which I wonder by the secret I left my brother/butler to give you, and for fear that you could not understand it, or that it would not proove as I expected, I send you this by another way, which is sure, thow chargeable. If the secret fales out well, I will make ues of it, thow very troublesome; and a man cannot be sure, that he writes all he desires by it. There is not such danger in those, that comes as goes. I advised/axd you how, France/Fruxe treats/tart with Spanish king/Sparter for peace/palme; and that most privatly. I dar say, that none heere knew of it but thoes that treted with them, but myselfe. Thow they reported some days agoe, that they weere gon, they are heere as yet, only owne of them, that parted to France/Fruxe. As yet there is noe appirance of any thing to be effected, nor I believe there will not; and if any think hastens them to effect, it is the feare that cardinal/Creame has, that you would make peace/palme now with Spain/Sparter, seeing this blow hee received; and I believe you may have peace/palme now, if soe disposed, and you/yx have the best way, that can be for it, in making it Spain's/Sparter's business, soe that you come to desire none, but that they shall; soe that you may doe in this as you shall think fitt. I allsoe advised/axd you, how they denyed Portugal/Panta of peace/palme, notwithstanding the great conditions they offered them heere. You are to take notis, that Bilbo/Borama has 8 ships/stakes this year in New founland or thereabouts for fish; the least of them is 100 tonns. They have them all in Basques/Deurxsu name, and as they come they will fall into Bilbo/Barama, and if they meet with protector's/protrax's ships/Stakes, they will pay for the former. If you/yx send but 9 ships/Stakes in the next month, you/yx will take all the ships/stakes, and doe Spain/Sligo much harm more than you can imagin, for they cannot bee without fish/bink; besydes you/yx reip another benefitt more considerable, which is the trade England/Egington kept with Spain for fish/bink is considerable. These ships/stake Bilbo/Borama has, belongs most to gentlemen of the towne, and Bilbo/Borama had never a ship/stake before in this trade; and if they bee not taken, and that peace/palme comes between you/yx and Spain/Sligo, they will continue the trad, and hender much England/Egington; and if now destroyed, they will noe more meddle with it.—Allsoe have a care of the Holland/Hunts ships/stakes, that goe from Bilbo/Borama, and from St. Sebastian/Smoke to Holland/Huxly, for this weeke there goes down above zo of don John/Inrade, and considerable men/maps to imbarke for Holland/Huxly. If I had money/make, I would agon to Cadiz/Clyrn, and advised/ax how things stand; for rest confident, I will service you/yx really; the first year/getg will be the wowrst, for this is imployments, that I/Ix never dealt in before; and becaus these heere du not pay me but with words and promises, I/Ix do the mor boldly serve you/yx. I/Ix would neaver serve two masters; and be consident it is not for the pension/plate I/Ix would ronn the riesgg I doe here, but that it is good; but for the future is it that Ix look uppon you; and be confident Ix will deserve it, as you/yx will know be the time. Of this I will say no more. — They oppen all the letters/cards, which was seldom before used. If there were any place out of the kingdom, that one might send them directly, one would not care, nor would not have hafe the feare he has now. When the first money/make comes, I will make a journey to a towne half way to St. Sebastian/Smoke, and leave one there to receive the letters/cards, and allow him so much a yeare, to goe more sure to work. Secondly I am resolved to employ there the first hafe year's money/plate in presents to give to secretaries/starkies, which will avail much (as you/yx shall see) and to tell you the truth, if I had recover'd any of his owne, he would doe it out of hand; but lx feare much, that they will not pay hem any, till there be peace/palme with England/Egington; for I pretended always, that all what was due to me belonged to those of England/Egington. Ix writ to you, as hee did in his of the 2 current, a purpos, for feare of it's miscarrying heere. They are very proud heere for the last victory/xlewston, and make them the more careless of any thing else. That of Naples troubles them much. Of Scots king/Starmer not a wourd. Ix believes card. Mazarin advised you that treaty/Creame axd this tarte he dus with Spain/Sligo, is only to please the papists/perry; and if he gets things to fall out to his liking, he will embrace it, and leave you/yx allowne, for there is no trust to card. Mazarine/Creame. Those, that are here about the peace/palme, stands the king/kainfer 9 thousand potts a mouneth, I meane their table. Prince of Conde writ to don Lewis de Haro/Comton wander to Liver to give noe belief nor trust to card. Mazarin/Creame in this treaty/tarte he does; for he intends not really. Be sure, Ix will serve you faithfully, as you/yx shall know by a business hee has now in hand, if it takes effect, which is considerable; for if a Turke had trusted Ix, Ix will not faile hem: until Ix heere, that you receved some of his, you shall not heare much more, unles some earnest bussines happens. Faile not to writ to me allwayes, that you receive myne, thow you writ but 2 lynes; and be pleased to send me some news/nosegayes now and then. In Catalogne/Eandrd nor against Portugal/Pantbma nothing a doing in the one side nor the others, nor any manner of preparation. This being all at present, expecting to hear from you. I would you/yx had sent there hence my brother/butler for Flanders/Frinds; it would availe much in a certain way.
A letter of intelligence.
I Wrote to you yesterday from Mechlen, that Condé was surrendered. It hath been since controverted on the exchange, but I have seen letters for it from the marquis of Caracena to his lady, so that is true enough. Charles Stuart hath very great hopes. If the French get no revenge, it is like this winter you shall have some Spanish forces to quarter with you; for it is thought there will not be quarters enough for them all here. The prisoners of Valenciennes are used like dogs. If you send not a bill of exchange to me to Mr. Jean Skellikens, notary at Louvain, I shall be forced to come home with the first occasion.
The Dutch ambassadors in Prussia to the States General.
High and mighty lords.
My lords, We sent your high and mighty lordships in our last two printed relations, containing a narrative of what past between the Polish and Swedish army, together with the victory, which the Swedes got against the Poles. Since we have not received any further particulars concerning the same. Concerning the letters from Thorn, which arrived here a few days since, they mention a second fight, and that 1000 of the Tartars were slain upon the place, and the king of Poland taken prisoner; but this doth not prove true.
We are very well assured by a good hand, of the peaceable good intention of the duke of Brandenburgh for the making of an accommodation between Poland and Sweden; for the furthering of which Christian work the said duke hath authorized the lord Ottoury to cooperate with us to the same end; and that the king of Sweden is well inclined to propose bonas conditiones pacis to the king of Poland.
The Dutch ambassadors at Elbing to M. Beverning.
We advised your lordship in our last of the 11th current, how far we had proceeded in our business in the foregoing conferences concerning the securing of the commerce and navigation upon the east sea, and in the kingdoms and countries of his majesty of Sweden; as also concerning the raising of the tolls, for the effecting of their high and mighty lordships intention contained in their resolution of the 1st of June and the 7th of July last. Since we have made very earnest instance in the late conferences, to the end the inhabitants of the United Netherlands might not be burthened and molested now or hereafter with any higher tolls than the proper subjects. But we hitherto cannot obtain the same, the Swedish commissioners pretending, that the same is impossible to be done; and in their regard not practicable, but with the greatest prejudice, yea of the ruin of the navigation of Sweden. That it was no new thing, that the inhabitants were exempted from some tolls; but it hath been offer'd time out of mind, and that the same was done upon a very good ground; and proceed from thence chiefly, that according to the laws of the kingdom the subjects of Sweden were forced to support, as well in the equipping as sailing of their ships, considerable charges and expences, as well in regard of the building of the ships themselves, as the much manning and mounting the same. That notwithstanding the inequality of paying of the tolls, it hath been found afterwards by experience, that the Netherland nation did far exceed through their industry in the navigation to the harbours of Sweden, above the natural subjects. That if now the Netherland nation should be equalized in the payment of the tolls with the proper subjects, that then against that which we proposed, should be introduced, the greatest inequality, in regard thereby the navigation would be made useless to the Swedish nation; especially if so be, that that which we now endeavour to stipulate for ourselves, we should intend to obtain the same right for those of England and Denmark. That formerly many instances had been made in the behalf of their high and mighty lordships for what we now urged; and also namely at that time, that the alliance was made in the year 1640, but that for reasons now alledged nothing could be done in it; and that they the said Swedish commissioners did not doubt, but as their high and mighty lordships were formerly pleased to defer proceedings in this business upon their said reason, that they will now likewise acquiesce, and be contented, that their inhabitants are used as gens amicissima & conjunetissima. We shall not fail further to continue in our earnest endeavours, and see how far we shall be able to move the lords Swedish commissioners for the effecting of the intention of their high and mighty lordships.
Concerning the inclusion mentioned in our last, there do arise only some considerations, in regard of the three first de modo inclusionis, and how far the same is to be extended; but what concerneth the city of Dantzick, we have perceived some further difficulty; and we have most earnestly represented concerning the same, how very much their high and mighty lordships are concerned in the welfare and subsistence of the said city, and the preservation of their liberties, rights, and privileges; and that therefore the said projected inclusion would be a means for the effecting thereof. Whereupon the said Swedish lords commissioners did declare to us, that they were charged by his majesty concerning the same; but yet notwithstanding they were able to say, that his said majesty is no ways inclined to ruin the said city, but on the contrary to preserve it in its rights and privileges; and besides they moved some dubia concerning the said inclusion, relating as well to the inclusion itself, as concerning the modo inclusionis, containing the first, namely the inclusion itself; that it was very considerable to be thought on by his majesty and their high and mighty lordships to include in a treaty a city, which they did not know, that the same would be willing to be included in it; that they ought to be first well assured of its inclination and disposition. And concerning the second modum inclusionis, in case the same were inclined to be included, that there is some speculation to be had, how and in what manner the same ought to be included. That the said city was membrum reipublicæ Poloniæ, & urbs subdita regi Poloniæ, and was incorporated in the same; and so the same in regard of Sweden was a hostile city, which during the war with Poland, and quà talis could not be included. That it was also a member of the royal Prussia, and with the towns Elbing and Thorn it had sessionem & votum in comitiis; that it had always enjoyed the rights and privileges given to Prussia; that the said part of Prussia being at present occupied by the arms of Sweden, there must be first agreed, in what wise the city of Dantzick will desire to be considered hereafter, whether as a member as heretofore, and consequently continue in the custom and use of the said jura, privilegia, and liberties, for the preservation whereof we speak, or as a separate body, and a city, which subsists by herself. If so be as a membrum of Prussia, that then in such a case it ought to help bear with its own joint members the common charges of the body, and ought to be considered amongst the same. In case as a separate corpus, that there ought to be mutually agreed likewise about the same. We thought it our duty to communicate succinctly to your lordship the abovementioned consideration, to the end that there may be made upon the same such due reflection by their high and mighty lordships, according to their usual and great wisdom; as also what was mentioned in our last to your lordship concerning the disposition of the said city of Dantzick to the inclusion; that so their high and mighty lordships may take such resolution concerning the same, as they shall think fit. We shall expect the same with impatience: in the mean time we shall do all that we can for the effecting of their high and mighty lordships good intentions.
Extract out of the secret resolutions of the high and mighty lords the States General of the United Netherlands.
It being had into deliberation, it was resolved, that the advice of Holland concerning the defensive alliance to be made between France, England, and this state, shall be sent to the respective provinces, with a request, that they will speedily bring their provincial advice upon it into the assembly.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
This day was at last concluded the passage-mony with six provinces, not without very great opposition of those of Holland, who of a very great while never shewed so much animosity in a business as in this; for the president being risen from off the presidial chair, they would have obliged the lord of Renswoude to have retaken the chair. We shall see what will be done upon it on monday next.
As to the 1500 men to be sent to the fleet before Dantzick, in regard that the earl of Horne would not go thither, those of Holland proposed this morning the lord of Starenburgh; upon condition however, that all the troops being come to Dantzick, the lord Percevall shall command them. But in the business of the subsidy nothing was concluded.
This day all the commissioners of the states of Holland were in the assembly of the States General, where they did so well labour and endeavour, both in public and in private, that they made lord Crommon of Zealand and the lord of Renswoude to be for them (to whom they have given hope of a company for his son) that they have gotten the resolution of saturday to be annull'd for the passage-money, so that the same is refer'd back again to the hands of commissioners to be examined; and by this means the provinces will be wearied out.
He writes, that he heard the Swedes do visit the ships of the Pillauw, to see whether they carry no goods belonging to Dantzick. Two of the ambassadors were at Dantzick to speak and confer with the magistrates about the point of commerce. Item, to let them know, that they were going to the king of Poland, whether Dantzick had any thing to recommend unto them.
In favour of some merchants of Rotterdam was required a letter of recommendation to the king of Portugal; but they never write to him, for they must write to him bono amico, and they do not hold him for such a one, so that they refuse to give any such letter.
There hath been again a memorandum presented for the business of Dantzick, and those of Holland have an act or project for a reconciliation, according to which they will endeavour to make such conclusion in the business of Dantzick; but it is deferr'd till to-morrow. It is observed, that the ambassador of Spain on saturday last at the conference did invite to dinner by word of mouth all the commissioners, that were there with him; but afterwards did pass by the lord Knyff, and caused the lord Bootsma to be invited, which did so very much disoblige the lord Knyff, who being ready to depart, he substituted the lord Wyckell in his commission for the conferences with the ambassador of Spain, passing by the lord Bootsma, who was formerly of it.
The letters from Elbing and Dantzick do advise, that the two ambassadors were returned from Dantzick to Elbing, pursuing the treaty with the Swedes. That there had not happened any thing between the armies.
There hath been again a memorandum of the ambassador, recommending a free pass for the baggage for his highness don John. The memorandum being a little offensive against England, the president took it to himself, for fear it should fall into the hands of the English.
This day was again some correction made in the resolution for the business of the east, wherein they have followed more than yesterday the advice of Zealand; that first there shall be presented to the king of Sweden the declarative act or form of renewing the treaty or alliance of the years 1640 and 1645, which acts I think to have sent you formerly; and that if the king will not conclude that, that then Dantzick is to be assisted with a subsidy of 12,000 ryx-dollars, &c.
Item, Letters are to be sent to the ambassadors at Prussia, to regulate themselves precisely according to certain secret resolutions of the 28th of March 1656. Item there is to be included in the treaty the republic of England and the king of Denmark. Item, the elector of Brandenburgh and the town of Dantzick. It was also said, that the king of France ought to be included; but there was answer made by others, that the king of Sweden would take care enough for that himself; and if they spoke of France, that the king of Spain would be angry that he was omitted.
General Mountagu to secretary Thurloe.
Havinge the opportunity of this French merchant goinge to Bordeaux, I thought good to adventure a letter by him, to lett you know our present station, though I have little else worth writinge. On munday last wee came to an ankor before this harbor (havinge sett sayle out of Cales-bay on friday last) and heard nothinge from England since the Griffin. On tuesday morninge wee sent an invitation to the governor to come to termes of amitie and agreement with us, which overture he embrased, and appointed to send commissioners to our shipp the day or two next followinge; but before they came on board us, there appeared at sea two ships, standinge in for this place; whereupon wee gave order to some of ours to weigh, and go and speak with them. As soon as they perceive ours to approach them, they haled in close with the shore; and when the found they could not escape takinge by our ships, they sailed right afore the wind upon the rockes and soe staved in peeces presently. They proved to be two ships of the governor's: owne of old Salley, three Christians, and a Greeke were drowned, but most of their owne men and the rest of the slaves escaped to the shore. Since this accident the governor's deputies have beene on board us, and seeme forward to conclude with us; only they are unwillinge to part with their captives (which are not above 24 in number, without money, which wee insist upon as dishonourable for us, that appeare before their port with the English standard. The deputies are gone backe into the towne againe, and should have returned to us this day, but wee have had noe news of them; the reason we suppose is, that this day is a sabbath amongst them. But I see no reason to doupt of a good conclusion with them. There are more of theire men of warr at sea, and expected in hourely; and if the agreement be not made before they appeare in sight, there lott may be perhapps like unto the others. Excuse this trouble from
Aug. 8, 1656. Aboard the Naseby at an ankor before the barr of Sallye.
In the tower of London, the 8th of August, 1656.
By virtue of an order from his highness the lord protector and council, dated at Whitehall the 24th of July last, I delivered to the master of the mint two hundred and nineteen thousand five hundred and fifty two pieces of eight, which weigh fifteen thousand seven hundred and thirty pounds and half an ounce; which monies were delivered into his highness tower of London by the captains of the Phœnix and Sapphire frigots, viz.
Mr. Tho. Titon to capt. Kiffen.
I Had not given you this trouble, but that I conceive it very much concerns the publick. Being the last week in a place, where capt. Chillendon was, among other discourse he had, he said yourselfe intended to stand for one of the knights of the shire for Middlesex; but he had so ordered the businesse, as he would give yourselfe, sir William Roberts, and Baxter a rowt; for Mr. Shute, Mr. Browne, sir James Harrington, and Mr. Berners should carrie it in despight of all, for his brother in law was at present the under-sheriffe, and would doe whatever he would have him; and that himselfe with 7 or 800 did intend to be att Branford by 7 of the clock that morneing, where Mr. Shute and his brother had taken up their inn together. The way that he ingages and disaffectes men is, he tells them, that his highness hath sent for 3000 Swissers for his owne guard; that he has under hand sold the trade of England to the Hollanders, and will not grant any convoy to the English ships from Holland, soe that our shipps are laid up both there and heere; that there is a resolution taken in most counties of England to bring up their numbers with thousands, and not to suffer Oliver nor his redcoates to disturb them; that he has his scouts in the army, and doth undertake on his life, that there is not 500 in the whole army will oppose them, but most will join with them. Sir, such kind of speeches as these doe much mischief; but I cannot remember a tenth. These are only some. He said he had beene with most of the honest, stout, active Englishmen, and would work night and day, till he saw what was designed accomplished. Sir, I chose the rather to write to you, for that I know you may soone informe yourselfe by your acquaintance, whether this be a truth or noe; though I have not added one syllable, but left out thousands that I heard, that I cannot at present remember, that so you may give his highnes a speedy account; for I know, if some course be not taken with him, before the elections, he is resolved to doe mischief there as well as in the mean time, and after he will be doeing in other places. Sir, I never directly or indirectly had to doe with the man; only the peace of the nation, the safetye of his highnes, in whome under God is the safetye and peace of all that truly love and feare the Lord in the three nations, is laid, put me on giveing you this trouble. I am
Major general Goffe to secretary Thurloe.
I Perceive by your last, as well from other hands, that the unquiett spirrit of discontented men doth beginn to shew itselfe, hoping to make there advantages out of the approaching assembly; and that you may see wee are not without some of that breed in the country, I have sent them the inclosed papers. Mr. Bowghton's letter came to my hands this morning. Hee is an understanding person, and knowes as much of the present temper of Sussex, as any man, that I am acquainted with; and truely when I was att assizes in Sussex, I did heere, that Bishopp was beginning to stir in the country; and that he hath too greate an influence upon some gentlemen. He was once your prisoner; I know not upon what terms released. The printed paper come from Southampton enclosed in a letter to the postmaster of this towne, expecting him to stand to his good old principles, &c. but noe hand to the letter; which was but 3 or 4 lines. There was inclosed 4 bookes: the letter and bookes being brought to mee, I sent to the postmaster of Hampton to come to mee, who saith he had the letter from one Mr. Cole of Hampton, who was a ringleader in that busines of indeavouring the last weeke to have putt by my lord Lisle from being burges for that towne, and to have brought in Mr. Bulkley in his roome. He is noe man knows what as to religion, but enclining to the way of the Quakers, yett one of the burgesses of the towne. I have sent for him to come to mee on monday; and as I find cause, shall demand of him securities for his peaceable demeanor. I heere he did disperse some of these pamphlets into the isle of Wight, and some weere scattred about the streetes in the markett places at Southampton, to dispose them for there choyse, which I suppose you have heard was carried for my lord Lisle by foure voyces. Sir, I shall not further trouble you at present, save to subscribe myselfe
Winton, 8th of August, 1656.