State Papers, 1656: August (5 of 7)

Pages 316-332

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 5, May 1656 - January 1657. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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In this section

August (5 of 7)

A letter of intelligence.

Antwerp, 26 August, 1656. [N.S.]


I Was not with the army this season. Ormond was there employed, and honourably received and entertained during his abode. What his negotiation is, I know not, by reason of my absence, but I fear it is in order to trouble the water again; and do hope in God it will be to no purpose, for our poor friends have no more need of unquietness. The gaining of Condé by the Spaniards is very remarkable, the place being extreme strong, and manned with 4000 of their best men at the surrender. Valence in Milan was also relieved, to the shame of the French. This day it is confidently reported, that a cessation of arms is concluded between the kings in Catalonia, and like to extend in the rest of the quarters, in order to the concluding of a peace; but though I do not believe this, yet I dare not seem diffident. The emperor hath sent 12,000 men to destroy the duke of Modena. The Spanish army is still at Condé. We expect they will besiege St. Ghilain. The times are very troublesom here. I wish myself in England to avoid any commerce with troublesom spirits here, who are very busy.

A letter of intelligence.

Bruges, the 26th/16 of August, 1656.

Vol. xli. p. 528.

This is my tenth since I had any from you, which is noe small truble unto mee: however I hope I have not deserved to be neglected: if I have, I should desyre to know it, with such admonition, that I should bee able to helpe it. I shall entreat you to let me know my eror. Because I was forced to destroy the first, I must now be forced to be plagued, least you understand not my way of direction. Wednesday last came in the marquiss of Ormond and the lord Newbrugh from don John with much content, and be confident you will know strange things within few wickes. At this tyme I will not take upon mee the perticullars, but by the next I shal be better able in every degree, for things are caried very close amongst us at this time. The earle of Bristo is gon two dayes since to don John againe for the confirmation of great maters, which you shall heere by the next. Wee are in great hopes of quarters for all freinds, that will come hither; and I beeleive before this comes to your hands, it wil be confirmed. Wee are lyke to have quarters for four regiments, one English, one Scots, and two Irish, conteining the number of eight thousand. Sir John Minch is to morow goeing to Dunkirk, to see a proclamation proclaimed to have all liberty granted, as well for the king of Britaigne's shiping, as for any shiping belonging to the king of Spain. I shall not truble you more in this untill the next, but bee confident I will not fayle you. From Holland wee are certainly informed, that the Swede has defeated the Poles, and killed 4000: the number of the Sweds were 23,000 when they sell out, and the Poles 15,000. This is all that I will take upon me for the present; but direct yours to the post-master of Flushing, which will come safe to hands. I hope you know my condition, which I expect you will mend by the next. So craveing pardon for this boldness, I rest, and am,
Sir, Yours till death,
Blanck Marshall.

The superscription,
For Mr. Richard Richarson, merchant in West-chester, to bee left with Mr. Richard Row at the admirality chamber in Whythall, London.

Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.

In the possession of the right honourable the earl of Shelburn.

My lord,
Major Morgan arrived here upon thursday last, and Badley the messenger yesterday. By both of them I had the honour of receiving letters from your lordship; wherto I may be able to give your lordship an answer, when major Morgan shall have opportunitie to speake at large with his highnes, he haveinge had tyme yet only to deliver your lordship's letter to hym. I am glad to heare there will be soe good an election in Ireland. I doe assure your lordship, there is notable buslinge here. Tom Scott was not content with his election at Aylesburye, but endeavoured to be chosen at Wickham, but lost it ther. Colonell Bridges, late major to Okey, is chosen, who (as your lordship knowes) is a very honest sober man. I suppose your lordship hath seene a booke called, A healing question. The author is sir H. Vane, wherein he doth noe lesse then propose a new government to the people. The councell beinge very ill satisfied with this booke, hath sumoned him to appear before them to answere it. Others have beene endeavouringe to raise disturbances, who are ordered to be proceeded with, as Okey, Lawson, Rich, Ludlowe, and some of those called St. monarchye-men. Serjeant Bradshawe's comission is also taken from hym as cheife justice of Chester; soe that men begin to thinke, that his highnes doth not call this parlament to submit this governement to them, as being weary of it, which is most industriouslye instil'd into the people by Scot and others.

I received your lordship's with the enclosed concerninge a designe in Ireland by the Papists, whereof I shall make the best improvement I can. I finde this agreable to other intelligence I have. Certeinely Galloway is designed upon to surprize it, and I heare armes for for 8000 foot and 2000 horse are transportinge into those parts; and there is one Bourke and one Browne, liveinge not farre from Galloway, are to be instruments in it. I judge this designe is not brought to any great ripenes: however it will be good to strengthen that garrison, but yet without observation; and if some fitt persons were imployed to those two persons, somewhat may be got out of them, if the matter were dextrouslye carryed on. When I have any thinge further, your lordship shall have it from
Your lordship's most humble and faithful servant,
Jo. Thurloe.

Major general Lilburne to the protector.


May it please your highnesse,
I Have imparted your last commands to some particular friends, and shall shortly have a further opportunity, and then I shall be more able to give your highness an account of their apprehensions. Those whom I have discoursed withall conclude it a very prudential way, but advise (until the election be over) that there be an understanding of the tempers of those, that are chosen, to be passive, conceiving there is no eminent danger upon us, but such as will blow over, unless your highness understand more from forraine parts; though it is apparent many at home are fraught with perverse spirits, and labour to sett up some new interest, wherein they might be sharers; but therein I hope they will be disappointed; and I doubt not but there will be sober men enough to ballance such. I shal therefore waite your highnesse further pleasure, and desire, that the Lord may soe direct your highnesse and the great councell you have called, that your resolves may meet each other in those ways of righteousness, love, and peace, that may bee acceptable unto him, and refresh the harts of all your frends, and those especially, that feare the Lord. I remain
Your highnesse's most humble servant,
Rob. Lilburne.

Yorke, 16 Aug. 1656.

Lockhart, ambassador in France, to secretary Thurloe.

In the possession of the right hon. Philip I. Hardwick, I. high chancellor of Great Britain.

Right honorable,
The last post day being that of the removall of the court from la Ferré to Compiegne, I cowld not performe my duty in wryting to yow; and was the lesse concerned in it, because at that tyme I had not much of consequence to impart. Yesterday I received the cardinall's command to waite upon him, which I obeyed, and found him in a temper so farr different from that I had lest him in, that I cowld not imagine to what I should impute the change. His civilities were greater to me then those I received, when first I had the honor to kisse his hands; and I may say his expressions of kyndnesse for me were such, as I have not confidence enoff to own.

By this post he said he wowld wryte to Mr. de Bordeaux to waite upon his highnesse, to give him his majestie's and his humble thanks for his goodnesse, in being willing to give his assistance to France at a tyme, when their enemies had such ane advantage over them; and said he was confident, that his highnesse in the noblenesse of his caryage to France at this tyme had followed the dictates of his own generous and free disposition, and not those, that the polliticks of this age did use. But withall he told me, that at present he had no use for any men from England, as Mr. Bordeaux will informe you more at large, and give yow his reasons for it, which I shall not repeat. After he had ended that, he was pleased to speak upon this subject, I told him, I had received yowrs of Agust the 7th; and that you had assured me, that Mr. de Bordeaux wowld receive a satisfactorie answer to his demand of levyes for the French service; and that he wowld be limited to no number, nor be refused in no just desyer he cowld make about that businesse. I said this the freelier, because I found you would not be put to make my word good. He said his highnesse goodnesse had exceeded his hope, and that all he cowld doe at present was to lay vows of gratitude upon himself. I told him further, that having informed you of the reports, that were given out (to amuse the enemy) that our army in England was to land in Flanders, and joyne with the French army, his highnesse had indeed sent a fleete to that coast, for no other end, but to give reputation to that report, and by a reall allarum to divert the enemy from their post before Condé. He cowld scarse beleeve me, that your fleete was upon the coast of Flanders, till I asserted it with very great confidence, and offered to produce your letter; for he seemed to be exceeding much taken with it, and hath reason to be so; for I am perswaded the garrison of Condé had been forced to have rendred upon mercy, if Mr. Torein had not offered to march into Flanders; and his march into Flanders wowld never have troubled them if they had not fear'd his conjunction with forces from England.

The cardinal after manie expressions of kyndnesse told me, he was resolved to live otherwyse with me then hitherto hee had don, carryed me into his closet shewed me the minuts of his last in tell i ge n ce from Flanders which becaus he desyers his freedome in that may be conceal'd from the amb. of France and all that nation, I give you an account by it sel fe. He shewed me also that concerning the duke of Y or k and that of Ormond.

After our return to his chamber, he told me, if I had generall powers to treat, he wowld begin a treaty with me about things of very great importance; but that it must be transacted in that secrecy, as none must know but his highnesse, and he, and your honor, and I; and said, I showld see, that he wowld trust me with that he wowld trust non in France with, not his own nephew, who tho' a young man, yett of reasonable good parts, and passionattly affectionatt to him. I answered, that tho' my powers wear a great deale larger then I merited, yett without first acquainting my master with it, I wowld not meddle in a businesse of so great consequence as that might be. He desyred, I showld acquaint you with his proposition in generall; but speaks of it in so mysterious a manner, as I cannot conjecture what his aims are in it, only he speaks of it as a businesse, wherin he is very deeply concern'd.

His eminence made ane appologie to me for mons. de Lion's so long stay at Madrid; and sayd, tho' he had fail'd in the poynt of tyme, and in some other circumstances, yett he had not failed in the main; for mons. de Lion wowld be here very shortly, and the peace with Spain was in as bad a posture, as I cowld wish it. He doth much complain of the house of Austria, as the insolentest and perfidiofest generation of men that ever lived.

The Spanyard hath pay'd him to purpose in this treaty; for since mons. de Lion's being their, they have gott the emperor to send an army into Italie against the duke of Modena, and by that have putt the affaires of France in as sadd a posture in Itally as they are heare. The cardinall doth most bitterlie exclaime against the emperor, who hath broken the treaty of Munster, by which he was oblydg'd not to invest the territories of the dukes of Savoy and Modena, nor to quarrell with them for any assistance they had given or were to give to France against Spayne. I beleeve he fears to be invaded in Alsatia, tho' he said nothing of that to me. He hath sent to all the German princes to complain of the emperor's caryage, and hopes great matters from them.

He hath good hopes, that the peace betwixt Sweden and Holland will be shortly concluded, and the rich present intended for the king of Sweden is now ready, and he sayeth it will be sent very speedily.

I mentioned the businesse of Holland according to your orders received in your last save one. He seemed to relish it very well, and wished his highnesse to entertain any such motion, if offered; and promised he would doe the lyke. He told me of the insolency of the Spanish paper, and how some of the assembly had owned the Spanish interest, and had spoke to the prejudice both of England and France; but he hop'd, having so rashly declared themselves, their counsells wowld be henceforth suspected by all their honest countrymen. The Swed hath withdrawn his forces from Dantzick, and he doubts not but the Hollanders jealousies of him may be so taken away, as they may be made willing to comprehend him and some other German princes in their league with England and France.

At my taking leave he told me, that this last businesse wowld consume a great deal of tyme; but that he had spoke to me of before was a particular, that wowld concern none but his highnesse and himself.

He has been so civill to me, as to prepare a lodging for me in a very faire castle, within a league and a half of Compiegn; sent to Paris for some of the king's furniture for it; but the place is so vast, that my little family wowld be loss'd in it; and it's far from all mercatts, so that I have taken a lodging at Clermont, where I intend to stay, till I have the letter to heare some good newes from you concerning my return.

Sir, I beleeve the cardinall is a little jealos; that I may have unfavorable represented his deportment in that audience I gave you an account of by the two dispatches your last mentioned the receipt of. You are best able to judge, if I did so; and I may assure you, that if I did erre, it was upon the other hand. If it can fall in hansomlie, I begg the French ambassador may know, that I was zealos for the levies upon the terms the cardinall then seem'd to desyer them, after the other businesse was laid asyd.

The queen of Sweden will be at court within a fortnight. I desyer to know your pleasure concerning my cariage to her.

The French armie is entrenched near Lions: the Spanyard is about Bethun. Mr. Turrein will not discamp till the garrison of Condée, and some other recruits, which in all will ammount to six thousand men, aryve at the camp. Their is no probabilitie, that anie considerable action will passe this campagnie; except they fight a battle, which the French will not accept of, untill they be strenthned with the forsaid recruits; and it's supposed after that the Spanyard will declyn fighting. I must begg leave to end very abruptly, having given you my humble assurances, that I am,
Right honorable,
Your most faithfull and obedient servant,
Will. Lockhart.

Clermont, 27/17 Agust, 1656.

The same to the same.

In the possession of the right hon. Philip lord Hardwick, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.

May it please your honor,
I am certainlie informed, that collonell Sexby is retorned into Flanders, and was for many hours together shutt up in a room with him, that was the Spanish embassador in England. Tho' the particulars that past betwixt them cannot be well knowen, yet this moch I am assured of in the generall, that the Spanyards are very well satisfied with his negotiation, and promise themselves great advantages from it. It is certain, that he hath assured them of a castle or town, that hath the command of a harbor, where they may have a safe descent for any forces they will send into England, and that place is not farr from London. He hath also assured them, that at the returne of your fleete their will be a notable mutinie amongst them; and that a revolt of a considerable number of shippes will follow upon it. If Ch. Stewart be allowed a safe retreat for them in any part in Flanders, he hath also given them hope, that upon their landing any forces in England, Ch. Stewart and his brother being upon their head, their wil severall in the army declare for him; and that in Ireland a great part of the army, the whole body of the contry, whether English, Scotts, or Irish, are ready to declare for him upon the first appearance of any having Ch. Stewart's commission; and the nobilitie and gentrie of Scotland will be ready to take arms upon the sending of a person their, who will be fitt to head them. This is the substance of what I found in the minits of the intelligence; only their were two persons named; if they be innocent, I pray God this may doe them no wrong. The one is lord Fairfax the other my lord Lorn, son to the marquiss of Argyle. My lord Ormond is intended for Ireland, where they seem to have a great confidence their businesse will goe roundlie on. Sir, your enemies have many irons in the fyer at this time: I wish, that not only some, but all of them may coole.

I shall give you some circumstances, that may give you jealousie their is something very extraordinary in this businesse: 1. Ch. Stewart and those about him have been very joviall of late, the Spanyard having been more free of their purse to him and his then they were formerly; and give it out, that their king will endeavor Ch. Stewart's re-establishment in England, with as great zeale as he would the preservation of Spain. 2. Sexby hath given so good an account of his businesse, that he hath gott an order for 30,000 crowns, which with the 40,000 received formerly, amounts to a summe, that they use not to disburse, except upon the hope of very considerable returns. 3. Charles Stewart hath appointed a rendesvous in Flanders for all those of his partie, that was scattered abroad in France, Germanie, and Holland. To justifye this, besyds what I see in the generall intelligence, I see the originall letter sent by my lord Ormond to one coll. Muscarrie, an Irishman, who hath a regiment in France, wherin Ormond says he hath received orders from his king to reqwyer him to march with his regiment to such a place in Flanders, as his next showld make knowen to him, when he showld be ready to receive him into a good quarter, and showld pay him half a month's pay for all the officers and soldiers he showld bring along with him; and requyred him not to faile theirin, as he wouwld not be declared a traytor to his king and contry, and abandoned as an unworthy person by all his old frends, who had formerly esteemed him to be a man honor. 4. I am certainly informed, that Watt. Montague within this few days hath writt to the cardinall, shewing him, that the pretended duke of Yorke hath received a verie pressing letter from his brother, reqwyring him to come to him with all possible diligence; conjures him to make haste by all the desyers he hath for the restoration of their family; tells him their affaires have not been in a more hopefull posture; and that he hath secretts of infinite consequence to comunicat to him. My informer tells me, Mr. Montague pleads with a great deale of passion for the cardinall's best advyce in that affaire; and sayes the duke coms to court for no other end but to receive his commands in it, with a resolution to follow them, be what they will. But I must begg leave to tell you upon the by, that I know he is resolved to goe, and takes leave of his mother this next week, and coms to court for no other end butt to begg mony for his transport.

Ch. Stewart hath given commission to generall Lamboy, one of the emperor's generalls, to levy 7 or 8000 Germans to march with them into Flanders, where being aryved he shall receive his further commands; but it's fear'd by some, and hop'd by me, that these Germans will not trouble you, being intended against France; and that his name is borrowed to the levy, to the end the emperor may give his publick assistance to it without breach of the treaty of Munster. Howsoever if it proves so, Ch. Stewart showld have great assurances of the assistance of Spain, when he doth so deeply engadge in their quarrell against France. I was gladd to heare one say with verie great asseverations, his ingratitude showld never be forgot; and if he lived, he should have his revenge.

Sexby's being so long conceal'd in England, when doubtlesse your diligence to fynd him owt hath been great, doeth perswade me, that those he hath dealt with have been few, and persons of interest. Their closse carrying on of that businesse renders it not the lesse dangeros. With mony and threats I have stop'd the post this howre, and can say no more, but that I am,
Right honorabell,
Your most humble and faithfull servant,
Will. Lockhart.

Clermont, 27/17 Aug. 1656.

Count Brienne to Bordeaux, the French ambassador in England.

Compiegne, 28 Aug. 1656. [N. S.]


My Lord,
The post from London being not yet arrived, I have not much to communicate unto you. That of Lyons is already come, and the commanders of his majesty's army before Valence do give us some hopes, that it will soon fall into our hands.

Of the army, which the enemy hath in Flanders, we know no other news, only that it is upon our country, and that it doth give jealousy to many places, and that it is not yet engaged upon any design. It may be they have no other, but to oblige mons. de Turenne to retreat into France, and to secure by his retreat those places, which lye upon the river Lis, the enemy having quartered themselves near the same. What shall pass, shall be made known to you in due time, and of the diligence, which hath been used to send our merchants into England, to compose the differences with the English commissioners.

Major general Whalley to secretary Thurloe.


I Formerly writ to you, and as earnestly as I could, about the clearing of prysons of reprived persons. Every sizes adds to the number, and fills the goales fuller, to the great charge of the countrey. The judges earnestly desired me to write about it; and it being so absolutely necessary, I shall say no more, but leave it with you. Some are fit to be pardoned and set at liberty; others, as hie-way-men, breakers of houses, horse-stealers, &c. you cannot do better than to send them beyond sea, so as they may not returne; for should they be set at liberty here, it would, and not without cause, very much dissatisfye the country. They would quickly fall to theyr old trade agayne. So soone as the election is over, you shall heare from,
Sir, Your most affectionate frend and servant,
Edw. Whalley.

Aug. 18th, 1656.

A letter of intelligence.

Elbing, 29 Aug. 1656. [N. S.]


Mr. George Price,
My most humble duty premised, and to be pleased to take notice my last was 14 days past, which gave you an account of what then I thought needful; since which time little hath happened worth your knowledge. The king of Sweden is coming down with his army, for the most part of the Poles are retired to Lubleene and Samurtia. Great part of the Swedes forces are going for Lyfland, under the command of general Douglass. The Muscovite is for certain fallen into some of his territories; and, as the report goeth, hath besieged Dunenbergh. They have lost two storms against it, but beaten back to their great loss. I much fear, that the Swede will not be able to keep this country, though hitherto he hath been very victorious; for he hath many enemies, that do envy his greatness; and unless this war be reconciled by other potentates, here is little likelihood of peace for some years; as in relation to trade it is so bad, that men know not how to lay out their moneys to any profit.

A letter of intelligence.

Elbing, 29 Aug. 1656. [N. S.]


Mr. Edward Lewis, and loving friend,
I Know not yet what to do with the commodities I have in my hands, till there be a way opened for trade into Poland, which is not like to be suddenly, though the Poles have forsaken the field, and lest the Swedes and duke of Brandenburgh masters thereof. The king is expected here, and intends to some force for Lyfland against the Muscovite, who hath assaulted Dunenbergh, and storm'd it twice, but beaten off and retreated. The cause of his retreat is not known, unless it be the news of the victory of the Swedes against the Poles. The plague is in Warsaw and Thorn, which will also hinder that little trade, that hath been in salt and corn. Some also begin to dye here. I pray God, take us into his protection.

This day is news come, that the Swede hath plundered Warsaw, and burnt it. Now you may easily imagin, how trade is like to flourish again.

To the Dutch ambassadors extraordinary in Prussia.


The states, &c. Noble, &c.
Your lordship's letters of the 8th, 11th, 15th, of this month are duly come to our hands, since our sending our last of the 17th, following. We observe thereby, that your lordships in the negotiations meet with some difficulties; and first concerning the article of toll and the equality of our subjects and the inhabitants of the United Netherlands, with the native subjects of the crown of Sweden, to be observed for the suture: and secondly, touching the article of the proposed inclusion, especially in relation to the city of Dantzick. As to the first of the said two articles, after serious and mature considerations of the reasons alledged against the same by Sweden, and after the resumption of the resolutions taken successively on that subject, viz. of the 1st of June and 7th of July both last past, as also of that taken on the 17th of this current month, we cannot judge otherwise, nor imagine the said reasons to be any ways applicable nor relevant to enervate or weaken in any respect our good meaning contained in the said resolutions, the grounds whereof being laid upon the greatest equity and justice, since by the said resolutions we only intend and desire, first, that our said subjects and the inhabitants of the said United Provinces might not be neither directly nor indirectly disturbed or molested by, on account of or with the assistance of the king or the crown of Sweden, in their navigation and trade to the east or north seas, nor in the places situated thereon. Secondly, that our said subjects and inhabi tants of the more mentioned United Provinces in those kingdoms, dominions, cities, and places, whereof the crown of Sweden is at present in possession, or should get possession hereafter, should not be oppressed by any new or higher taxes or imposts, than were paid there in the year 1640. And thirdly, in case at any time the crown of Sweden after the year 1640 should be obliged by any extraordinary necessity, to make or order some new imports, that then and in that respect our subjects and inhabitants aforesaid shall not be charged or rated higher than their own subjects are now or hereafter shall be rated. And we do not any ways doubt but the king of Sweden, and the lords his commissaries, after your lordships shall have justified (by your usual wisdom and experience) the great justice and equity of our request, viz. that in case of any raising, as abovementioned, an equality might be observed between our said subjects and inhabitants and their subjects in the surplus or in respect to so much as the tolls abovementioned are raised or new ones introduced, will at length be induced to grant and to consent to our so well grounded and reasonable demand: at least we are obliged to declare here, that the same is the utmost of our intention as to that subject, and that we might very well and with good reasons demand some more and favourabler conditions in this respect. Neither can we conceive otherwise but all the arguments ailedged by Sweden, touching the same, do sufficiently refute themselves; besides that the wood, pitch, tar, and all other materials necessary for the building of ships, as likewise the cannon, being originally the produce of Sweden or the Swedish dominions, the building and mounting of ships must needs, for the said consideration, come cheaper; add to this, the exemption of the Swedes from all the charges of the Oresont; whereby all the arguments used by the lords the Swedish commissaries might, with good reasons, be retorted upon themselves. As to what concerns the second article, we cannot go back or deviate from what is contained in our said resolutions, dated on the 7th of the last and 17th of this present month; according to which your lordships, in the further carrying on of your negotiation, have to regulate yourselves. Wherewith we refer to what we have heretofore written to your lordships, and expecting with the first and with all speed your answer hereupon, we do recommend you, &c. Done Aug. 29, 1656. [N. S.]

Boreel, the Dutch ambassador in France, to John de Witt.

Paris, 29th August, 1656. [N. S.]


My lord,
For a good beginning in the business of the lord prince of Tarante I have furnished myself with the copies of the letters, that have been writ about it, and I do find, that as well the king's, cardinal's, and those of the earl of Brienne do all tend to this, that the interceding persons be urged to give security for the good comportment of the said prince for the future. Now I have brought the business to court where I do intend to prepare the same, so that their high and mighty lordships may not be engaged in it. I do expect, with great impatience, their high and mighty lordships declaration. I do also act in this business with communicating with those, who do also manage the prince's business, and also with their approbation, whereof your lordship may be pleased to give communication to their high and mighty lordships.

Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.


Honored sir,
By the favor of yours of the 14 instant (for which I most humbly thanke you) I am put into a capassity of waitinge upon you, and therefore the 22 instant I intend, God willinge, to begin my jorney, since by that time I shall have done most of those thinges, that I can probably expect wil be done timely enough for me to reach London, by the sittinge of the parliament. Since my last, col. Nath. Wetham is chosen for all the burroughs of Fife, and sir John Weems for the shire. He is an honnest sober man. Sir James Mc Dowall (one of our commissioners for the excise and customs) is chose for Galloway shire, and col. Barckly for Angus. All the rest will be chosen to morrow, and wil be all stanch men. I have spoken to them to be at London without fayle before the parliament begins. If you see ther wil be need, you might without much inconveniencie proroge the sittinge of the councill till the 10th of Jan. next (provided they lay the next six months assess before such prorogation) and therby get soe many more frends to attend the house. But I but mention this to you, and dare not urge it more. Mr. Disbrow is indeed very earnest to goe up, but 'tis more to satisfy his wise than himselfe, who is verry impatient to be ther. He says, if his highnesse command him downe againe in six dayes, he will returne. I did, at his desyer, promiss to offer this unto you, and beg your resolution theron. I did in my letter this day se'nnight give you notice of a dozen Spanish ships, which lay about the Orcades; the truth wherof is since confirmed to me by many testimonies not to be doubted of. The generall and I conclude, that they lye ther to intercept lieut. gen. Braine and his forces, which, I heere, are but too slenderly garded. Two thinges confirme us heerin: first, their number; secondly the place, noe trade beinge in thos ports, twould not be worth the paines of one pikkaroone to ply ther, much less of a fleete to doe it: then the place is such, that they may in a few houres fall upon thos forces. Ther is a third reason, yea a fourth, that they have waited ther neere a fortnight, and that they are come ther about the time Brayne should be readdy. I beg his highness may be informed heerof, and that a very strict and speedy care might be had to fortify that Jamica fleet. The general has writt into Ireland, to give them notice ther, and to let them know, that if the forces ther be reddy before thes, they should com for Scotland; if thos heere be redy before thos ther, they shall go to them for Ireland, that beinge united they may make the more vigorous resistance if attempted. Tis a sad case, that this coast has in effect but one friggot to minde the enemy, and secure the trade, for tho' there is two, yet one, viz. the Nicodemus, is soe small, we are affrayde to venter her out of harbor. Somethinge that is both effectual and speedy ought to be done heerin. I hope, if we manadge thinges well, the two partyes of Scotland; viz, remonstrators and publick resolutioners shall both courte us, as too long we have courted them. For the remonstrators haveinge got notice of what the rest of the ministry have lately agreed unto with me (viz. that every presbitery shall certify to the councill heer the fitness in all respects of him, who within their limitts is to have a benefice, and that the minister certifyed for shall voluntary engage to live peaceably and inoffensively under the present government) they have called a meetinge, and, as my lord Warreston is com to informe me, are resolved to employ some commissioners to his highness, and to goe a length, which never yet they went, nor, as som thought, never would doe: the particulars I shall speedily know, and then I shall thrust on the others, who also are employing another to his highness, to give him the requisit assurances of their obedience and quiet deportment. Thes ar som of the fruits of your new orders concerninge the ministers; they were asleepe till now, but now begin to looke about them, lest they should supplant each other. I had this night a letter from a knowinge honest minister, that Lorne and Seaton wil be reddy to embrace any stirs and foment them. He has sent a couple amongst them, who will bringe good intelligence from time to time, which I have ordered should be brought to the generall. I humbly thanke you for the good news of the Swedes, which shall not be kept silent. I had almost forgot to tell you, George Downinge is chosen for the burroghs joined with Haddington; but I was faine to send for the cheife of them, and deale earnestly with them, I shall now conclude with the assurance, that I am perfectly,
19th Aug. 1656.

Sir, Your most affectionate,
and most faithful humble servant,

General Monck to secretary Thurloe.


I Have received two letters from you, by which I understand our ships for Jamaica are now likely to come to us shortly, but as yet they are not to come to Kircudbright. I have written to his highness, to let him know, there are 15 or 16 of the enemies ships, that lye about Ila, and have done these 3 weeks. I gave my lord protector an hint of it a week ago, but since it comes in my mind, being I understand they have no landmen on board, that they intend to fall upon our Jamaica ships; and that we may prevent it (with the blessing of God) I have written to col. Cooper of it, and my thoughts upon it, and that he will please to order those ships, that he hath in those coasts, to secure those ships, and likewise to acquaint my lord Henry Cromwell with it, that he may order some of the ships upon those coasts to guard the ships through S. George's channel. As concerning his highness commands for sending the officers of several regiments to attend his highness commands at London the 6th of September, I have dispatched them; and I am confident they will all be there by that time. I have ordered col. Salmon's regiment to march to Hull. They begin their march on thursday next, and I hope they will be speedily there. I return you thanks for the good news you sent us concerning the Swedes. I have no news at all to acquaint you from hence, more than that my lord Broghill begins his journey from hence on friday next, which is all at present from him, that is
Your very affectionate humble servant,
George Monck.

Edinburgh, 19 Aug. 1656.

Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.


Right honorable,
Necessity (which excufeth all things) enforceth me to the inclosed further humble addresse to his highness, which I hope you will soe approve of, as to be pleased to present it with the first opportunity, in case nothinge be done in my business ere it come, and to let me knowe what I may probably expect thereupon. I have writ two letters, referinge it to your honour to present whether you thinke fit, though I presume neither contaynes any thinge unsutable to the present condition, into which I am reduced. Truly I should still willingly waite the councell's pleasure, as I have done a longe time, were not my life in daily hazard; but the truth is, in this uncomfortable condition I cannot promise myselfe another oportunity of writinge to your honour, and therefore I hope, that both his highness and yourselfe will excuse my plaine dealinge in theise and former letters, and that you will please to continue your favour, till by a suitable vindication I be either stated againe in a condition to serve his highness heere with comfort, or brought into a capacity to returne without the utter ruine of my reputation, which I have not deserved. I heere inclose a list of the emperor's army and garrison forces, presumeinge you have not yet seene it. The other intelligence is generally believed heere, to which I have nothinge to add, but to prosesse myselfe
Your honour's very humble servant,
Richard Bradshaw.

19th Aug. 1656.

Mr. John Nicholls to secretary Thurloe.

Plymouth, the 19th of August, 1656.


Honored sir,
My good friend and kindsman, Mr. Thomas Maynard, having signifyed unto mee your desire of a correspondent in this towne, to give you the occurrences, that may from time to time happen, makes mee presume to give you the said lynes, and with them the presentation of my service. I shall bee glad it proves acceptable, and that for the suture it may answer your expectation. What now offers is, that upon friday last a fleet of Hollanders anchored in Torbay, where then lay the Faugon and Larke frygotts, with divers other English ships. Information being given, that the Dutch had some ammunition and other goods for Spayne and for Spanyards accounts, the captain of the Faugon was required to visit them; butt the Duch convoyes, being 3 states men of war, refused to permit it, which gave the more suspicion; so other 3 frigots were sent for from hence, who arrived the sunday, and immediately the Bryer frygott, commanded at that time by captain Heaten, ronn one borde one of the Duch merchants ships of 26 guns, and the Faugon boarded her one the other side at the same time. Thereupon one of the states men of war sets sail, and run in betwixt the Faugon and the Dutch ship, and in that posture they lay about 2 hours, but nothing of hostility done more than brandishing there swords one against the other, with some threatning language. Whilst this past, one of the Dutch merchantmen was gotten of to sea, to which the Bramble frigot gave chase, and seching her up, boarded her, and made for Dartmouth. Thereupon another of the states men of war (I mean of Holland) made after them to rescue his confort, but the Faugon frygot prevented him, and soe brought that shipp of, which with all the rest of our ships are this afternoon come in hither, and the Dutch are gone to sea. I cannot as yet learne of any other goods then pipe staves in this Dutch shipp, which is brought in. What may lay hidden under, is not yet knowne.

Heare are like put in 4 shipps, that are bound for Ireland to take in soldiers for Jamaica. They attend a winde. Sir, heare's not else worth your notice; soe I crave leave to remayne,
Sir, Your humble servant, John Nicholls.

Commissioner Pels to the States General.


High and mighty lords,
My lords, since my last of the 26th instant there is but little worth mentioning in relation to the Polish and Swedish armies. The elector is coming to Prussia, to defend these parts. Some letters import, that his majesty of Sweden is marched with his army to Cracow, but those from Elbing say, that he is coming hither. From the Polanders we have as yet no news in the least.

This day several letters are arrived from Riga, by the way of Koningsberg, which make mention of the great fright the said city is in, since the Muscovites have taken the city of Dunenberg by assault, who block up very close the fort of Koggenhausen, and have sent already their advanced troops, as far as within from Riga. Another army, it is said, is marched against Dorpal. We hear from the conferences, which are held by the Polish deputies and the Muscovites at Wilda in Lithuania, that the Muscovites demand, that from no side any agreement should be made with Sweden without first acquainting the other thereof; that the frontiers of the Muscovites in Lithuania may be determined by the river Berigine; that after the death of the king of Poland, the son of the czar of Muscovy should certainly be elected king, for which purpose the young prince shall be educated after the manner and religion of Poland. What in the said conferences will be concluded at last, time will shew us. Wherewith, &c.

High and mighty lords, &c.

Signed, P. Pels.

Dantzick, Aug. 30, 1656. [N. S.]

An intercepted letter of sir G. Ratcliffe.

Paris, 30 Aug. 1656. [N. S.]

Vol.xli.p. 582.

D. N.
I Have been very busy in putting my things in order, as if I were to go into another world. The ordering of papers was the most troublesom, but I have set on fire most of them; only I could not persuade myself to burn my friends letters (I think there are near 400 of them) yet my judgment tells me, it is safest to make a fire of them also.

A plain man came on monday last to me, and brought with him 100 pistoles, desiring me to keep them for him as my own, and to use and dispose of it for the owner: said he had no occasion to use it: so you see I am fully provided; nay he told me, I hope ere long to bring you more. God be praised, his providence is wonderful. I cannot tell what becomes of me yet for my journey. Duke of York/Francis is not come back till this day: his cousin is loth to part with him, but he must be gone. My fellow sir John Berkeley/John B — will not go with him. If my intelligence be true, Charles Stuart/Peter is well, and thrives apace. Ormond/Fitzwater is come back to him again. We say here, that the king of Spain prospers every where; that he hath beat the duke of Modena in Italy, and the English ships on the coast of Spain. The prince of Condé hath cut off 4000 men, who were going to join with the French army, which mons. Turenne commands. Of this the cavaliers brag here, and they would have the world believe, that Spain hath had this good success, ever since he took Charles by the hand; but, by their good leave, God governs the world, and the great acts of his providence are too high and deep for man's judgment to comprehend.

An intercepted letter to Mr. Wild.

Paris, 20/10 Aug. 1656.


Dear friend,
I Cannot tell you, how soon our journey will be, but we look every day to go hence, our master being resolved upon it. Therefore, dear friend, let me hear from you as soon as you can, and fail not to let us have the bill of exchange. The news in these parts is very various; a great deseat of the Turk and of the Pole, and a little discomfit of a French party since Condé checks mirth and pity, congratulation, and grief in this town. The arrival of the queen of Sweden here is still uncertain for the punctual day, but there be large preparations talked of. As far as much noise and little cost will make a pomp, she shall be entertained.

A letter of intelligence from Madrid.

Vol. xli. p. 716.

My last to you was of the 2d and 12th current, and I admire, that I heere not from you of the receapt of myne of the 7th of July from St. Sebastian./Smoke. Of all the needful you have advice/aux till now. — As for the treaty/tarte betweene them heere and France/Fratford they speake heere very hoapful of it, and by those that spoake alwayes against it, and I have other reasons to beleeve they have great expectations heere of it. — One of the conditions/cardels is, that France/Fratford his brother/buckler will match/monta with the infanta of Spain/lbbebwe of Sligo, and if the Sp. king/Sparter deys without a sonn, to make hem king/kainfer of Spain/Sligo. I find this nation/bcelsb satisfyed with this, at which I admire, and the generalitie of the people seems pleased with it allsoe. If soe bee that Spanish king/Sparter has a son/usbb to give the Fr. king/Fruxes his brother/buckler Flanders/Frmas with the infanta/lbbebwe as it has ben in other times, there war/wafer with you will oblige them to make the peace/palme the more with France/Fratford If you had com but to a peace/palm with them, I know they would not agree with France/Fratford uppon the conditions/candels they will; and if they both come to a peace/palme before you/yx judge what the issue will bee. As for prince of Condé/Compton hee is contented to live in France/Fratford during card. Mazarin's/Creame's beeing, soe hee injoyes his estat, and will have noathing to doe with the government. This prince of Conde's agent/Compton his aux told me 3 dayes agoe, which is the only thing card. Mazarin/Creame desires, and all men weare of an opinion, that his peace/palme would bee the only hindrance, now that the duke/deny of Lorrain/Ostgbg is prisoner, for in all other times hee was the chifest hindrance. You/yx may be confident, that neither France/Fratford nor Spain/Sligo has noe great affection to protector/protrax: the first, for he knowes you neaver would agree with hem, but that Spain/Sligo fell out with you; and Spain/Sligo becaues they weare the first, that acknowledged you, and gave many testimonyes of there affection to you, and you offer'd afterwards to take there Indies/Inglands from them. Also when don Alonso de Cardenas/Allex spoake to the protector/protrax when the fleet/fish was preparing, and shoud hem it was against his master, the protector/protrax swoare, there was noe such matter. If this be not soe, I assure you don Alonso/Allex writ it to his master; notwithstanding all you/yx can make your peace/palme with the owne and the other, and the swooner the better, for it will be at last, for you/yx will neaver conkest them, nor they you. They report heere, that you intend to fall out with the Hollanders/yx; I cannot beleeve it, for in any manner of way it cannot be advantagious to you. It is trew the Hollanders/Hunts has all the thrad, and have most of your prizes/qutlugn for most of the Dunkirkers/Draffords are their ships/bexnulbjgtn. Be sure, if possible you can, to keepe a fleet before Cadiz/Clyrr this winter, to hinder them to send to the Indies/Ingland. This imports much, for you/yx have destroyed Andalusia/Edaucrie already much. Becaues you may see how ambitious I am to serve you, I have ventured to get one of don Lewis de Haro's secretaries/Livers stake to give you inferrence of all that passes, whereby to goe very sure to work, and that you may have all to your own content. In this I doe you the greates servis that can be, and noe man could doe it but myselfe. Let me know, on reseapt of this, what you will allow hem: he is the ablest man of all the secretaries/stakers and has all the bussines of forraine places. When you/yx advies the receipte of any of myne, you shall know how this comes to pass. Lose noe time to let me know, what you will allow him. Believe that what I writ to have peace/palme, is not for what it consernes me, for I have/Ix has from you/palme more then what Spain/Sparter. king owes me selfe partiqularly; but my obligation I let you know. You would not beleeve, what wayes I/Ix venture uppon sence this employment and charges. My hoaps is in you/palme boath for the present and future. I rest

Madrid, 30 Aug. 1656. [N. S.]

Jan van Reed van Rhenswoude to the States General.

Madrid, 30 Aug. 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xli.p. 592.

High and mighty lords.
My lords, I can at present assure your high and mighty lordships, that the licence for the exportation of 24 pieces of ordnance is ready, having sent the same to the conful of St. Sebastian, to use the same for the service of your high and mighty lordships; and this licence will serve for the exporting as many more as your high and mighty lordships will give order to be cast.

They do still force me from France to believe, that mons. de Lionne doth treat in this court, and here they continue to deny the same, so that I dare not as yet advise your high and mighty lordships any thing about it, they being only speculative discourses, which are given out, that some articles are already agreed, and that amongst the same is comprehended an alliance with the infanta of Spain and the king of France his brother.

Concerning the English fleet is little to advise. Admiral Blake is gone with eight ships towards the coast of Barbary to get fresh water, and hath lest ten more upon the coast of Cadis.

H. Cromwell to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xli. p. 590.

The letter I herewith send to his highness will, I hope, excuse my present brevitie to you; and truly here is little worth your trouble. We are this day electinge parliament men at Dublin. They say, that col. Jo. Jones, col. Hewson, and Richard Byss are competitors for knights of this countye. It is thought the latter will carry it, tho' my name and interest (as I heare) without my privitie has been made use of for the two former. I know not howe colo. Jones might have behaved himself, but I feare Hewson has scarce sufficiently recovered himself to be in a fitt temper to sitt in parliament, especially if Vernon's reporte be true, whoe gave an account to a verry good friend of mine, that the poor old man was soe prevailed uppon by his passion with his late transactions in England, that he was next dore to a mad man. And Vernon seemed to have the greatest sence of those unworthie practices, that have bin against me in England, that could be imagined, especially cominge from one soe deeply engaged in that party; and professes he never heard any man so falsly bespattered as I was, and does greatly admire my patience, and called Sankey, Hewson, and some other of the forward ones little better than k—. Sir, I can searce creddit the relation of what he saide, though I hade it from a very sober intelligible person, whoe tolde me he expressed more indignation bothe against the persons and their carriages then any else have done. What this means I knowe not; but I hope I shall make a good use of it with wariness and watchfulnes. Sir John Reynolds landed one friday last. My letter to his highness is for the moste part in answer to what he has saide; as also to returne my thankes to his highnes for that assurance his highnes has bin pleased to give me in some late letters, that reports have not bin creditted; but as for other thinges, to which I have of late expressed some dissatisfaction, I have not received any information or satisfaction from sir John Reynolds, or any else, which does but remaine as discouragements upon me. I shall by the next send you a list of the parliament for this nation. I heare my lord Broghill, William Jephson, Vin. Gookin are chosen for Corke county and townes therein. I shall the next week go to Kilkenny to meet sir John Reynolds, who is gone to Tiperary to secure his election, and intends, according to his highness's command, which he sayes he has, to returne thence, and there I intend to advise with him and some others aboute securing things here in case of any designs occasioned by this parliament meeting. We are all, blessed be God, very quiett. I am
Your most affectionate friend and servant,
H. Cromwell.

Dublin, Aug. 20, 1656.

Major general Haynes to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xli. p. 572.

Right honourable,
On saturday last I received his highness letter of the 12 instant, in order to the elections, this day made in the severall counties under my charge; and although I had but a few daies for the communicating the contents of them, yet I dispatched the same to allmost all the commissioners in theise counties, as also to Lynn and Yarmouth; but I feare to little purpose, if they have bin but as industrious in other places as in this country, where there was such a clear combination, as never was knowne before, to bring in persons of apparent contrarie principles to the government, and but few of them such as continued to owne the parliament interest, by which choyce the prophaine, malignant, and dissaffected party and scandelous ministry are only gratysyed. I cannot yet ascertaine what choyce the other counties have made: I hope something dissering from theise; however there wil be worke enough for the councill, if any shall informe; but such was the discouragement in the persecution of the some even of theise verie men the last election, that I feare they will hardly be perswaded to act in such a way again, although they cannot but see a necessitie something extreordinarie should be done; else the constitution of the parliament wil be such, from whom noe good can be expected. Nay, if other counties should doe as this, it would be a sufficient alarum to stand upon our guard, the spiritts of people being most straingely heigthened and moulded into a very great aptness to take the first hint for an insurrection; and the countie especially soe disposed, may most probably begin the sceane. Wherefore I most humbly begg, that a speedie order may be taken for the paying and mustering of militia horses, for as yet they have not bin called together; and soe am I not able to assure you what assistance you may reasonably expect from them. I have soe often moved your honour, my lord Lambert, and my lord deputie in it, that I should be ashamed almost to reitterate my desires therein, if it weare not evydent your affaires called for it; for if something of this nature be not done for encouragement of your freinds, their spirritts will in all likelyhood dispond verie much. Yarmouth have chosen colonell Cocke and major Burhe; Bury, Mr. Clerke and Mr. Moody; Lynn doughtfull as to Mr. Goddard and major generall Skippon; generall Disborough agreed for on both hands. The election for this countie and cytie is as the enclosed will acquaint you, wherein all possible endeavours weare used for my lord deputie, and yet had likely to have missed thereof. And although I was verie much importuned to have stood myselfe, I found the combination soe strong, that I was advysed by Dr. Stanes, Mr. Sheldricke, and others, my lords and my owne freinds, to decline it; else we might hassard both, which I did accordingly. It would take up a whole letter to informe your honnor of the severall remarkable passages, that did occur in this transactione, wherein everie man layd about him, as if his all lay at stake. I shall say noe more of it, but that the election is as bad as it could well have bin made, my lord deputie and colonell Wood excepted; and there was not any considerable assistance given the honest party in their choyce, both whom the other party had lest out of their lyst saturday last, and come now in against the hayre. Mr. Sheldrick will more fully acqaint your honnor with the particulers, who wil be with you on fryday night this weeke; and by him also you will understand the present state of the isle, a tast of which the enclosed will give you, which came to my hands within a day one of the other, wherein I shall be exceeding carefull to observe any directions you shall give me, purposing to be at the assizes.

Its a difficult tyme: the allwyse God direct you and all those at sterne safely and resolutely to steere the shipp of this commonwealth in this troublesome and stormie season, directing you to his glorie and the preservation of that interest that feare God in the nation, and desire the settlement and peace with you. Please to pardon the trouble hereof, and lett me be accounted as,
Sir, Your honnor's truly faithfull and verie humble servant,
He. Haynes.

Norwich, Aug. 20, 56, ten at night.

Sir H. Vane to Mr. William Jessop.

Vol. xli. p. 580.

It being declared by parliament (as is very well knowne) that it is against the lawes and libertys of England, that any of the people thereof should be commaunded by the king (when there was one) to attend him att his pleasure, but such as are bound thereunto by especiall services (which others therefore are not) it will, I hope, be permitted mee without offense to clayme the same priviledge and liberty in these times, and in the case of the summons lately sent unto mee, wherein I finde noe cause for my appearance, but meere will and pleasure; yet in vindication of the innocent and peaceable deportment I live in, according to the lawes, I have not refused to be upon the place att my house here in the Strand ever since thursday night last, as I made knowne unto you by this bearer the next morning; and as ever since I have beene, so I am still ready to appeare, when I shall be sent for, untill the pressingnes of my occasions in reference to my family concernes (which att this time, by reason of my father's debts, are very great and heavy upon mee) shall requite my attendance upon them in other places of the nation: all which I have held myself obliged to make knowne unto you in the relation you stand in, especially not having heard from you yesterday, as I supposed I should. I am
Your humble servant,
H. Vane.

Charing-crosse house, the 20th of August, 1656.

For Mr. William Jessop, clerke to the counsell at Whitehall.

Extract out of the secret resolutions of the lords States General.

Jovis, the 31st Aug. 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xli. p. 606.

There being once more moved in the assembly the sending of an envoy to the great duke of Muscovy; as also the project of instruction drawn up for that purpose; as also the project of a defensive alliance to be made between France and this state; as also the endeavouring of keeping of the duke of Brandenburgh from joining with the king of Sweden; and lastly the sending of 1500 men by provision for the strengthening of the fleet of this state at present before Dantzick: whereupon being debated, it is resolved herewith to defire the respective provinces, that they will declare themselves upon the one and the other as soon as may be.

Major general Goffe to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xli. p. 610.

Although I am confident you will have an account of yesterdaye's work before this cann come to your hands, yett I shall not neglect the oportunity of this post to lett you know, that there were chosen for this county the lord Cromwell, Mr. Wallopp, col. Norton, Mr. Cole of Lis, Mr. Bulckley, Mr. G. Goffe, Mr. Cob, Mr. Hooper. Mr. Cole and Mr. Cob have both acted with mee upon the decemation bussines, and I hope will be for a settlement. I shall only add, that considering the greate endeavours, that were used against my being ellected, and the unkindnes of some, from whom I might justly expected better, I have much cause to looke upon my being chosen as a speciall providence of God, as I shall make further to appeare to you, when it shall please the Lord to give mee an opportunity to see you. Capt. Pitman hadd a greate number of honest and resolute men, that did cleave to him, and I hope wee shall resolve upon a good accompt to live and dye together. I hope you did receive mine by the satturday's post with one inclosed to his highnes. I shall now long to heere, who are chosen in other countyes. I pray lett mee have a list of such as are come to your hands, by the next post. Deare sir, lett us, I beseech you, give ourselves unto prayer, and expect a blessed issue from the Lord to all the present greate affaires. I am, sir,
Winton, 21 Aug. 1656.

Your most affectionate freind and humble servant,
W. Goffe.

My lord R. Cromwell was pleased to take greate paines on my behalfe, and col. Norton, I thanke him, though he did not thinke fitt to putt my name into any of the lists he gave out, yet he was soe tender of my reputation, that his counsell was, that I were better not be named then receive a baffle; and if Mr. sheriffe would give way, he would endeavour for Portsmouth; but, I thanke God, I had a hart to flight both the one and the other; but I pray lett this be to yourselfe.

Apographum litterarum serenissimi protectoris Oliverii Cromwelli, quas scripsit ad excelsos & præpotentes D. D. ordines generales Fæderati Belgii, die 21/31 Augusti, 1656, una cum responso eorundem ordinum ad D. protectorem, dato 22 Sept. 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xlii. p. 319.

Excelsi et præpotentes domini, amici et foederati carissimi, &c.
Non dubitamus nos quidem, quin omnes testimonium hoc nobis prohibituri sint, nullas in contrahendis externis amicitiis rationes defendendæ religionis veritate potiores unquam nobis fuisse, nec conjungendis corum animis, qui protestantium vel amici ac defensores, vel saltem non hostes essent, antiquius nos quicquam habuisse. Quo graviore animi dolore commovemur, quoties annunciatum est, protestantium principes ac civitates, quæ sibi mutuò amicissimæ, summéque concordes esse deberent, suspectos inter se esse & non optimè animatos. Vos præsertim regemque Sueciæ, quibus fortiores orthodoxæ fidei desensores non habet, neque socios nostra respublica conjunctiores, videri non æquè ac consuevistis vobis invicem confidere, imo indicia quædam vel nascentis inter vos dissidii, vel vacillantis amicitiæ haud obscurè apparere. Causæ quæ fuerint utrinque, & usque quò progressa animorum alienatio sit, ignotum esse nobis, prositemur. Veruntamen haud potuimus, quin gravem hanc molestiam animo caperemus ex ipsis initiis vel minimæ dissensionis inter fratres coortæ, ex qua tantum creari protestantium rebus diserimen necesse sit, quæque si ingravesceret (quod Deus ne siverit) quantum inde reformatis ecclesiis periculum impenderet, quanta triumphandi materies inimicis nostris, & Hispanis potissimum, daretur, latere vestram prudentiam usu rerum solertissimam non potest. Hispano certè tantum hinc fiduciæ, tantum spiritus accessit, ut non dubitaverit per legatum suum apud vos commorantem, sua vobis consilia, idque de summa reipublicæ vestræ audacissime obtrudere, & partim injecto renovandi belli metu terrere, partim ostentata utilitatis falsa specie sollicitare vestros animos est ausus, ut relictis, ejus hortatu, amicis vetustis ac fidelissimis, Gallo, Anglo, & Suevo, arctissimam cum hoste ac tyranno quondam vestro, pacato nunc scilicet, & quod maxime metuendum est, blandiente, coire societatem velletis. Sanè qui ex hoste inveteratissimo arrepta tam levi occasione pro consiliario repente vestro se gerit, quid est, quod iste sibi non sumeret, quò non audacia progrederetur; si cernere id semel oculis posset, quod nunc animo duntaxat concipit atque molitur, discordiam nempe inter protestantes ac bellum intestinum? Nescii non sumus, vos pro vestra sapientia, quis sit Europæ univeræ status, quæ protestantium præsertim conditio, fæpius cum animis vestris cogitare: Helvetiorum pagos orthodoxam sidem sequentes novorum motuum a popularibus suis fidem papæ sequentibus jam jamque ciendorum exspectatione suspensos teneri: ex eo vix dum bello emersos, quod religionis causa ab Hispano, qui hostibus eorum & duces dederat, & pecuniam suppeditaverat, conflatum est atque accensum: vallium Alpinarum incolis consilia Hispanorum eandem rursus machinari cædem atque perhiciem, quam superiore anno crudelissimè intulerunt: protestantes Germanos sub ditione Cæsaris gravissimè vexari, sedesque patrias ægrè retinere: regemque Suecise, quern Deus, uti speramus, fortissimum orthodoxæ religionis propugnatorem excitavit, cum potentissimis reformatæ fidei hostibus bellum anceps & asperrimum totis regni viribus gerere: vestris provinciis infesta vicinorum papistarum, quorum princeps Hispanus est, nuper icta sœdera minitari: nos denique in dicto Hispanorum regis bello esse occupatos. In hac rerum inclinatione, si quæ inter vos regemque Sueciæ discordia existeret, reformatarum totius Europæ ecclesiarum quam miseranda conditio esset, quæ hostium crudelitati ac surori penitus objicerentur? Hæc nos cura haud leviter tangit, eundemque vestrum esse sensum considimus, proque vestro in communi protestantium causa præclaro semper studio, ut pax inter fratres eandem fidem, eandem spem sequentes, intemerata sequeretur, vos vestra consilia ad has rationes esse accommodaturos, quæ cæteris quibuscunque anteponendæ sint, nee quod paci inter vos, regemque Sueciæ stabiliendæ possit conducere, quicquam esse omissuros. Qua in re si nos usui ulli esse possumus, quantum apud utrosque vel auctoritate vel gratia valemus, nostram vobis operam libentissimè prositemur: Sueciæ quoque regi eandem deserre paratissimi; ad quem etiam legationem quam primum mittere in animo habemus, quæ hac de re, quod nostra sententia sit, exponat; Deumque vestros animos ad moderata consilia flexurum esse speramus, vosque exhibiturum, ne quid ab alterutra parte fiat, quod irritare possit, remque ad extrema deducere; sed ut contra pars utraque removere velit, quicquid alterutri ofsensum aut suspiciosum esse queat. Id si feceritis, & hostes frustrabimini, & amicis solatio eritis, & vestræ denique faluti, reique publicæ quam optimè prospicietis. Hoc etiam uti persuasissimum vobis sit rogamus, daturos nos esse operam, quoties facultas oblata fuerit, uti nostrum erga Fœderatas Belgii provincias summum studium benevolentiaque appareat. Deum proinde assiduis precibus obtestamur, ut vestram rempublicam pace, opibus, libertate, atque imprimis Christianæ fidei amore ac vero cultu florentissimam conservare perpetuò velit. Ex palatio nostro Westmonaster. d. 21 Aug. 1656.

Vester bonus amicus,

Responsum D. D. ordinum generalium ad præmissas litteras D. protectoris Cromwelli.

Serenissime, &c.
Nihil nobis celsitudinis vestræ litteris datis Westmonasterii vicessimo primo Augusti proximè præteriti, hodie nobis redditis, gratius accidit, quippe cum ex iis magis magisque confirmemur (uti manifestis indiciis ac testimoniis antehac edocti sumus) celsitudinem vestram in laudabili isto & verè Christiano proposito perseverare, ac fedulo operam dare, ut vera & sine ullo fuco pax inter principes ac civitates; quæ orthodoxam fidem sequuntur, colatur; ideoque eam non parum commoveri, quoties admoneatur eosdem principes ac civitates non optimè inter se animatos esse, præcipuè ubi inaudierit quædam, vel nascentis dissidii, vel vacillantis amicitiæ non obscura indicia inter regem Sueciæ & nos apparere: quæ cum certò nobis persuadeamus, si reverà ita se haberent, non parvam molestiam celsitudinis vestræ, pro pio & proclivi in omnes protestantes, & peculiariter in serenissimum regem Sueciæ & nos, animo, creatura fuisse, quippe qui inter regem & rempublicam sibi conjunctissimos dissidia cerneret; non potuimus non celsitudini vestræ pro tam propenso in nos amore, & tam pia ac fraterna pro utrisque cura & sollicitudine gratias agere, eademque opera ipsi indicare, tantum abesse, quod nos quidem sciamus, ut dissidia inter regem Succiæ & nos metuenda sint, ut etiam legatos nostros extra ordinem ad eundem regem missos jam sœdus cum illo fecisse, formulasque fœderis unà cum regiis ministris subscripsisse, considamus; cujus fœderis exemplum statim a receptione ad legatum nostrum Neoportium missuri sumus, ut ejus copiam celsitudini vestræ faciat, eademque opera secundùm pacta conventa deliberare possit, num illo comprehendi cupiat. Itaque etiam isthoc nomine celsitudini vestræ gratias agimus, quod tam præclaro studio mediationem suam componendis, si quæ essent inter regem Sueciæ & nos, dissidiis, offerre voluerit.

Quod superest, serenissime, &c. Deum opt. max. precamur, ut celsitudinem vestram diu communi reipublicæ Christianæ & orthodoxæ fidei bono servet incolumem. Hagæ, 22 Sept. 1656.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

The 26 August, 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xli. p. 506.

This day again there was nothing done of any consequence; only that the king of Denmark signified, how that the prince his son hath been invested and designed the future successor of Norway.

A certain English minister, by name Dury, hath caused to be exhibited several copies of a printed book concerning a reconciliation and combination of the reformed religion and the Lutheran; whereupon it is resolved to send some memorandums towards the provinces.

The ambassador of Spain hath by an express memorandum signified the surrender of Condé; item, the admission to audience of the lord Reede at Madrid; and that his majesty doth cause him to be treated in the same quality as the resident of Denmark.

28 August.

This day again nothing past of note, only a complaint of Amsterdam, that in Finland the Swedes had raised the toll to a rix-dollar more per last than usual, which is referred to the commissioners for the affairs of Sweden; as is likewise referred to them the letter, which came from Elbing, whereby is clearly seen, that the Swedes do make difficulty to agree to those of this state the same equality with the natives in Sweden as to the toll. As to the inclusion of Dantzick, it is true, that the city is not much pleased with it; for this inclusion being a mere neutrality, it would separate the city from Poland.

29 August.

The assembly this morning was so short, that at eleven a clock they were risen. The chief thing that past was the memorandum of the ambassador of Spain, saying that the children of the merchant la Tour, kept at Lisle, were released. Item, a complaint, that in Zealand they did use very ill a certain captain of Dunkirk. Item, the business for the payment of the Brasil officers was debated, and resolved, that these provinces, that are yet defective, shall be writ unto.

This afternoon there was an assembly concerning that, which the ambassadors have writ from Elbing of the 15th, that the Swedes made difficulty concerning the quality of the tolls in Sweden. Item, concerning the inclusion of Dantzick, about which they still refer themselves concerning the resolution of the 7th of July and 17th of August.

30 August.

Those of the admiralty of Amsterdam have writ to the States General concerning the ship of war and the person of Peter Salmons; and thereupon is to be writ again to the admiralty of Flanders to suspend the sale of the said ship.

From Elbing they write nothing considerable, only that there is nothing come from Warsaw: and at Dantzick there be some that say, that Warsaw is still in the hands of the Poles. It is certain, that the Muscovites do make some inroads upon the frontiers of Sweden, which they may and do still interpret for parties disowned.

31 August.

Those of Holland have this day again proposed and urged the provinces to declare themselves concerning the project of a defensive alliance between France, England, and this state. Item, that the provinces will also declare themselves concerning the sending of 1500 men to the fleet. Item, to use some endeavours to disunite and separate the elector from the king of Sweden. Upon all which the provinces have declared, that they will endeavour to make themselves capable of declaring, expecting order. They have resolved to write to the lord ambassador Nieuport, to the end he do endeavour to get a copy of the treaty, that hath been concluded between England and Sweden.

1 September.

This day they gave the charge of comptroller at Nimmeguen to the son of the lord Hockelom, one of the States General, which son being but 18 years of age, gave cause to some to propose, that a law should be made, that hereafter none should have the charge of the generality, unless he be of the age of 25 years; but that was contradicted by others. There being said by a resolution of the 17th of Aug. upon the advice of Groningen, that the militia and garrisons of the city and country shall be reinforced with two companies, the lord Schuylenbergh hath proposed the company of captain Hunning, being in Cadsant, to go from thence towards the Ommelands; but Holland opposed it and contradicted it.

A letter from mons. Wicqfort.

De la Haye, ce 1 de Sett. 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xli. p. 648.

Je n'ay peu comprendre comme l'on a peu avoir si tost la nouvelle de la victoire du roy de Suede à Londres. C'est un coup, qui aura sans doubte des suittes avantageuses pour S. M. L'on m'escrit de Vienne, qu'apres la venue du major gen. Henderson (qui est asses connu à Londres) de la part du roy de Pologne, pour faire une relation a l'empereur de la retraitte, ou plustost defaite de Polonnois de devant Varsovie, il estoit arrivé un autre envoyé le 12 de l'autre mois avec cette nouvelle, que les seigneurs Polonnois commencoient a se debander, en chercher chacun son domicile, de sorte que le roy Casimir couroit risque d'estre mal accompagné. J'espere que nous aurons demain quelque chose de consideration. Il court icy un bruit, que M. le protecteur envoye endeca un expres avec des lettres exhortatoires à messieurs les estats, de ne traverser point le roy de Suede en ses desseins, au prejudice de la cause commune des protestants. Vous scaures mieux que moy ce qui en est.

La negotiation des ambassadeurs à Elbing s'avancent assez bien. Tout depend de 2 points, scavoir de l'esgalité des nations au regard des peages, & de la façon de comprendre Danzig dans ce traicté. J'ay ouy dire, que les raisons des commissioners Suedois sont fort justes, neantmoins l'on veut rodir icy.

L'on me mande d'Amst. que 5 navires Anglois ont bruslé touts les vaisseaux, qui se sont trouvé dans le port de Malaga. L'empereur devoit aller a Prague & estre de retour le 6 d'Octobre. L'on croid que le prince l'electoral de Saxe l'ira voir. Piccolomini est mort & le jeusne marq. de Baden avoit fait le serment de cap. des gardes. M. de Hatzfeltde voit estre lieut. general. Les trouppes imperiales marchent tout droit en Italie. Je suis,
Vostre tres humble & tres obeissant serviteur,