A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 5, May 1656 - January 1657. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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August (6 of 7)
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Since that they have sent the fleet before Dantzick, it seemeth, that they will be contented therewith, believing that is no act of hostility yet. However it is a contravention against the seventh article of the treaty of Stockholm, contrary to the right of nations or of war (for to succour a place besieged, or block it up, cannot be called any thing else but hostility) and contrary to the practice of the state used by them for these many years past towards the towns of Flanders, which were not always besieged or blockt up by land, and not always by sea. All Swedish ships (as also of other nations) intending to sail towards those towns of Flanders, which if they were taken, were confiscated, yea though they were taken at sea upon the least suspicion; and if the Swede would have sent a fleet to succour such a place, they would have taken it for a manifest act of hostility. In the mean time the city of Dantzick doth not greatly esteem this fleet, which bringeth them in no money by way of subsidy, nor doth not open the Weysel by the expulsion of the Swedes out of Prussia; and without those two medicines (the subsidy and the expulsion) Dantzick doth believe, that they cannot be cured.
But the states of Holland doth consider, that already the fleet doth cost them very much, and that Dantzick is out of danger of being taken; and for to secure them I think that the states of Holland doth not much care; for that is a maxim, which the states of Holland hath, that they do not desire the flourishing greatness and wealth of the hanse towns, as I see and know by long experience, and especially Amsterdam doth always grumble, and the states of Holland are still distasted with these good hanse towns, and are presently jealous, as soon as they conceive, that they flourish a little; and he of Amsterdam, who is ambassador in Denmark, did speak it openly me audiente, that the States General and the states of Holland ought to leave the hanse towns to be opprest by the Dane. If instead of this fleet, which will cost 3 or 4 millions, they had given one tonn of gold or two to Dantzick, and that they had sav'd much, whereof employing a small portion upon the the Swede they might have done all in love, which they had a mind to, for in the end they must make a treaty, which is the way of amity.
As to the expulsion of the Swede out of Royal Prussia, it would cost the States General great sums of money and great hazard. And it is clearly seen, that Dantzick doth not desire to cure altogether Dantzick, for when Dantzick hath flourished, those of the states of Holland in Dantzick have made continual complaint to the St. Gen. and the St. Gen. have continually fiscalized the Dantzicker to Poland, and threatned it by letters; for to speak the truth, the nation of Holland doth pretend in all places the cream and grease of the profit and gain; insomuch that Dantzick will be obliged to agree to an inclusion, so as the States General hath proposed it, or else they will leave them to shift for themselves; for to espouse the general and open war against Sweden there is no likelihood. And in regard that Dantzick itself doth not desire the inclusion so as it hath been proposed to them, it doth seem, that Sweden hath great reason to make some difficulty about the said inclusion.
And as to the equality, which those of the States General demand in Sweden, it is a pure novelty, yea as much as if they in the same manner should demand the equality in England with the subjects of Cromwell. Item, that it be also permitted to the subjects of the States General to traffick and sail to the Barbadoes. Every one ought to rule the roast at home, after his own mind. The States General will not permit, that any other nations should trade to their Indies. They charge several commodities belonging to strangers twice as much more than their own subjects, as beer, and many manufactures; and as in England, so likewise in Sweden, they must build the ships after such a fashion, that they may be serviceable in the war, which costs much; on the contrary the states of Holland have slight ships costing little.
To that of yours of the 25th of August, which I have newly received, I will say, that the lord you is ill informed by those, who writ to him, that the ships of war of the States General do pretend of Dantzick any fort or the rights in Dantzick equal with the burghers: they pretend nothing but the contents in the treaty of the 13th July, which I sent formerly, whereof the abridgment is, that the subjects of the States General shall be held in Dantzick the least charged foreigners, or as the burghers, as to the tolls; but of the right of burghership nothing was spoken.
As to correspondence in Brussels and Madrid I cannot find a way how to furnish it better, nor to give
the satisfaction desired, as he hath formerly writ: for to procure there an intelligence as that of in the St. Gen.
that is altogether impossible for him, and therefore I sent word of it heretofore; and of correspondence
common, I know you would not be satisfied. I remain
This 1 Sept. 1656. [N. S.]
Courtin to Bordeaux, the French ambassador in England.
Here was report, that the king of Poland was taken prisoner, but that news is now dead. The ambassadors of this state at Marienburgh write, that in a long conference they had with the lord chancellor Oxenstern, he did not only promise them the freedom of commerce without raising the tolls, but also that the subjects of this state shall be used with the same equality with those of Sweden, and enjoy the same rights and privileges; and said they should not admire, that some of their ships were visited in the Pillauw, for these differences would be determined by the conclusion of the treaty of commerce, and of that of the alliance. It is thought Dantzick will not be comprehended in the treaty for several reasons.
A letter of intelligence.
On thursday last I came from Brugges: the wensday before went m y l o r d B r i s t o to the S p a n i s a r m y to seike for q u a r t e r s for four r e g i m e n t s, two of I r i s h, d u k e o f G l o c e s t e r c o l o n e l of the one, and O r m o n d of the other; R o c h e s t e r o f the other E n g l i s h, M i d d e l t o n for the S c o t s. We exspect a settlement of this next wick without sayel. I doe exspect a p l a c e myselfe. On monday last went s i r E d w a r d H y d to B r u s h e l s for m o n y for k. of Spain. Wee have great c o u r t, and many flocks out of all p a rt s, which I writ to you in my former. The d u k e of Y o r k is expected here this wick in Brugges. The French army are forced to take the retreate into France, not beeing in condition to harme the Spaniard this yeere. A great report heer the Poels are beaten, which I informed you in my last, for it still houlds. Wee are certainely informed, that the French have sent to the king of Spaine for a peace, and the king of Spaine hes assured k. Charles that hee will not, unless his i n t e r e s t be o u n e d: by the next more of this. This is my 11 leter without any returne of answer, which indeed maks mee think, I am slighted; if I am, I should gladly know it, but in my opinion I have not deserved it. If I have, I wish I knew it, wherby I might stryve to make ameands for my fault. It seems to mee very strange, I should bee two months heere without receiving one lyne of satisfaction, whether myne came safe to your hands or no. I writ twice to Mr. Row, as it wear at the desire of Mr. Marshall by the name of John Harrison, to satisfy mee, but never received a word from him, which makes me almost in despare of wryteing, since I know not whether myne goe safe or be acceptable. I directed him to send his to George Leth's house at Flushing in Zealand, wher it could not miss mee wherver I am, for there is no safety in sending leters into Flaunders, for thy are broke up both goeing and coming. It wold save me much truble and charge, if the other wear safe. I am resolved to trouble him no farther, unless to send your leters according to your command layde upon me. Wee ar informed of your comeing to London. Then I should exspect to receive satisfaction. If you please to honour mee with a lyne of satisfaction by the next, direct to Leslie's howse neer the sea port, and direct upon the back either Frence or Dutch. I wold gladly receive at large your commands, if it weare possible to fynd a truste messenger, which might easily bee don from London, for here is shiping from thence every weke, for I am not perfect in that s i p h e r. I had it not long beefore I was necessitated to d e s t r o y it, for which I could give you satisfaction; if I wear with you. I wryt to alter the n a m e s, and direct myne by the name of John Harisson or William Wyar, but wryt to me but as litle b u s i n e s as you can, l e a s t i t s h o u l d m i s c a r i. I thank God all is well, for I am welcome wherever I goe. I wryt according to your desire, wher I should hav sum money returned to mee. I desyred in my letters to have it upon Andrew Skene or Richard Wyar factors Terrevere in Zealand, or upon one Mr. Gill elder in this towne. I beleive he can bee steadle to me otherwise. Truely most of that money I received from you I was necessitated to lay it out upon necessaries, which I could not want, which makes mee so urgent at present.
Truely I have not had one peny this month, but what I borrowed; and now the clothes
must to the lumber, which will serve but a little while. However I shall stryve to omitt
nothing of my duety for a month or twenty dayes, in which tyme I desire the answer of
this; and if not usefull, or otherwise cared for, then shift for myselfe. So craveing pardon
for this tediousness I rest, and am
Sir, Your asured till death,
An intercepted letter of the marquis of Ormond to his lady, inclosed in sir G. Ratcliffe's letter.
I Have yours of the 7th of Aug. and I hope you have two of mine, which I writ to you since my return to my place of residence, with very good satisfaction to all the particulars I had in charge. In those letters I told you, that Mr. Austin would engage for four thousand pounds a year towards the maintenance of the youths; and I have prevailed with him to add one thousand more to it for the gentleman, that is to bear them company; and this shall be quarterly paid them and punctually, the first payment to begin with the month of November.
Col. Tho. Cooper to H. Cromwell, major general of the forces in Ireland.
I Receaved your lordship's of the 19th instant, since which tyme I have spake with colonell Moore, whoe hath orders for more provisions then this store will afforde. Hee is, hee saith, to have his regiment compleated with fire armes, and to that end would have 200 and heer is but 80 in the store. Ther is alsoe wantinge 450 collers of bandelires, and this store will not afford above 60, and they must be new stringed all of them. There is a necessety of haveing the things sent downe with all speed, for I hope the shippinge will not bee longe before wee see it by what I have from England as well as what your lordshipp affirmes in yours. Another thinge that is an inconvenyence to them and all others is the denyall of royalls, which except some order bee given in the matter, both countery and souldyers will be undone; and I beseech your lordship to signefye your pleasure in this by the next poste, and it will, I doubt, bee more then I shall bee able to doe to keep all quiet till then. This precinct proceeded to election for parliament men yesterday, and did choose myselfe and lieut. colonell Trayle for the countyes, and Mr. John Davis for the burroughes. By my letters out of England I hear that the choyce there in many places hath been veary bad, at which I am not a litle troubled. If your lordship think meet to let mee goe for England, I hope my lieut. colonell will veary well supply my place; the man is a godly man, a veary diligent and carefull officer, and one that is throughly affected and truly affected to his highnesse's person and present government. I am glad of the landinge of sir John Reynolds with that good newse from England; and Vernon's seinge and sayeing what hee doth, may bee a mean, I hope, to put a stopp to that evill spirit of slander, that hath been soe busie. I hope the Lord will turne all unto your proffit and advantage in the end. Patience would not bee soe much comended and comanded to Christians, if our good and wise God did not know the excellencys of it; and therefore hee sets forth Job out as a patterne, and bids us let it have its perfect worke, and sayth wee have need of patience. The Lord, that hath given your lordship your part in this, give you of every other grace, and make you to abound in every good word and worke is the desire and prayer of him who is,
Your lordship's veary faithfull servant,
There is in the comission for justices lately added in the county of Armagh, Mr. Tho. Chambers and Mr. Walter Coape, that have been enemyes in armes, and are vicious in their lives for drunckenes and swearinge; but ther is one sir George Atchison there that is a man competent in abiletyes, and of a veary blameles conversation, as I am informed by honest men. Ther is a great mutteringe in these parts of divers veary bad men added, but I never saw the liste, and soe cannot tell any thinge of my owne knowledg, but I heartely wish noe men of vicious lives may bee in, for they will incourage wickedness, and not suppress it, and weaken the hands of honest men, that are joyned with them. I beg your lordship's pardon for this digression.
Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.
This enclosed to his highness I leave open for your perusal, it beinge an account of that which I hope wil be for his service. I know som will be very pressinge to have that way alter'd of giving assurances voluntaryly under every minister's hand to be admitted, that he will live peaceably and inoffensively under the present government; but if once that cable be cutt, which has bin neere a yeare a weavinge, som turbulent spirits will get their ends, and the hopeful settlement of that church, I feare, instantly vanish. I beg you, sir, if you see any need for it, prevayle with his highness to heere what I can say, ere any alteration be made, for thos, who sollicit it, are the bitterest enemyes against the government in all Scotland, as theyr writeinges will shew, which I bringe up alonge with me. Mr. Gilespy and the sober sort of remonstraters are free to signe. 'Tis Mr. Guttery and thos fierce men are against it, who in their writinges call his highness's government usurped and unlawfull. I intend this day to begin my journey, and shall stay four or five dayse at my brother Suffolke's at Audeley-end, and at my lord Warwick's at Lees, both places in Essex, and wher, if you have any commands to lay upon me, or that his highness command my attendance ere the parliament does begin, I desyer in one of thos two places to receive them, and they shal be speedely obey'd by,
Edinb. 22 Aug. 1656.
An intercepted letter.
I Rite constantly to you, but I have no assurance, that you reseave them. I have reseaved but one from you since I lest you. This day the Swead's imbassador is gone away: George Lis— went a littell before him. Our burgises for the parlament were chosen on weddensday last in the sety. We have chosen vere good religious men, such as major generall Browne, alderman Addams, alderman Foout, and Mr. Jones, six for the sety: but at Westminster ther was a very sad dispute, two men slane, and many wounded. It arose betwext one colonall Gravenar and one Mr. Latham. The solgers came in to cry for Gravenar, the setisans cried no sword men, no marsonary men; whereupon they fell together by the eares: the were like at Branford, where the Anabaptests tooke away the justises swords, and beate them meserablely, insomuch that a regement of horse was sent to part them. Theare is 7 74 30 54 29 50 of 39 46 48 sent to lie nere 43 27 11 38 40 50 14 and six 17 38 63 60 11 48 of 243 226 are 79 29 50 to strengthen 14 53 37 and 43 37 11 56 50 14 86 38 is so fare out of favour now, that 50 14 15 46 51 towlde me, he had a greattar mind to 33 39 13 him then 33 37 48 11. Pray let me here from you, when I shall wate on you.
An intercepted letter.
Mr. Smyth and loveing friend,
I Received yours of the 9th/19, and am glad to heare of your wellfare. Mr. Busshie, I hope, is allso well, and longe before this with you. All your freinds here are well, and in particular my partner remembers him to you. You may be consident of havinge the bennefit of the first markett, and noe sooner shall it be convenient, but the goodes shall be sent by a safe conveyance; and pray assure Mr. Longman so much, for until a fitt markett, my partner will be noe meanes have the packe 59 shipped. Many thankes is returned you for the visitts to his neece at scoole. The continuance of it he desires. All our newes is about the choyce of members for parliament. What is done in the counties we shall not know till next poast, only in London is choesen Adams, Foote, Browne, Packe, capt. Jones, and Biddolph; Westminster, quarter master general Gravenor, and Mr. Cary; Middlesex, Chute the lawyer, and his sonn, Chiffine, Audelye, and sir Roberts; Surry, sir Richard Oneslow and sonn, and treashurer Blackwell; so that you may see, where our honest soldiers can appeare, a reasonable good choyce is made, but the farther off from London the worse; for even here amongst us under our noeses the ill affected are so bould and ingratefull, as at the elections to cry out, noe soldiers, noe courtiers; but curst cowes have short hornes, and the prudence of our governors by the sendinge for up of the rest of the army will doubtles secure us against the new and old malignants boath. I shall trouble you no further, but rest
Your loveing freind,
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Tis long since I heard from you, nether can I now be so punctual in wryting as my obligations cal for, by reson the sicknes has invyrond this state on every syd, so that as we receiv no letters from Ingland, so we se but litle hopes, that what we wryt get ever thither; wherfor I adventure this by sea to Marsillia, wher we hear the Dyamond frigat had latly bin sent thither by the generals, from whom your honour will have punctual advys of al passages. The fyring of the ships at Malaga in the moald, and nailing up the gons under the town wals was a very gallant action, and is so esteemed by al that hear it. I hav seen letters here from Sivil and other parts of Spain full of ***** ports being besieged, that a boat cannot get in or out. 'Tis advysed hether from Argier, that general Blake was intended to besiege Oran, which is a port and town of the Spanyards on the coast of Barbary, not far from Argier. Indeed that place or Mamora would be very convenient ports for the fleet to refresh and carine in during thes wars with Spayn. I nothing doubt, but as al things ar ordered at home with much wisdom and consideration, so God wil be pleased to give an answerable succes and issue thereunto, that a happy peace may succeed, to his glory and our countrey's good. The sicknes is now as hot in the kingdom and country about Naples as formerly it was in the citty. It takes place lykwys in Rom and Genoa, althoh in the last they stryv much to conceal it. The Genowes fleet consisting of ten gallyes and seven ships hav bin seen within 20 leagues of Argier, insomuch that som report they hav som desyn upon that place by intelligence they hold with som renegades of that place. A litle tym will declare the truth. The siege of Valensa is stil continued by the French, and 'tis reported they have made theyr approaches clos to the wals, so that now they only attend to spring theyr mynes. In few dayes we shall hear of their succes. You will hav heard of the manifest or remonstrance published by the emperor to the princes of Itally, of his intents to send an army hether to chastyz the duk of Modena for disturbing the peace therof. I suppos, if the Swede prevails in Polland, the emperor wil hav other employment for his soldiers then to send them into Itally. The generall peace, for so they cal the peace twixt France and Spain, ***** here now much talked of, insomuch that prince Leopoldus the great duk's brother has layd wagers it is fully concluded in all August last. Indeed that cardinal Mazzarin should send mons. de Leone into Spayn portends litle les then som such business. I hav heard from the great duk's court, that the king of Spayn has proffer'd the states of Holland, Donkirk, and two other ports to join with him against Ingland, and hopes to obtayn his purpos. Thes Dutch are lyk to embrace the proffer, for they desyre any occasion to shew their teeth against Ingland, as latly at Smirna they made an uproar: a dronken skipper with 15 of his men cam armed ashore against some of our nation, in which tumult was killed a Greek or two. If any thing I may serv you, command,
2 Sept. 56. [N. S.]
Commissioner Pels to the States General.
High and mighty lords,
Since my last of the 30th of last month here hath happen'd nothing worthy to advise you of; and we cannot but admire, that for these four weeks now no news is come from the king of Poland or his army. The duke of Brandenburgh is returned to Koningsberg. His army is quartered upon the frontiers of Prussia. The Swedish army is not far from thence, to be assisting to each other, and at hand in time of need. The flux doth reign very much amongst the common soldiers, as also the sickness, which doth begin to increase more and more. In this city we have, thanks be to God, but little or no sign of it. The king of Sweden is daily expected at Elbing. General Douglass is to go from the Pillauw with 4000 men for Lyfland, to oppose the Muscovites, who have plundered and destroyed Dunenberg, and are not above three or four miles from Riga. The Muscovite hath promised the duke of Courland to observe the neutrality, and that no prejudice shall be done him. Now on the other hand it is said, that the Tartars have declared for the king of Sweden, and that they expect his orders to march with 40 or 50,000 men. It is said likewise, that the Swedes have demolished Warsaw, and that the like is to be done to Cracow to keep the men together.
An intercepted letter of coll. Ogle to Mrs. Ogle, directed to Mr. Simon Fincham in White-fryars.
Dearest on earth,
I Have sent thee a bill of 20 l. I shall never rest till I see you and your children; of the time and place you shall know next week, when I hope I shall have ended my whole business. The chancellor, sir Edward Hyde, coming to Brussels designed my ruin, and caused my apprehension and seizure of my papers; but it was not three hours but old don Alonso the Spanish ambassador caused my discharge, and public satisfaction to be procured me by the officers at my own lodging, by kissing my sword, and delivering it me; a ceremony they use here in token of submission. So if you hear any thing of my disgrace, believe it not, for I am in as good health and esteem, and my business in as good a forwardness as I can desire.
Lockhart, ambassador in France, to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your honor,
I Have received yours of August 14th, wherein you are pleas'd to give me a new demonstration of your kyndnesse, and tho' I ame not capable of thankfullnesse eqwall to that goodnesse yow have alwayes been pleas'd to expresse towards me, yett I must begg your beleef of my being sensible of your favors in the highest measure my best resentments are able to reach; and that their is not one amongst the many, that have had the happinesse to be oblydged by you, who have laid vows of gratitude upon themselvs with more zeale or greater devotione.
Sir, my last gave account of the great change I found 27 403 480. What I told you was trewth, but least it may have influence upon his highnesse so as to induce him to alter his resolutione concerning me, I must begg leave to tell you, that their is not a more in con s ta nt person living, that with greater confidence can say and un say. His deportment is alwayes aggreeable to his hope or fear; and as they encrease or abate, you will find his k ind nes to my lord protector will keep the same measure; and tho he is somtymes pleas'd to own particular respects to me and confidence in me: you know he is both a courtier and a It a li an and will not be wanting in the same expressions to any ld prot. shall im pl oy.
The good news of the Swedd's successe came very seasonably, and were most acceptable to the court heare. They did not a little want some consolation from that hand, for the emperor's invading the duke of Modena, the insolent caryadge of the prince's party, and all the other malcontents in France had highly allarmed them.
The pretended duke of York hath been at court this week. The day he parted, the king went a hunting, and took the occasion to bring him to his coach en passant, where he took leave, and embraced him with great demonstration of affectione. I was informed, that when he had taken leave at court, he was to have gone to Flanders, and shall endeavour to learn the cause of his return to Paris, so as I may acquaint you with it by the next. So soon as the said duke's departure from court was signified to me, I sent for audience, but am delayed till next week. If that for my recall comes to my hands before my audience, according to the hops you gave me, that I should receve it by the next, I shall propound it with all the advantadge I can; and in the mean tyme am preparing for retorne, but without any noyse, to the end the cardinall may receive the first advertisement of it from myself.
Charles Stewart's frinds at Paris give out, that they expect great matters from the ensuing parliament. My lord Jermyn told Mr. de Servient, that he hop'd my lord Bradshaw would doe as bad an office to his highnesse as he had don to the late king; but I hope you have so pre-ordered things, as your enemies expectation in this shall meet with their usuall discouragements.
Mr. de Turrein keeps his ground near * *. The Spaniard lay encamp'd within foure leagues of him, and yesterday morning discamped, and marched directly towards him. It is not probable, they will attacque his lyne (except it be upon intelligence, that he hath numerous parties abroad) he having posted himself their one purpose to torment the contrie of Flanders by incursions from his camp; but it's more to be feared, that the enemie will post themselvs so advantagously, as it will be difficult to secure the French camp, either with the recruits of men or provisions, and will be so near him, as when he marcheth off from the strong ground he is now encamped, or they may oblydge him to fight in disadvantagious grounds. These are conjectors: a day or two will discover their intentions.
There are great preparations at Paris for the reception of the queen of Sweden in her
way to Compeigne. She is to lye a night or two at a house called Lian court, within two
leagues of this. I beseech you pardon the troble you receive by this, and continue your
Clermont, Sept. 2, 1656. N. S.
Vice-admiral Goodsonn to secretary Thurloe.
I Must be excused of sending a duplicate of my last general letter, the copy remaining in the hands of the commissary Clerk at Jamaica, but hope the original in the Charity will be come safe to your hands before this, in which I intimated the sending out of ships to lie upon this coast so soon as they could be made ready; and accordingly the 19th June the Lion, Dover, and Selby departed, and the 25th the Charity departed for England in company with the Marmaduke, Adam and Eve, and Mary fly-boat for Mevis; the 27th the Indian Arms of Holland, Martin, and Success; the 3d July the Cloister and Lawrel; the 11th myself with the Convertin and Portland, the Marston-moore and Matthias to follow, having work to do with all the foregoing ships, that could not then be accomplished. The 13th off cape Antonio encountred with all the foregoing ships, from whom received news of that sad dispensation of the blowing up of the Arms of Holland, only four men and the captain saved, as per my last to the commissioners of the admiralty the 14th July: also the Laurel having by a clap of thunder her main-top-mast shiver'd to pieces, and her mainmast so floade, that its feared notwithstanding we have used what means we can, it will scarce carry her home. The 3d August chased and took a small bark belonging to the Havanna, having nothing in but ballast, bound, as he saith, to windward on the north side of this island to lade hides for the Havanna; being, as he saith, chased off shore by a French man of war. The news we have from them is, that what ships from Carthagena bound for Spain arrived here the 15th May, and set sail from hence the 13th June, four days before our arrival; the ships were one galleon, which last year lost her rudder coming through the gulph, and returned again for Carthagena; two great Flemish ships, which had brought negroes from Angola; and a small frigot, vice-admiral to Carthagena; two ships from the Honduras, and two other small vessels bound for the coast; in all for Spain eight; and that upon their arrival in the Havanna they sent advice for Old Spain, having then a resolution to stay for them, but upon further consideration of the king's necessities resolved to sail alone. If the advice had come timely to my hands, I should have sent away a frigot to general Blake, but being 21 days after their departure, conceived it too late; since which we have lain here waiting for the Nova Spain fleet, and as yet no appearance or advice of them. We had the 5th, 6th, and 7th days of this instant calms, insomuch that we were afraid of driving through the gulf; but the 8th and 9th God was pleased to afford a little wind, so we attained the bay of Matancas, where we recruited our expence of water. There hath been formerly divers complaints sent home as per those papers sent to the commissioners of the admiralty by my last, signifying the deficiency and inability of some ships to remain in this country, especially the first ships. On the 19th instant the aforesaid desects with some addition being communicated before a council of war, also the time of the year being far spent, it was concluded not safe to lye longer upon this coast; so it was resolved that the Torrington, Cloister, Portland, Laurel, and Dover, being not in a capacity to remain longer in these parts, be sent for England, myself at present embarqued aboard the Marston-moore with capt. Wings.
It being resolved by all knowing men, that it is not safe to stay longer upon this coast than the latter end of this month, towards the expiration of which shall endeavour our repair for our station, either by beating it up to windward, or to go through the gulf, which of the two is accounted by most men the speedier passage, in regard we be for the major part heavy ships. As to the victualling of the ships remaining in this country, if no recruit comes to us before the arrival of these, I fear we shall be straiten'd, being victualled for no longer time than they are; and as to the small victual of bread and peas we may expect from New England, I do believe the soldiery, if its arrived before us, will lay hands of it if possible.
If it be his highness's pleasure the endeavouring to carry on this design in the Indies, I humbly conceive it's necessary, that whereas there is an order for the landing of seamen for the surprizal of towns, castles, forts, &c. that there also might be an established rule, what encouragement they should receive and expect upon the taking any town, castle, or fort by storming; as also what part of any plunder, that they might obtain upon their further approaches into the country; also that it might be declared, that the persons, which shall go ashore for the attempting such enterprizes, that they must be subordinate to the laws martial of your army by land, and that those, which are deputed to command them, be impower'd to put it in execution.
By all I can gather from those we have lately taken, the strength of the Havanna in men doth consist of soldiery, paid by the king and townsmen, with some people in plantations near the town, who have voluntarily listed themselves to withstand an enemy upon any alarm, of near two thousand. Upon a river, four miles to the westward of the town, they have re-edified an old fort to prevent landing in the place, in which they say is fourteen guns. To the eastward of their great strength, the moore, four miles in a bay where there is landing, they have another fort of eight guns in the way to a river there. If there be any thoughts of attempting any thing upon the Havanna, there is no safety for ships to lye upon the coast from September until February; no harbour for ships to lye upon that coast from September, a great draught of water except Matancas, twenty leagues to the eastward of the Havanna.
Certain Spanish prisoners seamen detained by us, with those taken in the last small vessel,
in all to the number of forty, have been sent home, by reason they having been some time
with us, and understanding the state of our affairs, it was not thought convenient to put
them ashore in these parts. Thus craving excuse for my not enlarging myself at present,
not being well, remaining
Marston-moore, the 23d Aug. 1656,
upon the coast of Cuba.
Major general Goffe to secretary Thurloe.
In my last I gave you some accompt of the elections for this county, since which time I received an account from Berks and Suffex, according to the inclosed paper. I perceive that in Suffex C. M. (fn. 1) ruled the rost, by the help of a disaffected party, much to the griefe of the honest party; and that it was theire designe to have noe soldier, decemator, or any man that hath sallary.
Old Mr. Hayes is chosen for Rye, and its designed by col. Morley, that sir John Trevor be chosen for Arundell, which as soone as I heard of, I wrote to the mayor of that towne, who assured mee, that if Mr. Shirley were chosen in the county, they would choose capt. Freeman for Arundell. Some honest men will article against Courthop, if they may be heard at the counsell. They say he was formerly putt out of the commission for the peace for malignancy and drunkennes.
Sir, Although I am chosen for this county, yett I shall not dispose my affaires to goe up, till I understand his highnes pleasure therein. Where his highnes shall think mee most serviceable, there I desire to bee. Pray lett mee heere a word or two from you as to this, that I may dispose my thoughts accordingly. If I must come up, I should be gladd (having lest my house) to heere of some good lodging att Somerset-house, or elsewhere, of which you were pleased in one letter to give me some hope.
Sir, I cannot but reckon myselfe very unhappy in the employment I have had in this country, that whilst some of my brethren have enough and to spare, wee and our busines are ready to starve for want of necessary supplyes of money, the committe for the army having as yett taken noe course at all for us. Pray be pleased to present our condition to his highnes, of whose equal care of us I cannot doubt; but his highnes being pleased to speak with colonel Clarke may very much further our busines.
I perceive our turbulent spirrited men doe give out, that wee are greately devided in the
army. If wee could handsomely before the sitting of the parliament declare the contrary by
signing some paper to his highnes, in my humble opinion it might be of great use, which
may take its rise from these reports tending to begett more hopes in our old adversaryes. I
conceive if it be done before the parliament meete, it would be done with more ease and less
exception then afterwards; and if you could agree upon some sit draught, I suppose the major general may easily get the hands both of the army and militia, that is within there association. But I submitt these poor thoughts to better judgment, and remaine, sir,
Winton, 23 Aug. 1656.
The examination of Andrew Thornton minister, taken before captain Finch, Nehemiah Rauson, and Theophilus Hart, August 23, 1656.
This examinant saith, that being at Horncastle on the friday, being the 13th of August last, as he was coming out of town, one Francis Fidling of Barkway came and asked to him, asking if he would have a book; this examinant replied, what it related to; he said about the electing of parliament men. The said Fidling going away, returned presently with above twenty of the said books, which he delivered to this examinant upon Barkway fair-day last, Mr. Rigeley of Barkway, or his brother, Mr. Stone, Mr. Whiting, and Mr. Yerburgh being at the aforesaid Mr. Rigeley's house. This examinant asked Mr. Whiting or Mr. Yerburgh, whether they had seen the aforesaid book; and replyed, they had of them at Boston. One other of the said books was delivered to Mr. Cartwright of Kirkby Lanc. another to Wenard Greeier of Scribesby; another to Mr. Fitch of Market-rason, to the best of this examinant's remembrance; one other to Mihill Bend of Daluderby, as also another to John Smith of Hamringham; one other of the said books to Mr. How or Mr. Trivillion, and the residue of the said books this examinant burnt. He further saith, that he heard Mr. Cock the younger of Bullingbrooke has some of the aforesaid books, and also Wr. Chapman of Horncastle. He further saith, that morning he asked Mr. Fidling from whence these books came, who replied, he thought they came from sir Henry Vane.
The examination of Francis Fidling of Reursby, taken before the persons above written, the 22d of August, 1656.
This examinant saith, that the day before Horncastle fair last, he received a letter from one Peregrine Goodrick, living at London, which he produced, the contents of which are to request this examinant to disperse some books relating to the choice of parliament men in the next adjacent market towns to him, as also to intrust them with such friends as he judged would be faithful in the dispersing of them, promising to repay the charge of bringing them from London, as also in dispersing of them upon Horncastle fair-day last. This examinant returned the aforesaid books, the certain number of which he knows not, but believes about three or four dozen, a dozen of which, or thereabouts, he delivered to Mr. Andrew Thornton minister of Ecrelesby. The aforesaid books are intituled, England's remembrancers, or a word in season to all Englishmen, about the electing members for the approaching parliament. He further saith, that he gave not any of the aforesaid books to Mr. Cock of Bullingbrook, nor to Mr. Chapman of Horncastle, or his wise, other than to lay them up in his shop; but being asked whether he delivered of them to others, he confessed he did, but is not willing to discover them, lest they be brought into trouble.
The examination of John Cock the younger, of Bullingbrook, taken Aug. 23, 1656.
This examinant saith, that upon the Sabbath day was sev'night last he procured a bundle of books, intituled England's remembrancer, from John Semper's maid of Bullingbrook, which books this examinant hath ever since kept by him, and hath not dispersed them; but that Mr. Neve of Bullingbrook had one of them in his hands, but returned it again to this examinant's best remembrance.
The examination of John Chapman of Horncastle, taken Aug. 23, 1656.
This examinant says, that the 10th of August last one Francis Fidling of Kranesby brought a bundle of books into his shop, and lest them with this examinat's servant to lay by for him, and several times that day the said Fidling came, and took away part of them, which this examinant believes he disposed of to his friends, and took away the remainder of the said books at night when he returned home; and further saith not.
Major general Whalley to secretary Thurloe.
Having written so fully to his highnesse, I have little more to you then to returne you many thankes for your intelligence, as also to send you a particular of the members of parliament in these partes chosen. I am full of considence, that there is a general resolution to settle the present government in this county. The base pamphlet of England's remembrancers hath donne little hurt. I remayne
Your most affectionate and humble servant,
Col. Tho. Cooper to secretary Thurloe.
Wendsday last was the day of election for these partes, at which the country heer were please to choose myselfe and lieut. colonell Trayle for the shires. I have been wholly passive in the busines, and had not friends, whoe I esteem, over ruled mee, should not have suffered my name to have been mentioned. Lieut. colonel Trayle is a Scotchman, but I hope godly, and purely upon the English interest, and noe wayes intangled in the snares of his countrymen. Hee is a man of partes as well as honesty. Mr. John Davis is chose for the burroughes, who is as well knowne to yourselfe as mee. These parts are veary quiet; and if his highnesse pleases, I hope I may leave without any dainger. My lord Henry, though my wife and family have been at the water side five weekes, would not let, me send for them till this overture was over. The shipps I hear nothinge of, to take in these men for Jamaica. It were well they were clear of these narrow seas before the nights grow longer, and wee have had good wynds lately to bringe them, which makes mee woonder they are not heer. I have not further to trouble you at present, but remaine, sir,
Your affectionate and very faithful servant,
Secretary Thurloe to Nieupoort the Dutch ambassador.
I Had commaunds from his highnes to have wayted on your excellence this morninge; and to have acquainted you, that his highnes is sendinge an expresse to the lords the States General with a letter, and to have delivered a coppy therof to your excellencye; but am prevented in executinge those commands, by reason of your beinge out of towne, as I understood this morneinge by a messenger, whom I sent to desire the favour of wayting upon you at your house for the purpose aforesaid; and therefore have sent the bearer hereof to your excellencye with the enclosed, which is a coppy of his highnes letter abovementioned to the said lords the states; and if your excellency please to write any thinge into Holland upon the occasion, this bearer hath direction to attend for your dispatches, and the gentleman, who is to goe to wayte here, until we returne, and afterwards to begin his journey immediately, stayeinge upon nothing else, havinge received his whole dispatch from his highnes. If I had the opportunitie of waytinge upon your excellencye, I should then let you knowe more particularly the grounds and reasons of his highnes sendinge this letter at this tyme, but must deferre that until that honour be affoarded me. In the meane time I hope your lordship will have pleasure and content in your journey, and a happy and safe returne, which is most heartily wished by
23 Aug. 56.
Nieuport, the Dutch ambassador, to secretary Thurloe.
I Am sorry that it is fallen out, that the fyrst time in three yeares I have missed the opportunitie to attend your honor, especially upon an occasion of so great a concernment, as I have found in the inclosed copy of his highnes letter; and I intend, God willing, to bee at home again on monday, or at the furthest on teusday night, beseechinge your honour, for several very considerabel reasons, that the gentleman, who is to be sent to the lords my superiors, may defer his journey 'till I have had the happiness to confer with your honor. and the states of Holland not being assembled, it will be much conducing to his most serene highness intentions, that I may receive some particular elucidations; assuring your honour, that I have no greater pleasure or contentment than when I have occasion to cooperate in any thing to the advancement of the true Christian reformed religion, and establishing a perfect confidence and amity betwixt his most serene highness and the lords my superiors; and I hope your honour will excuse this writing, coming from a better heart then pen, remaininge,
At Bygots near Dunmow, this 23d of August, 1656.
Richard Cromwell to secretary Thurloe.
This night I received a letter from his highnesse by one of his footemen; the postscript required speedy answer, which I have made by the expeditious returne of the flying poste; and because most letters are inclossed to you, and that this may arrive by the conveyance of a good hand, I have therefore given you the trouble, and myselfe the oppertunity to assure you, that I am, sir,
Your most affectionate freind and servant,
Copy of a letter of intelligence, in the hand-writing of secretary Thurloe.
The agreement is made betweene the k. of Spayne and C. S. which consisteth cheifly in this, that there shall be a league offensive and defensive betweene Spayne and England. 2. That Spayne shall assist C. S. with men and money to restore hym to his kingdomes; for which end C. S. shall governe hymselfe solely by the councell of Spayne. That there shall be liberty of religion given unto all Papists, both laick and ecclesiastick, and mentenances allowed to the ecclesiastick in Ireland. That untill the restitution of C. S. he shall have his residence in the dominons of Spayne, and have the liberty of the ports to bringe in all the prizes he shall take, and a weekely assignment for his maintenance. That the k. of S. shall assist him with men this winter to invade England and Scotland; and good quarters for all those who shall be gathered and leavyd by him.
That which they may endeavour is to assassinate his highnes, which is extreamely prest by don Alonso de Cardenas. Major Armorer did offer hymself to that service; but they thought him not soe fitt for that service; soe they propounded it to colo. Rogers, who seemed not willinge to undertake it: however he is newly come over into England. The doinge of this they will deferr untill they are all ready to make their attempt, expectinge all manner of confusion, when that falls out.
As I was in company with sir H. de Vic, sir Marmaduke Langdale, and don Alonso's secretary, who discoursed of their affaires, the secretary sayd, that things would never doe well, till Cromwell was dead; but de Vick answered, that seeinge he had beene foiled in the West Indies and in the Streights, his creditt was not soe great, and that the whole nation would rise upon hym, if an attempt were made by the kinge. Neither, sayd he, had they any considerable forces in England and Scotland; 10,000 were the most. But sir Marm. Langdale sayd, he was of another minde; that he beleeved that if ever they appeared in England, they should finde a gallant army in England, and another in Scotland. But, sayd the secretary, if Cromwell were out of the way, all would be in confusion. But how shall this be effected, sayd sir Marmaduke; for he is a wary man, well guarded, resolute of himself, and comes not much abroad? Saith the secretary, he may be watched, as he walkes in the garden, and keyes may bee easily had to the gates.
I have had often discourses with de Vick, who hath a great oppinion of their present affaires, and doubts not but to see a turne in England within lesse then 6 months, and they in the possession thereof.
J. Arden to Mr. R. Bostock.
Mr. R. Bostocke, and noble friend,
I have not this two packets heard any newes from you. For newes, here layeth before our towne in the road six parlement men of warre, and before Mardrick four parlement men of war. This morninge here are three expresses come to the marquis de Leda with newes, that the Spaniards hath quite routed the marshal Turen's forces, and that the marshal himself is sied to St. Paul's. Don Juan d'Austria and the prince of Condé followeth him close. I wonder, that you take no course in England for releasing of the pooer prisoners here, which are in great necessity; ever resting
Your friend at command,
A letter of intelligence.
The prince elector of Brandenburgh is returned to Koningsberg. His power in these countries is held more considerable than the Swedes, who have demolished Warsaw, and, as some say, burned the city. There is some speech about a treaty, wherein the French mediate, because the Muscovite is fallen into Leisland, and hath taken Dunenberg by storm, and beleagured another place between Riga and Narva, whereby all intercourse is stopped, and his army drawing near to Riga with great power. The Russ boors, so long under the Swede, revolted, the burghery at Riga discontented, which are the fruits of a suppressing power. Things, as they write from thence, are in great combustion; here, and at Thorn, with some other places, the Lord hath visited us with the judgment of pestilence; and it is very contagious. The king of Sweden is come hither too, and will for Leifland in person. It is said he will deliver Cracow to Ragotski; and as the Swedes here credibly report, 6000 Cossacks are fallen into Poland, destroy the gentry, and are at the Swedes service. A miserable condition these countries are brought unto.
A letter of intelligence.
Right honorabel sir,
Since my last of the 29th of Aug. there is nor hath been any action passed betwixt the two armies since the last battle near Warshaw. The king of Sweden is comme down into Prussia, and arrived yesterday at Stum, a castle four miles from Elbing, where his queen is at present residing, having lest Marienburg for fear of the plague. His army stands yet at Lovitz beyond Warshaw. The generalissimus and the king's brother, prince Adolf, is gone from hence by sea to Stetin into Pomerania; from thence he goes to the baths in Germany for to cure himself. It is reported here, that the Cossakes have made a league or liga with the king of Sweden to serve him against his enemies, and they are to come down into Prussia so far as Thorn. There they are to stay so long till further orders comes from the king. It is said the king intends to employ his forces together with the Cossacks against the city of Dantsick. General major Douglas is ready to go for Livonia. His 3000 horses are gone away before thither. He is to command the Swedish in Livonie, as general lieutenant. There are also arrived hier in the Pillau some of Koningsmarcks his truppes, 5000 footmen, for to be gone also into Livonia, because divers letters from Riga mentionate, that the Muscovites hath taken by storm a place called Dunenburg, a place or pass of importance; and that he is gone to besiege Revel. There is great fear at Riga of the said army, because there is great want of forces to resist him. I fear the Muscovite will put the king of Sweden hard to it. I would willingly write more large of the passages of the Muscovite and Pole, but the posts from these places do not come nor go so often as before, because of the plague as well in Poland as in Prussia. At Thorn there dies daily above 600 men. The garrisons in the towns rove about as Strasburg, Bromberg, &c. died almost all of the plague in our city of Elbing. It is pretty hard, where many houses are insected of the plague, and every day it doth much increase. God in his mercy make us ready for to acknowledge our sins, and that we may repent in time. The duke of Brandenburgh is returned also from the army to Coningsberg. The Dutch ambassadors intend to retire from Elbing into the country, because the plague; also doth the chancellor to retire to Frawenburg 3 miles from hence for the same reason. Thus I conclude, remayning
From Elbing, 5 Septemb. 1656. [N. S.]
I shall send your honour with the next post, please God, another paper concerning the king of Swed and the duk of Brandenburg. I have received from your honour a letter of the 13th of August, last wednesday, under couvert by Mr. Acton.
A letter of intelligence from Madrid.
I Admire I have not heard from you since the 23d of July, soe that I feare that something has happened you, and that I cannot heere one word from Jackson. This troubles me much. Rowland has written to you at large by the person of Russia, which will come before this, or immediately to your hands: have a care to get it, for it concernes, and I writ by the same to Mr. Connell with one to be sent Tom. King, which I hope he will forward. I know not what Tomkins will do. I assure you he has that which concerned him much, no matter to be had from Tong till pitch with comfort. This he told me clearly. I refer you to that of the 4 by the pan of Russia. Many particularities be sure to get, only inquire in the pan house general. I meane the gent. that has it, and any of the servants will tell, if that of Russia be arrived. This is all I rest. Sad is the conditione of Rowland; and his father is in a sadd condision, and if his life were upon it, he cannot remedy it.
The admiralty at Amsterdam to the States General.
High and mighty lords,
In pursuance of your high and mighty lordship's letter of the 2d of the last month, we have given order to victual till the first of Novemb. next the men of war of this admiralty riding before Dantzick, and also we have received orders from the lord lieutenant admiral Opdam and de Ruyter, that the same is already effected. But in regard the season of the year is far advanced, that the said ships ought to be speedily recalled, and in all cases not to continue there after the 15th current, in regard they cannot stay there without remarkable damage, yea the loss of some of them, especially the heavy ones, which will be in most danger, which must be expected home, for the passing of the Sound and Cattegat in the month of October is very troublesome and dangerous for such great ships, whereof the fleet doth most consist; wherefore we could not omit to give to understand to your high and mighty lordships in due time the great importance of this business to the end by giving orders, all difficulties for want thereof may be prevented. High and mighty lords, &c.
To mons. de Bordeaux, the French ambassador in England.
The most certain advice, which I can send you to day, is, that Valence is taken by mons. de Modena, and mons. de Barradas was dangerously wounded in setting the mines on fire, which took before he was quite out of it; he was presently wrapt up in a sheep's skin, and there is some hopes of his life.
The army of mons. de Turenne is still near that of the enemy, who endeavour to get some advantageous place, with an intention to fight us, but we hold our general an able man, and who will look likewise to his advantage. The queen of Sweden is at Fontainbleau, and will make her entrance into this city to morrow. I am to advertise you of one thing which doth concern yourself, and not the state: there are two considerable persons, who go expresly into England, if not gone already, under pretence to see the country, and to bring horses, who are most dextrous gamesters at all games; and in regard they know you love gaming, have a care of yourself, and use some good preservatives: the one is the baron of Crully, and the other mons. de Secouile, Pray let no body know of this, for one that goeth along with them told me of it.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
I Gladly received your honour's letter of the 15th instant, beinge all I have from you since the 20th of June last, which I mention, least any have miscarried, beinge you write, that you intermitted but a post or two. I hope ere these come, that long and troublesome businesse will be over by a suitable vindication, without which its impossible for me to continue heere, my condition beinge truely such, as I have formerly represented to your honour, and partly set forth in my last week's humble addresse to his highness, who, I hope, together with his council, will so resent the same, as either to state me againe in a condition to serve them here with more comfort and security, or to repaire my reputatione, that I may returne without being made a reproach for my faithfulnesse. Truely, sir, I am sorry to have given you so much trouble, and to finde that it's soe hard a matter to get the businesse issued; but I hope you will excuse what necessity hath enforced, and be pleased to continue your savour for the obtaininge of the council's finall resolution upon the whole businesse (the state of which I am glad you have been pleased to draw up) if to doe when these come on. Though Townley pretends he's undone by the delay, confidently petitioning, as I hear, to be discharged without more adoe, yet sure I am, he brags of his good successe to his partie, and speakes very slightingly of the businesse, as if he little regarded the issue; in the meane tyme loadinge me, wherever he comes, with most base aspersions, for which I shall find a tyme to call him to an accompt. His great comrade Waites, for whom he stickled soe hard, is now at Madrid, agent for Ch. St. and Ball acts his part heere with much countenance and encouragement. I perceive Townley hath put in his answer, which is judged frivilous by such of the councel as had seene it. I pray a copie of it, not doubtinge but his reward will be suitable, whom truly I pity, and could heartily forgive the personal injuries he hath done me, were he sensible of them; but the state must be repaid whatever I suffer; and truly if I may take the boldnesse to say it, that can never be suitably done heere, if his partie smart not as well as he: I meane, if they be suffered to wrest the government into their hand in such an indirect way, with so much reflection upon his highness in his minister, whom they have soe notoriously excluded in revenge for doinge noe more then what was his duty; and how I can live heere amongst strangers, and in the eye of that faction, if they must so carry it, I submit it to your judgment.
I am glad you approve of the correspondence I have setled, wherein I have and shall use
my utmost endeavour, that it may answer your expectation; nor shall I communicate it, save
to yourself. I presume the Swedish ambassador will passe here in his returne. I thanke
your honour for the promise of those articles. I should not trouble you in that kind, were
it not to enable me the better to serve his highness. Referinge to the inclosed intelligence,
I affectionately remaine
Your honor's very humble servant,
Col. Tho. Cooper to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.
Haveinge the opertunety of this messenger, I am bould to remynde you of what I formerly offerd concerninge colonell Mervin, whoe, as I tould your lordship, is about takeinge the lord Chichester's howse at Belsaste, and about 40 acres of land. Hee gives it out, it's to save charge, which scarce any man in reason can believe, that a man should come from his owne estate, whear he hath built a good house, and hear hee must buye every thinge by the penny, which at home hee hath for litle or nothinge, and therfore it doth looke as if ther wear more in the bottome; the man your lordship knoweth hath a great interest amongst the Ireish, and by his partes will easely make my lord Chichester's interest his owne, by his dayly convening with him, the lord being a veary weak man, and the other much to wise for him; and to live in one of the principlest quarters in the north, and haveinge the dayly sight of our guards and forces, that lye in that towne. I humbly conceave its better hee should abyde whear hee is, whear I thinck hee is not much to be feared. Its above 14 dayes since I acquainted your lordship with it, and never haveing your answer makes mee thinck my lettre might miscary. The shippinge is not come to take in these men, and wee have had veary faire wynds. I could wish I might see them shipp'd before I leave this place; for the officers beinge, I fear, for the moste part raw, and haveinge been a litle to indulgent to them as to their radness, if they should upon their shipinge fall into distemper, they would fynde it out of their power to bringe them into order without assistance; all which I leave to your lordship's consideration, and remaine,
Your lordship's veary faithfull servant,
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Humblie thanke you for the warrant I have received for the thousand pounds. When I give uppe this to the councill (which I shall doe to morrow) the former warrant shall bee vacated. I thanke you for the good newes you sent mee concerning our fleete. I have noe newes to send you from hence, onelie that wee heare the kinge of Spaine doth intend to furnish Charles Stuart with some monie for the transportation of three or fower thousand men to land somewhere in the hills in Scotland, which I have from an indifferent good hand, and suppose itt may bee true; butt by God's blessing wee may bee able to make them weary of that worke very soone after their landing. Wee heare nothing as yet of our Jamaica shippes, butt I hope speedily wee may, being the wind is faire for them. I remayne
Your very affecconate freind and humble servant,
The protector to Henry Cromwell, major general of the forces in Ireland.
Wee are informed from severall hands, that the old enemye are formeinge designes to invade Ireland, as well as other parts of the comonwealth; and that he and Spayne have very great correspondencies with some cheife men in that nation for raiseinge a suddeine rebellion there. Wherefore wee judge it very necessary, that you take all possible care to put the forces into such a condition as may answere any thinge, which may fall out of this kinde; and to that end, that you contract the garrisons in Ireland as much as may be, and get a considerable marchinge armye into the feild in two or three bodyes to be layd in the most proper and advantagious places for service, as occasion shall require; takeinge alsoe in all other thinges the best care you can to breake and prevent the designes and combinations of the enemye; and a very perticuler reguard is to be had to the north, where without question buissie and discontented persons are workeinge towards new disturbances. I doe not doubt but you will communicate these things to colonel Cowper, to the end he may be the more watchfull and diligent in lookeinge to his charge. I rest
26 Aug. 1646.
Additional instruction to the council in Ireland.
Whereas we have daily intelligence, that the old malignant practice by confederacy with Spain are forming a design to invade this commonwealth with foreign forces, and at the same time to raise up a rebellion within our own bowels, and that herein they hold correspondence with the Irish, as to what concerns that nation, from whom they receive very great encouragement: amongst some other things, which we have judged fit to be done at this time for preventing these designs and preserving the peace of the commonwealth, we have thought it necessary, that the chief persons of the Irish be secured; and to that purpose you are to give your immediate orders for the apprehending and securing in some safe places as to you shall seem fit, such of the heads of clans and other considerable persons in Ireland as you shall judge to be dangerous and likely to be made use of in the aforesaid designs; and likewise that you consider, how such persons may be for the future disposed of, either by sending them beyond the sea or otherwise, with regard had to any conditions or articles as have formerly been granted to them, whereby Ireland may be secured in some measure from those dangers and attempts, which it is continually subjected to from these men and their correspondencies; and we desire you to signify to us what you shall do in pursuance thereof.
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.
Your lordship will receive by this post a letter from his highnes to yourself, and another to the councell concerninge the present designes of the enemie upon Ireland, of which I shall give your lordship a more perticuler account then is conteyned in those letters: the designe, which is formed, is in conjunction with the Spanyard, and indeed he is to have the manadgment thereof, C. S. haveinge put hymselfe and his affaires into the hands of Spayne, to be governed by hym as to his intended restitution. They are now, in order to this buissines, gatheringe together the scattered English and Irish into Flanders, and to forme them into regiments there. Ormond about 14 dayes since writt a letter to Muskerry, who hath a regiment in the French service, requireinge hym in the kinges name to march with his regiment into Flanders to such place as he should by his next appoint, to be imployed in his master's service, and this was under peyne of high treason. C. Stewart hath likewise writt to his brother the pretended duke of York to come forthwith to hym, haveinge (as he writt) thinges of infinit consequence to communicate to hym concerninge the restitution of their familye. There are alsoe 7 or 8000 men leavyed in Germany in the name of Char. S. under the conduct of mons. Lamboy, and are upon their march, and will be made use of hether, if the Spanyard makes not use of them against the French, which he will not, for ought I see, have need to doe, his affaires beinge already very prosperous in those parts: add to this sir Geo. Carteret's designe upon Galloway, besides what your lordship did observe by the papers, that you were pleased to send me from Ireland; soe that there is noe question to be made, but there is a designe upon Ireland, as there is alsoe upon England and Scotland. Colo. Sexby is now in Flanders, and hath assured don Alonso; the late ambassador here, that he hath contracted for a garrison in England to be surrendred to them at their landinge, and hath assured them alsoe, that a great part of our fleet will revolt upon their comeinge in, soe that it is certeyne they have many irons in the fire at this tyme. I trust, through the goodnes of God, wee shall prevent some of them from takeinge, if not all. As I can learne what their perticuler designes are, and which way they will begin their attempts, your lordship shall be sure to have an accompt thereof. Much adoe there hath beene about the elections here; every faction hath bestirred themselves with all their might: who they are who at last are chosen your lordship will see by the enclosed papers; those in Wales are not returned hither yet, nor doe I heare certeinlye who is for Suff. or Wilts; in the latter they say sir Anthony Asley Cowper is chosen for one. Serjeant Bradshaw hath missed it in Cheshire, and is chosen noe where else. Sir H. Vane poled for it in three places, and mist it in all. Every body gives out that they will be for peace and settlement, and are great freinds to the government. Sir H. Vane was before the councell upon thursday last, where he was charged with writeinge the booke called The healing question, which strikes at the foundation of this government, and offers another to the people: he owned the writeinge of it, as alsoe the publishinge, though in termes darke and misterious enough (as his manner is:) he was hereupon ordered to give in securitie not to disturbe the peace of the nation, or else to stand committed, and he was to doe it by this day. I heare he will not give in securitie.
My lord Broghill and general Moncke's letters by the last post signifie, that there are 14
or 15 of the enemies ships plyeinge about the island of Ila, which lyes somwhat northward
of Karicksergus and Point Patricke, and beleive they waite for our ships and men bound for
Jamaica. And truly if the matter of fact be soe, it is certeyne they can have noe other designe; and therefore your lordship will doe exceedinge well to send all the ships of warr,
which are upon the coast of Ireland, to attend that service of secureinge the Jamaica ships:
if the enemy should take them, or soe spoile them, that they could not proceed upon their
voyage, it will hazard the totall ruine of our West India buissines. I am glad to heare,
that Vernon hath changed his bias; I perswade myself, that the late election hath convinced
them, that if they be lest to the people, woe be to them. It is certeyne that Mr. Kissin,
who stood and carryed it in Middlesex, with all his company had beene cut in pieces, if the
souldiers had not beene at hand to rescue them; the country people fell upon them pel mel,
cryeinge out, Noe Anabaptist: very many were wounded. Wee have very little forreine
newes. The victory of the Swede upon the Pole is confirmed, soe that noe doubt is made
thereof: I wish it were as certeyne that the Swede and Dutch would agree: they are now
upon a treatie; and to the end that his highnes may omitt noe opportunitie of manifestinge
his desire to unite the protestant partie, he hath writt a letter to the States Generall to incite them to peace, and hath sent it away by an expresse. The Swedish ambassador went
from hence upon saterday last, beinge very well content with the civilities he hath received
here. I have nothinge else to trouble your lordship with, save to assure you, that I am
Whitehall, 26 Aug. 1656.
His highnes hath taken into consideration this afternoone the buissines of Jamaica ships, and doth desire, that your lordship will give direction to all ships of warre at Dublyn, or elsewhere upon the coast of Ireland, to goe to Port Patrick and those seas, for the protection of those ships; and whereas the sayd ships intended to goe about Ireland, it is thought best here that they come backe through St. George his chanel, and soe to the West Indyes, in case the information hold true, that the enemyes ships are wayteinge for them; but that is left to generall Monck and those upon the place, to give such directions therein as shall be necessary.
The Dutch ambassadors in Denmark to Ruysch.
Our last to your lordship was of the 8th current. As far as we can perceive by the ryx-hossmaster they do intend to manage all the negotiation with the ambassador of the duke of Brandenburgh solely to this end, to separate the duke from the king of Sweden, and to this purpose they not only continue to speak roundly concerning his majesty's opinion in order to Dantzick and Prussia, but also make no difficulty to offer, that Denmark in such a case will undertake the preservation of the countries of the duke of Brandenburgh in Prussia against all persons whatsoever. They seem here to hope, that it will be a powerful means to dispose the duke to a separation, in case the like offers and endeavours were made by their high and mighty lordships on their side, especially in regard it is clearly perceived, that the duke of Brandenburgh doth fear the emperor; and here are letters come from very good hands at Weenen, which mention, that ten thousand men of the emperor's shall march out of Silesia and Poland as soon as there is news come of the entrance of the Muscovites; and it is conceived by this, that there is some correspondence between the emperor, Poles, and Muscovites. We advised your lordship in our last, that we had made overture of the condition of the negotiation of their high and mighty lordships in the court of Sweden to the lords ryx-hoffmaster and chancellor, and that the lord ryx-hoffmaster had undertaken to tell us his majesty's opinion upon it, which he hath not yet done; but we have since understood by the said lord ryx-hoffmaster, that the intention of his majesty is to expect the arrival of the lords of the council, who will be here to morrow to consult and take some resolution upon some considerations juxta modum inclusionis of this crown in the treaties with Sweden, and about the means which may serve to satisfy the other, and to speak with us about the said overture; and it is to be supposed, that this is the reason, why they have not desired of us a more solemn overture. It is certain that Denmark would be very loth to see at this time, that their high and mighty lordships should make any engagement with Sweden to assist them against their enemies, especially in regard that there is news and a confirmation come a few days ago from Riga, how that not only Dunenberg, Dorpt, and Kakenhowsen, which is a reasonable strong place between Dunenberg and Riga, are said to be taken by the Muscovites, but that his troops are come before Riga, and the garrison of men, which is in it, is said not to be without great danger of falling into their enemies hands; and in such a case your high and mighty lordships might sooner agree about the tolls with the Muscovites than the Swedes.
The ships which are designed from hence for Dantzick have since yesterday laid waiting for a wind, and as soon as that is favourable they intend to set sail. The affairs of the envoys of Dantzick must wait the arrival of the lords of the council.