A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 5, May 1656 - January 1657. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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November (7 of 7)
H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
Major Redman, major Owen, and some others are now in possession by lease for one year of a parcell of land called the abbey-lease, which belongs to the government. I have at their request given you this trouble, desiring that you would give Mr. Vincent Gookin leave to give you an accompt how the bussiness stands; and if you find his accompt to be just and reasonable, I shall desire then that you would mediate effectually with his highness to grant them a lease of twenty one years, or for such time as his highness shall think meet. The persons are very deserving, and have made as little advantage to themselves by serving the publick, as any I know; which doth encourage me the rather to desire your favour in this business, which shall be esteemed as don to
A letter of intelligence.
Since my being heer I have used all the possible meanes I could to serve you, and doe most humbly beseech you, that you will be pleased to admit me to the honour of waiting on you either this night or to-morrow night, over against the smithe's shop, wher I will be, if I receive your commands, about five a clock in the evening, being very desireous to give you an account of some things, before I return into the contrey, which will be as soon as I have your leave; that I may preserve myselfe free from suspition, and yet, as I have ordered it, continue to serve you, with all the duty and faithfulnesse of the humblest of,
I have chosen to send by this bearer, because if you please to honour me with your commands, I will send to her for them; desiring, that the letter may be directed to Mr. Edwards without more * * whose lawe-business is put off till the next terme, and his pretence of longer stay taken away, otherwise he should not venture upon so much rudenesse as this request brings with it.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
I HAVE but late this day received your letter, with the inclosed order for returninge of Mr. Townley in the first ship; which I shall effect (there beinge one now ready to depart, as I am told) if I find noe opposition from the cittie or company, beinge they are not required to assist mee, in case needfull. If the frost strike in, noe ships can goe hence before springe. I am sorie the order came not by the last post, that he might have returned in the companie's ships. Haveinge nothing to add to the inclosed papers of intelligence, I cease your further truble, and shall remayne
From Boreel, the Dutch ambassador in France.
Some weeks since I advised the government by your lordship, what order of the court was sent to Calais to the private men of war, set out from thence, in regard of the prizes, which they shall take from the subjects of their high and mighty lordships at sea, which in my opinion is a business of great consideration. I then desired with all speed to be ordered and instructed by their high and mighty lordships, how I should govern myself concerning the same, in regard it was a business of so great consequence.
And I have just now received letters from Toulon of the 19th Nov. last, how that besides the four ships already equipt there, they were preparing yet ten more of the king's biggest ships, to whom commissions are given by this court. And amongst other clauses, there is this one considerable, which saith, that these men of war shall not pretend to the confiscation of merchandizes and goods of the English, nor of those of Genoa, nor of the Venetians, nor of the Hans-towns; yea, they are not to meddle with them, though these goods be mingled or laden with the goods of the enemies of this crown. But forasmuch as concerneth (thus run the words) the Hollanders, the quite contrary shall be observed; for enemies goods or merchandizes being laden or mingled with Hollanders goods, shall confiscate the Hollanders goods, according to the ancient kingly ordinances of the kings Francis the first, and Henry the first. I hope the government will take cognizance thereof, and instruct me how I shall govern myself herein; whether I shall take notice of it publicly by order of their high and mighty lordships, or quasi out of myself, without special order. I pray let me have a speedy answer.
A letter of intelligence.
Since my last there is nothing worth the writing. The Polish army is still in their old camp at Langenow two miles from Dantzick, and hath bin, by the coming of KoningsPolski with his troops, somewhat increased. Charnesky will joyne them likewise with 2000 horse and 5000 more, which are on their way to Dantzick with their queen. The Swedes contayne themselves still in the island of Marienburg, the driving of the ice upon the Wissell, not only hindering all passage, but hath broken their bridge of boats by the host, insomuch that the men of Dantzick drew all they could make to attempt the said place, but the goodness of the fortifications, and the badness of the weather; with sad flinted ground, so that no approach could be made, obliged then to returne, after five days cold facing of the fort, home agayne: a thousand Poles were indeed joyned with them, but all to no purpose. The French ambassadors had audience upon the 5th, and the Hollands upon the 6th of December, the second time only complimentall and pacifick, but nothing has bin yet proposed, neither is there any yet on foot. As soon as the river is strong enough to bear cannon, 'tis thought the armies will joyne. The Hollands souldiers have bin very unquiet, upon apprehensions of being sent to the Polish army, but now they are quiett agayne.
From Boreel, the Dutch ambassador in France.
I was formerly advised, that there had been many and great conferences held between col. Lockhart, envoy of England, and the lord Brienne, secretary of state and of the king, which I have now found to be true by their own confessions.
Afterwards there was employed in the conference with the said envoy, in the place of the said count, mons. de Lionne, who was often at the house of the said envoy; whereby I conceive, that the matter in hand was proposed in behalf of France to England.
By the bye, I hear, that this crown, perceiving the little inclination of their high and mighty lordships to renew their former alliances with this crown, is resolved to make a near and strict alliance with England, as well for the preservation of both the kingdoms, as also to carry on the war mutually against Spain, and to endeavour the same to the utmost. And this crown durst tell me to my face, that when they were agreed with England, and in a strong and near alliance, that then they will not much care for the amity of their high and mighty lordships. They know very well (say they likewise) that their high and mighty lordships will never, nor can do any harm to France; and all help, assistance, and advantage they will have from England, which they had formerly from the state of the United Netherlands.
My lord, I thought it my duty to write over this unpleasant news; your lordship may be pleased so to manage it, that the unnecessary discovery thereof may do no harm to the one or the other government.
They do caress here the lord protector very much, also col. Lockhart was well dismissed. The lord cardinal presented to him four exceeding fine horses for the saddle, for the lord protector. The said col. Lockhart told me himself, he never saw such fine horses, and that the lord his master would be mightily pleased with them. He told me likewise, that this court had given him good content in all things; so that he went from hence very well satisfied, and thinks to return hither again shortly.
A paper relating to the ship St. Clara.
In the year of our Lord 1642, the ship called St. Clare, returning from America; was constrained to put in at Southampton port, and being there arrested by the admiral of England, Martin Lasson challenged and laid claim to six thousand nine hundred pieces of eight, and to threescore and eleven arrobes of cochineal, which he had caused to be laden in the said ship St. Clare; and having pursued his claim and pretence two years, notwithstanding the opposition made by the Spanish ambassador, who pretended the whole ship's lading to appertain unto his master, obtained an act of parliament in the year 1645, Feb. the 9th, by the which he was declared to be the lawful and only owner of the said 6900 pieces of eighty, and seventy one arrobes of cochineal. And forasmuch as that, whilst this cause and claim was in agitation, the said money and cochineal was employed for the use of the parliament, the same act ordained, that the public faith should be given for the faithful restitution both of the money and the cochineal; nevertheless, neither the continual demands made by the said Lasson, nor the instances made by the resident of France, could prevail for the restitution of the said money and goods, during the public troubles of England; for which reason Jane de Viello, widow to the said Lasson, was necessitated to seek her reimbursement in the best legal course she could, and so to cause the goods of some English merchants to be seized on for that effect at Bayon, and this in the year 1654. And although this pretence of Jane was found in his majesty's council to be just and lawful, yet the cause was remitted to the court of justice, there to be decided, that his highness my lord protector might here in England render the like justice to the king of France's subjects, to wit, to those, whose right is clear, and acknowledged so to be, without any further demur or remitting them to the assembly, which is to be held for the esteem and valuing of the prizes of both sides; neither was it the meaning of the 24th article of the last treaty, to take from them the power to pursue such claims, no more than to stop the ordinary course of justice. And since his highness doth acknowledge the same by the letters, which he hath written to the king of late, in the behalf of some English, to clear their particular interest from the common; may it therefore please his highness, to grant his necessary order for the payment of a debt, which the common justice and the act of parliament maketh unquestionable.
Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.
I Heere inclosed send you my cypher with Blacater, that if any letters com, you may reade them. Be pleased to dirrect your letters to me at Marston neere Froome, to be lest with the post-master of Andover, to be sent to me, with your name at the superscription; and on receipt of your commands, if I can but travell in a coach, I will, the Lord willinge, not fayle to waite on you heere; however, to be in this towne this day fortnight, if God give me life and health.
This bearer, Mr. Sharpe, is the minister imployed out of Scotland from the generallity of the ministers ther to his highness. He is a sober good man, and a frend and servant to his highnes. He will give you the paper of his and their desires, which I thinke, if granted, cannott be prejudiciall, provided the authority of conferringe stipends be still continued in the councell, wher now it is; and that no minister be admitted to a publike stipende, that does not first by a voluntary addres to the councell testify under his hand his resolution of livinge peaceably and inoffensively under his highnes government; which all the ministers of Mr. Sharpe's judgement have submitted unto, but many of the protestors invay against and declyne. I beg you, sir, countenance and further his dispatch. I heere, inclosed, send you a true coppy of a letter from Mr. Ruderford, one of the cheife of the protestors, to Mr. Ash of this citty, to be communicated to Mr. Calamy and other ministers of that judgment: 'twas sent up by Mr. Sympson, who now sollicits for the remonstrators. Mr. Ash, &c. showed it to Mr. Sharpe, as the accusation layd to his and his brethren's charge by the protestors. Mr. Sharpe, with much a doe, got the coppy of it, which he showed me, and I tooke from him, to let you have it, that his highnes may see, what sweet juglinge ther is. Symson accuses the publike resolutioners to his highnes, for men that impose the covenant still (which is wronge) and for men not true to him; and accuses the same men to the presbiterian ministers of England to have broken the covenant, and have imbraced the present authority, which also they call a sinfull complyance. But the said presbiterian ministers of London have been so honnest and sober, as not only to detect such jugglinge, but also to lett Mr. Sharpe know, that what we have demanded from the ministry of Scotland, was as little as we could well aske; and what they had assented unto, was as little as they could well have done.
I begg you, sir, showe this letter to his highness, and keepe it very privat, for it might ruine poor Mr. Sharpe, if it be knowne. My lord protector may make what use of it he please. Really I thinke the publike resolution-men will proove the honnester of the two; and if we can gain som of the sober remonstrators, the kirke may be firmly tyed in som competent time to the present authority. This gross dealinge I could not conceale from you. Pardon the length of this scribble, and conclude me, as I really am, sir,
Inclosed in the preceding. Mr. Rutherford to Mr. Simeon Ashe.
Reverend and worthy sir,
I Heare, that the answer to Mr. Hooker is making some progresse at the presse. Sir, I would recommend to you the bearer, Mr. James Simson, a faithfull preacher of the gospell: be pleas'd to heare him; I trust, he shall give you a true and faithfull relation of our affaires. You may be pleas'd to beleive me, these men, who have borrowed your care, to blacke the godly in the land, and who have now both deserted us and the covenant, and joyned first with the malignant party, and now have owned the present powers, and brought the intrants to the ministery to give under their hand and subscription an engagement (the writ calls it a resolution to live peaceably and inoffensively under the present governement) so that noe godly man can get any maintainance in this land, but such as will sinfully comply, and such as care not what an entry they have to that holy calling, doe embrace it: these men seeke more their owne things, then the things of Jesus Christ; and being backed by the whole multitude of the promiscuous generality throughout the land, who are for their way, as of old the prelaticall conformists did, doe persecute the godly, and in pulpits and presbiteryes declaime against us, as unpeaceable and separatists. You may, sir, by this, and what the bearer will make knowne to you, perceive what wrong the complyance of these men hath done to the cause of God. But I spare, and doe beg the favour of your other eare. The grace of God be with you. I am
Upon which day there was in company James Phillips esq; Henry Williams esq; Thomas Evans, of the county of Cardigan, esq; Isaac Lloyd and Thomas Williams, counsellors at law, John Mansell, Thomas Stepney, and Evan Gwyn, gent.
* * Morgan, one of his highness's guard, came in by accident to speak with Mr. Phillips: then and there the abovesaid Mr. Mansell began to discourse of his highness and Whitehall, and about the present government, but nothing disaffected or prejudicial to his highness or government; and as the said Mr. Mansell was speaking of his highness and government, the abovesaid Mr. Evans very spitefully uttered these words, and said, I wish that this were in somebody's brains (and held forth in his hand a tobacco pipe, and cracked it) for said he, some doth warm themselves very well by that fire, but I hope it will not continue nor hold out long. At which expressions the whole company did much wonder, and took especial notice thereof, and particularly Mr. Phillips, and Mr. Williams, who replied to him, and were very much offended with him, and lest him immediately after.
A letter of intelligence.
Upon monday last I was bold to present my duty to you by the woman to this effect, that the terme being neer its end, I only wanted your leave to returne into the countrey; but that I was unwilling to doe it, till I had first acquainted you with something of importance, that concerned your service. Therefore, sir, if you please to command me to attend you, I shall doe it with all the readynesse that becomes, sir,
Sir, if you shall please to signifie your pleasure to me, direct for Mr. Edwards or Barrett. I shall send to this bearer for your commands, which I hope will summon me to waite on you, having something fitt for your knowledge, raither by discours then letters.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of the lords States General of the United Netherlands.
After deliberation had, it is thought fit, that when any commonwealths and princes, to whom their high and mighty lordships understand not to give place, that they writing to their high and mighty lordships, shall give such titles in their letters, and the superscriptions thereof, as do belong to their high and mighty lordships; and the said republicks and princes shall be used in their high and mighty lordships letters, with the same titles and superscriptions.
At the council at Whitehall.
Whereas by an order of his highness and the council of the 16th of October last, three new companies were appointed to be raised according to the English establishment, which with seven of the Irish foot companies now in England, were to be formed into a regiment, under command of col. Hewson, and six other new companies were appointed to be raised according to the said new establishment, which, with four of the Irish foot companies, were to be formed into a regiment under command of col. Robert Gibbon:
Ordered by his highness the lord protector and the council, that the four Irish companies in col. Gibbon's regiment do march with col. Hewson's regiment, and that the three new raised companies in col. Hewson's regiment do march with col. Gibbon's regiment; and that the respective collonels of the said regiments do take order, as aforesaid, to the intent the said new-raised, and Irish companies, being now under pay of several establishments, may be respectively under one rule of pay; that is to say, the new raised companies, that are to march in col. Gibbon's regiment, may be paid together, according to the English establishment, and the Irish companies that are to march with col. Hewson's regiment may be paid together, according to the Irish establishment, commenceing the 24th of Octob. 1653; and the committee for the army are to issue their warrants for the payment of them accordingly.
Part of a conference with the Dutch ambassadors, Nov. 27, 1656.
And for preventing the hindrance of navigation, and commerce of the people, and subjects of either, it is agreed, that all masters and commanders of merchants ships and vessels, belonging to either of these confederates, may carry with them, and be furnished with passports and certificates, reciting in every one of them the article, de verbo in verbum; which passports and certificates shall be made, signed, and sealed by the governors or chief magistrate of the province or city, under either of the said consederates, from whence they come; and the names of all such ships and vessels, and of the wares therein laden, and the men therein shipped, with the true and proper owners, laders, or consigners, and for whose account; and the true dates and times, without ante-dating, and such other descriptions, as are in effect hereafter in this passport, letter of safe-conduct, and certificate described, and therein to be likewise set down and inserted; which being exhibited to the commanders of ships of war meeting them at sea, or in any bays, ports, or havens, no danger, trouble, injury, or wrong shall be done to them; but on the contrary, they shall be treated civilly, and used with all friendship, and shall be freely dismissed to sail their intended voyage. Which form of passes and certificates shall be used for the space of (fn. 1) three years next coming from the conclusion of this treaty, and no longer; the said time being agreed upon to make a trial, how this expedient for preventing the hindrances of trade, may answer the ends, propounded by both of them. Provided, that this article, or the ensuing pass and certificate, or any thing therein contained, shall not be construed to take away or invalidate any the rights, dominions, jurisdictions, usages, or customs, which either of these confederates do claim, or have enjoyed upon the sea, and particularly the English in the British seas; nor shall be construed to justisy any fraud, or the colouring and concealing of any enemies, or contraband or prohibited goods, contrary to the meaning of these articles of this present or any former treaty made between these consederates; whereby, among other things, it is provided, that no money or bullion for supply of the enemies of either, nor any of the said prohibited goods, be carried by one of his people, or subjects, to the enemies of the other upon pain of forfeiting the same, which shall be good prize without any hope of restitution.
We therefore, N. B. governor or chief magistrate of the province of the city of C. [setting down his title or office as it is] do hereby make known and certisy, that upon the —day of —the year of— came personally before us in the city or town of Din being of the subjection and obedience of (his highness the lord protector) or, of the states of the United Provinces (as the case is) A. B. C. and E. being inhabitants of E. and subjects of his said (highness the lord protector) or, the states of the United provinces (as the case shall be) and declared unto us, upon solemn oath before us by them respectively and corporally taken, that the good ship, hoy, or vessel, called or known by the name of — of — being of or about the burden of — tons, is and belongeth to the port, city, or town of — in the subjection of — and doth in right appertain to A. B. C. of — as true and real proprietors thereof, and is now bound forth from the port of — upon a voyage or voyages to be made to — laden with a cargasoone of goods, viz. — [and here specify what goods they are, and the quantities, qualities, and descriptions] thereof which said goods, viz. the said — were laden aboard the said ship or vessel at — by A. B. C. D. being true subjects of — for their own true and proper account (or for account of E. L. F. of A. or by their order, or with their effects, as the case is) and the other goods laden aboard as aforesaid, viz. the said — were laden at — by A. B. C. of E. L. F. D. of for the true, real, and proper account of B. being true subjects of — and by their, and with their own goods or effects. And D. E. F. did corporally swear, that the said goods afore-specified, are the whole cargasoone laden, or intended to be laden aboard thesaid ship, for the said voyage; and that no part thereof doth belong to, or is for any enemies of England, &c. or the said United Provinces (as the case is) nor are coloured or concealed under any feigned or fictitious names or descriptions; but are really and truly for the said true owners, and laden by the said laders, particularly named as above, and none other. And that the said ship or vessel is not manned by any enemies of — nor to carry any such enemies, as passengers; but that the master of the said ship or vessel is named A. B. and is a freeman of the town of — and the rest of the mariners or seamen of the said ship or vessel, for the said voyage, being in number — and subjects of — (as the case is.) And that upon full examination, we the said governor or chief magistrate of C. as aforesaid, do find the said ship or vessel, and the said goods therein laden, as aforesaid, to be free, and truly and really belong to subjects of — And thereupon, in conformity to the articles of peace betwixt England and the said United provinces, and to the pass mutually agreed upon between the said confederates, we the said governor or chief magistrate of — do make and sign seal with our seal this present passport, letters of safe-conduct, or certificate for the said ship and goods, master and seamen; and do hereby certificate for the said ship and goods, master and seamen, and do hereby certify and declare them all free; and do, according and conform to the articles of peace betwixt his said highness, and the said lords the States General, desire, that upon the sea, and in all places wheresoever they shall be met by the said ships of war, public or private, or by any of the people, subjects, or inhabitants of — That upon producing this our letter of safe conduct, and certificate, they be suffered to pass on with freedom to pursue their occasions, without any damage, injury, or molestation, according to the intent of the said articles, and not otherwise.
The Dutch ambassador treats upon this pass, with reservation of such directions as he shall receive from his superiors upon it, to whom, he saith, he hath communicated it, mentioned as the form of the pass to be offered to the ambassadors.
Courtin to Bordeaux the French ambassador in England.
Besides the inclination of ratifying the treaty of Elbing, there doth not appear, that the lords states of Holland will take any resolution upon the affairs of the north: they proceed slowly, to expect, as is said, what effect the mediation of the lords ambassadors of France and of this state will produce, for the peace between the two crowns of Sweden, and Poland; for both parties do seem to be willing to make a peace. There is hope to expect a good issue, or it may be, they stay to see what the success will be, in case the Swedes fall upon the Poles, which, it is said, they intend to do; yea, some letters do speak already, as if the Poles were beaten; but this news is not believed by every body. In the mean time, if this news prove true, it will make Dantzick to accept of the offer of being included in the treaty of Elbing.
Many persons here seem to be glad at the choice, which his majesty hath made of the person of mons. Thou, for his ambassador here. It is hoped, that the reputation of his merit will avail much to make this government to know their true interests.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of their high and mighty lordships the States General of the United Netherlands.
Received a letter of the council of state writ in the Hague the 2d current, desiring, for the alledged reasons, that the treasureship general of these United Netherlands, may be again effectually taken care of, which hath been vacant ever since the death of the lord treasurer general Brasser in April 1654; and at that time there being observed, and understood to be elected thereunto the person of the lord of Beverning, who being of such repute and capacity, that he would be most acceptable to the said council, if so be he may be invested in the said charge; whereupon being debated, it is thought fit herewith, to desire the respective provinces, that for reasons abovementioned they will declare themselves as soon as may be.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The lord Slingelant hath made report, which chiefly contained a justification of the treaty of Elbing, declaring, that it is made conformable to the instruction, and the instructions following of this state. He was desired to give his verbal report in writing, and at the same time to make some observation upon the points most considerable.
The chambre mi-partie being resolved to enter into examination of the chiefest points and process of Outremeuse, &c. will not do it, but when the number is complete; wherefore they have writ into Friezland and Overyssel, to the end to send theirs thither.
The letter of prince Maurice is refered to the council of state. They have not yet fully resolved about the order to be to the ambassador in Prussia. Holland hath resolved, that the ambassador Nieuport shall be writ unto, to pursue the maritime treaty with vigor, having advice, that France and England together will hinder all manner of navigation to Spain; and by conclusion of the said maritime treaty, they intend to frustrate that design.
From Dantzick is nothing come. The ambassadors in Denmark write, that that king doth demonstrate no inclination to the inclusion of his majesty and his kingdoms, nor to that of the city of Dantzick; but desireth to make another and more near treaty with this state; giving to understand, that in that case he will give great satisfaction concerning the saltcompany and other grievances of this state. This letter was presently referred to commissioners to consider of it; and it will be a means, that they will incline so much the less here to to the ratification.
Prince Maurice hath again writ, the lord president hath represented, that there is great danger, or at least fear, in the country of Cleve, demanding assistance of soldiers. 2dly. Demanding ammunition. 3dly. Explanation of the resolution taken. Likewise, there is a letter come from Nimmegen, demanding reinforcement of the garrisons in those parts. All this is referred to the council of state. There is also produced a secret letter from the lord Nieuport, with a draught of the maritime treaty. If in this project the English permit navigation to the enemies ports, the report, which is here, that with France they will practise the contrary, is false.
There are letters of credit come from the elector of Cologne, bishop of Munster, and the duke of Newburgh, upon the persons of the baron of Neerse, and col. Wylich; upon which letters the said persons are to have audience to-morrow. It is probable, that it is upon the subject of an alliance between this state and the circle of Westphalia.
The council of state having considered of the letter that came from Nimmegen, demanding more garrison, as well for themselves, as for other frontier places, against the forces of the prince of Condé, hath advised, that those garrisons are strong enough.
This day the baron of Virmount, and of Wylich, had audience: they were conducted by two commissiones of the assembly, the lords Ripperda, and Schylenborch, in a coach with six horses; and although the lord of Virmount (lord of Neerse) was the first in commission, yet however the lord Wylich spoke, saying, that formerly the States General having declared themselves ready to enter into an alliance with the electors and princes, their masters they desired time and place, where each might send their ambassadors to treat about it, and having given this in writing, the States General demanded copies thereof for their provinces.
The ambassador of Spain hath again made instances for the embassy, which this state resolved upon a long while since to be sent for Spain. The other provinces had not much to say against it; but Holland took it upon them to speak about it in their assembly.
There is report made concerning the ratification of the treaty or obligatory act, made the 10th of July with the commissioners of Dantzick, and finding it to differ very much from the said act, they shewed themselves angry at it; but that is ridiculous; the said act being only a project or concept; for Dantzick never gave power to make any such act.
The points demanded in the behalf of the country of Cleve, do remain undispatched, till such time they be urged. They write to those of the province of Geldre, that they may make use of the company of the guard of 200 horse, which is at Aernem, if they want men.
From Dantzick of the 22d of Nov. they write, that the king of Poland hath declared, that he hath desired the emperor and the king of Denmark for mediators. Poland is in doubt, whether they will make peace with Sweden; or with the Muscovite. The Holland troops at Dantzick will not serve against the Swedes.
Holland doth labour all that they can at present to prevall with the other provinces for the constituting and confirming of the lord Beverning in the charge of treasurer general. There is likelihood, that Geldre, Holland, Utrecht, and Overyssell will be for the lord Beverning; but Zealand, Friesland, and Groningen will be against it.
This day the lord president made report, that he had been communicated by the commissioners of Dantzick; that the Holland soldiers in that city had not only quitted their stations, refusing not only to keep any guards, but also, that they speak very ill of the magistrates, and threatening to kill the colonel, and declaring, that they will not serve against the Swede; and so that those of Dantzick have signified, desiring that they will not take it ill here (if so be that, which is abovementioned, doth continue) that they disarm those soldiers, or that they be sent back for Holland. The States General desired to have this in writing.
This day was read a letter from the council of state, representing, that it would be necessary, that the function of the treasurer general were supplied; whereupon it presently followed, whether it were not fit to swear and introduce the lord Beverning, having already a commission for the said charge. Holland, Geldre, and Utrecht gave their consenting voices; but Zealand, Friezland and Overyssel, desired, that he would first purge himself of the act of seclusion, and took it into consideration. Groningen said, that they would declare themselves, when the other provinces had declared themselves, that had taken it into consideration.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
The admiralty of Amsterdam hath already given some provisional order to their ships of convoy, concerning the visiting of ships at sea; which being a little disadvantageous, those of the states of Holland have thought fit to alter it, or countermand it, as having lately received a letter from the lord ambassador Nieuport, with certain projected articles, with hope, that they shall agree at last about a maritime treaty with Cromwell, which will be both amicable and advantageous. But it is to be laughed at, when such a thing is seen, how these lords the states of Holland dare pretend to some things, which they themselves never practised, and which they will never practise. In the mean time, I confess they have great reason, if they can make a good treaty; for every one draweth what grist he can to his mill. As to the affairs of Prussia, they make account, that Cromwell will not trouble himself about them; yea, though if the Swede himself should invite the protector to the mediation (as of necessity he must do) that Cromwell will excuse himself of it, and will leave him to himself. And therefore it is, that in that regard the states of Holland have of themselves, as it were, resolved to send again some men of war towards the East sea, at least 25. In the mean time as to the ratification, the states of Holland themselves are divided about it: a good party of them is ashamed to retard it, since there is no colour of reason for it; but the greatest part will yet delay that business till the next assembly, and in the mean time they will expect the issue and success of the war. The good Dantzickers are to be pitied, finding themselves obliged to maintain and keep the army of Poland, and from the States General cometh nothing, neither is there any likelihood of any, only they will leave there the said army, which is no charge to the States General; for as well were they to be maintained and paid here. The states of Holland do labour very much at present to settle upon the lord Beverning the charge of treasurer general, which was given to him ob rem bene gestam in Anglia; but afterwards, before he could have the possession of it, was suspended by the act of seclusion. One of the great friends of the princess of Orange said, that it was a strange thing, that now the amity and affection of the friends of the princess of Orange to Cromwell is greater than that of the well-affected of Holland. It is true, and that proceedeth from the instability of the states of Holland, who will have all the trade, and have daily an ardent jealousy of Cromwell; but if the Polander doth not effectually conquer, and that suddenly, the Swede, the Dantzickers will be obliged to embrace the inclusion and neutrality, for they will not be able to support and undergo so great a burthen. I rest
From count Holac.
Quant a la cause commune, il n'y a nulle esperance, que l'Hollande, qui faict la partie là plus considerable en ces pais cy, se joindra à ceux, qui là cherchent à l'avancer, puis qu'ils ont plus de haine & d'ennemitie pour ceux là, que pour les ennemis communs des protestants: aussy tiennent ils, que leurs interest consistent en contrepaisant l'Angleterre & la Suede, qui est desja une maxime establie entre eux; c'est ce qui leurs faict dire publiquement, qu'ils profitent plus avec l'Espagne qu'avec le reste des autres: & si on considere les personnes, qui gouvernent l'Hollande, & principalement Amsterdam, qui est le gouvernail de toute la province d'Hollande, ils ne sont, ou que des papistes en leurs cœurs (dont le bons protestants icy n'ont que trop de secure information) ou libertins, qui est à dire des atheistes; & une personne de consideration m'asseura ces jours, qu'a leurs grand regret il n'y ait que deux ou trois des vrays protestants entre tous les gouverneurs icy, qui font regler toute la Hollande selon la maxime d'interest privé. Je m'arreste trop long temps à importuner V. E. c'est pour cela, que je suis contrainct de finir avec tres humble supplications, que V. E. me veille faire la faveur incomparable de conserver tousjours une gratieuse memoire en S. A. mons. le protecteur pour moy, un de ses plus asseurés & zelés serviteurs, qui par la glorieuse suffrance pour la religion, qu'il a souffert en sa famille par la grace du bon Dieu, a esté fermement attaché à l'interest commun, qui je scay est le principal but de S. A. & du conseil. C'est pour cela, que j'offre dereches mes tres obeissants services en quel temps & en quel lieu ils puissent apporter la moindre utilité à S. A. & au conseil, & pour avoir l'honneur d'estre commendé de S. A. un de plus grands princes de l'Europe, & des meilleurs capitains du monde. Je supplie tres humblement V. E. de m'accorder cette grande faveur de vouloir faire resouvenir S. A. de gratieuse promesse, que'elle faisoit d'une compagnie des chevaulx. C'est par la que je pretends de tesmoigner réellement mon zele pour S. A. qu'aussy qu'en toutes autres occasions, en les quelles S. A. me voudroit honorer de ses commendments. Cependants je ne manqueray jamais d'observer les interests de S. A. & de l'estats, & de donner advis de tout ce que j'appercevray estre contraire à iceux & à V. E. En particulier je me trouve tant obligé, que je n'ose demander quasi plus de faveurs, si non cellecy de l'aggreable conservation de la bonne & estimable affection, que V. E. monstroit amplement & genereusement envers celuy, qui est, & qui sera a jamais de tout son cœur,
From Nieuport the Dutch ambassador in England.
Yesterday I had another conference with the lords Strickland, Jones, and the secretary of state; and first, I proposed to their lordships, that the projected 7th article, and pass or certificate, sent to me a few days since, did differ in some expressions from that, which is agreed with Sweden, and expressed the projected articles. First, there is only mentioned, that the passes and certificates shall be shown to the commander, if they meet any at sea; and that the same is only to be done in the harbours, and bays, where any ships come in, or are forced in by contrary winds and weather. The said commissioners said, that I having complained of the inconveniencies, that happened at sea upon rencounters of ships, that it was sufficient, if care was taken to prevent it, and that there was great difference between the sea and harbours; that their safety and welfare, under God, wholly depended upon the same, and the forts built upon them; and that it would be dangerous, that the only shewing of a pass, and which may be counterfeited, that a governor should demand no other account concerning the condition of the ships, nor be able to do it, but only require a sight of the pass, and to be satisfied therewith, whereby the forts may be surprized, and all manner of arms brought to the ill-affected people of this country. I replied, that there was altogether the same reason in the harbours, in regard of the ships, which only desire to pass, and that break no bulk; and that by means of the said certificates, containing so many and such strict precautions, that danger moved by their lordships would be best prevented; that already in the treaty of peace it was agreed, that the coming in of any ships into harbour should be permitted to go out again without any molestation, if they break no bulk; that the sea-coasts are judged to be of the same nature as the seas; and that likewise in the maritime treaty with Spain the same is also agreed. Their lordships said, that the lord protector and council did think it worthy of great consideration, and judged that the words, in any roads or harbours, after the words, meeting at sea, ought not to be added thereunto; but I desired, that their lordships would be pleased to make a further report to the lord protector of the reasons alledged by me, considering that it was agreed in that manner with Sweden. Moreover I declared to their lordships, that the clause or period, wherein is said, that the said passes or certificates are to be used for the space of three years, and no longer, did seem to me very strange. That I indeed had seen whole treaties, which had been made for a certain time, but never that it was in a treaty about the observation of a part of it only. To that their lordships made answer, that the point of passes was very considerable to their state, and that the same was never agreed in any treaty with any nation, but lately to Sweden; and that in such manner, as they had formerly declared to me. But having heard my explanation, the lord secretary of state said to me, that the limitations of the time might be applied to the whole treaty, and add after the words (no longer) unless it be renewed with mutual consent. In the following clause of no prejudice, I shewed to their lordships, that before the words, use or custom, thereunto ought to be added, lawful use or custom; desiring, that also the words, and particularly the English in the British seas, might be omitted; and I likewise said, that the repetition of what is expressed in the former article was unnecessary in the last period. After some debates, their lordships said, that they could very well suffer, that before the words, custom or use, should be put lawful, but would in no wise agree to any thing further of the passes. I said, that their lordships had put, that the declarations were to be done by solemn oath, and that there were many honourable persons, that belonged to the states of the United Netherlands, who are of such opinions, that they are to be dispensed with, only making declaration upon their honesty or the like; moreover that there be every where natural subjects, whereby disputes will still arise, so that it were better that the word subjects be only used. Their lordships answered to the first, that a public dispensation would be too prejudicial, that every one should pretend to be of that opinion; but that they might let pass in the practice some such like things thro' connivance: and to the last, that they were contented that the words, true and natural, put before the word subjects, be omitted. Afterwards the 9th article of the said articles, the said lords said, that the same was in effect regulated in the 7th article, namely, that upon the shewing of the passes and certificates, no damage, trouble, or molestation should be done to the ships, but that they should pursue their voyages: that it was an ancient custom to lay the ships on board; and that the sending of a shalop on board with two or three men was oftentimes the loss of men and boat, there being nothing more common, than enemies carrying the flags of friends: and that therefore the lord protector and his council judged, that the said 9th article was unnecessary, and ought to be omitted. I answered, that the most complaints were occasioned by the excesses committed at the meeting of ships at sea, and that the laying of them on board was very prejudicial and unkind, and that therefore the same article ought to be continued: that their lordships with much less reason do repeat in the last part of the 7th article that, which is agreed in regard of money for the assistance of the enemy or the like; and that it is necessary to use the best precaution for the preventing of that great inconvenience; alledging several examples of insupportable exorbitancy committed by their ships upon such occasions against the subjects of the United Netherlands. Their lordships persisted, that by the said 7th article and the following 10th article, there is sufficiently provided against the same. And moreover they said upon the 10th article, that on this side the said article was put, pre-supposing that it was expedient, that the same should be effected by both sides commissioners; but that their high and mighty lordships thought fit to leave the judicature to the respective admiralties, where they suppose the course of law, according to the practice there, ought to be followed; and that therefore the period in the last summary, and of proceeding de plano, ought to be omitted. I replied, that their high and mighty lordships did conceive, that there were no complaints about the persons of the judges, but about the chargeable and tedious proceedings in the court of admiralty; and that the same was not so much had into consideration, who should judge, as about the manner and rules, according to which that right ought to be done; and the words summary and de plano are explained, by the prosecutors and interested not undergoing the trouble of an ordinary process. At last there was agreed by the lords commissioners, that the said article should be passed. To the 11th article they said, that the same consisted of two parts, and that the first might be accepted, but that the second part (mentioning that therefore all the merchantmen and vessels, under the convoy and protection of the said men of war, of the one or the other, should pass freely without any search, visitation, or molestation) did annul and take away all that was agreed by the former articles, in regard of enemies, forbidden and contraband goods; the same being in effect nothing else than a public authority for to be often able, under the cloak of a sea captain, to carry every thing to their enemies, and to prejudice them most infinitely; and therefore they sustained, that the first part might continue, if so be the said last period be left out. I answered, that always, and by all nations difference was made between ships under protection and command, which are held for the forts and bulwarks of state, and particular ships; and to satisfy them, that the last clause could not be prejudicial unto them, that the precaution in the first part was fully satisfactory; and that I could assure their lordships, that their high and mighty lordships will take sufficient care, that the convoyers and captains in their service shall absolutely regulate themselves accordingly. Their lordships replied, that all manner of fraud might be committed under the same; that the pass might be counterfeited, and the captains corrupted; that by this means their whole state might be brought into danger; and as long as such under convoy are not molested, that therefore there was no reason to desire the same in a public treaty. I demonstrated to their lordships, in many reasons and arguments, that it was necessary, that the same ought to be put in that manner, that otherwise thereby the greatest difficulties would arise; and that their lordships might very well remember, that I with many earnest and weighty reasons, by order of their high and mighty lordships, had complained about the usage, which the vice-admiral received from the ships of this state, when capt. Evertson the younger, coming from Billan, and others; and also what passed in Torbay, will serve to demonstrate, that the same article likewise ought to be agreed on. Their lordships said to have certain advice, that the Spanish silver was transported by the said vice-admiral to Brabant and Flanders; and that it was clearly discovered, that one of the ships under convoy in Torbay aforesaid was hired to the king of Spain, and that the same is still used in his service. Whereupon I said, that during my abode here, much had been said, but little proved; that the heaviest ought to weigh most; and that for the satisfaction of both sides, the said article, as it was projected, ought to be agreed upon. Their lordships said they would refer it, though they believed, that for many reasons the lord protector and the council would not be moved to suffer the same to be inserted in the same manner in the treaty. Afterwards, the 12th article being read, I said, that the ground throughout in the treaty of peace and this negotiation was laid, that no one article was agreed unto, unless they agreed to all. Upon the 13th article the said lords said, that they had observed a transposition of some words, which they believed to have happened through inadvertency; but I shewed to them clearly, that the same speaking of two sorts of taking of ships ought not to be put otherwise: whereupon their lordships said, it could not pass to. The 14th article was passed by their lordships, as also the 15th; only they desired, that after the words, treaty of peace and confederacy made and concluded between the two states, there might be added, and every part of the same: and then the lord secretary said, it was usual to put a general clause, that so other former treaties might remain unprejudiced. Thereunto I answered, that in all treaties, as well in the Hague 1651, as since here, the same was always contradicted. His honour replied, that they would peruse the late made treaty: and with that the conference broke off, which had continued four hours. I thought it my duty to give a full account thereof in this to their high and mighty lordships, that so they might give further order and direction, how I shall regulate myself herein.
Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.
Here I met with a neibor of myne, who has undertaken, if any letters be sent me from London, and directed to the post-master of Bathe, to be sent me to Marston, I shall have them much sooner and safer, then if directed for me to the post-master heere. I therefore send this humbly to beg you, that what letters you favor me with, you will direct them to the post-master of Bathe, to be sent by him to me to Marstowne, and they will come safly and speedely unto, sir,
Extract out of the resolutions of the lords states of Groningen and Ommelanden.
Upon the second point of the further propositions, wherein the state of Holland and West Friezland doth desire, that this province will help to advance by their commissioners at the assembly of their high and mighty lordships, that the lord Beverning, chosen on the 30th of April 1654, in the place of the lord Brassert, late treasurer general, may be confirmed and sworn; whereupon the lords states of this province do give their vote for the investing and confirming of the said lord Beverning in the said place of treasurer general.
To the Venetian agent.
Here is no news at present. The court, with the states, do continue to adjust the provinces about the payment of the soldiers: some have already concluded, and others are yet backward and make some difficulty, but all of them will at last agree.
A letter of intelligence from Mr. John Butler.
My last was of the 22d of Nov. old stile, wherein I gave you advice of many particulars, which I shall not now repeat, because I intend to send by sea a duplicate of that letter. Since I have heard as yet nothing from you, I doubt if my letters be come to your hands. This week affords nothing of moment. It hath been a merry time at Bruges.
The princess of Orange came upon saturday this day eight days: I have not yet learned, if she hath brought any money with her: by the next post I hope I shall. Charles Stuart's soldiers never flocked faster to him than they now run away: this country of Zealand is full of them, begging through all their towns. The Irish lord Mountgarrett is come to Bruges this week, and so is Culpepper. The treaty between Spain and Charles Stuart is kept so close, that I have not been capable to purchase a copy of it. Charles Stuart is engaged to the Spaniard, that none of his followers should know any thing of it, except Ormond and sir Edward Hyde, yet a courtier hath promised to get a copy of it for twenty l. I know not, if he will be as good as his word. This is the third letter I have written to you.
Extract out of the resolutions of the states of Groningen.
Upon the 4th point of the further proposition, wherein the lord Schulenborch had sent over in a letter of the 4th of Sept. last, a certain printed book of John Dury, minister of God's word, wherein his design is for the uniting of the protestants and Lutherans: the lords states of this province, after deliberation had, have thought fit and resolved, that the said books be referred to the hands of the theological faculty here, to have their advice upon the same in writing, as soon as may be.
A letter of intelligence from Mr. Blanck Marshal.
There comes daily people, especially English and Scots, from Prussia and those parts hither, and I am confident they will all come, if they can possibly, for neither officer nor soldier hath so much pay under the Swedes as they can subsist upon; besides, there be officers enough to command that army. Yesterday I spoke with lord Newburgh, who is returned from Holland, but little comfort there, only we promise to ourselves great matters. Middleton is gone to Dantzick, to see what forces he can bring from thence: I do believe he will prevail for some: the event cannot be yet known. It is with us just as I writ in my last. Lord Bristol is not returned hither, neither is any enlargement of quarters yet granted, neither do I yet see any great hopes: how soon it shall be, I shall acquaint you. King Charles's sister is come hither from France. Col Musgrave and all his officers are come hither from France; so will all the rest, if not prevented. We are but 1200 in the quarter, neither is there any allowance for more as yet: how soon it shall be, I shall advertise you. This is all that can be said at this time, only I admire that I have received none of those commodities you promised in your last; if I receive them not by the next, I shall despair, for I must be forced to take another course. What commands you please to lay upon me, direct them as formerly; for I have a friend there to receive them. I was forced to borrow 5 l. from Mr. William Ustick, which I have engaged to pay to Mr. John Key, marchant at London, who will be found daily upon the exchange. I intreat you sir, to command one of your servants to pay the 5 l. or else my credit will crack.
From the Dutch ambassadors in Denmark.
Since our last to your lordship of the 3d current, we have received the act of ratification of their high and mighty lordships upon the treaty of guarranty with this crown. The lords ryxhoffmaster and chancellor told us, that the ratification of his majesty and the lords of the council is ready, so that the next week we intend to make an exchange.
The treaties, which by the means of the lord ambassador of the duke of Brandenburgh are to be reassumed here with the resident of Sweden, do meet with some suspence, in regard this king maketh difficulty upon the procuration delivered by the said resident, in regard the same is looked upon as only containing an authorization to make some conclusion upon the former negotiation that was begun here, and that his majesty understandeth the same ought to be given in general for to agree with each other according to present time and opportunity, with which the projects formerly proposed here by Sweden, and sent by us to their high and mighty lordships, are judged not to agree; and is therefore delivered to the said resident a power drawn up by the commissioners of his majesty in the said general terms, to the end he endeavour to obtain such, before he can enter into any negotiation.
We shall soon learn, whether there will be any means found out to surmount this obstacle, but we see little likelihood to it; and according to our little judgment we see no great probability, that this negotiation will take any effect; and his majesty upon the news, which came this week, how that at Dantzick and in the Polish court this treaty had occasioned some jealousy, caused order to be sent by the last post to his agent in Dantzick, to remove the same from his majesty of Poland and the city of Dantzick, by necessary and fit protestations to the contrary, and at the same time to declare to them his majesty's resolution to send to them the lord Rosenwinge very speedily. On monday last we gave the first visit to the said ambassador of the duke of Brandenburgh, and since we have received two from him: his lordship declared to us to have large order from the said duke his master, to give unto us communication of his negotiation; and in truth in his discourse with us he did declare very much sincerity to us. The lord resident of Sweden hath also since declared to us, that he, by order of the king his master, is to communicate to us all that shall happen in his negotiation in this court; and desired, that if we found any thing therein which seemed to us to be contrary to the interest of their high and mighty lordships, that we would acquaint him with it, that so we might receive full satisfaction from him. We received this with much civility, but we are certainly informed, that the said resident had first proposed to the lords the ministers of his majesty, whether his majesty was inclined to give us communication of the negotiation with him.
All that we can learn of the design of the coming of this resident of Sweden, is to conclude the treaty or negotiation, which was formerly begun in this court between Sweden and Denmark; as is to be seen by the enclosed copy of a paper of the king of Sweden.
An intercepted letter to the lord viscount Conway.
On tuesday last mons. Bagni, the pope's nuntio in this court, where he hath resided these thirteen years, departed from this city with all his family for Rome; and upon the news come to this court, that mons. Bonnelli, who goeth nuntio extraordinary into Spain, was arrived in the islands of Hieres, to keep his Christmas there, the king hath sent an express thither to reduce the said feast-days to fifteen days only. This week mons. Lockhart went from hence for England.
A letter of information.
In obedience to your commands I was at the place appointed till neer seven last night, but the weather was so violent then, that I gave over all hopes of seeing you, and have put off my journey on purpose to attend your commands, if it be possible, to-morrow, night being monday, at five in the evening, or presently after; for ther is a messenger lately come over from C. S. and I shall acquaint you with some things, which you will scarce meet with but from me.
I should not wright upon this day, if I were not hourely liable to hassard or suspition, the terme being ended, and that I am very desirous to impart some things to you before I goe, concerning which I shall attend your commands by this bearer.