A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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March (5 of 5)
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
I L y a en ce pais icy un oiseau, qui s'appelle Juewidt: quand on vient chercher ses oess, il fait un grand vol & bruit sur tout le champ, ou on cherche, & quand on trouve son nid, on se mocque de l'oiseau; disant qu'l à voulu preserver tout le champ, & n'a pas seu preserver son nid. De meme peut on dire de etats general, qui ont fait si grand bruit, & le sont encore, pour mettre des loix en Poland, en East-sea, en Dantzick, France, en England: & en 130: car obliger a faire traites est mettre des loix à autruy, & proteger des places lontaines, & cependant ils ne peuvent pas saire observer les loix, ny tenir ordre dans leur propre pais: exemple Groningue; & a Lewarden il y a une sumée, qui facilement poura estre suivy de seu; car il y a grande doleance contre certain bourguemaistre, nomme Burum, qui depuis long temps y domine, & contre qui les bourgeois ont beaucoup a dire. Mais les bourgeois & canaille voyants, qu' a Groningue il leur soit si bien reüssy, pourroient bien aussy attenter quelque chose. Cependant c'est chose estrange, combien etats d'Holland malignent contre Swede; qui en effect ayant conclu un traitté formel, ne doit rien plus, quant aux elucidations, n'estant inventeés que pour trainer & eluder; & cependant je ne voy pas, a quoy leur profitera cela; etats d'Hollande ont tant d'autres provinces contraires, que plus ils opiniastrent, & moins ils avanceront; & si Swede a continuation de sa fortune, les etats d'Hollande se repentiront d'avoir si fort trainé la ratisication; car alors Swede se mocquera d'eux, comme a present etats d'Hollande se mocquent de Swede. Et cependant les etats d'Hollande auront donné un si meschant exemple d'inconstance & de manquement de soy, & etats d'Hollande sont tres pleins de jalousie; Raedt pensionary meme (estant au este un treshonest homme, & que j'estime) a desja beaucoup d'envieux & d'emulateurs, comme trop polypragmonique, & trop ambitieux; & il n'y a nulle ville, ou il n'y aye de la faction. Je suis,
Ce 6 Avril 1657. [N. S.]
Courtin to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
The news, which we have of de Ruyter's having taken some great ships of war, is received with different opinions; some are glad of it, but others who apprehend the resentment of France, wish he had not brought the business to this extremity. They defer speaking of these things till monsieur de Thou arrive here; and the common opinion is, that this state will resolve to renew the alliance with France, if there be no other way to secure their commerce; in the mean time those of the government here are deeply persuaded, that either he comes to stir up the provinces to declare against Spain, or to hinder the resolution of Holland (of setting forth a great fleet to sea) from taking effect. Some provinces do already oppose it; Zealand is not yet resolved about this setting forth a fleet, but Friezland and Groningen have declared, that they will never agree to it. In this province of Groningen new troubles are broke out again; the commonalty would have those magistrates, that are now in power, to be put out of their charges, and others to be put in of their own choice; one of the burgo-masters had like to have been stoned by one of the rabble. Prince William of Nassau was forced to draw his soldiers out of the garrison to subdue those mutineers. The disorder however is not yet at an end. The viceadmiral John Evertson hath order to ply to and again in the Narrow with six men of war to secure the commerce.
To the Venetian agent.
We are here at present without all manner of news. King Charles is expected at Brussels the next week: he is still in expectation of some monies from Spain, from whence no great sums can be expected at present, neither for him, nor the supplying of the affairs here; so that the campaign will be much retarded by it: for till money cometh, nothing of any consequence can be taken in hand.
Extract out of a letter writ from Boreel, the Dutch embassador at Paris, of the 6th of April 1657. [N. S.]
There hath been a council held by the king, where there were many high speakers. Three voices, with very great heat, were of opinion, that the embassador of the United Provinces ought cito cito to be sent for, and by the mouth of the king himself declare war against the lords his masters. The other advices and opinions were the moderatest, who carried the vote and resolution, they ought not to proceed so far at first, but that they should presently seize upon all the Netherland ships and goods in all the ports and towns of this kingdom, thereby to have means wherewithal to repair the damage done to the king in the taking of his majesty's two ships in the Mediterranean sea. In the chamber of the king, cardinal Mazarin was heard to exclaim and take on against their H. and M. L. inciting the rest, saying, with very high words, they ought to proceed, violently and couragiously against the United Provinces. The king of France must bend, or their H. and M. L. It is believed, that the order for seizing on the Netherland ships is already dispatched.
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to Ruysch.
On saturday last, meeting with the lord secretary of state after the sermon, he told me, that he hoped that within two days an end would be put to the great business in hand, and that his highness would be at leisure to speak with me on the wednesday morning, but that he would give me further notice: but since, his honour sent to excuse the same, in regard more debates are happened than he thought there would, and that he could not be absent from the parliament, before that the business be quite finished; and if he could possibly contrive it, he would be with me to night. But in regard I understand they are upon that important act now writ out fair, for to desire his highness's consent to it, I believe he will not be able to come.
H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland, to the protector.
May it please your highnes,
The army haveing nowe received about twelve shillings in the pound in part satisfaction of their arreares, have dispatcht the bearer lieutenant colonell Warren into England, whoe (with other officers there) is appointed to supplicate your highnes for some additionall securitie for the remainder of their debt.
I might say much to the meritt of the petitioners; and as for the merritt of their cause and suite, I leave it to their agents to make it known to your highnes; whome I knowe to be persons of that discretion as not to be troublesom upon unreasonable and frivolous grounds. Wherefore desireing all just favour towards them, I humbly remaine
A letter of intelligence from Lisbon.
Datæ literæ die 17 & 22 Januarii multiplex suit argumentum ejus benevolentiæ, quâ me dignata est vestra dominatio, cui ingens cumulus accessit serenissimæ suæ celsitudinis erga me clementia & munisicentissimæ largitas; quam ego precor, ut coram revereri dominatio vestra meo nomine, ac perquam submisse velit. Interim siquidem id cessitudini suæ placere dominatio vestra significat, non cessabo monere de iis, quæ in Castella gerantur, & quæ noverim ministros ipsius per arcana consilia clam moliri. Non multi dies sunt, cum Thomæ Mainard commisi transmittenda ad dominum generalem classis quæ tum a probatæ fidei viris asserebantur. Misi vero ego plerosque, qui inspicerent ipsi, & conquirerent, ac qui potissimum referrent, quæ accepissent a viro nobis fidelissimo apud Castellanos degente, nec rerum plane inscio. Is igitur detulit Cadis ad portum advectas duas triremes onustas bellicis armamentis; insuper sex alias sedere in portu, expectareque duodecim per ducem de Turis, sic ut exomnibus constent viginti triremes. Præterea classis Hispanæ apparatum urgeri ardentissimo studio. Quin addit sidus ille vir ac nostrarum rerum amator, vidisse se ac etiam legisse literas ex Hollandis ab hominibus ibi præpotentibus, qui nuntiarent classem Hollandicam bene magnam, divisam illam quidem per partes, transmittendam Cadis ad portum, esseque Hollandis decretum, ut fœdera cum Anglis disrumperent. Hæc video, Domine, quam possint fallere, at præstat singula præmonere. dominationem vestram deus incolumen servare diu velit.
Lockhart, embassador in France, to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your honor,
Having received a new delay in the businesse mentioned by my last, which is again deferr'd till tuesday next, I ame putt in all the consusione imaginable, and knoweth not what other excuse to offer for it, save what his eminence gives me, which is, that the duke of Mantua's being declared generalissim in Itally, hath so necessitated their altering the measures they took for the carying on that warr this sommer, as the best part of this week hath been spent in consulting, how they may put the forces designed for that service in a condition to conserve the footing they gained their this last yeare, and to preserve the duke of Modena from the ruin, wherewith he is threatned.
At the audience I ame promised upon monday next, I shall let his eminence know, he hath other interests, wherein he is no lesse concerned then in those of Itally, and shall insinuatt, that so many delayes will not be very well taken.
Sir, I have been entertained both by the chancelor and count Brienne with the reasons, that mooved them to proceed so briskly with the Dutch; and finding the animositie against them to be great, I studdied to allay it as much as was possible. Being asked how I thoght his highnesse would resent their procedure in it, I told them, I could make no conjecture of that, but was persuaded, that a rupture with Holland in this juncture of tyme would not prove very seasonable; and could have wished his highnesse had been consulted, before the busines had been gone so great a lenth. I was withall carefull to give hopes, that nothing of that nature will alienatt his highnes inclinations from the interests of France, for whose frendshipp he hath so particular a zeale. I visited the Dutch ambassador immediattly after the dispatch of my last to your honor, and by reason the arrest of the Holland shipps and goods was not then published, I evited all occasions of falling upon the discourse of that affaire. I shall endeavor the entertaining a faire correspondency with him, and shall use all cawtions to keep myself uppon reservs, till I receive your honor's commands concerning my cariadge.
The forementioned arrest hath put all merchants heare in that disorder, as mr. Wildegoe hath not been able to sitt the whole account of the mony, some rests whereof are yet to be turn'd over by the next poast; tho' I was made beleeve it was all sent by the last. I shall not neglect your commands concerning the wyn, and shall embrace all other opportunitys of witnessing the reality of my being,
A letter of intelligence from Col. Bamfylde.
The declaration of the duke of Montoue for the house of Austria has much prejudiced the assayres of Italy, and put them here in great disorder. The Spaniards have withdrawne their gaurrisons out of Triune and Cremona, into which the duke of Mantoue has put some of his troopes. The Imperiall army is to be commanded absolutely by him, without dependance upon any other generall. The Spanyard over and above what my former letters mentioned, have agreed to pay him constantly 1000 crownes a month towards the supporte of the guarrisons of Cassell, Cremona, and Triune, and 'tis sayd, that the emperour (whose feoditaries all the princes of Ittaly are) has given him all he can conquer of the duke of Modena's country. Valance is besiedged formally, and in noe great probabillity of reliefe. The duke of Modena has not 5000 men; the duke of Savoy not more then 3000, which are not joyned to the Modenois, nor will be, if what a person of consideration tolde mee this day be true, that he has sent orders to his resident here to desire the king, that he may remayne newtrall, which is very likely he will doe, since he foresees his ruine, if Valance be taken, there not being any other frontier betwixt it and Turinne, nor have the French any other garrison in Ittaly. Besides having the cittadell of Turinne nowe in his owne hands, his dependance on the French is not soe necessary as it was. The French troopes, which were quartered in Dauphine, and Provance, and Languedock, make about 11000 men, are on theyr march, but cannot reach Valance this month; soe as it is generally concluded heere, that the place will be loste, the Spaniards haveing Alexandria on the one hand upon the river, and New-Cassal on the other: the river Poe is entyrely blocked up, that nothing can enter the towne that way. Here is an express arived laste night from the duke of Modena, whoe they say bringes advertisement, that the other princes of Ittaly have sent an envoye to the duke of Modena to desire him to quit the interest of France, and league with them for the preservation of the peace of Ittaly, or at leaste to retyre to a neutrality; that otherwise they will joyne and fall into his territoryes, and that they have given him but seven dayes tyme to deliberate. This I have from the party you knowe of, but I doe not finde him soe positively certayne of it, that you can absolutely relye on it as a truth. He sayes his master is more trowbled than he has formerly knowne him. The clergie have at length given the king (after all his concessions to them, and theyr large promises) but 270000 pistolls, and to be a longe time in paying; when and in what manner you shall knowe by my next. The king is not much satisfied herewith, and tolde theyr commissioners, that this was but a slender testimony of the great zeale and affection to his service, which they had soe much bosted of. Monsieur de Turrene went but ten or twelve leagues hence to give some order concerning the army, and is returned hither, but departs hence shortly agayne. All the army they can yet draw into the field in theise parts, will bee at the uttermoste about 15000 men. Some talke here of assistance out of England for this campagne, of which they are like to have neede enough. The duke of Orleance comes certaynly on tuesday next. The court intends to caress him; but what he will doe, or howe far they will truste him in ernest, is not easily conjectured. I am confident 883 will knowe the 745 61 33 55 936, which may nowe be of some importance to 869. In Catalonia the Spaniard has had a defeat: part of the army designed agaynste Portugall is enter'd the confines allready. They rayse forces in all the severall kingdoms of Spayne for that designe. I have seen a letter to a person of condition here from Madrid, which sayes there are arived about twenty Holland ships at a port in Spayne, the name of which I have forgotten, that are hyred by the Spaniard. The duke of Brandenburgh's deputyes moved at the diet at Franckforte for assistance againest the Polander, which has been resused by the catholique party. The Hollanders have taken lately divers French vessells, and I beleive there will bee a stop upon all Dutch ships in any of the ports of France. This is the third letter I have written to you from hence since my arivall. I should say something to you concerning myselfe, but I shall defer it for a while longer, and only tell you, that I am very innocent as to the disserving of 869, or you, even in my harte, and that I have been very much abused to you. Pray let me hear from you, whoe am very unseinedly, sir,
Paris the 7th of April/28th of March 1657.
A letter of intelligence from Blank Marshall.
I have not slipt one occasion, but from time to time did acquaint you, but am fearful that mine do miscarry, because I have no account from your hands, which I intreat you let me have after the receipt of this. On friday last it was a great debate in council, whether Charles Stuart would hold on his journey to Brussels: at last it was carried, he should. Yesterday some of his servants went before to Brussels to make ready lodgings for Charles Stuart, the duke of York, and the duke of Gloucester. All that have or can compass so much money, go along with Charles Stuart on monday morning. I do admire how people do live here for want of money. Our number is not increased since my last; the most of them are begging to and again for want of money: and when any straggling persons come, we have not in our court so much money, as will take a single man to the quarters; yet we promise ourselves great matters. As I am a christian, I see it not. We had yesterday about fifty young blades come from your parts, but in short time they will repent it. They give out, that there will be 500 more shortly after. There is come hither with these, the lord B—aney, colonel Tracie, and one captain Lovelace, brother to colonel Lovelace, who is always here. I suppose their coming may be prevented, if you please. We had rather they should stay than come. I always assured you to have a care of your business at home. My life for you here. Yet if I be not in condition to go to Brussels presently after Charles Stuart, I must be forced to let you have goods from the second hand, which will not be so profitable for you, for until you relieve me from hence, I cannot stir. Truly I did expect greater care would be taken. I intreat you, sir, let me receive your commands by the next, and wherein I have erred. I did desire in my last to receive new orders from you, lest I should remove suddenly from hence. I cannot tell what the result will be betwixt Charles Stuart and D. J. now at Brussels; they speak of raising for Charles Stuart six regiments of horse. But where is the most they say it comes from the king of Spain. I believe it, when I see it. News we have little, only we believe, that we have Flanders secure for the summer, by the taking of St. Ghillain. All the Irish are come to us, about 200; we expect many more of that nation. Sir William Vavafor with other officers, that came from Swedeland, are prisoners in Ostend. I know not what to think of the Hollanders. We have from Dantzick, that Middleton has received quarters for as many as come from the Swede's army; the number not yet known here. We hear of armies, that come from thence to assist the French, which will be the way to hinder our design. This is all for the present. I expect your commands by the next, and rest
Your obedient servant,
Admiral De Ruyter to the states-general.
Noble mighty lords,
Since our departure from Malaga upon the 31st at night we met with very boisterous weather, so that the biggest prize was forced to cut her cable, and got under sail with great danger, and in the night we were overtaken with a storm; and on the first of April we came into the Narrow, together with capt. Ooms, and capt. Vandersaen, and the great prize sound the weather and sea there so soul, yea more than ordinary; but about noon we got safe through it. We lost sight of the commander de Wildt, and the small prize, also the merchant-men, the Flax-flowere, and Jacob Baers; but towards the evening we saw them following of us. We steered one course, and did our utmost to get to Cadiz with the prize, thinking to have found the commander de Wildt with the little prize at Cadiz, believing the same to be before us. On the second in the morning we arrived in the bay of Cadiz, where capt. de Saen reported to me, that the said two merchant men had called to him, how the commander de Wildt with the French frigat were gone for the bay of Gibraltar upon the first in the forenoon, and that the said commander had lost two of his masts; so I sent presently an express by land to understand in what condition he was, for with a ship it was impossible to get thither through the continual easterly wind, the strong tide and soul weather besides; but upon the sixth, I sent capt. Vander Saen early in the morning towards Gibraltar, to assist the commander as much as was possible. This day I received a letter from their noble great lordships of the fifth of January, concerning the ship the Hare-in-the-field, about which I was on the third instant by the governor, who caused the same to be brought in, and I also spoke with the consul Van Hove about it, who thought that the governor had right for what he had done, and said, that the goods were laden most in England and France, and consequently were lawful prize. But after I had spoken with the duke de Medina Celi, he seemed to be more mild, and promised to write a letter to the king of Spain about it, and to send it by an express. I resolved to day to sell the great French ship to mr. Collart and mr. de Wildt, in regard it was altogether unfit to bring home; for as soon as a fresh gale of wind came, the one thing or other presently flew in pieces, so that she was to have been built quite new: wherefore I sold her with all her tackling, rigging, anchors, cables, powder and shot for ten thousand pieces of eight, without any of her guns, and had delivered her upon the seventh instant, but I saw a fleet of ships coming, which hindred it, and sound them to be the commander Dirck Verveen with his ships, which I was very glad of. Captain Schatter hath lost two of his masts, and this day I gave orders for others for him, and to land some of his victuals; and the said commander shall ply to and again with his four ships about the Narrow as well within as without; and I wish captain Ooms will see to finish the business before Sallee; hoping in the mean time, that capt. de Wildt will get clear, then to sail together into the Streights.
Just now I received a letter from the commander de Wildt, and lieutenant Peter Vertocht, and Cornelius Byland, being aboard the little prize: they write, that they came with great danger into the bay of Gibraltar, and that the commander had lost his masts, and desired to have a frigat sent unto him; but I had sent thither on the sixth captain Vander Saen. He the said commander hath lost all his fails and rigging, and so likewise hath capt. Schatten: they ought to be speedily furnished with other sails and rigging. We shall help one another as much as possible. Here inclosed I send your lordships a copy of my letter to the duke Medina Celi, as also a copy of the duke's letter to the king of Spain concerning the ship the Hare-in-the-field; but I fear they are only Spanish compliments. Noble lords, as soon as captain Hoeckboot is arrived here, I will send the French captains and lieutenants to your lordships.
Consul Maynard to secretary Thurloe.
The foregoing is a copy of my former to your honour by the Hynde packett-boate. Inclosed goes a packett from general Blake, which came to my hand four hours after the Hynde-catch was departed: the general sent it by an express from Pharo. The first of this month here arrived fifteen ships with victuals for general Blake's fleet under the convoy of the Yarmouth frigot: they staid here three days, not having order how to proceed from hence. And on the fourth present, I received an order from general Blake, which came by a marchant-ship, that came from the Straits, in case any victuallers stopt here for advise, that I should speed them away for Lagos-bay under the same convoy; which I did according to his order the same day I received it. I question not but that they are some days since with the sleet, for they have had a fair wind ever since they departed. Those ships left the James, the Rainbow, and the Kent at the North-Cape. The Maidston frigot departed for the fleete the laste of March.
The peace was proclaimed here the fourth of this moneth with a greate deale of solemnitye; and now I hope wee shall have justice donne, although it is somewhat difficult to breake these people of their old customes. The articles, which his highness hath been pleased to make with the king of Portugal, are more benesiciall, and give the merchants, which reside here, more immunities then former treaties have done, so that we cannot get the inferiour ministers of justice to comply with the articles without much trouble; but the greatest unwillingness I find in them is, to depart from their money in other matters. We have not so much reason to complain as we have for their slackness in paying what is due to the English. The half customs, which were allotted to make satisfaction for what is owing by the king to our nation, is not paid as it should be, but a great part of it is converted to other uses; and besides, there is above thirty thousand pounds due to our nation for goods taken for the king's use, for which they can receive no satisfaction, which I am desired by the marchants to signify to your honour, who humbly beseech your honour to take it into consideration, that the queen of Portugal may be made sensible of the great prejudice the English receive by the delay of paying what is due to them, which we humbly conceive will be effected by two lines from his highness to the queen.
The Dutch have now begun their design to send pacquet-boats betwixt Holland and this place: the first arrived about fifteen days since, and another is expected every day, but I hope to spoil their design speedily. I have the Conde de Mira's and the secretary of state's promise to blaste their proceedings.
Inclosed I send your honour the coppies of two letters I received from the consul of Aleppo, the other from the consul of Leghorn. I hope to settle such a correspondence, as that I may be able to give your honour intelligence from the most remotest parts of the world, as well as from our neighbour countries. I beseech your honour to be pleased to take in consideration what the consul of Leghorn writes, which I have likewise from other hands, that unless some speedy course be taken with these pirates in the Levant, all trade will be spoiled in them parts: two or three frigots may prevent much mischief in those seas. 'Tis clear by the letter from Aleppo, that the Portugueze condition in the EastIndia is not so good as 'tis made here; for notwithstanding the great overthrow they gave, the Dutch in Ceylon their continue the siege of Calumba.
Yesterday here arrived two Hamburgers from Allicant, that report the Dutch have taken two French men of war in the Straits belonding to Marseiles, which make all conclude here in the Straits, that there is a breach betwixt France and Holland. I hear nothing yet from mr. Butcher; I expect intelligence from him every hour, but hereunder goeth the last intelligence from Spain by a letter dated in Cadiz the first of April 1657. new-stile.
Here are thirty ships of war almost ready to join with the gallies to go out to meet the Nova Spania fleet, which is duly expected, as we have intelligence by an aviso that arrived at Gibraltar the 24th of March. There will a fleet depart from hence for the Indies about July or August next.
Here are in this port eight gallies, some of which are Genoese, which are to serve the k. of Spain. The duke of Tuscanies Capt. Gally was taken coming from Genoa to Barcelona, with warlike instruments, and 400 soldiers, which were to come to serve in the gallions, were all carried to Algier in March.
In the Groin is providing all the provisions they are able to make, which is to be imbarked for the fleet. In Barcelona are 500 Spanish soldiers imbark'd for Italy in a ship freighted for that purpose.
De Ruyter the Holland admiral is in the Straits with his fleet, consisting of eighteen men of war: he past by the islands of Majorca and Minorca lately, where he met two French men of war, one of fifty guns, the other of forty; and finding they had no commission from the king of France, he took both without fighting, and carried them into Malaga, where de Ruyter is now with most of his fleet. This is what intelligence came lately from Cadiz. This day I received a letter from Madeira from mr. Pickford, who writes, that about the twentieth of March, there entred the Catharine of London, commanded by captain David Young, who coming from the Barbadoes, met twelve sail of Spanish ships, four hundred leagues from that island, and kept in sight of them a whole week, and then lest them 200 leagues from that place: they steered their course directly for the Canaries. Captain Young made little stay there, and being bound to the Streights, resolved to find out gen. Blake to give him this intelligence. Yesterday I saw a letter from the captain of the Hampshire frigat, belonging to general Blake's fleet, who writes to an English merchant resident in this city, that they are now looking for the Spanish fleet with much earnestness, having certain intelligence by an English ship that came from Barbadoes, that twelve sail of the Nova Spain fleet are arrived at the Canaries, and hopes some of them will come that way.
Don Francisco de Mello, that goes ambassador to his highness, is preparing for his voyage; he intends to imbark in the first good ship for England. I commit your honour to the protection of the Almighty.
The Dutch embassadors at Marienburgh, to the states-general.
H. and M. lords,
My lords, since our last of the seventh instant to your H. and M. L. there hath happened no alteration in any publick affairs; and also little news is come out of Poland, in regard the ways in Great Poland are very unsafe and uncertain, only they write from Thorn, that the king of Sweden was come near to Petrikaw with his army. How far the duke of Sevenbergh met his majesty on this side of Cracow, is not certainly known, but there is no doubt made, but both the said potentates have seen each other, whereof we conceive we shall be able to give your H. and M. L. the particulars in our next.
Yesterday the earl of Slippenback arrived here, who delivered to us a power from his majesty, upon the names of the lords Bent, Oxensterne, Slippenback, the lords presidents Berenclaw, and Wydenham, so that we shall very suddenly have a conference with the said lords about the perfecting of our negotiation given us in charge.
Commissioner Pells to the states-general.
H. and M. lords,
There are letters come from the Polish court at Czentochouba of the 21st of March to the magistrates here, and several others, advising how that the alliance with the duke of Muscovy is now wholly concluded and ratified with an unanimous consent of all the senators, especially of the great chancellor, who opposed it most at first; and that there was now a new consederacy amongst them to assist his majesty and the crown of Poland to the utmost against all their enemies; to which end there is an army arising near to Peetercaw. General Charnitzky is marcht with his army against the king of Sweden, to fatigate him with skirmishes. Of Ragotzky here is no certainty: they say here, he is still upon the frontiers, and the Poles have hopes they shall be able to resist him.
A letter of intelligence.
The vice-admiral de Ruyter having taken two ships of the chevalier de la Lande, which carried some foot-soldiers from Provence into Italy, and made all the officers prisoners, and delivered up 300 into the hands of the marquis of Mortare; for which cause the court hath caused an embargo to be laid on all the Holland ships, that are in the ports of France; and order is sent to monsieur de Thou, who is at Dieppe, to pass in all haste into Holland, not in the quality of embassador but of envoy, to make complaint hereof, and to demand satisfaction; and that the vice-admiral may be surrendered into the hands of his majesty, to be punished by him; and in case the states-general do refuse to do it, to take leave, and return home. The ambassador of Holland had two days since a very long audience of his eminence upon this subject.
Here arrived three days since an express from Sweden, which doth very much press for an assistance of money. Yesterday morning all the chambers being met, monsieur de Chenaillis was degraded in the great chamber, his charge and estate consiscated to the king, and himself condemned to be banished, and not to return upon pain of losing his life.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.
Your letter by this post signisyinge his highnesse pleasure to send me to the great duke of Muscovy, hath (I must confesse) put me into a strait betwixt the danger of such an employment and my dutie to obay command. If that great prince have owned our state, or made any overture unto the mediation intended, I neede not then to question my wellcome; but if otherwise, and that the states of Poland now assembled should agree to invest the duke with that crowne, as most thinke they will, and withall, that the emperor and kinge of Denmarke should resolve, as its also believed, to attack the kinge of Sweden on the one side, as the great duke may doe on the other, its to be doubted, hee will fleight the mediation. I knowe that more will not be expected from mee than shall lye in my power to effect; yet havinge beene onst sent to a kinge, when hee was your enemie (whatever he now intends to be) it would be a great truble to mee as disapointment to the state, if I should find the like entertainement. In my last weeke's letter I gave your honor notice, that his highness's purpose to send me was made publick heere, as it was indeed knowne amonge the merchants the week before, and by some of them writ to Midleton at Danzick, whoe hath since desired his correspondent heere, one Steward, whoe hath beene lately with the kinge of Denmarke from Charles Steward on a private message, to let him knowe when and which way I goe; but as to what he may intend by that, I shall not doubt but with the blessing of God to prevent him. And if the emperor of Russia will but candidly accept of the mediation (as surely he ought and will entertayne it with due respect, if they correspond like other princes) I shall not doubt of security in his dominions, though many of those great officers, both English and Scotish, whoe served the late kinge and his sonne, are nowe in the Muscovites country and armies. I doe not willingly mention these dangers, nor intend by them to signisie any backwardnes in me to serve his highnes to the utmost of my power; onely I hope, that I shall be soe sent to the duke, if I be commanded (whoe as I heare is presented by all that come to him) as that he may not thinke himselfe neglected, there beinge soe many mediations now on foote, all by ambassadors of several princes and states to reconcile the kings of Sweden and Poland, as your honor well knowes. I could wish my goinge had beene concealed till my beinge in some of the Swedish sea-ports on the Balticke, and that (as I hinted in my last) some faithfull servants, with at least one suitable person to advise with in soe important an affaire might be sent over to me in the shipp with mr. Meddowes, or in the companie's shipps, which may be ready to come away, when theise come on, this place not furnishinge either; but if that cannot be, by reason of the pressinge haste of the negociation, I must endeavour to fitt myselfe heere and in Riga as well as I can, which I could the better have done, had I knowne under what character I must goe. If I should be sent hence, before I be vindicated from the affronts put on me by the states owne subjects, strangers (whoe have expected it soe longe) would certaynely judge me rather removed as a person deservinge those affronts, than honored with a further employment. I beg your pardon, if I seeme over zealous in this particular, being very sensible what an influence the penns of the states enemies heere may have on my negotiacion in the place wheether I am goinge, if my vindication precede not my remove hence. I shall not further detayne your honor, but ernistly to request yow will please to move his highnes and the councell in the needfull, for the better enablinge of me in their service. I referre you to the inclosed intelligence, and shall ever remayne
Your honor's very humble servant,
Letters from Vienna of the 15th present report, that the prince of Lobkowitz was come on there the day before with his whole court; as also, that the express sent by his imperial majesty to Poland was come back, and with him a new legate, deputed from the major part of the Polish states, whose business was yet unknown. The emperor hath sent the lord Nolhasst for Munchen; and, besides the former, yet another express for Turky, whence his majesty expects a bassa very shortly, by whom he is to have some more particular information touching the grand-signor's intended march through the emperor's dominions. Letters out of Silesia, of the 17th ditto, speak very variously of the prince's of Transilvania and Cossacks forces: some of them had notice, that the said army were encamped about Samoish; others, that the fore-troops of the said prince were seen at Tarnaw (which indeed is the right way from Premischel to Cracow); and that the governor of Cracow had caused publickly to be proclaimed, that the citizens and inhabitants of that city should either provide themselves for a certain time, or else leave the same, and retire into the country. The country-people about Cracow (upon promise and enjoyment to be quiet and peaceable for the future) have at their earnest desire obtained salvo-guard. The king of Poland is said to draw together all the forces he can make at or about Crenstockowa, for to oppose the prince of Transilvania's further march and progress into his kingdoms; as also to hinder, if he can possibly, his majesty of Sweden's conference with the said prince, having for that purpose ordered his new general Lubomirsky to pitch about Pretenkau. But by letters from Elbing of the 30th present S. N. we are assured, his majesty wisheth nothinge more, but that he would stand and seek to maintain his intention by an honourable battle; which if the said Lubomirsky did, it's like, the business is already decided, for that it is thought his majesty hath ere now past these parts. Sapiha hath left Podlachia, and is gone to Lublin; and Gonzewsky is said to be gone quite for Liessland, to join with the Muscovite, who is said to stand about Duneburg with his forces. The elector of Brandenburgh is drawing all his strength together, and will ere long take the field in person with a gallant army. The Muscovian embassador at his court is not yet dispatched, neither is he like to be, with any satisfactory answer. A Danish agent (one Rosenwing) lately arrived in the Pillaw, was conducted from Dantzick to Koningsberg with some coaches, at the elector's command: his business is not so private, but that it may be easily conjectured. 'Tis certain, the Danes are brewing some extraordinary mischief. The treaty at Copenhagen hath but a very cold progress, the Danes shewing in a manner a publick aversion to it, though they seek by delays and put-offs from time to time to protract the business, until they be in a fit posture to execute their enterprize. 'Tis reported, they are resolved to send some men of war into this river very shortly, and to re-erect the toll at Gluckstadt. The Dantzickers are said to intend to give part of their forces unto Charles Stuart: besides those which Middleton hath already leavied, and brought together there, they say he hath already 5 or 6000 men on foot, and is strengthning and preparing himself very diligently for the execution of his design this year.
General Monck to the protector.
May it please your highness,
The inclosed papers, which I send your hignesse, I received from one of my intelligensers. I desire it may not bee seene by any, he having bin an intellingencer of mine this three yeares, and is one that the enemy trusts most in this countrey. The paper is sign'd with the lord Balcarres owne hand, and sent to my intelligencer from his lordship. There is some two more sent into this country to these frinds of theirs, that they most trust. Colonel Scroope came on saturday last, and now we shall sett our bisness here, so that I hope all things will goe one well. All things are very peaceable at present. Soe, desiring the Almighty to blesse and protect and direct your highness in all your proceedings, I humbly take leave, and remayne
Edenburgh 31° Mar. 1657.
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland.
The parlament hath at last finished the remonstrance, and now call it by the name of a petition and advice. I have sent your lordship a coppy of it, though it be in a large volume, because you might see the whole together, and judge wheither it doth answere their oppinion here, who thinke, that the liberties of the nation and those of the people of God are met, and doe embrace each other in this paper; and that it doth carrye with it a better foundation of settlement then hitherto hath beene propounded. It was this day presented to his highnes by the speaker, with the whole house, in the banquettinge-house. His highnes gave only a generall answer, takeinge notice of their great affection to him and care of the nation, without discoveringe at all his owne inclinations as to his acceptance; but desired, that he might have some tyme allowed hym to consider of a buissines of soe great weight and consequence, and promised them a speedy answere upon the whole. Which is all I can say to your lordship upon this subject at this tyme, not being able to foresee what issue it will please God to bringe this great buissines to.
I perceive the persons you mention are comeinge over; I doubt they will finde too much fuell for the fire they will bringe with them. If their occasions could have deteyned them in Ireland, I thinke it were more convenient, although I hope they will not be very considerable, wherever they come. I shall mention the propositions you make about Gallaway and Lymericke, and give your lordship an account of what is like to be done therein.
Charles Stewart's bussines hath received some dampes of late. The Spanyard's want of
money hath disenabled hym to give those supplies he promised; soe that it's believed by
many, that the forces, which he now hath, will be employed this summer in the kinge of
Spayne's service, unlesse some disorder fall out amongst ourselves here at home; in which
case he intends to put over upon us about 3000 foot and 500 horse. The Dutch and
French are upon very ill termes, and there is very like to be a warre between them: they
take one anothers ships at sea, and very lately there was a great fight betweene a French
man of warre of 50 guns, and the dutch admirall in the streightes, and at last the French
man was taken: this is greatly resented by the French. This is all I have to trouble your
lordship with, and rest
Whitehall 31 March 1657.
Col. Tho. Cooper to H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland.
May it please your lordship,
I Receaved yours by the laste poste, whearin I understand your lordship's mynde about the present transactions in parliament, and humbly thanck your lordship for that good advise to my selfe. My temper and disposition is not to bee violent in the prosecution of my owne mynde; I have alwayes found by experience, that a patient waiting upon the Lord the issue of things, and a close dependance upon him for light and guidance in things of doubtfullness, is the most safe; and haveinge accordinge to what light and understandinge I have receaved from the Lord, discharg'd my conscience, I can and doe freely acquiesce in the will of God; and though this matter, soe longe as it was in debat, was against my mynde, yet beinge now concluded by the major parte, I can and shall through the assistance of God, I hope, approve myselfe with as much faithfulness to it, as if I had been never soe much for the thinge in the first promoteinge of it: and this I doe not upon a pollitick but Christian account, well knowinge that if a haire of a man's head fall not to the ground without the Lord's providence, much les doe soe great thinges as the governments of the world suffer alteration without speciall providence. Since my last to your lordship, the remonstrance is wholly approved in parliament, and it's called the humble petition and advise of the parliament to his highnes, and was this day eleven of the clock presented by the parliament to his highnes in the banquetinge-house, for his consent, whoe will take tyme to advise upon it, and then give his answer. I writt in my laste to know your lordship's pleasure for my retourne for Ireland. I have dispatched my owne occasions, and am ready to obey your lordship's commands, but cannot aske leave of the house for my retourne, 'till I know your lordship's pleasure, or wheather your lordship will refer mee to his highnes to be dispatched. I would onely beg I may have three weeks tyme to provide myselfe. And if your lordship have any service to comand mee further heere, I shall indeed approve myselfe now and at all tymes,
London this 31st March 1657.