A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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January (2 of 2)
Courtin to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
The province of Holland hath at last prevailed, for the nominating of a marshal of camp is deferred till another season, at the instance of the said province. They signified to the states general, that if they proceeded to the election of a marshal by plurality of voices, and without their consent, that they would never acknowledge nor own him, but that they would erect a commander in particular over the militia under the pay, who should only obey their orders; it being but just and reasonable, that they should be masters over those, that are paid by them. This business might have bred a division amongst the provinces, if so be they had been resolved upon settling of the said charge. That party, which hath been always opposite to the house of Orange, doth diminish in credit; so that it is probable prince William of Nassau will get the said charge at last. His princess is lately brought to bed of a son.
They declare here in these provinces much discontent and disquietness about the confederacy, which seems to be between France and England; and they fear that these two kingdoms being well united, will molest their commerce; wherefore the lord Nieuport hath order to discover, whether the lord protector hath any share in the naval preparations at Toulon, and whether it be with his consent, that so many merchant men of this state are taken.
Marigny to Stouppe.
It seemeth by your letter of the 26 Jan. that I was much embroiled with the crown of the North, in regard you speak to me of a reconciliation. I protest to you, that I speak without partiality of the affairs of the Goths and of the Sarmates; and that I wrote to you always most sincerely all that I understood of those affairs.
You do not write me word, that your protector doth hope more than ever to make himself king. All those attempts, which you spake of, pass here for fables. They are only pretences to get more power given, Tropieca y no cae, adelanca su camino. There is nothing so well said; for those who stumble and not fall, do only advance their way. All that which was done against cardinal Mazarin served only to re-establish him the more.
An intercepted Letter of Sir W. Vane to sir Robert Hognywood.
For news I find this assembly is like to meet again before the ordinary time, and the officers are in great hopes all charges will be given. It will be very necessary for you to be here, to set your pretences on foot. The last wednesday the duke of York was kere unknown, visited the queen and the dowager; few people saw him: I would not. He is gone towards Bruges. His brother and he are like to come to a good understanding; yet all things are not clear, as I hear by some people. The princess royal continues still there. The discourses of this plot makes a great noise every where. I did always believe this parliament would make him king, before they parted. The power of the major generals will not hinder, if it be push'd for de bonne eschient. The ladies here dance very much at the Spanish ambassador's; he gives a ball on monday next, and invites the whole town. There will a be grand collation and much gallantry. There is a report that mr. Rolt, the protector's kinsman, hath been hidden here these three weeks, and will not make addresses to the states in publick. Pray let me know if it be true.
An intercepted Letter.
The abovementioned letter came from the lord Gerard. It was his own hand-writing. I observed one that went from hence to him on friday last, with a bill of exchange of 200 l. inclosed in it. I thought fit to send the original.
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to Ruysch.
At Calais they daily proceed with the taking and bringing in of the Holland ships and goods. There is also no justice to be had, as their H. and M. L. agent there hath without doubt signified unto their H. and M. L. I complain about it continually, and now lately at court; but piracy is strongly upheld and maintained, that nothing (or seldom) is to be had or got out of their hands.
The two last ships lately brought in there belonging to Rotterdam and Horne, the ships companies thereof (just as is done to open enemies) were imprisoned in the citadel, without that any body could be admitted to speak to them; yea the masters of the said ships were not suffered to write to their H. and M. L. at Calais, nor to their owners, than with open letters and memorandums, which were first read by the lieutenant of the citadel. The schipper of Horne was kept close for fourteen days together, till such time the lieutenant had through threatnings and promises prevailed with the ship's company to declare, that the schipper's passes were false; and that his ship was designed for Ostend. Now therefore to fill up our measure to the full, they will now here in this court not admit of those that are authorized by me to get free those ships that are brought in, or to intercede for them, and be responsible for them before the courts of justice, which hath been always practised, and is expresly agreed, as doth appear in the sixth and seventh articles of the treaty made in the year 1624, and in the following treaties, where their H. and M. L. embassadors were authoriz'd to do the same; but they will admit only of such as are authorized by letters of attorney from the true owners and proprietors of such ships and goods, as are brought in. This yet were something, if they would allot any time, that a procuration can be had out of Holland; but this they will not admit of, but proceed to trial and condemnation without so much as hearing of any body; and by that means render the cause irreparable.
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to Ruysch.
The lord prince of Tarante, who formerly had only leave of this court to remain a certain short time in this kingdom, hath now leave to stay here as long as he pleaseth, provided he come not into the province of Poictou: it is believed, that limitation will be soon remitted.
Of the coming of the lord Lockhart, and of the reasons thereof, is more spoken than I dare well affirm for a truth. There is said to be a league or treaty drawn up and agreed upon between France, England, Sweden, and Portugal. The lord protector should have also in hand a treaty of peace with Spain; and there is added, that if so be France will not embrace the first within certain few days, that then England threatneth to conclude apart upon the second with Spain.
The naval preparations of the French upon the West-Sea are said to be begun to be made use or at the corner of Bretagne, to visit all Netherland ships in the narrow between the continent and the island of Hitland; which passage is so narrow, that a ship will hardly escape visiting. I am made to believe here, that their H. and M. L. are in no favour with the lord protector; and as I maintain the contrary, they do assure me here, that it is so, but that I do dissemble it. They are of the greatest sort of persons, who may very well know the secret of affairs.
Ambassador Dorp to Ruysch.
Some days since I signified to the syndicus of this city, that their H. and M. L. having considered of the instrument of ratification, upon what was concluded with the lord Schroeder; also the memorandum of the ministers of the city of Dantzick in the Hague, tending to a farther declaration of the said ratification; had thought fit to charge us to propose to those of the government of this city, how that their H. and M. L. had perceived the notable alteration made by the said instrument of ratification in the act of stipulation, and that their H. and M. L. judged the same to be altogether contrary to the nature and required form of ratification; and therefore they had writ to us, to desire the lords of the government of the city of Dantzick, that they will produce a sufficient instrument of ratification upon the said act, as usual, and without any alteration. And that the same might be speedily debated; and that they would give me communication of the success thereof; which his honour undertook to report, and to use his utmost endeavours to effect the same, to the content of their H. and M. L. Thereupon the lord Schefske and the said syndicus came to speak with me in the name of the council, and to declare unto me how ready the council was to give their H. and M. L. satisfaction in all things, according to the mind and intention of their H. and M. L. but that it was necessary to make some alterations in the extension of the treaty, in regard some were of opinion, that if the same be as it is now pen'd, it might be interpreted to the prejudice of the privileges and rights of the citizens belonging to this city, and which were never made common to any strangers; as namely, the buying and selling at the first hand, and the trading upon the rivers and fresh waters. Therefore they said they were ready to order their minister residing at the Hague at present, to enter into conference with their H. and M. L. commissioners about it, or with us here, if so be we had any order for it from their H. and M. L. Whereupon I said, that their H. and M. L. did not go about to surprize them, but only to confirm what was agreed, which was sufficiently expressed in the act of stipulation; but since they still reserved the said scruples, that their H. and M. L. were willing to treat about the extension of the said treaty; whereunto their H. and M. L. were pleased to qualify us with their express resolution, that therefore we desired commissioners to be appointed to treat with us, which they undertook to report, and to give me an answer.
They suppose here at court to have certain advise, that some small men of war, under the shape and pretence of merchant-men, do pass the Sound now and then out of England, whereof to the lord Rosenwinge advertisement is given, that so good regard may be taken of the ships that pass the Sound.
To the Venetian agent.
The duke of York being retreated into Holland, when he went from hence, is now returning back hither again, and will be here very suddenly to go to Bruges, being reconciled with his brother, who is sending one for Spain, where it is said, they are making great preparations for the said king Charles.
In Cadiz they have gotten a fleet ready of 20 good ships, which is to be sent to meet the fleet from the Indies, which if it miscarry, it will be the ruin of all their designs. Many think, they will hardly venture home. And indeed it were better to stay where they are, than to venture, when there is so much danger by reason of the English fleet upon the Spanish coasts.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of the high and mighty lords states general of the United Netherlands.
We read in the assembly a certain memorandum of the lord ambassador of Spain, containing complaints, that the letter of their H. and M. L. of the 20th of December last, writ in favour of Lucas le Rach, merchant and inhabitant at Middleburgh in Zealand, being a while since detained at Ostend, should end in threatnings; and therefore desiring, that the letters of this state might be more moderately pen'd for the future: Whereupon, being debated, it is thought fit herewith to desire the lords Huygens and others their H. and M. L. commissioners, that they will take the pains to go, and represent to the said lord ambassador, and to let him know, that the said letter is writ in conformity of their H. and M. L. resolution taken upon the said day; and that his lordship will therefore be pleased to further the effect thereof as soon as may be, by lord prince don John of Austria; and the said lords commissioners are desired to make report of what shall pass between them.
Resident Sasburgh to Ruysch.
After my letter was sealed and sent away, I was informed, that by capt. Sabell, alias Suaskerken, are taken two English ships, and brought into Dunkirk; the one of 150 last, or thereabouts, being worth 12 tuns of gold. It came from Portugal for England. The other was bound for Jamaica, laden with carbines, hangers, cables, sails and the like. Here are reports, as if in England some design were discovered against the protector and parliament; that some persons had conspired by the means of granadoes to blow them up as they were assembled. To which end, the matches were ready fixed; and if so be it had continued undiscovered one half hour longer, it would have taken effect, but was discovered by one of the plot. Some are apprehended, whereof one is a Scotchman, and the chiefest of the design. What the truth of this is, I cannot assert at present. I thought it my duty to write it over, in regard it was but just now imparted to me by a noble lord.
A letter of intelligence to resident Bradshaw.
Right honorable sir,
Since my last of the 2d instant I have endeavoured to penetrate at least some particulars of the conclusion and resolution of both the princes, the k. of S. and the duke of Br. at their last meeting at Holland, as to matter of peace or warr with the Poles and the city of Dantzig; but it is as yet kept so secret, that some Swedish ministers of state themselves know nothing of it; but I shall not leave of for to enquire with all diligence after it, and not neglect for to impart it to your honour. The k. of S. is at present at Marienburg, and with him the embassadors French and Dutch: they are to goe to Dantzick with the resolution of both princes to goe to the k. of P. but they are not gone yet. I have from a true hand certain newes, that the Dutch embassadors are much distasted from the king of Sweden, and are resolved to retire them from this court, in regard they are held suspect to the Swedes, by reason they have a nomber of souldiers of their owne at Dantzig; and speaking so often to the k. of S. in behalfe of the Dantzickers, the k. of S. did verie much dislike that the Dutch embassadors being returned from Koningsberg, stayed above 10 dayes at Elbing; and that they came not sooner to him at Marienburg, to have joint with him. Through these jelosies the treatie of peace is much delayed. The Polish partie dares not trust the French embassadors; nor doe the Swedes trust to much or believe the Hollanders; but within a short time either the treatie of peace or warr will goe forward. In the meane time the Poles with the Dantzigers doe great harme with excursions to our contry people belonging to this citty and the towne of Marienburgh. The great frost makes them verie bold, the rivers being frozen everie where; but when the Swedes come neare them, they runne away. The Swedes have often watcht to ketch the flying parties; but it seemes they have had from some of their own spiors among the Swedes presently intelligence of it. Concerning Charnetzky with his forces, he is back yet in Masovia, and cannot come further, being hindred from the Swedes, who watch him. There is no hopes to heare at all of any great action betwixt the Poles and Swedes; the reasons whereof I have mentioned before; and so long there passes no great battel betwixt them, that either of them is forced to make peace, there is little hopes of any treatie; and so soone as the rivers are open againe, then the armyes cannot bee so neare to another, as now in the winter. Therefore there will be then a more lingring war then great fights exspected. I toucht in my last something of the duke Ragotzy. The common report is, that he is to assist the k. of S. but many impartiall men are with me of a contrary opinion, that there is no such thing. I dare not expresse the reasons of it. This is all at present, and so I remaine
Lord ambassador Huybert to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
My lords, as soon as the Polish army under general Charnitzky had understood the coming of Swedes and Brandenburgen under the generals Steenbock and Spar, the said Polish army thought fit to retreat betimes, and to avoid their army, who is marched towards the frontiers of the Samoiten.
It is said here, that Tykochin belonging to prince Radzevill is taken in by the general Sapieha, and that the Muscovites are inclined to a peace with the Swedes; and that a cessation of arms for six months is already concluded. Those of Dantzick do now and then make some excursions into these parts, and they lately plundred a place called Tulke.
A letter from Mr. Vincent Gookin.
In my last I gave you an account of my intentions to discourse with the ministers of London. I gave 4 of them a meeting. One of them being a near relation to mee, I acquainted with the whole of my designe, namely that 2 or more able ministeriall men would be very acceptable to the sober and good people at D u b l i n and would be much made of by L. H. They rejoyced, that God had put it into his hart to desire such a thing. I likewise propounded it to that relation of mine, that I thought 5100 would willingly correspond with a certaine fixed number of sober ministers, who might from time to time give him advice touching matters of the church. Hee thereupon told me, that H. H. had written a letter not long since all of his owne hand to a presbyterian classis in the north, to encourage them in their way, with many affectionate expressions of protecting them, and severly punishing any that shall interrupt or affront them, &c.
This letter I have endeavoured to get a copie of, and doe hope shortly to send to you, that my lord Hary may have a sight of it; and truely I beleve, if my lord should setle a correspondence with such ministers as Manton, Calamy, dr. Reynolds, Jacomb, and one or two more, his highness example will more than justifie it. I doubt not, but his lordship will easily judge the consequence of it. Many hopefull young men are ordained by the presbytery of London, the choycest and most sober of which these men must bespeake, and send over to furnish that country, which such a correspondency will make the persons soe corresponded with, confident to undertake and engage in.
Mr. C a s e, a worthy person of great learning, and an excellent preacher, has received
letters of invitation from a son in law of his in Ireland, who has relation to Ld H ch, to
come thither; to which his wise presses him: hee has advized with mr. Calamy about it,
who encourages him to it. I have enquired how to put such upon him, as have power
with him, and to quiet such as are unwilling to part with him. I am confident I shall obtaine my aime of getting him. I have advised wheather Manton or Dr:
Renolds might be had; but upon enquiry doe find their places are
worth to them in dues and gifts neere 400 l. per ann. and therfore doe not thinke fit to
attempt it. There is one Newcomen of the presbyterian way, a most
excellent preacher, seated in a small living in Suffolke, a wise man, and excellent scholler,
whom I am now designing to get over. Mr. Nath. Bacon is a great man with him. I hope
his relation to his highness, being his master of request, will prevayle with him to accomodate his master's sonne. If upon farther proceeding in the busines, I find it convenient, I will desire you to beg of my lord Henry a letter to mr. Bacon, to be grounded
upon a letter from the Irish members heere, to desire his lordship to write to mr. Bacon to
forward that business. By the next post I shall be able to name such persons, with whom
his lordship may without prejudice and with much advantage correspond; to whome I
hope his lordship may be intreated to write, and to what purpose I shall take paynes in
this, being, as I conceive a business of vast advantage to the setlement so much desired by
good men, and the only meanes to cure a disease, which may otherwise grow sadly dangerous. To morrow the bill for decimating the cavalier comes againe into debate. It is
debated with much heat by the major generals, and as hotly almost by the antidecimators.
I beleive the bill will be throwne out of the house. In my opinion those, that speake against the bill, have much to say in point of moral justice and prudence; but that which
makes mee seare the passing of the bill is, that therby his highness government will be
more founded in force, and more removed from that natural foundation, which the people
in parliament are desirous to give him; supposing therby hee will become more theirs,
than now hee is, and will in time find the safety and peace of the nation to be as well
maintained by the lawes of the land, as by the sword. And truely, sir, if any others have
pretensions to succeed him by their interest in the army, the more of force upholds his
highness living, the greater when hee is dead will be the hopes and advantages for such a
one to effect his ayme, who desires to succeed him. Lamb &c. is much for decimations. I dare write no more of it, but if I cou'd, I should convince you, that my jealousie is not groundless. Col. Markhame will begin his journey within this fortnight towards Ireland. Mr. Gookin resolves to follow, if the councel resolves to put him into the
commission for setting of lands, about which I perceive he expects to heare from my lord
Hary, to whom, as hee tells me, he has wholly resigned himselfe. It is a great evidence
of the Lord's goodness and loving kindness to my lord Hary, that his enemyes grow weaker
and weaker, and his frends stronger and stronger; that his name growes precious amongst
the sober party of this nation; not only such as are lookers on, but the gamesters say soe.
Hee may justly say, it is good for mee to trust in the lord, my strength. I beseech you, sir, when
you have the oportunity to speak to my lord, tell him his lordship has not in the world
a more faythfull servant than is
Westminster, 27 Jan. 1656.
Hary Cromwell rising in the house next after major general Butler had spoke, who was a little too hot, I thinke, tooke the major generall to taske; and after hee had spoken to answer him, began to argue the case: amongst others had this argument, that hee observed many gentlemen, and hee that spoke last, did say and thinke it just, that because some of the cavaliers had done amisse, therfore all should be punished: by the same argument, (sayes honest Hary) because some of the major generals have done amisse, which I offer to prove, therfore all of them deserve to be punished. Kelsy thereupon cals to the orders of the house, and desires the persons, that had done amisse, should be named. Up starts Hary, and begs the house to give him leave to name them; and offerid to prove unwarrantable actions done by them; but this fire was putt out by the grave water-carriers. After this Hary Cromwell is threatened by the major-generalls party, that his highness would and did take it ill. Hary goes last night to his highness, and stands to what he had sayd manfully and wisely; and to make it appeare, he spake not without booke, had his black booke and papers ready to make good what hee said. His highness answered him in rallary, and tooke a rich scarlet cloake from his backe, and gloves from his hands, and gave them to Hary, who strutted with his new cloake and gloves in the house this day, to the great satisfaction and delight of some, and trouble of others. It was a pretty passage of his highness; pray consider of it.
The Dutch embassadors in Denmark to Ruysch.
Our last to your lordship was of the 31st of the last month. The lord ambassador of Brandenburgh tells us from time to time, to have received reiterated orders to help to advance the treaties between this crown and Sweden; and therefore had made new instances by the lord Rycks-Hossmaster and others, to the end the same might be seriously begun, in regard the Swedish resident beginneth to complain, that there is no earnestness on this side, and doth begin to grow jealous over the preparations of war, which are diligently making in this kingdom as elsewhere; but they still continue here upon the first difficulty in the Swedish power; and as yet he hath produced no other. And they are very little concerned or troubled here to remove the thoughts, which the Swedes may have about these preparations; only his majesty and these lords do very much long for their H. and M. L. resolution about that, which, according to the present time and opportunity for the furthering of the common interest upon the East-Sea ought to be done; and they do assure us from time to time of the good and vigorous intention of his majesty, which their H. and M. L. will have perceived by several of our letters.
His majesty doth intend to order his lord embassador Rosenwinge with the king of Poland, to make a journey to the duke of Brandenburg, with order to remonstrate to the duke his majesty's and their H. and M. L. interests upon the East-Sea, and so dispose the duke, if it be possible, to separate himself from those councils, which are opposite unto him. And they would be glad to see, that their H. and M. L. would use the like offices in the best manner on their side at the same time.
Lockhart to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your honor,
Whyle the cardinal continues indisposed, the progresse of your businesse will be but slow. I had a meeting yesterday morning with mr. de Lions, whom I fownd not so zealos for bringing things to a close, as at first he appeared to be. Howsoever I hope (by the blessing of God) to be enabled to weather the main poynt, tho I have mett with crosse wynds from a part, from whence I expected favourable gailes.
Mr. de Strada once governor of Dunkirk Pretends much to my friendshipp and intimacy, owns great inclinations to serve the protector. I have learned of him all that past, at a meeting upon saturday last, where were mar. Turenne mr. de Servient mr. de Lion and him sel.
Their the businesse concerning Dunkirk was debated and Turenne did absolutely refuse to undertake the sie ge of Dunkirk and did also propose allmost insuperable difficultys in that of Graveling he told me also all the reasons, by which the mar. Turenne urged the possibility of the first, and more then probability of the last; and if the first were undertaken, wowld answer for the successe with his lyf and fortun, and assured the Cardinal: was fixed in his resolutions to attempt which of the two should be judged most faisible. Of this conference, which continued at least fower howres, I had lykewyse a hint given me by Lion who said, when the particulars of that action came to be narrowly searched into, so many dangers did attend it, as their inclinations to meddle with it were much abated.
Sir, That I had the honor to receive from you, mentions the businesse concerning the shipps. At my first audience I spake of them, and was told the conclusion of that affaire wowld depend upon some intelligence, that was dayly expected. All desyered then was some assurance, that (if the intelligence made the design faisible) he might have the use of some of your shipps at reasonable rates; and if the embassador be putt too it, I believe you will find his instructions goe no further.
Monday last the nuntio had his first publick audience from the cardinall, where he was * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * catholick church suffered by reason of the divisions among the princes of that faith; the quarrell betwixt France and Spayn (the two greate pillers of the profession) had caused the spouse of Christ to shedd many tears of blood: mentioned the advantages had arisen to hereticks and heresy upon that account; and concluded, that the reconciliation betwixt the aforsaid crowns was the only means now left to prevent that ruin and desolation, which her and their enemys had threatned to execute upon her. The answer he gott was to this purpose; the pope's piety in endeavouring to reunit the catholick princes was commended, as also his zeale against heresy; and great dispositions towards a peace with Spayn (upon just and reasonable terms) were professed, mr. de Lions being sent into Spayn, and some other things were brought as witnesses for the sincerity of this prosession.
I am not at all allarmed by the civility of this answer, but their is really so generall inclinations to that peace in all, who pretend to be good catholickes, that 464 will be much putt to it, will be attaqued both with promises and threatts, and I dare assure your honor, that theise offers of friendshipp you are now pleased to make com so very seasonably, as were they not in the ballance, I should be affrayed the scales would turn against you, and all other protestants.
I must begg leave to tell you, that when I redd yours, I was fearfully * * you were pleased to give me tytles I have little right too from any, and I am sure none at all from your honor, whom I really own as my master, and (if I may say it without presumption) reverence as my father. I shall have inexpressible regraitts, if after your receipt of this, your honor give me not cause to hope you believe I ambition no higher caracter, then that being as in dewty I ame bound to be,
Lockhart to the same.
As I was closing my packett, mr. de Lions came to me from his eminence, and told me that upon fryday at night mr. Turrein, mr. de Servient, mr. de Strada, and himself were to waite upon the cardinall, who made it his desyer to me, that I would be their, which I have promised. He hath lykewise prevailed with me to see the king's ball this night incognito. I have been twyce invyted before, and was so pressed in it, that I was forced to own my scruple of being there upon the Lord's day, upon which it hath been alwayes danced hitherto. I have not the vanity to imagine, that this night is in consideration of me, and yet I know the king did interest himself in my seeing of it, so as to offer to cawse to make me a place behynd the theatre, where no body should see me. As I thoght the expossing myself to be too great a libertine by seing it upon the Lord's-day would offend God, and be against your service, so I hope the appearing not to be over nyce and scrupulus will not be construed to be for your disservice.
By the last letters from Vienna it appears, that that court stands in great fear of the Transilvanian duke, whom (notwithstanding his faithful engagement to his imperial majesty, that this present design of his doth no ways tend to his majesty's prejudice, but only for the assistance of his majesty of Sweden against the Poles) they suspect nevertheless to have an eye upon the said emperor's hereditary dominions; and will not be otherwise persuaded, but that (being assured of his certain passing of Cracow) he comes directly against them. Wherefore their new levies, which were in a manner wholly neglected, are now reassumed and very servently continued, order being given by the court to all commanders to draw their forces with all speed towards the borders of Poland, and oppose the said duke's entrance into Silesia. The Danes equipage continues in an extraordinary manner by sea and land; but whatever design they have, it is as yet impossible to be penetrated. It's given out by some, their intentions are against this city; but this opinion seems to have but little reason or probability in it, in regard this city doth hitherto not so much as stir for to put themselves in a defensive posture, which without doubt they would have long since endeavoured to do, if they had, or did fear any hostile design of that nature against them. There are also several other interpretations of their intentions, but all so ill grounded, that they deserve not the relation, much less any credit. The most credible opinion is, that if they have any design at all (which indeed some doubt, believing they have spread abroad those rumours of their great equipage for no other purpose, but to render them considerable to the world, and endeavour if they can, a diversion in the counsels of those princes and states, whose amity they suspect) it is actually against the Swedes, and to make a confederacy with their enemies in corum præjudicio; which time must discover. As for his majesty of Sweden, he is for certain come on at Holland in P. where he hath found the elector of Brandenburgh, and all the ambassadors assembled to begin the treaty, which is there appointed. His majesty's army stood then about Eylow; a strong party being sent out upon intelligence, received that Czarnetzky (who hitherto would not attend the Swedes approach in no place) had a design upon Golup, not only to hinder the same, but also his passage towards Mazuria or Prussia, if he should have any intention that way, as was supposed. The elector's army is upon the march for Mazuria, to revenge the outrages lately done unto his highness's dominions by the inhabitants of that province; general Douglas is to join him with 3000 horse. The Dantzickers have been out again, and plundered a village called Neutick in the great Weader, wherein a Swedish captain with 40 soldiers had their muster-place, and also lighted of some of his majesty's of Sweden's horse, and brought them to Dantzick; of which action they make extraordinary great brags, vaunting also still of a great loss, which the Swedes suffered by Czarnetzky near Braumberg, which yet they absolutely contradict, denying that there was any action at all between Czarnetzky and them. Since his defeat by colonel Aschenberg, the city of Dantzick, according to their own confession, is in a lamentable and desperate condition, as well for want of provision, as the terrible increase of the plague amongst them. King Casimir is very weary of their entertainment, and would most gladly leave them if they would but suffer him to go. His queen remains at Calish in Poland, daily expecting his coming thither according to her majesty's very earnest desire with his infantry.
Mr. N. Lane to the protector.
May it please your highnes,
When God first put this greate undertaking into your hearte and hands, the faith, prayers, and expectations of the churches and people of God did runne in the same channell with you; but there is of late observed a narrownes in theire contracted spirits, God having beeheld us afarre of when we too proudly confident in our arm of flesh became a god unto ourselves. It is not difficult to derive the pedigree of all other our evills: it is noe newes for God to powre contempt upon the pride of men, to steine the glory of the greate and mighty sinners; noe not in Zion prophanenes and irreligion (if they have noe other scourge, which they seldome want) are as severe judgments as sinfull provocations; and surely never did a people lye more open to sin and wrath, then wee doe here. All bankes and hedges of both are quite decayed, not to a gap or breach, but utter levell. Religion is a mound and banke to judgment's inundation; a gospell ministery in it's purer ordinances are religion's life and soule. The dayly sacrifice suspended, abomination succeeds, and desolation threads on the very heele of it. Vision fayleth, and there is none to tell how long: who shall approve in the dayes of silence? or shall the dead seall up words of instruction?
I am the meanest of the Lord's and your highnes servants, the onely survivor of seaven ministers. I am left alone, and who hath beelieved my report ? if dayes should speake, and multitude of yeares teach wisdome, they would be heard. Parts and experience are fitt for greate designs; not shrubbs, but sturdy oaks and lofty cedars are for beames and rasters to your highnes fabricke. Let the least of all my tribe laye our condition before you: are not our religion, our gospell, the soules of our thousands in your hands? are you not custos utriusque tabulæ for us? or are not those soules you designe to this remote part, worth the saving? I cannot imagine any thing soe much belowe your profession, or contradictory to your practice and experience. Did not God rayse your greatness upon the shoulders of religion? her knees received you, her armes preserved you, her breasts nursed you, she gave you education and inheritance; by her you rule and prosper. Did you not fast, pray, and preache on your greate atchievments? is not that the waye of God in all his greatest overtures? this cryes aloud unto you for godly able ministers, who may ex officio et beneficio helpe on your interest here. You have encouragements in your hands to ballance the hazard of the undertaking. I dare speake that unto your highness, which I conceale from others, a private dore in England shall give more reliefe then here is yet provided. England and Jamaica conspire for my ruine; the fourth part there and the other three here will scarce make a totall beyond a cypher. Had not my passionate affection to your highnes, my countrey's, and the gospell's service maintained my resolutions, I had long since either wholly desponded, or else deserted my imployment, with many others, which is still the refuge, that expects mee, if not prevented by the interposition of your highnes provision for the future. If God soe laye the serious thoughts herof upon your spirit, as to prevaile for a plentifull and certaine maintenance, you will not want faithfull and able ministers, nor have cause to repent your expence: then will you convince the jealous and too censorious world, that the name and noyse of the gospell's and religion's interest is reall, not a bare pretence: then will you engage God as a partye in your concernments, revive the decayeing hopes and expectations of your faithfull friends, and elude the malice and strongest confidence of enemyes: soe shall God bee a pillar of a cloud and fire to you and us in this our wildernes; otherwise our evils will soone reach your neerest interest at home. I have thus far presumed, beecause your highnes (if any) hath fully experienced all extreames as well as the safer meane. Irreligion hath bine the matter of your conquests, the cause of new conspyracies, the mother of continual mischiefs, whilst the extreme of error, licentious liberty, and pretended religious nicitye hath bine noe lesse factious. I adde no more, beeing perswaded that one of such wonders of providence as your highnes cannot have a hearte soe slenderly affected with religious interest, as to need a monitor. Here is a place, that deserves your care, and in short time may requite your vast expences. God hath directed your choyce to one, whome wee judge noe less then our Joshua or Zerubbabel. God in his sutable accomplishments allmost said to our hearts, this is the man, this is the time and season: of this, publique hands will best informe you. I shall onely move in my own sphere, in which if I have transgress'd, it is upon my zeale to your highnes, the nation's and the gospel's service, to which I live and dye,
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Captain Stoaks with his ships departed hence the 3 of this month towards the coast of Barbary, to se what thos piple will be brouht to by force or treaty. Som distasts past here, the great duke being much offended, that they should search and compel al ships or vessels going in or out of port to render him an account, which the great duk termed a blocking up of his port. I hav had lykwyse from the prince many censures for it; and truly, if your honor would pleas in the future to giv order to al of his hyhnes ships of war, that in syht of the port they ouht not to molest or compel; and seing this prince has desyred me to mov the protector's hyhnes in it, so if your honour will pleas to command me in your letter to tel the great duk no such disorder shal follow in the future, I know it wil be very acceptable unto him. The duke of Mantua and Parma ar sudenly to meet at Florence about som important affars. The Modenes and French ar very activ; they had a desygn to hav surprized Ferrara, a city of the duk of Modena's, but deteyned by the pope; but they wer prevented. I am advys'd from Rom, that the chief cittyes in Flanders ar weary of the Spanish government, and begin to treat with Ingland for protection. I am,
Courtin to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
The reports, which are here, that these provinces are disposed to favour Spain against England, are only grounded upon don Gamarra's endeavours to draw them to side with the king his master. In his journey to Amsterdam he declared to the burgomasters the resolution, which his catholick majesty hath taken, to preserve always the treaty of peace at Munster, and the desire he hath to renew that alliance; and to set them the more agog, he put them in hopes of a free trade to the Indies, as also to Peru, which hath been hitherto prohibited to strangers: he also promised them passes to go and lade salt in Nova Espagna, without paying any duties. In the mean time these fair promises have not yet produced any effect. He also at the same time railed against France, and endeavoured to perswade them, how France and England had a design to ruin the commerce of this state. This was enough to make the merchants wild in their thoughts, who say, that it doth concern this state, as all others interested in the commerce, to see that secured, and that they ought to assist Spain, if that nation should prove too weak for the English; for by that means they would lose their trade to Spain, wherein this state hath no small share. Yet I do not perceive, that they have resolved to assist Spain, or furnish them publickly with ships against England; but true it is, they are disposed not to do any thing to prejudice Spain. And it is to be doubted, whether they will not do more for them than they ought to do, in regard of their antient friends and allies.
Col. Brayne to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your honour,
I have desired admiral Goodson to waite upon you, and to give you a full accompt of the present state of affaires here; therefore I neede not trouble you with particulers, as knowing him able to satisfie you to the full. I have desired him to prepare such things as are onely sober and vitall, without which this designe must fall to the ground, except you had an abler instrument to manage it then myselfe. I doe also begge your honour's favour in considering of a successor for me by that time that I have continued a yeare here, for I finde that neyther my body nor my purse will be able to hold out longer in this place. I have noe more at present, but that I am
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
De la lettre des Ambass. de St. Gen. en Denmark verrez avec quelle furie tant le Amb. que ceux de Denmark courrent a s'engager contre Swed. Et cependant c'est chose, qui est contre la soy publique, et le dict Amb. est une homme fantasque et boutadeux; mais une chose puis je dire: c'est que le Den. en son coeur est ennemy de le protecteur. et l' a bien monstré, et protecteur est interessé a garder l' egalité. Et puis en general le protecteur. scait avec quels gens les Den. Etats et General a present tiennent, et Etats de la Claude sont et demeurent insatiabiles en leur commerce. Je seray cette fois court, et suis,
An intercepted letter of lord Gerard to Mr. Dermot, at the sign of the Drum in Drury-lane.
I have received your second bill, and there is no exceptions to the factor; but you did not make that advantage by paying of it upon fight, as you might upon two usanze; neither do you let me know of the receipt of my letters, and I do assure you, this is the fourth. I wish you a good journey. I shall abide here till I hear farther of you.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of the high and mighty lords states general of the United Netherlands, taken the 9th of Feb. 1657. [N. S.]
Was heard the report of the lord Huygens and others their H. and M. L. commissioners for the affairs of the sea, according to their resolution of the 27th of December, having perused and examined a certain project of resolution mentioned more at large in their H. and M. L. notes of the 23d of the same month, concerning the dispatching of affairs, which cannot be determined any where else than at Madrid, being the court of the king of Spain; whereupon being debated, the said project is agreed and concluded as the same is hereafter inserted.
Was proposed to the assembly, that some consuls under the command of the king of Spain, when they happen to receive any orders of their H. and M. L. or complaints of particular persons of this state about the injury which is done them there, and concerning affairs which can be dispatch'd no where else than in the court at Madrid, that they did not send the said orders or complaints with the proofs to the lord Henry Van Rheede Van Rhenswoude, residing there in the behalf of this state, to signify the same to the king or his council there, and to further the necessary remedies against the same; but that the said consuls out of their own authorities do send such complaints and vexations to particular Spanish advocates to sollicit and dispatch the same; whereupon being debated, it is resolved, that letters shall be writ to all the consuls of this state in Spain, that the same is contrary to the express intention of their H. & M. L. And that therefore for the time to come they shall make known the said orders and complaints to no body else, than only directly to the said lord Rhenswoude, residing by provision in the court of Spain on the behalf of this state, with seclusion of all others, till that their H. & M. L. ambassadors shall be arrived there; and whosoever shall act herein to the contrary, shall incur the indignation of their H. & M. L. But withal it is lawful for every man to manage his own particular affairs at Madrid according to his own mind.
Extract out of the secret register of the resolutions of the high and mighty lords states general of the United Netherlands.
Was heard the report of the lords Huygens and others, their H. & M. L. commissioners for the affairs of Denmark. According to their former resolution, having visited and examined the letters of the lords their H. & M. L. ambassadors extraordinary in Denmark aforesaid, writ at Copenhagen the 28th and 31st of January last; as also their former letters of the 25th of November, and 3d, 10th, 17th, and 27th of December, as also of the 3d of January last; whereupon being debated, it is thought fit and understood, that an answer shall be returned to the said lords ambassadors, that their H. & M. L. do leave all things as yet to the successive instructions, orders, and resolutions given as well to the lords ambassadors of this state in Prussia, as to their lordships: And that they therefore do govern themselves according to the terms thereof; and what concerneth the project or inclination of Denmark, made and opened more at large in the said letters, that their H. & M. L. do look upon the same as of very great consequence. And that therefore there must be seriously debated upon them these respective provinces: And the provinces are therefore herewith desired to declare themselves with as much speed as may be. The lord Schulenburgh, commissioner of Groningen, caused to be inserted, that that province hath already declared itself concerning the same.
The council of Geneva to the states general.
Tres hauts et tres puissants seigneurs,
Comme il est tres juste, que vos altesses ayant une particuliere connoissance des sommes par elles envoyées pour la subsistance des pauvres sidelles persecutes es vallées de Piedmont, et de l' employ qui en a esté fait aussy pour satisfaire aux intentions de vos altesses, et leur donner le contentement, qu'elles desirent, nous en avons dresse le compte exact, qui contient les sommes, qui ont esté receües par nous, et par la compaignie des spectables pasteurs et professeurs, ne trouvant pas qu'aucun ait rien receu. Vos altesses verront aussy par le meme compte, comme nous sommes dischargez non seulement des dites sommes, mais aussy des deniers, desquels Henri du Moulin a esté trouve sais. Nous apprenons de ceux, qui en ont en la direction, que le tout a esté administré avec un grand ordre et fidelite. C'est tout ce que nous pouvons dire sur subject a vos altesses, lesquelles nous supplions nous vouloir conserver en l' honneur de leur bien vúeillance, et croire, que nous sommes,
A letter of intelligence.
This day is arrived a courier, dispatch'd for Prague the 31st of January to this state by their ambassador, with advice, that the same day the king of Hungary departed for Franckfort with further assurance of being made emperor, he promising the said ambassador, if it so succeeded, that Christendom should see what acts he would do against the Turk. And whereas the Turk intends to depute Ragolti, and set up another prince of Transilvania, who is an enemy to the house of Austria, the king of Hungary prosesses to maintain the said Ragolti with all the force he can. In the mean time he has given leave to this state, to raise soldiers without limit, both foot and horse, throughout his dominions; a grace not hitherto granted by any emperor. Our ambassador Molino is suddenly to depart for Germany, by whose means it is hop'd and believ'd a league offensive and defensive will be made 'twixt the house of Austria and this state.
Boreel the Dutch embassador in France, to Ruysch.
They will cause me to hope, here, or at least advise me, that under this restitution of the citadel of la Torre, that the duke of Savoy hath past his word then to demolish the fort of St. John in the vallies of Piedmont; about which fort, amongst other grievances, there is so much complained by those of the protestant party in the vallies.
This demolition should have been urged by the court for the security of Pignerol, and for their passage out of France into Italy. It is no great matter, out of what respect the same be done, so those of the vallies may be rid of it.
I do daily insist to have audience of the cardinal, and therein to propose several affairs given me in charge by their H. & M. L. The sickness of his lordship is said to be the cause, why I and other ambassadors are not admitted to audience by him.
Nieuport the Dutch embassador in England, to Ruysch.
The lord secretary of state signified unto me on tuesday last, that the lords commissioners for the maritime treaty should come to me the next day at four of the clock; but perceiving, that the parliament would sit till the afternoon, and not rise till it was late at night, his honour desired of me, that I would deser the conference till the next day, assuring me, that they should not fail to come to me. Whereupon, yesterday the lords Jones and Thurloe came to me, to whom I declared, that their H. and M. L. had taken a further resolution and debate upon my letter and the inclosed papers concerning the maritime treaty, and had ordered me to shew unto their lordships, that in that of the form of passport and certificate sent from hence, several expressions were found, which, according to the constitution of the state of the Netherlands, were not practicable. That also the deponents were not express'd; and that the condition in the Netherlands was such, that no body could testify of the quantity and quality of the lading of ships but the schippers. That also sometimes the laders and owners were many in number; and that in the end it would be to no purpose, in regard the certificate would be more scanty than when the schipper should declare, that the ship belonged to the inhabitants of the United Netherlands, or at least to such as were at amity with this state: That also the freighters or proprietors of the goods laden aboard were of the same condition: That also the insertion of all parcels of lading, especially when the ships are laden with piece-goods, could in no wise be set down in the certificates, but that it appears in the passes of the officers of them that search the states duties are paid, may be added in the same manner as their H. and M. L. resolved upon the same on the tenth of March 1654, in regard of the ships passing the Sound; and by their resolutions of the 2d of June of the last year, which they ordered me to offer likewise. Also I assure their lordships, that their H. and M. L. judged, that the design of both, in regard of carrying of counterband goods, and the colouring of enemies goods, would be better performed according to the form of the pass and certificate sent to me; which being translated, I endeavoured to read it to them, to make it acceptable; but the lord secretary told me, that they at my earnest request and instance had comprehended in a paper all that the lord protector and council after so many conferences had resolved concerning the maritime treaty, wherein, as they said, they had complied more with their H. and M. L. than ever was done in any former government; and that the said writing was above eight weeks since delivered, that they had so far enlarged themselves therein, trusting, that therewith a good conclusion would have been made in this maritime treaty: that therefore they thought, that I ought not only to declare their H. and M. L. considerations upon the said forms of pass and certificate, but also upon all further articles; that so doing, this treaty may be once perfected, and a firm amity may be thereby established between the two nations. I said, that I was instructed to confer upon all the points with their lordships; but the lord Jones said, that would be in vain, and desired that I would set it down in writing, and deliver them to the lord secretary of state the sooner the better; and that I might rest assured, that they were resolved to make an end of this business. Wherefore I will draw it up in writing as far as I find my self authorized, and advise their H. and M. L. of the issue thereof.
In a letter from Cadiz, 1 Feb. mentioneth as followeth.
The 30th past the king commanded the duke of Medina Celi to make ready as many ships as he could, being but eight careened at the date hereof, with which I am certainly of the opinion will go out of Cadiz 30 ships in all with galleons for the Indies, which is all I have at present for certain. The duke in person sets forth the day to assist in the expedition, for as much as it is two years no galleons have gone forth, and the commerce is undone, and don Juan de Ichavri is named for general of the galleons.
In Cadiz came in vice-admiral Ruyter, Hollander, with 9 men of war, convoying some merchant ships, and in the way they brought two ships which were bought for the squadron of Massibray, and they are gone out to sea again, and reported to take Turks, and as yet I have no other intelligence. A friend told me, that came from Amsterdam in the same squadron, that he came to demand the value of two ships that were here taken, which imported above 500000 pieces of eight; and know very well de Ruyter went to Puerto de Sancta Maria to speak with the duke about it, and we shall see this spring what will become of it.
In another letter dated the 9th ditto from Cadiz.
Here we have no other news but of setting forth the fleet with all expedition, and may go out from hence thirty ships the first of April, which will be a brave fleet; for there are twelve great ships, the admiral sixty pieces with 18 to 25 pound bullets, and the interest of the 12 of 50 and 45 guns, and the rest of the ships very good ships of lesser burden, and I trust in God will beat the English to pieces, and free these ports of them, and then we shall see if they will domineer; this take for very good news, and another which came three days hence by a Flushing ship from the Canaries in a packet for his majesty, in which came advice, arrived there a ship dispatched by the governor of Puerto Rico, with 43 barrs of plate, each worth 1000 pieces of eight, which is one of the frigates which are taken out the silver out of the vice-admiral lost in the channel of Bahama, two of them with a storm were forced to Puerto Rico with said quantity, and the governor of said place to do his majesty's service, dispatched a ship to the Canaries with the said barrs, which remains there. Yesterday went forth an Avizo, and to day goes another to look for the fleet which are expected daily; and this ship that came from the Canaries knoweth no more, but that four months since they were in the Vera Cruz. God bring them in safety for comfort of all.
The king of Poland to the states-general.
Cælsi & præpotentes fœderati Belgii ordines generales domini, amici & vicini nostri charissimi, & christiani principis officio & cels. vestrarum ac aliorum principum amicorum studiis consiliisq; consentaneum duxinus, ut ad faciendam cum hoste nostro pacem propenso animo inclinaremus, modo honesta illa & secura obtineri firmariq; possit, qua etiam maxime causa in Prussiam cum exercitu admoveramus, honestatis rationem in co collocabamus, ut ablata omnia præsenti bello nobis restituerentur, securitatis autem ut interposita Cæsareæ majestatis, serenissimorum Galliæ & Daniæ regum, & celsitudinem vestrarum. authoritates atq; vires securitatem maris Baltici & regni nostri tranquillum statum futuris temporibus amice conservarent: sed quum indigne retroactis temporibus hostes media omnia pacis sprevere, eodem porro consilio pergunt, pacis nomen in ore habentes, animo autem longe a pace alieni, & quibus unica cura, & oftentatione pacis ludere, ac rebus interim nostris faventes principes alio factionibus suis divertere.
Quapropter vix forte ulla spe pacis honestæ & securæ reliqua serio præparare bellum, ac Deo judici & vindici committere eventum decrevimus prout declarationem nostram ex magnisicis viris cels. vestrarum legatis, uberius cels. vestræ intelligent. Porro minime dubitamus easdem de recta intentione candoreq; nostro, simul de propenso studio ad colendam bonæ amicitiæ & officiorum cum cels. vestris. correspondentiam certificatas & persuasas fore. De reliquo cels. vestris prosperos rerum successus a Deo precamur. Data in civitate nostra Gedanensi die ix mensis Februarii anno domini 1657, regnorum nostrorum Poloniæ & Sueciæ 9 anno.
Cardinal Mazarin to Bordeaux the French embassador in England.
Your last letter is of the first of Feb. It doth not appear to me, that monsieur Lockhart hath such thoughts, as you observe concerning the troops. On the contrary, I believe he will take upon him the quality of ambassador; and that he will wholly apply himself to the function thereof; yet I can say nothing certain of it. As soon as it shall please God to ease me of this great affliction, which lieth upon me at present, I shall see more particularly the said colonel, and give you advice of what shall pass.
A letter of intelligence.
The commissioners of Provence, who are here, have received a favourable answer from the cardinal, who promiseth fair to remove the troops quartered in those parts, they offering to give to the king 500,000 livres to entertain them elsewhere.
The trial of monsieur de Chenaillis is deferred for a while longer by the parliament. In the mean time he hath two advocates allowed him to advise with. The parliament, taking into serious consideration the many robberies, that are daily committed in this city, hath drawn up several orders for the preventing thereof for the future; and that the people may pass the streets at night, without danger of being assaulted, which will contribute very much to the benefit of this city.