A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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May (2 of 6)
A Rchduke Leopold Wilhelm fell sick also of the small-pox on the 17th of the last month, but (as the last letters from Vienna relate) was already on the mending hand, and the young king of Hungary fully recovered. They purpose both, upon the archduke's recovery, to depart thence for Luxenburg, and so for Prague, to the there appointed ryx-day. The said archduke, the day before he fell sick, gave audience to the Polish agent lately there arrived, and also confirmed all the prime counsellors and other officers of the court in their respestive places, who thereupon went to council, and have since continued their meetings every day, duly sitting close from morning till night, and consulting about the present grand affairs of the house of Austria. The widow empress is resolved, as soon as the accustomed castrum doloris for the death of her husband is finished, and the solemnity for the exequies are past, to leave the court, and retire to the Schunbrun, and thence, probably, to Lintz, being the place appointed by the late emperor for her residence with the young prince her son, together with a large sum of yearly revenues for their maintenance. The Danes perceiving at last, that the late news of the Swedes coming down against them was a rumour, and doth not prove true for this bout, begin to grow cockish again; and having lost part of that panic terror and fear, which had possest them, brag and vapour again as much as ever. They bustle extremely to bring themselves in something a more orderly posture and discipline; and indeed they had need so to do, for all they have at present is a reasonable number of inexpert silly people, (the tenth part whereof hardly ever carried arms) without either officer or commander (except a few under-officers, that were raised in these parts) that understand any thing, or is able to command a regiment, much less an army. The king of Sweden's happy conjunction with the Transilvanian prince they will in no ways believe, much less, that the Poles should have suffered such a notable defeat, as to have lost 20000 men upon the place near Cracow; which last indeed is yet something doubtful, because we had no confirmation of it from his majesty's army itself, though it be now at least by four or five posts confirmed from several parts, and with such circumstances and particulars, as that it is almost impossible that there might be something of it. The Swedish garrison of Cracow (having quit that city unto the Transilvanians, with an intention to join with the king their master) are said to have ministred an occasion for the beginning of this reported bloody battle, in that Czarnetsky, having notice of their departure with about twice their number, came to dispute their passage; against whom, when they had maintained a hard conflict for some time, in which many were slain on both sides, and Czarnetsky himself mortally wounded, at last both armies, Polish and Swedish, upon notice given them, came to their succour, and sought most desperately, until the Poles, seeing above half of their army destroyed, and that the furious Swedes like tygers rushed in upon the rest to make their destiny equal to that of their fallen companions, turned their backs, quitted the field, and, together with the whole spoil of their army, lest an entire victory to their conquerors, of whom about 3000 were also slain upon the place, yet most Hungarians. It is also said, that his majesty of Sweden, since the said battle, hath taken by storm the supposed impregnable town of Czenstochown, wherein (having put all to the sword without mercy, because of their obstinacy) he is said to have found 15 tons of gold, besides their silver and gold images, which also are reputed of great worth. If this news continue, it is to be feared, that it will prove the final decision of that bloody quarrel between the two crowns of Sweden and Poland: but we have great cause to doubt the truth of it, for that a letter by this day's post from Marienburg affirms, that there were letters come on these to prince Adolph from the king his brother, (wherein his majesty having ordered him with all speed to follow him into Poland with such forces as were yet remaining in these parts) doth withal assure his highness, that at the coming away of those letters, no action at all had been past betwixt him and the Poles, they still retreating from one place to another.
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Received your letter, and thank you for your care concerning major Somerell; and in case the gentleman you mention has a regiment, I desire you to be mindful of him: Your major and all your freinds are well, with the regiment at Edenburgh. Which is all present from
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland.
My last acquainted your lordship, that H. H. had taken severall exceptions to the advice and petition of the parlament, besides that of the title kinge, which he was pleased to put into writeinge. The parlament went thorough all of them, and upon friday last presented their resolutions upon them to H. H. desireinge withall, that he would be pleased to appoint a tyme, when the parlament might attend him for his finall and positive answere to their whole advice. What answere H. H. will give, he hath not yet declared. The parlament are in good hopes still; otherwise they would scarce have done on any thinges, which for a settlement-sake they have consented to. There is not one thinge in his H. paper of exceptions, but they have complyed with him in; and one of the exceptions is a matter of vast consequence; viz. the confirmeinge of the lawes made by the little convention (as it is called here) and the ordinances of H. H. and councell, wherein the parlament hath taken this course: They have perused all the severall acts and ordinances, and all of them, which concerne either safetie or reformation, they have confirmed; a thinge, which tends exceedingly to the settlement of mens mindes; and, in the oppinion of most men, too much to have been expected from a parlament. But beinge weary of rollinge from one thinge to another, and haveinge an entire confidence in his H. they are willinge to come to any thinge, that is reasonable, and may be judged secure for the good cause soe longe fought for; which is the rule, that this settlement hath beene framed by. His highnes hath lett the committee knowe, that he desires to speak with them to morrow in the afternoone upon the resolutions deliver'd to hym; and upon thursday he intends to give his finall answere to the parlament, wherein I trust the Lord will guide and direct him. What this answere wil be, God and his owne heart only knowes (as I beleeve) haveinge not yet declared himself. My lord deputy and general Desbrowe seeme to be very much fixed against his beinge kinge, and speake of nothinge but givinge over their comands: and all ymployment, if he doth accept that title; others alsoe speake the same language; soe that our difficulties are many. The best way is to referre all to the disposition of the Lord, and to acquiesce in whatsoever shall be his pleasure.
Sir John Reynolds begins his journey to morrow towards Dover, to see the last part of his forces to be shipped, and soe to passe over himselfe. I acknowledge he is a very usefull man here, and I thinke he will not be uselesse to our affaires in the place where he wil be; which is not many houres saile from England.
I have lately received letters from general Blake, signifieinge, that he set sayle the 13th of Aprill from Cadiz towards the Canary islands, upon the intelligence he received, that 12 galleons are arrived there from the West-Indies with the Spanish silver. He alsoe informes; that de Ruyter, the Dutch admiral in the Mediterranean-seas, is gone with 16 or 17 saile of ships of warre towards those islands, to bringe that money into Flanders; which hath occasioned the generall to faile with the whole fleet. I trust the Lord will blesse hym in this undertakeinge.
The difference yet remeynes with the French and the Dutch. The ambassadors of both these states have had audience of his highnes upon this subject, both complayneinge of the violence and injustice of each other, and offeringe to make H. H. the judge betweene them. It is not probable in reason, that a difference of this kinde should engage them into an open warre; and yet they seem very peremptorye on both sides. The French have seised upon the goods and effects of the Dutch in all that kingdome, and have publiquely sayd, that they will never discharge them, untill restitution be made of the 2 ships, which the Dutch tooke in the Mediterranean, and that they punish their admirall de Ruyter for the affront done to France. The Dutch, instead of doeing this, have justified their admirall, as haveinge done it by their order, and sold the 2 ships to the Spanyard.
The death of the emperor begins to have notable effects. Bavaria and the Palsgrave dispute, whose right it is to be grand-vicar dureinge the vacancye; and the former is rayseinge forces upon that pretence, but in truth with an intent to put in for the empire. The pope stirs for the arch-duke Leopoldus. Some are for Saxonie, if he will promise to turne papist, which he was well inclined to before; and if France fall in with him or Bavaria, it may put a great difficultie upon the Austrian familye.
I had last night letters from Constantinople, of the 13th of February, which say, that the grand seignior is in the field with above 400000 men; his designe is doubtfull; it is supposed, that it will be either against the Venetian or the Empire. Its like to be a very blacke storme, wherever it falls.
We have nothinge certeyne from Poland, more then that the kinge of Sweden and Ragotzi are joyned nere Cracow, and that the kinge of Poland was neare them with a very good armye, soe that by the next wee expect to heare of action.
Your lordship writt to me the other day concerneinge the cittie of Glocester's plantinge at Galloway. This day the parlament have passed a bill for their satisfaction in that place, and 2 miles about it. I begge your lordship's pardon for this longe letter, and remeyne
The cardinal Mazarin to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
I Give you thanks for the news you write me, and especially concerning the continuation of the instances, which the parliament of England maketh to the lord protector to make him accept of the title of king. His highness is so prudent and so wise, that when he is resolved to take it, there is no doubt to be made but he will before-hand give such good order to all things, that no inconvenience shall happen to him from this resolution.
If the Hollanders break with us, of which there is no great likelihood, provided the artifices of the Spaniards do not prevail above the good counsels, we must not only hire the number of ships, which you mention, but even thirty, and of the best. True it is, that they must be had better cheap than you as yet propose, which is far more than the embassador demanded.
I make no doubt but my lord protector is well informed of all things; but it is certain, that the Hollanders do openly favour the passage of the fleet from the Indies, and do endeavour all that they can, without any scruple, to prevent and cross all that the protector doth undertake to take it. This is a publick thing, and almost in every body's mouth.
Having writ thus far, I just now receiv'd your letter of the 10th; in which I understand what pass'd in your audience which the lord protector gave you, and that the English design'd for France are ready to imbark. I have nothing to reply to it, only that the king is resolved more than ever not to treat with the United Provinces, till he first has receiv'd just satisfaction, which he demanded of the insolence of Ruyter; his dignity and honour not permitting him to treat otherwise upon any terms whatsoever.
The Dutch embassadors in Denmark to Ruysch.
Our last to your lordship was of the 20th instant, since which here is arrived in this city monsieur Termeulen, resident of the king of France at Hamburgh, and at present with the quality of envoy to this crown. His honour signified to us his arrival with the usual civilities, and speaketh, as we are informed, with equity and good inclination of affection to the affairs of their H. and M. L. about the differences on foot between France and us, and is of an opinion, that the same will be brought very suddenly to a good accommodation. His publick audience will not be till after the holidays; but in the mean time he hath seen the lord ryxshofmaster, and so explained himself to him, that his commission is judged chiefly to tend to help preserve a good understanding between this kingdom and Sweden, or to sound, with what inclination more solemn endeavours would be receiv'd, which should be used on the side of France by an embassy to re-establish the amity between the said kingdoms, in case they came to break at present by arms. But though the said resident made good haste hither, according to his orders, yet he is come too late to keep the business from a rupture; the Swedish resident being ready to depart, and three Swedish ships, very fit for war, having attempted to pass the Sound upon the encouragement of the said resident, were seized upon one after another by the king's ships, with an intention to send them up hither, and therewith, as these lords tell us, they intend to make a beginning of the reparation; which, they said, was expected by this crown by means of the treaty. The biggest of the said three ships is of 28 guns, but capable to carry 44; and the other two are of 20 and 22 guns, and about 100 seamen on board each of them, whom they will see to perswade to serve on board the fleet of this crown.
The troops in Holstein are to march after the holidays of Whitsuntide. Whether the king will go into the field in person, is not yet known; but his majesty has given order to all his head officers to be in readiness to march without delay, when his majesty shall order them so to do.
Extract out of the register of the lords states-general of the United Provinces.
The lords commissioners of the provinces of Holland and West-friezland have made overture to the assembly of the provincial advice of the noble mighty lords states their principals, drawn up here in the Hague the 5th instant, upon the letter of the lords their H. and M. L. embassadors extraordinary, writ at Marienburgh in Prussia upon the 16th of March last, and directed to the greffier Ruysch, containing several considerations about the negotiation managed by the said embassadors in the Swedish court, concerning the elucidations desired by their H. and M. L. in the treaty of 1/11 of September of the last year, concluded at Elbing between the commissioners of the king of Sweden on the one side, and the said lords embassadors extraordinary of this state on the other. Whereupon being debated, it is thought fit and understood, that there shall be sent to the said embassadors extraordinary, the instruction hereafter following, inserted word for word.
Instruction of the high and mighty lords the states general of the United Netherlands for the lords Frederick van Dorp, lord van Maesdam, Pieter de Huybert, and John Isbrants, embassadors extraordinary of the state of the said United Netherlands, to the kings of Sweden and Poland, serving for explication of their H. and M. L. intention upon the points comprehended in a certain letter of the lord embassador's, dated the 16th of March last, sent to the government under direction of the lord gressier Ruysch.
In general it shall serve for information of the said lords embassadors, that their H. and M. L. have observed in the said letter these three following points of deliberation, upon which the said lords embassadors are desiring further instruction and order.
First, that the king of Sweden, or his majesty's commissioners, authorized to treat with the said lords embassadors, and are to be disposed to consent and agree, that the articles of the ordinance standing immediately before the toll-list published the 4th of March, 1640. in the kingdom of Sweden, should be inserted in the treaty, which is to be made, nor likewise to be put tanquam pars tractatus by itself, for reasons mentioned more at large in their letter.
And, thirdly, that his said majesty desireth to be assured, that the reservation of the faithfulness to the king of Poland, stipulated for the town of Dantzick, should bring no damage to his majesty; desiring therefore that the said stipulation should be restrained in such manner, that the said faithfulness to the king of Poland should be understood to be reserved no further, than forasmuch, as by the exercise thereof, his said majesty of Sweden, during the present war against Poland, should not be damnisied directly nor indirectly.
And the said lords embassadors may observe by this further and particularly, that their H. and M. L. after ripe examination of the said letter, and after exact consideration of the said toll-lists, made and published respective in the kingdom of Sweden upon the said 4th of March 1640, and the 8th of December 1645, have also well apprehended, that the reasons alledged on the side of Sweden, against the renewing of the article in the ordinance of the year 1640, put for the toll-list of the year 1640, at least in regard of some of the same, have their weight and consequence, and therefore can well understand, that the same be deferred.
But since (as by the said lords embassadors in their letter is also well observed) that there ought to be found in the said articles the inequality in the payment of the tolls, which, in respect of all imported goods, was practised in the said year 1640, between the subjects of Sweden and foreigners:
Wherefore their H. and M. L. do understand, that the defect, which will be occasioned by leaving out of the said article, ought necessarily to be again supplied expliciter by a particular stipulation.
And therefore have taken into serious consideration the second article of the said ordinance, or toll-list, of the year 1645; also observed, that according to the reasons mentioned by the said lords embassadors in their lette, the said point with less trouble of distincti on, and with more advantage, according to the disposal of the year 1645, as also according to that of the said year 1640, may be put down and determined.
Wherefore their H. and M. L. deferring to that, do also think fit, that the said articles of the ordinance going immediately before the toll-list of the year 1640, be wholly omitted, provided that in lieu thereof there be inserted in the instrument of elucidation this that followeth in substance.
1. And since by a certain ordinance of the 8th of December, 1645, made and published in Sweden about the practice of the tolls, it is established and ordered for good insights and considerations, that from henceforward there should cease all inequalities of tolls, impositions, or other taxes which was formerly, in respect of the goods with distinction, either belonging to the subjects of Sweden or foreigners, as the same hath hitherto also been practised in the United Netherlands; that therefore the same henceforward, as well on the side of their H. and M. L. as on the side of Sweden, in respect of both sides subjects shall be punctually and inviolably observed; and that therefore neither now nor hereafter, any higher or other tolls, licences, imposts, or other taxes, under what name soever, none excepted, either for goods imported or exported directly or indirectly, shall be exacted upon the goods, wares or merchandizes belonging to the subjects and inhabitants of the confederates reciprocally, than upon those of the proper inhabitants and native subjects.
2. But in regard not only according to the disposal of the said ordinance, but also for some years before the date thereof, in the kingdom of Sweden, some inequality in the business of the said toll was observed and practised between the goods, wares, and merchandizes imported and exported out of the said kingdom, in respect of the ships wherewith the same were transported, with distinction between Swedish and foreign ships; that therefore the inhabitants of the United Netherland provinces shall remain subject to the said inequality; namely, forasmuch as concerneth goods imported according to the disposition of the said second article of the said ordinance, anno 1645.
3. So that consequently of all goods and merchandizes, as herrings, salt, spices, cloth, stuffs, and all other wares of the growth or manufacture of Sweden, imported by Netherland merchant-ships for the value of one hundred daelders, shall pay one ducat more for toll than is paid for the said goods and merchandizes, when the same are imported in Swedish merchant-ships; and all such are to be counted for Swedish mounted ships, which carry 14 pieces of ordnance, or more, according to the third article of the ordinance of the year 1645, or at least such as are so built, that the same be able to carry 14 guns or more for their defence.
4. And to the end the said article may be practised with good order, to both sides content, that therefore every body, which shall import any goods into the said kingdom of Sweden, shall be bound to enter the same according to the just price and value thereof; well understanding, that in case the officers of his majesty do at any time judge, that the entered goods are rightly valued, it shall be free for them to examine the same, and to enter the same for the benefit of the crown, provided that besides the said entered goods there be added thereunto a fifth part of the said goods, and the merchants are to pay ready money for the same before they receive the same, in such manner as is practised in the like case in the United Nethelands.
5. But what concerneth the goods exported out of the kingdom of Sweden, that for the same, when the same are transported with the Netherland merchant-ships, so much more of the toll shall be demanded than is paid for the like goods exported in Swedish ships, as the difference about the same in the said year 1640, according to the said toll-list in the said year 1640 was practised; which said toll-list amplified with a third column, according to the ordinance, and the practice afterwards made and introduced, which followeth here inserted word for word, as a rule for preventing of all disputes.
6. But that the said inhabitants and subjects of the said United Netherland provinces, in respect of all new alter'd or raised tolls, licences, impositions or other taxes, above what standeth specified in the said list, may not be taxed higher than the proper inhabitants and subjects of Sweden, so that concerning the same, an absolute equality shall be observed between them, without difference, whether their goods, wares and merchandizes be exported in Swedish or Netherland ships; so that all the inequality in that respect shall only remain between them in proportione arithmetica, according to the difference of the tolls in the said list of the said year 1640, being already introduced concerning the same, without that the said inhabitants and subjects of the said United Netherlands shall pay any higher toll or tax above the subjects of Sweden, either for goods exported or imported, than what is specified in the above list.
And the said lords embassadors will be able to observe by what is above-mentioned, that their H. and M. L. concerning the said first point do absolutely submit themselves to the intention of the king of Sweden; and concerning the second likewise, so far as are ap plicable to the same, the reasons distinctly mentioned by the said lords embassadors in their said mentioned letter; namely, forasmuch as concerneth the disposal of the imported goods, upon which only the mentioned fourfold tax of the ordinance of the said year 1640, is to be pass'd.
Then what concerneth the disposal about the exported goods, their H. & M. L. have persisted concerning the same by the list of the year 1640, partly because the reasons alledged on the side of Sweden, and writ over in the letters of the said lords embassadors, for to move their H. and M. L. to accept of the term of the year 1646, are not applicable upon the said goods; as also especially because the same would reach to a higher taxing of the goods of the good inhabitants and subjects of the said United Provinces.
It being evident, that the goods and merchandizes laden in Netherland merchant-ships, against the like goods laden in mounted Swedish ships, according to the disposal of the said list of the 8th of December, 1645, would be generally subject to a greater inequality of toll, according to that of the 4th of March, 1640, above-mentioned.
As by example, about the iron being one of the chiefest merchandizes, which is exported out of Sweden, there would be paid, according to the list of the said year 1645, in a Netherland merchant-ship 16 stivers per ship pound more than that which is laded in a Swedish mounted ship, as doth clearly appear by the list itself. Whereas the same, according to the list of the said year 1640, in the first case would pay but 10 stivers more for each ship per pound, as in the last, the same not only agreeing with the tenor of the list of the year 1640, but also with the disposition about the exemption granted afterwards to the Swedish ships for the toll, by the said list of the year 1640, is set upon the iron exported in foreign ships, at 13 stivers per ship pound; and according to the disposal, happened afterwards, as above-mentioned, in favour of mounted ships, goods laden in Swedish mounted ships must pay a third part less in toll than they will in foreign merchant-ships: So then consequently, according to that disposal, the toll upon the iron laden in the Swedish mounted ships, is to be reckoned against 20 stivers per ship pound, as the same is put in the said list 1640, in the first column; the difference therefore being as is abovesaid, as well according to the text and tenor of the list 1640, as according to the said further disdisposal in favour of the said mounted Swedish ships, happened, as is abovesaid, but 10 stivers.
True it is, and their H. and M. L. do likewise well consider, that the difference in the tolls for goods laden in common Swedish ships, and Netherland merchant-ships, according to the disposal of the said list anno 1645, is generally less, and consequently would be more advantageous to this state, than according to that of the year 1640.
But on the other hand, their H. and M. L. have also considered, that by the said ordinance of the year 1645, it is expresly ordered, that for the goods laden in the ordinary, and not mounted ships of the subjects of Sweden, for which, in the said year 1640, only just a third part less in toll was paid then for goods laden in foreign merchant-ships, from henceforward in lieu of the said third, but a sixth part less should be given, and so consequently the intention of the king of Sweden undoubtedly will be; yet notwitstanding that the said list of the year 1640, is composed but of two columns, of which the first doth differ just a third part from the last, the same must yet be considered in such manner, as if between these two columns, yet a middle one was couched, differing as much from the first as the last, which, consequently, will differ from the said last column just a sixth part; so that according to this, the difference of the toll between the goods laden in the common unmounted ships of the subjects of Sweden, and in foreign merchant-ships, as to be calculated according to the model made thereof by their H. and M. L. and for information of the said lords embassadors above inserted.
And the said lords embassadors are to use all possible endeavours, to the end the same model being put in that manner with three columns, pro termino à quo, may be inserted in the said act of elucidation, employing thereunto such reasons, which they shall conceive to be of most persuasion and operation.
And though it so be, that on the side of Sweden, after all possible endeavours, the said middle column in the list of the year 1640, beyond expectation, cannot be admitted, yet their H. and M. L. understand, that by the said list of the said year 1640 shall be persisted, conceiving the said mentioned differences between them and those of the year 1645, in respect of the mounted Swedish ships, will bring more advantage to the navigation of the good inhabitants of these countries, than is to be feared from the difference between both the said lists, in respect of the common mounted Swedish ships, to the prejudice of the said navigation; their H. and M. L. seeing clearly, that, at least after such a convention, no other Swedish than mounted ships will be met at sea, and that thereby the middle column of the said list, anno 1645, coming to vanish away, or to be a dead column, the said imagined advantage in respect of the said unmounted ships will also come to cease.
And their H. and M. L. do therefore think good, that the said lords embassadors shall punctually observe all the said articles, and govern themselves accordingly, endeavouring in every thing to obtain the said expressed intention of their H. and M. L. and causing the extension of the said act of illucidation to be made accordingly, and to be put down in all parts in clear and significant terms, so that all manner of cavilling and disputing may be wholly prevented.
What further concerneth the third point of deliberation above-mentioned, their H. and M. L. understood, that no ampler extension can be admitted than what is already comprehended in the treaty concluded at Elbing, on the 1/11 September 1656, judging all scruples concerning the same to be satisfied by the words, Ita ut cesset inter prædictam sacram regiam majestatem & civilitatem Gedanensem omnis bostilitas.
The commissioners of the college of the admiralty to the states-general.
H. and M. L.
The commissioners of the colleges of the admiralties (those of Amsterdam being yet absent) do find themselves obliged to represent to your H. and M. L. how the equipage of your high and mighty lordships is advanced in their several quarters, and a good number of them is now ready, the rest will be so in due time; that you would be pleased to think of providing 1500 soldiers to put on board of the 48 ships of war ordered to be equipped by your H. and M. L. and that you will be pleased to order patents for the taking of them out of the companies in the service of this state, since it hath been found by experience, that such experienced land-soldiers do far better service than the new raised forces.
Monsieur van Rheede and van Renswoude to the states-general.
My lords, upon the 12th instant was made known to the queen, by her father confessor, the sad news of the death of the lord her father the emperor, and thereupon this court went presently into mourning.
On the 13th instant the duke of San German sent his secretary post to this court with news that the besieged within Olivenza begin to capitulate; there perceiving that there is no relief to be expected. The queen of Portugal doth suspect, that she is betrayed by some of the greatest lords of the kingdom of Portugal, by reason they do not seem to take to heart, nor as it were mind as they ought this Spanish invasion, and that the said lords do correspond with this crown.
The protector's speech to the parliament in the banquetting-house at Whitehall, 7th of May 1657, at his refusing to accept of the government, tender'd with the title of king.
The business has put the house to a great deal of trouble, and spent much time (I am sorry for that): it has cost me some, and some thoughts; one, because I have been unhappily the occasion of the expence of so much time; I shall spend little of it now.
I have the best I can, resolved the whole business in my thoughts; and I have said so much already in testimony to the whole, that I think I shall not need to speak any thing that I have said. I believe that, which is the aim of it, is for the setting of the nation upon a good foot, in relation to civil rights and liberties, which are the rights of the nation; and I hope, I shall never be found to be one, that shall go about to rob the nation of these rights, but to serve them what I can to the attaining of them. It is also exceeding well provided for, as to the safety and security of honest men in the liberty of their conscience. These are great fundamentals; and I must bear my testimony to them, as I have and shall do still, as God lets me live in the world, that your intentions in the things are very honourable and honest, and the produce worthy of a parliament. I have only had the unhappiness, both in my conferences with your committee, and the best thoughts I could take to my self, not to be convinced of the necessity of that thing, that hath been so often insisted upon by you, to wit, that the title of king was in itself so necessary, as it seemed to be apprehended by yourselves. And yet I do (with all honour and respect to the judgment of the parliament) testify, that (cæteris paribus) no private judgment is to lie in the balance with the judgment of the parliament; but in things, that respect particular persons, every man, that is to give an account to God of his actions, must in some measure be able to prove his own work, and to have an approbation of his own conscience of that, which he is to do or forbear. And in your granting others liberty, you will not sure deny me this, which is not only a liberty, but a duty which I cannot without sinning forbear; to wit, to examine my own heart, thoughts, and judgment in every work, that I am to set my hand to, or appear in or for. I must confess, that though I do acknowledge all the other particulars, yet I must be a little confident of this, that whatever the circumstances be that accompany human actions, whether circumstances be of times or persons, whether they relate to the whole or to particulars, circumstances, that compass any person that is to render an account to God of his actions, I have truly thought, and do still think, that if I should do any thing upon this account to answer your expectation, and do it doubtingly, certainly whatever is so, is not of faith; and whatever is not of faith, is sin to him that doth it, whether it be in relation to the substance of the action, or circumstances about it, which makes all indifferent actions good or evil to him that doth it.
I lying under this consideration, think it my duty to let you know (only I wish I had done it sooner, for the sake of the house, who have laid infinite obligations on me) I wish I had done it sooner for their sakes, and for the committee's sake, to whom I acknowledge I have been unreasonably troublesome. That truly this is my answer. That though the government propounded doth consist of excellent things, all but in the very thing of title, I should not be an honest man, if I should not tell you, that I cannot undertake that government, nor the charge, nor the trouble of it; which I have a little more experimented than every body, what troubles and difficulties doth besal men under such trusts, and such undertakings. I am perswaded to return this answer, That I cannot undertake this government with the title of king; and this is my answer to this weighty affair.
The commissioners of the college of the admiralty to the states-general.
H. and M. L.
The present commissioners of the colleges of the admiralties, upon your H. and M. L. serious letter, being returned hither to consult and advise about the sea-affairs, have thought fit hereby to signify unto your H. and M. L. their arrival here; and withal do humbly desire, that they may be put into a condition to be able to perfect the affairs in hand to the content of your H. and M. L. and their subjects, by a speedy supply of the required subsidies, and instructions for the commanders of the fleet, whereof a good part is now lying ready in sea, and only wait for orders. How necessary the one and the other is, your H. and M. L. are very well acquainted by the last advice out of France, as also by particular relations from sea sent to your H. and M. L. upon which the underwritten commissioners do desire your H. and M. L. speedy resolution.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Here is advys, that the Venetians on Candia gav an assault to the new town built and in the possession of the Turks, but they wer beaten off with great los. 'Tis reported, that the squadron of Malta gallyes, which went to help the Venetians at Candia, ar lost by a storm. The queen of Sweden has layn dorment long at a privat place, but now she has credit of about sixty thousand crownes; 'tis believed, she wil again appear in publik in Rom. The sicknes does again increas much at Genoa, which being now the spring season, is an il aboad for the ensuing summer. This state is yet clear, God so continue it. A ship is now lading ther for Ingland; at her arrival at hom, if som dilligence were used, that the goods myht not be received imediatly ashore to avoid infection, it might much contribut to the preservation of health, with God's blessing, which in your honour's wisdom may be considered. An Inglish ship called the Recruit has bin departed Argier fifty dayes for this place: 'Tis much douted the Majorkin ships of war hav met with her. Indeed, sir, these seas ar much pestered by them, which 3 frigats might esily remedy, if it stood with his hiyhnes plesure or convenien cy to send them. Ruiter is expected here from Spayn with a dozen sail of ships: the French hav not abov 3 ships of war abroad in these seas: the Dutch storm much at the sequestration of theyr states in France. The Spanyard has sent a regiment of Spanish souldiers for Naples, to recruit his garrisons ther. In Germany the Paltzgrav and duk of Bavaria ar in contention, who shal be vicar of the empire in its vacancy, which may breed some embroiles. The ey of al Itally is now upon Germany, to se what will become of the Austrian familly, and in what hous the empire wil be plac't. I hav not yet heard of mr. Metham since his departure from Genoa. I dout not but your honour has advys of his arrival at Lisbon. The 100 l. I paid him by your order, I hope is made good in London to mr. George Smith. If the Barbary mare come home in safety, and be well lykt by his hyhness, it wil infinitly rejoise,
Leghorn, 18 May 1657. [N. S.]
States of Holland to the province of Zealand.
Noble mighty lords,
We did understand with sorrow, by the lords commissioners of your noble lordships in our assembly, that your lordships were yet making difficulties to consent, that all French ships and goods, which should be met with at sea, should be seized upon and brought into this country: wherefore we thought it necessary for the service of the state, as also of the good inhabitants thereof, herewith earnestly to desire your lordships, that you will be pleased to conform your selves without any delay concerning the same, with the other provinces, and cause your consent to be brought into our assembly, considering that the said counter-seizure made at sea will be the chiefest means to facilitate and remove the general arrest made in France; and in case by your expectation France is not to be disposed to take off the said general arrest, it will serve to get in hand as much as is possible, wherewith to satisfy the damages of the good inhabitants of this state, which they suffer by the said arrest in France; in regard that it is clear that the goods, effects, and ships of the inhabitants of this state, which are fallen into the hands of the French by the said seizure, do far exceed those of the subjects of France, which are seized in this state, and in the power thereof. Wherewith ending, and once more seriously recommending this business to your lordships, we, &c.
Extract out of the resolutions of the lords states-general.
Was read in the assembly a certain letter from the college of the admiralty of Amsterdam, writ there to their counsellors here, and withal a copy of the letter of the vice-admiral de Ruyter writ to the said college, from aboard the ship Amsterdam, bearing date the 8th of April last, containing in effect, that he had sold the biggest French ship taken by him in the Mediteranean sea, to mr. Collaert and mr. de Wint at Cadiz, being altogether unsit to bring home. There was also a copy inclosed of the letter of the said college to the said de Ruyter in answer to his to them, wherein he was ordered to annull the said sale, and to receive back the said French ship, although they should demand of him a good sum of money more than he paid for it; whereupon being debated, it is resolved, that a letter be writ to the said college, that the endeavours used by them for the making void of the said sale, and the rebuying of the said ship, are agreeable to their H. and M. L. who likewise cannot approve of, nor apprehend, why he should sell the same; wherefore the said lords commissioners are desired, that they will once more write to the said de Ruyter and to the consul at Cadiz, that they will endeavour by all possible ways and means to annull the said sale; and in case the same cannot be obtained, that they then do make their address to the governor of Cadiz, as also to the duke of Medina Celi, to help them to recover the said ship again. And the lords of Merode and are desired to signify unto the lord de Thou, embassador of the king of France, the abovementioned, as also the contents of the said letters, with this request, that his lordship will be pleased to represent the same to the said king with all reality. A copy of this resolution and of the said letters shall be likewise sent to the lord embassador Boreel, to make use thereof as need shall require.
Extract out of the secret resolutions of the lords states-general.
The lords commissioners of the province of Zealand have made known to the assembly, that the lords their principals were still making difficulty in the making of the counter-seizure at sea of all French ships and goods.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Aujourd'huy à esté resumée la resolution d'interdire toutes manufactures & creu de France: le deputé de Frise seul y a contredit, comme attendant de heure à heure la resolution de ses principaux deliberants là dessus.
Mais quant a l' autre point, de saisir aussy par mer les navires et biens de marchands François, à l'instance de la faise, la resumption n'a esté differen, & toutesois en faudra venir là, car on me sauroit voir de bon œil, que le biens de France se transportent ailleurs aussy par d'autres navires d'autre nation.
Un memoire de l'ambassadeur de Spaigne a esté leu, touchant le navire de tel Escossois Benet consisquée en Frandres; quoy qu'il eust lettre de bourgeoisie de Rotterdam, estant avec sa semme & famille.
Le placard interdictoire de manufactures & fruits de France est desja imprimée & se vend publiquement. Mais quant à la saisie des navires & biens Françoises sur mer, il n'y a encore rien de conclu. Et cependant cecy est bien eloigné de la satisfaction, que demande l'ambassadeur de France; au moins il y à tant soit peu de serveur dans les François: ils ne sauroient plier.
En même temps escrivent les ambassadeurs en Dennemarck, que la rupture y soit resolué, & semble pour donner chaleur à la rupture, que les ambassadeurs de cest estat ayent voulu achever l'ampliation du traité avec Dennemarck, qui sera une promesse de plus grande assistence au roy de Dennemarck.
Il y a eu dispute touchant les officiers, qui iront à Dansigk; à quoy la Zeelande, &c. se sont opposés; mais la Hollande l'a emporté. Par quelle occasion aussy a esté parlé du traité d'Elbing & de sa ratification, mais sans suite.
L'assemblée leur estant rapporté, que de Ruyter auroit venduë les deux navires Françoises, non seulement a declarée n'en savior rien, mais encore dit, que cela ne se peut, & de Ruyter se meprendroit inexcusablement. J'entens de bonne part, que cette semaine la Hollande viendra conclurre des choses de notable importance, ce qui sera des affaires de France.
Messieurs de Hollande ont à ce matin derechef proposé quelque elucidation nouvelle, a savoir qu'ils desirent la liste de l'année 1640 pour la sortie, & la liste de l'année 1645, pour l'entrée. Et d'autant que les cercheurs en Swéede ont le droit de prendre à soy les marchandises sur le prix que les marchands les declarent ou prosessent, on desire que ce soit en y adjoustant le 6e deniers, comme l'on sait icy.
La nouvelle acte de ratification de Dansigk sur le traité du 10e Juilet 1656 est luë, & mis en mains de commissaries; & d'autant qu'elle pre-suppose un subside, que la ville auroit reçeu, l'on a resolu de requirer les provinces à declarer, quelle ou quelles one fourny desja le subside.
Aujourd'huy le deputé de Frise a sait ouverture de l'advis provincial de sa province, sur la grande affaire de France; qui est, que ladite province se conforme avec la Hollande & autres provinces, touchant l'interdict de manufactures & creu de France. Et quant à la faisle de biens & navires de France en mer, de même y consent sous le bon plaisir de ses principaux.
Tout ce non-obstant est ordonré, qu'on commencera à travailler a l'instruction de l'admiral & officiers de la slotte, qui ira en mer: tout ainsy, comme si desja totallement l'on auroit consenty en la saisie par mer; si qu'en effect font confirmées les resolutions du 26 Avril.
Il y a nouvelle, qu'à Leuwarden il y a eu une sorte de commotion, sur ce que deux membres (Oostergo & Westergo) ont esté pour la reformation du magistrat; & les deux autres membres à l'encontre, mais le corps des bourgeois auroient par quelque violence & tumulte sait un vroetschap, pour exauctoriser le present magistrat.
Le conte de Witgensteyn (ayant espousé une soeur du prince Maurice de Nassauw) comme cy devant à Amsterdam, ainsy à present aux estats generaux offre son service, & demande un navire de guerre en cette flotte de 48 navires.
L'on a mis sa demande es mains des deputés pour les affaires de la marine. L'admirauté d'Amsterdam dit avoir desja donné toutes leurs navires à des capitaines. L'on parle de le faire general des troupes, en cas qu'on mette pied a terre; à quoy toute sois le baron de Wassenaer s'opposera; car il est aussy officier terrestre.
Dans l'instruction se manifeste un grand scruple touchant le Portugal; aucuns representent, qu'on seroit un grand pas de clerc, si en conjuncture (qu'on dit que Portugal panche à revolte) on incommoderoit trop le Portugal ayant la Spaigne à le reconquerer.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
A Amsterdam se sait un equipage, armement, levée de monde, & toute chose; qui appartient à la guerre par mer & par terre, pour Dennemark; tout ainsy comme ce fust à Coppenhagen. Je ne m'estonne pas de cela, mais je m'estonne qu'en même temps on fait croire, qu'avec Suede on veut alliance, amitie, sincerité, candeur; bonne correspondence. L'on s'arme de plus en plus par mer, aussy contre la France; pour boucher toutes rivieres, havres, emboucheures de France; & en même temps on se fasche, que l'Angleterre tient des navires devant Oostende, empescheant ce trafic même à ceux de cet estat. Comme si l'on avoit oublié, que cet estat à fait ce la presque 80 ans durant. L'on parle icy, qu'un grand, je ne scay quel, don d'Espaigne viendra icy en ambassade extraordinaire; & l'on sait la flotte d'argent, arrivée ès Canaries, si monstrueusement grande, comme si ce fust l'amas de dix ou douze années. L'on commence icy à faire des livrets fameux contre le roy, Mazarin, & nation de France, ausy picquant que contre l'Angleterre cy-devant; voire dans tous ces fameux escrits entre aussy le protecteur par compagnie. Je ne m'estonne pas de tout cecy; mais je m'estonne, qu'en même temps encore aussy ils sont à croire à protecteur leur amitie, bonne correspondence, candeur, bonne affection, &c. qui sont les termes, avec lesquels les grands d'ordinaire s'entretrompent. Et cependant je suis bien asseure, que ceux de Amsterdam & semblables beiluones de commerce haïssent le protecteur plus, que jamais ils n'ont haï le roi d'Espagne & à cause que protecteur regarde plus à commerce que ne sit le roi d'Espagne & quand bien l'affaire maintenant avec la France s'accomode, si est ce que etats d'Hollande laisseront point de brouiller le protecteur, le roi de France, & le Swede, tant par le roi d'Espagno, que par le Denmerk, Poloigne, Moscovite, & empereur.
An intercepted letter of sir W. Vane to sir George Vane.
News here is little; the answer from the French not being yet returned, the statesgeneral have lately put out a placcart, by the which they forbid all traffick of their subjects with the French, and from that day not to have any merchandize of that crown brought in out of France, or any third place by any of their subjects or strangers.
Here hath run a great noise any time these ten days of the Swedes having beaten the Poles; but all proves lies, they having not fought at all. They are here ready to set out their fleet, which will be in all about sixty sail, and some 36 of them in a body with the admiral.
A letter of intelligence.
The man of Bridges is not returned to Brusseles, yet I spake with a gentellman too dayes since came from him, and sayd hee did intend to bee with don Jon at Bridges uppon munday or tuesday next: theyre messengers, hee sayd, weare returned from Spayne, but could not tell what newes they had brougt, but hee sayd don Jon and hee weare very much in company, and hee made noe dout, he sayd, al things would goe well. I hope to get some better notis at Bridges, after theyre coming home. Don Jon some few dayes since sent the marquis of Caracena to Anwerpe, to propose the lords of the towne and the clergy for some good somes of money to be in redines at his coming, and to prepare them for the deliverie of the armie's mony into his hands; but that the markes could not obtayne, but they sayd for his one perticular, they should doe what was sitting. Soe uppon last fryday hee came to Anwerp, being the first of May, and was receved in greate state, and was noe sooner in his lodging, but presently called the majestrates to counsell, where the byesnes was put soe high by him concerning the armies mony, that there had like to have bin a rising of the towne against him; but it is to long to trubbel you with the severall passages of it; soe he must content himselfe with such monyes and presents, as they did bestow uppon his one person, which was large for one plase; and for the mony of the army, they promised to send it as it was resolved uppon by the provinses, and when hee was in the fild, they would send theyre packedores with it, and they should pay it out according to his orders. And at present hee is theare com to Gaunt, and soe coming forwards to viset all the sea-townes in order. Our states heare set very close, by reason of many embassadors heare at present. There came too some few dayes from the province of Munster, and had present audience in full court, and great entertaynement; but it is not knowne yet for what they are come. Heare is likewise at present one from the bishop of Mence, one of Tryers, one of Cullen, one of the duke of Newbore, and one of the towne of Munster itself. These all stay heare for som time for the states resolution; but they doe expect som other embassadors to come, which makes them not to resolve absolutely of any thing as yet. They have given the French embassador monsieur de Tou, his answer in writing. Whether hee wil be gon with it I knowe not yet, for theyre only dout is, that his highnes will assist the the French at sea, or else fall out with them in favour of the French, which I should be very sory to see it to prove trew upon that, and princepaly at this present time; for the dout of this doth detayne them from doing of some things they had a resolution to doe; but the comon saying is amongst them heare, that if it should soe fall out, they are much better able to beare it now then they weare before, by reason of theyre greate fleete, and soe many of the seamen, that yoused to goe for France at home. As for the French war they valew nothing, for they say the king shall mis them before they shall want him.—Coming to Flushing the first of May, to send my last to you, before I came home our garison had mustered; soe uppon tewsday soloing, I was fayne to goe back to make my adest uppon that. I was ther uppon saterday, and uppon wensday last I saw set sayle from the rode and the slack 27 good ships bound for Spayne, al belonging to Midelboro and Flushing. They have the name of marchant-men, but I am sertayne there is 12 of them; the least them 12 caries 38 peeces, and most of the rest good shipes; but I doe veryly beleave they will not all returne. A merchant of my acquaintance, that came very lately out of Spayne by land with the messengers above-mentioned, tould me, the king had at saynt Sebastians 36 very good frigots, and more in other places, soe that in a short time hee would have a good fleete, which he sayd does intend to oppose yours there; and that the king did intend in person to the Portingale warrs this soamer, for there is greate preparation made for it in Spayne to his good knowledge. Here goes a still rumor at Flushing, which has the more likelihood of truth, that the kinge of Spayne his silver out of his fleete is com to Amsterdam som six dayes since. I have hard this for sertayne from a very sufficient person. I sent you my reckning, and doe desier you will be pleased to let mee heare from you, for at present I am much behind; and if you cannot find convenient change, if you will but please to send one of your sarvants with it to one mr. Francis Boswell, a wollin-draper (hee dweles the corner shop going into the ould Bayly, hard by Ludgate) and give it to him in my one name, and take but the reseight of it from him, and I shall receve money dew to him for cloth heare. You ned not tel him, but that it comes from mr. Abraham Bobington, and I shall be very much bound to you for this favor. Soe resting hee that shall never sayle to bee
Your most humbel sarvant in any thing to command,
Marigny to Stouppe.
We must expect to see what the answer given here to monsieur de Thou will produce in the court of France; thereby we shall be able to judge of the consequence of that business: all that can be said at present, is, that the lords states here are well united, and very resolute not to yield, and for my own part I believe, that the cardinal will sooner bend than these provinces.
The lords of Brabant will not be angry if things come to a rupture. The resident of Sweden reported two days ago, that the king of Sweden had totally beaten the Poles, killed 20000 of them upon the place, and dispersed the rest; but of this there is not a word true. We say here that your protector will be shortly crowned, and that he will offer his mediation to France and to these states, whose good friend he says himself to be.