A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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May (3 of 6)
To Nieuport the Dutch embassador in England.
Amsterdam, 18 May 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. l. p. 75.
The day before yesterday was published here an act of their H. and M. L the states general of the 11th instant, whereby is prohibited to bring into these provinces, directly or indirectly, any salt, wines, or any other fruits, or any other goods being of the growth or manufacture of France, upon pain of confiscation of the said goods and merchandizes, and the penalty of one thousand guilders besides.
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to Ruysch.
Paris, 18 May 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. l. p. 89.
I Desire I may be acquainted with all that may concern the expedition of the vice-admiral de Ruyter, in regard many stories are dispersed here daily, whch I can then contradict with knowledge.
I have received their H. and M. L. resolution of the 8th of May. I will faithfully observe their order, and I desire I may be fully informed from time to time of what passes between monsieur de Thou and the commissioners of their H. and M. L. for their H. and M. L. service doth wholly require the same here.
It was said here very strongly, that the lord protector had sent for the lord embassador Nieuport, and had declared to him, that if so be their H. and M. L. came to break with France, that then the protector would remain no longer a friend of the United Provinces: which news was very agreeable to them here, to back their ill-will against their H. and M. L. and to sweeten the humours of the commonalty, who begin to feel the loss of the commerce and navigation. But I having spoke with the lord Lockhart about it, he declared to me, that there is no truth in it; that his master was sorry, and would not be willing to see France and the United Netherlands to break at this time, when the house of Austria and Spain is in such great disorder, which his lordship said to happen out of affection, and that he would desire this king and their H. and M. L. not to embroil. I find that the lord embassador of Venice is very much inclined to accommodate this difference between us, and that he doth use his mediation about it very discreetly. I desire to know, if so be his lordship should offer his intermission to me, whether I should not accept of it in the behalf of their H. and M. L. yea though he should not speak round out about it, whether I might not move and desire his lordship's intermission. I find the lord ambassador of England also well affected to it; but his lordship ought to be authorized thereunto by request of their H. and M. L. embassador to the lord protector: he is now well authorized thereunto in general terms by his highness; but to offer himself as mediator to us, to reconcile the business, he ought to have orders sent him out of England.
The commissioners of the college of the admiralty to the states-general.
Read, the 19th of May 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. l. p. 101.
H. and M. L.
The underwritten commissioners from all colleges of the admiralties, in conformity to your H. and M. L. resolution taken yesterday, have been in conference with your H. and M. L. commissioners for the affairs of the sea, to consider how and in what manner, and with most speed, and for the most service of the state, to dispatch and set forth to sea the extraordinary fleet of ships of war, whereof a good part already made ready, and the rest appearing. Wherefore they cannot omit to represent to your H. and M. L. upon that subject, that considering what is required at this time, 16 of the said 48 ships must be lest as yet under the command of vice-admiral de Ruyter, to be divided by him and his council of war into several squadrons, to act in and about the Mediteranean-sea, so as shall be most advantageous and requisite for the best security of the commerce, and to the prejudice of the Turkish and other pirates, as also of all others, who shall go about to damnisy the ships or goods of the inhabitants of these countries, or plunder or take the same.
And that in regard of this difference occasioned between France and this state, instead that upon the 22d of February of this year there was projected by the said commissioners to encrease the said number with 14 ships more, and so to make a body of 30 ships, to be employed as was set down in the said advice, the said 14 may now be divided and employed in the channel, to begin from the road of Calais to Heysand, and especially all along the French coast, as much as wind and weather will permit, not only to advertise the merchant-men of this state, that pass through the channel, of the seizure made in France, and to secure their passage against all pirates, but also to take especial regard that no French men of war, frigats or private men of war, do put forth to sea out of the harbours of Calais, Bologne, Havre de Grace, St. Malo, Roskow, and other places situated in the said Narrow; with farther order, that they do keep the said French ports as block'd up, and to take and bring in all French men of war, that are set forth for piracy, either great or small ones, which they shall meet with at sea, and that shall sail in or out of said rivers or ports; and this to continue during the said seizure, and prizes to be kept under the protection of the respective colleges of the admiralties, to whom the takers do belong, that so notice thereof being given by them to your H. and M. L. the same may be disposed of by your H. and M. L. as you shall think fit. Besides which said ships, there ought to be held precisely in vigorous action the six men of war under the command of Cornelis Evertsen, crossing in the Narrow of France, to vigilate against the equipage, which might be made at Brest in Bretagne, upon the river of Nantz, at Rochel, Bourdeaux, Bayonne, or other places situated in that part, with the same order as is proposed in respect of the said 14 ships in the channel, with the which they are to hold all possible correspondence, to assist each other in the one or the other place, in case any special equipage in the one or the other place should of necessity require it.
And in regard there are 12 ships remaining of the said 48, the same may be set forth to sea by provision, to clear and protect the sea-ports of this state, and may be sent either west or east, where most need is, upon all occasions, as the same shall require it, who then, according to the qualities of their employ, may be instructed.
But in regard of the said 48 ships of war there are but 22 at sea effectually at present, namely, the said 16 with the vice-admiral de Ruyter, furnished by the college of the admiralty at Amsterdam, and six under the command of Cornelis Evertsen, whereof the college of the admiralty at Rotterdam contributed one, the said college at Amsterdam two, and the other three by the college of the admiralty in Zealand:
That by all possible means the remaining ships yet unrepaired, ought to be forthwith equipped and brought out to sea; whereof the college of the admiralty at Rotterdam hath begun to equip some; but in regard of the want of men and guns, are altogether defective, except, that a quantity of seamen for the lord lieutenant's-admiral is listed. The college of the admiralty at Amsterdam hath brought into the Texel their six remaining ships, ready for sea; the college of Zealand hath three ships lying ready at anchor, and is busy to equip two more. The colleges of the admiralty in West-Friezland and the north quarter six ships, for which men are listed, but not yet mustered, may be brought out to sea within a fortnight, and two more within a short time after. And the admiralty in Friezland hath caused three ships to be careen'd, but hath not yet listed any men; but yet the said division in their regard ought not to prejudice the divisions under the respective colleges of the admiralties being used of old. But in regard none of the said colleges can or ought to make any advance or furtherance in the said equipage, to levy men, to muster them, to send away any ships to sea, before they shall have received effectually in ready money their respective shares in the petitioned 600,000 guilders upon account:
That therefore your H. and M. L. will be pleased to consider, that the same is the chiefest and only means for the promoting of the said equipage; and that by long delaying of the same, the impotency of the colleges, by paying off and calling in the said ships, will be made known to all the world; and the state of this country will suffer no small disreputation and discredit thereby. And if so be the said money may be speedily had, the six ships of the said college of admiralty at Amsterdam, under the command of the rear-admiral Tromp, and three of Zealand, which lie quite ready, may be sent upon the French coast in the said channel, and may be reinforced by five more of those, which will be suddenly ready, equipping by the colleges of the admiralties in the north quarter, to make up the said number of 14 ships designed for the said Narrow.
And herewith believing to have effected your H. and M. L. good pleasure, we do humbly desire, that we may speedily receive your H. and M. L. resolution without resumption, that so after we have received the said monies, we may be able forthwith to execute that, which may be further ordered us about it, as the urgent necessities are requiring it.
Thus advised by the underwritten commissioners, upon the 18th of May, 1657.
Extract out of the secret resolutions of the states-general.
Sabathi, 19 May 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. l. p. 97.
Was heard the report of the lords their H. and M. L. commissioners for the affairs of the sea, who having been the same day in conference with all the commissioners of the respective colleges of the admiralties, in pursuance of their H. and M. L. the 17th instant, to consider how, and in what manner, and with most speed, and for the most service of the state, to dispatch and set forth the 48 ships of war, for as much as are already ready, and are yet making ready: whereupon being debated also, regard being had at this present juncture of time, how requisite it is to have the said 48 ships, it is resolved, that the 16 ships required by the college of the admiralty at Amsterdam shall be still continued under the chief command of vice-admiral de Ruyter, to be divided by him and his council of war into several squadrons, to act in and about the Mediterranean-sea, so as they shall find to be most advantageous and requisite for the best security of the commerce, and shall tend most to the prejudice of the Turkish and other pirates, as also of all others, who shall undertake to damnify, plunder, or steal from the inhabitants of this state; after the same manner as the instruction to that end given to the said vice-admirals and the captains doth import, agreeing in substance with the instructions agreed upon the like occasion by their H. and M. L. on the 25th of August 1657, and confirmed by their resolution of the 26th of June of the last year 1656. Also 14 ships ships shall at first be employed in the channel, to begin from the road of Calais to Heysand, to be divided into several squadrons, and especially all along the French coast, as much as wind and weather will admit, not only to advertise the merchant-men of this state, that pass through the channel, of the general seizure made in France, and to secure their passage against all pirates, but also to take special regard, that no French ships of war, frigats, or private men of war, do put forth to sea out of the harbours of Calais, Bologne, Havre de Grace, St. Malo, Roskow, and other places situated in the said Narrow: with this further order, that they do keep the said French ports as block'd up, and to take and bring in all French men of war they shall meet with, either great or small, and this to continue during the said seizure; and the prizes so taken, to be kept under the protection of the respective colleges of the admiralties to whom the takers do belong, that so notice thereof being given to their H. and M. L. the same may be disposed of by them as their H. and M. L. shall think fit. It is also understood, and herewith strictly forbidden to plunder, damnify, or sell any such prizes so taken; but the takers are to send up the same without any damage. And besides the said ships, there shall be likewise held in vigorous action the six men of war under the commander Cornelis Evertsen, crossing in the Narrow of France, to vigilate against the equipage, which might be made at Brest in Britagne, upon the river of Nantz, at Rochel, Bourdeaux, Bayonne, or other places, situated in that part; with the same order as is proposed in respect of the said 14 ships in the channel formerly agreed on, with which they are to hold all possible correspondence to assist each other in the one or the other place, in case any special equipage in the one or the other place should of necessity require it. And likewise the remaining 12 ships of the said 48 ships shall be set forth to sea by provision, to protect the sea-ports of this state, and afterwards to be sent either west or east, where the most need shall seem to require the same: but in regard of the said 48 ships, there are no more at sea than 22, namely the said 16 by the vice-admiral de Ruyter, furnished by the college of the admiralty at Amsterdam, and 6 under the command of Cornelis Evertsen, whereunto the college of the admiralty at Rotterdam hath contributed one, and the said admiralty at Amsterdam two, and the other three by the college of admiralty in Zealand; a letter shall be writ to the respective colleges of the admiralty, that they will forthwith compleat and set out to sea the said number of 48 ships; and in the mean time, that the 6 ships being ready in the Texel, under the command of the rear-admiral Tromp, and those 3, which are made ready by the admiralty in Zealand, shall be forthwith sent upon the French coasts in the channel, and shall be re-inforced by 5 more of those, which shall be first ready, to make up the number of 14 ships designed for the Narrow.
The lords commissioners of the province of Zealand have consented in the said conclusion upon the good liking of their lords principals. The lords commissioners of Overyssel declared, that they as yet had received no order about it.
To the Venetian agent.
Antwerp, 19 May 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. l. p. 93.
In Spain they hope to get the plate home in safety, which is landed in the Canaries, through the help and means of the Hollanders, who will see their commerce and navigation at sea to be maintained unmolested, nd will not suffer their ships to be visited either by French or English.
The controversy doth still continue between Holland and France. Those of Holland are setting forth a very great fleet. They have prohibited the importing of all manner of fruits of the growth of France to be brought into their provinces; and they will not hearken to any accommodation, till such time those of France have taken off the general seizure upon their ships, and made restitution and satisfaction for such ships as the French have taken from them.
Don John is hastning into the field: he is very well pleased with the contributions of this province of Brabant towards the maintenance of the soldiery.
Barriere to Stouppe.
Brussels, 19th May 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. l. p. 95.
I Hope now to have a speedy end of my business, in regard the fleet is arrived in the Canaries, from whence the money may be had securely. We long here with impatience to know the resolution of the lord protector concerning kingship: it is much spoken of here, that the English do intend to assist France with a strong body of foot to go jointly against Flanders. You never writ me any thing of all this: I pray continue writing to me, and you will very much oblige me. The king of England is still here, and don John and the prince of Condé are preparing for the field with all the speed that may be.
The Dutch embassadors of Denmark to Ruysch.
Vol. l. p. 107.
After that there was given in answer to the resident of Sweden's memorandum, that on the side of his majesty of Denmark it is resolved, not to go back from the demanded satisfaction and assurance, as their H. and M. L. will have seen by our last, the said resident, by a writing extended in a manner of protestation, made an end of his negotiation, and yesterday in a publick audience took his leave of the king; so that now the apprehended rupture is looked upon as a certain business, and there seemeth the less doubt to be made of it, since that the king told the resident, that several considerable wrongs and damages have been done to his majesty by the crown of Sweden; and that therefore just satisfaction is demanded for the same with reason; and which must be furthered by such means as are left to God and time. The endeavours of the embassador of Brandenburgh are hereby frustrated, which he used for an accommodation between them. In the mean time we are certainly informed, that there is this week so far negotiated with the Polish envoy, and with the Muscovy embassador, that there have been projects exchanged on both sides; but we cannot yet learn the contents thereof.
There is suddenly expected a minister from the king of Hungary; and the resident of France at Hambourgh hath writ hither, that he hath caused orders to come hither very speedily.
Copenhagen, 20 May 1657. [N. S.]
The Swedish resident to the states-general.
Read, the 31st of May 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. l. p. 175.
The underwritten resident of Sweden being informed by several and certain reports, that within the city of Amsterdam strong levies are observed to be made by water and land for his majesty of Denmark, especially, that amongst the rest three capital ships of war belonging to the said city, called the Town-house of Amsterdam, the Hague, and the Exchange, are permitted to be let to hire to the said king of Denmark, and being provided with all things necessary lie sail-ready in the Texel to go for Denmark, and join with their fleet; and by all circumstances, and concurrences of affairs, it is easily to be seen, that the Danish preparations are designed against his majesty of Sweden, his crown and countries: Wherefore he doth find himself necessitated, to lay these things open before their H. and M. L. as he ought, and consequently to desire of them, that they would be pleased not to suffer the said levies to take effect, but hinder and prohibit the same as much as is possible; and especially, that their said ships be stay'd from going upon their intended design, together with all others of the same nature, and which may be made ready for that purpose. The said resident doth hope, that their H. and M. L. will be more willing hereunto, it being very clear, that they are hereunto obliged by the antient treaty, now lately renewed with his majesty of Sweden; and that they will help to maintain the treaty-guarranty concluded in the year 1644, between Sweden and Denmark, which on the side of Denmark is endeavoured to be infringed. All which the said resident expecting from their H. and M. L. doth wish them all happiness, &c.
Dated at the Hague the 21st of May 1657. [N. S.]
Embassador Avaugoure to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
From the Swedish camp near to Semiamitz,
the 22d of May 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. l. p. 109.
In my last, which I had the honour to write to you, I gave you to understand that, Dizarneschy being separated from the other Polish generals, they retreated towards Brzeschy, and that the king of Sweden and Ragotsky had resolved to follow them, with an intention to assault them in that place; and if they had endeavoured to avoid fighting, then to make themselves master of the place, in regard of the advantages, which the taking thereof would produce, since it would deprive their enemy of a great part of the communication of Lithuania with Poland, and of the navigation of the Bong, upon which the town is situated. Whereupon the king of Sweden and Ragotsky passed over the river of Bong, and being arrived there on the 4th day before Brzeschy, it presently yielded, although the castle be reasonable strong, and a garrison of 1200 men in it, who all joined with the Swedes. And in regard the Polish army was separated from that of Lithuania, and that it was impossible to follow them, unless they should lose half their horse, the king of Sweden and Ragotsky thought fit also to separate; and the latter is remaining at Brzeschy, where he is settling his new conquest in a posture of defence, and observing the armies of Lithuania and Poland: and the king of Poland is passing into Great Poland, to break the designs of the king of Poland, there to assemble the nobility, and to get the body of an army together, and from seeking the Germans, to join with him, which he expecteth from Silesia, notwithstanding he death of the emperor.
The Dutch embassadors at Marienburg, to the states-general.
Vol. xxxviii. p. 301.
H. and M. Lords,
My lords, yesterday arrived here mr. secretary Coyet out of Poland from the king of Sweden, with orders, as we are inform'd, to go with the first opportunity to Sweden. We have not as yet had the opportunity to speak with that gentleman; neither have we heard, what directions or news he bringes along with him. However, as far as we can understand by others, a firm and strong alliance is said to be finally made and concluded between his royal majesty of Sweden, and the prince of Transilvania, and the Cosacks; and the armies of the said high mentioned powers are all of them marching to Lithuania, in order to undertake the siege of Brestie. Further it is said, that it was the design of the king to leave the field-marshal Steenbock, who was arrived already at Plosko with 5 or 6000 men of the Swedish army, with prince Ragotzky, to carry on the said siege; and that his majesty, with the rest of his army, besides some Cosacks and Ragotzky's troops would come down into Great Poland, from whence his majesty in person would come hither leaving the rest of his said troops there, to prevent all conjunctions of the Poles in those parts. It is reported likewise, that the great duke of Moscovy has written to the prince of Transilvania, that he was sincerely inclined to enter into negotiation with the king of Sweden, desiring the said prince to keep by his mediation, to bring these affairs in the speediest manner to a happy conclusion. How far all this may be true, and what further may concern the state of affairs throughout Poland, we shall hear undoubtedly from the said mr. Coyet, and acquaint their high mightinesses thereof with more certainty by our next.
General Charnitzky being lately pursued by the Swedes, and arriving near Warsaw, saved himself with the troops under his command through the Vistula, as we advised their high mightinesses by our last, is now in Great Poland, where he has made himself master of the towne of Petriknow by surprize.
H. and M. L. &c.
Marienburgh, 22 May 1657. [N. S.]
Instructions unto Richard Bradshaw, esq; our resident with the great duke of Muscovy.
Vol. liii. p. 104.; In the handwriting of secretary Thurloe.
1. Upon receipt of these instructions and letters credentials, you shall forthwith repair to such place, where you shall understand the great duke to be.
2. And being arrived with him, and presented your credential letter, you shall assure him of our particular affection towards him, and the nation which he governs, with whom the English were the first, that ever traded with him from this part of the world by the northern sea.
3. You shall let him know, that we should account it a great happiness, if he would be any way instrumental to make peace amongst neighbouring princes, and thereby stop the effusion of blood, and prevent the miseries, which do inevitably ensue upon war, especially between so great and potent princes, as are the said great duke and the king of Sweden.
4. And that we having heard of an overture of peace between him and the said king, and of some disposition in both thereunto, we could not but express our well-wishing to so good a work, and to offer our mediation to the furthering thereof.
5. To which end it is, that we have sent you unto the said duke; and you shall in our name make tender to him of our best offices to promote the establishing of a firm peace between the said two princes: and in case our friendly offer be accepted, you shall use your best endeavours to effect the same.
6. Wherein you may, amongst other things, represent the great advantages, which will accrue to the said duke by a peace with the king of Sweden; as that he having so many port-towns at the bottom of the Baltick-sea, will let in great trade and riches into his land by a much shorter way than from Archangel.
7. That the northern and western parts of his empire will be secure, by having so potent a prince to be his friend and ally.
8. That as he shall leave hereby all his countries on that side safe from invasion, and in a way of much enriching, so likewise no less secure from the fear of force or innovation on the Russian religion; it being no principle of that protestant king to force consciences, as is that of the Polonian king, which, if it get footing in his dominion by Polonian Jesuits, will not sail to work alterations.
9. Whereas you are by the first article of these instructions to repair to such place as you shall understand the said duke to be, notwithstanding we shall judge it necessary, that upon your arrival at Riga, before you proceed further, you do certify to the said duke, or some of his principal ministers of state, that you are come thither by our command, to propound and offer our mediation for the settling of a peace and good understanding between him and the king of Sweden; and to that you desire a safe conduct for your repair to the court; and in case you find, that this our friendly offer is accepted by him, you shall proceed as aforesaid; otherwise you shall remain at Riga, and give us an account of such answer, as you shall receive, and of all your other proceedings, and expect our further answer thereupon.
10. You shall likewise signify to the king of Sweden your arrival at Riga, and what commands you have received from us as to the offer of a friendly mediation between him and the great duke; that in case of any treaty between them, he may give (if it hath so thought fit) suitable instructions to his embassador, who shall be upon the place.
You shall retain a good correspondence with the publick ministers of any of our friends and allies, who shall be in the court of the great duke, or where else you may happen to meet with them; and shall give unto us frequent accounts of all the negotiations.
11. Whereas the dukes or emperors of Muscovy have heretofore, in consideration of the great benefit and advantage in trade and commerce, which hath accrued to them and their dominions by the English, who first discovered and found out the navigation through the White-sea to Archangel, justly granted unto the people of this common-wealth many privileges and immunities in trade in all his countries, which are of late very wrongfully taken from them, and that they are forbidden to reside or remain in any part of his dominions, save only at Archangel, and were banished from their houses, and deprived of their debts: And whereas his highness did lately represent these things by a letter to the said great duke by an agent, whom his highness sent thither, but received no satisfactory answer thereunto; you are, as you find opportunity, to represent unto him the hardships and unkindness, which the English have without any cause given them, received in his country, contrary to the former grants and capitulations; and to desire in our name, that the people of this commonwealth may be re-admitted to their former residence and settlement in his dominions, and to enjoy their privileges formerly granted to them; a copy whereof you shall herewith receive; as also, that they may be admitted to enjoy their houses, from which they have been banished, and to get in their debts, which they have been deprived of.
12. If it can be obtained, that they may enjoy all their former privileges, that yet at least they may have the freedom of commerce and residence at the city of Moscow, and other places within his dominions.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to the protector.
Vol. lii. p. 159.
May it please your highness,
Haveinge received your highness command to goe unto the great duke of Muscovy, and beinge to morrow to set fourth on that service, I doe in all humble manner crave leave to acknowledge your highness grace and favour, in owninge my former poore services with the honour of so great a trust. As its my duty, soe it shall be my care, to observe in all points the particular instructions given me; not doubting, but if the Lord have such a blessinge in store for those great princes and the protestant cause, he will dispose them to peace by your highness mediation.
I should have beene glad to have heard of my vindication before my remove hence, that I might have gone fourth with more encouragement and hopes of successe; but haveinge discharged my dutie, in truly representinge how much your highness honour suffers in me, your servant heere, by reason of the many offronts and injuries done me, both by this senate and your highnesse subjects here resideinge, it becomes me to acquiesce and waite a more leasureable tyme for my reparation, which I doubt not but your highness wonted justice will afford me, when greater matters are a little over. As it hath pleased God hitherto to preserve and direct your highness in his great worke, soe I trust and pray he will continue that his goodness, as a crowninge blessinge to his people. I crave leave humbly to subscribe myselfe
Hamb. 12 [May] 1657.
Your highness most faithfull,
and obedient servant,
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. l. p. 113.
The reason why I am yet heere is, because I could not possibly procure a ship ready at Lubeck for Riga, before the latter end of this weeke, the wind beinge alsoe still contrary. Noe time is lost, but, God willinge, to-morrow I shall set fourth, and if the wynd serve, I hope before the next post to be at sea, desiringe much to be at Riga, because I understand the great duke is drawinge that way with his armie. Wantinge notice of the payment of my bill, which mr. Waynewright, to whom I sent it, writes he was at Whitehall to present, but could not, I am very much trubled, and in great straites heere, how to supply myselfe. I am forst to oblige myselfe and freinds in an unusuall manner, in hopes, that the next post will bring me notice of the payment of my bill of 1200 l. and a letter of credit for my future supply; without which it cannot be done in forraine parts, for the reasons formerly given your honor.
You may be assured of my care, not to put the state to more charge than is needfull, as I presume its expected I should appeare sutable to my character and negotiation with soe great a prince, and that the necessary charge thereof will be duly furnished, that neither his highnes be dishonoured, nor I disapointed in the want thereof so farre from home, and among a people, from whom in case of want so little is to be expected.
I doe readily acknowledg with your honour, that his highness hath greatly honoured me with a trust of a high nature, which doth the more oblige me to provide as well as possibly I can, that I may be in a capacity to effect as may be expected from me, in case the great duke close with the offer I shall make him. I have not prest for a vindication before my remove hence from any other reason soe much, though I know it imports my safety, as that I might thereby have beene in a better condition for his highness future service; and if for want thereof I should be rejected, as one judged by the great duke to lye under the displeasure of the state he serves, or but little esteemed of them by them, that cannot be imputed to me; though if it so prove, I must needs blame my hard hap, to be sent out in such a condition. I shall not enlarge on this subject, but wait the state's better leasure to right me, for all the injuries done me, both by this citty and the common-wealth's subjects therein, of which your honour hath had account from tyme to tyme; which is all I could do at this distance, in order to the vindicating his highnes honour in me. Beinge your honour and the Muscovy company judge it not yet sutable to present the great duke (of whose friendship it seemes by the company's papers you are not yet assured) I cease my further thoughts of that, though I believe, that had I had a present with me to have made use of, in case I should have found it sutable, it might have come as well to passe for them.
I much doubt of meetinge with a fit interpreter at Riga; I shall doe my endeavour for
it, beinge you thinke good soe to refer it, if I should be necessitated to command any man
to serve me in that kind (as you write I may, which yet without a special commission I
doubt of) I might expect but slippery worke at his hands, besides the censure I should
lye under, for compelling a man from his home and businesse. I am sory the grand
affaire is not issued in England: it would certaynly have taken better with the grand
duke to have appeared under a royal stile, which he soe much affects. I shall be sure to
find the Dutch my back freinds there, and have all the opposition the English cavaliers
can give me, influenced from Ch. St. and those of his party heere in the company, who
are not a few, and some of them traders for Russia. But if the great duke find it his interest to make peace with the k. of S. these thinges and persons will be layd aside. Truly, sir, I am extremely straitned heere in the want of the 400 l. which was soe long since
ordered by the councell, but not yet paid; and I am out about 300 l. upon the former
accompt, which I confesse puts me soe to it heere, as is not fit to comit to paper. I
pray you therefore, if theise find not my last bill of 1200 l. paid together with the said
400 l. that you would be pleased to take an effectual course for the speedy payment of the
money; otherwise I shall be ruined in my reputation and credit heere, and be made utterly unable to proceed on my journey; further requestinge, that for the future your honor
will take order with your servants, that such as addresse unto you from me may be admitted in, which some of your servants have undoubtedly presumed too . . . formerly
to returne answers you never gave. I heere send this humble returne of thankes to his
highnes, which I request your honour to present, and to pardon the truble: referringe to the
inclosed intelligence, I shall remayne
Hamb. 12 May 1657.
Your honour's very humble servant,
I shall leave order to send your honor the weekly occurrences once more, prayinge the speedy effectinge of the premised, if not done. This senate persist in their affront given me, haveinge agrevated it in a strange manner, of which you shall have an account per next. All men admire what should heighten them to such a course at my partinge with them: they seeme to presume much on friends they have in Englend, and playnly tell me, that they are assured, that his highnes will not resent the busines as I and others doe heere.
The wynd is still contrary; however, God willinge, I will be at Lubeck to morrow night.
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland.
In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.
Wee have beene a longe tyme betweene hopes and feares about one great buisines: His highnesse hath beene pleased to put an issue to it at last, haveinge upon friday last called the parlament into the banquettinge house, and there declared, that he could not give his consent to their advise, because of the title kinge. I perceive this hath strucke a great damp upon the spirits of some, and much raised and elevated others. H. H. was pleased upon the wednesday and thursday before, to declare to severall of the house, that he was resolved to accept it with that title; but just in the very nicke of tyme he tooke other resolutions, the three great men professinge their great unfreenes to act, and sayd, that ymediately after his acceptance thereof, they must withdraw from all publique ymployment, and soe they beleeved would severall other officers of quality, that had beene engaged all alonge in this warre. Besides, the very morneinge the house expected H. H. would have come to have given his consent to the bill, some 26 or 27 officers came with a petition to the parlament, to desire them not to presse H. H. any further about kingship. The petition was brought to the barr by lieutenant-colonel Mason, who was the cheife man, who promoted it, and went up and downe from man to man to get hands thereunto. The petition was not read, but layed by; and some moved, that the house would take it into their consideration, as a breach of priviledge; but that was neither thought sit to be hearkened unto. It is hard to guesse what wil be done next. The souldiers partie, who have opposed this advise as to the title, doe pretend, that they are very well pleased with all the rest, and will desire noe alteration therein, but the title from kinge to protector; and that point should have beene debated this day, but that the speaker was ill; and soe that debate adjourned till to morrow. I finde the countrye gentlemen are very averse from this; and soe longe as they keepe together, it will scarce be effected; but they beinge under great discouradgment and discontent, it is very probable many of them will be gone, and then this or what else shall be thought fitt may be done. Some are strongly of oppinion, that the other parts of this advise are liked by some as little as the title kinge. Thus thinges stand for the present, and this is our condition: what it may be by the next, the Lord knowes. It is good to trust hym. There is nothinge else of importance to trouble your lordship with. I remeyne
Whitehall, 12 May 1657.
Your lordship's most humble
and faithfull servant,
Capt. Roger Manley to mr. James Upton from Dantzick.
23 May [1657. N. S.]
Vol. l. p. 117.
Wee are heere very still, expecting what the campania will produce. All newes out of Poland is uncertain.
The Swedes intend to march towards Litow to regayne Bresy, and then take a turne towards Samos; recruyts goe to the army, and they say the intelligence between the king and Ragotsky is firme. Some doubt of the conjunction of the imperiallists with Casimir; yet I saw a letter from his owne hand of it. The Swedes ships before Dantzick doe no harme. The Swedish king is in person with 6000 of his owne men, and some Cossacks and Moldavians, gone towards Great Poland, to fetch Douglas off; and then 'tis possible they may visitt Dantzick, where want of tradinge causes want of monyes, and that no want of murmuring amongst that people. Send mee the thinges I wrote to you for with the first, and add a dozen pair of women's white and coloured gloves.
A letter of intelligence.
Boulogne, 23 May 1657.
Vol. l. p. 115.
I Have little of news worth writing as yet, except, that we are here received with ceremony enough, and I believe with great satisfaction of the French, our arrival being very seasonable, as well to the quieting the discontented at home, as opposing the enemy abroad. They highly applaud our men and discipline, and acknowledge they never saw such a body of foot in France. The French army is said to lie about Monstreuil. The Spaniards are not yet all come into the field. The duke of York is said to have the command of 5 or 6 regiments of horse in the Spanish army, and is already said to have taken the field therewith.
Mr. M. Vernatti to N. Knyvett, esq;
Vol. l. p.119.
My worthy brother,
Thus far am I come againe, by the help of my most mercifull God, in my way towards Holland, and further my giorney with all the speed I can, to releive my children, which are stayed by the governor of Gennip, in a place five leagues of Dunckerk, where I had placed them with a French gentleman of my acquaintance, the better to learne the languidge. His pretence is, that they are Englishmen. I had no newes of it till at the instant of my parting with Dunkerk. I sent the pas I had; but because theire names are not specified in itt, 'tis lyck, that it will be to little effect. I make no great question, but I shall find a meanes suddainly to redeem them; for though they are borne in that contry, they have no liberty but what mine gives them. I give you no further account for many things I would say, because this lettre goeing of necessitie imediatly by the way of Dunckerck, it runs the danger her fellowes before her have don. My wife knowes not of itt, not do I intend she should, to give her no new occasion to greeve. I give you a thousand thancks for the help she hath found by you; and make you as many prayers, that you will continue that to her. Att Dort itt may be, where I intend to go now, I shall heare of you, and that shall be a soverain comfort to,
Sluys, May 14/24 1657.
Sir, your yet afflicted and
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Samedy, 19e May 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. l. p.125.
Les commissaires des estats sur les affaires de Dansigk n'ont pas peu comprendre, que la lettre & ratification de Dansigk sur le traité du 10e Juillet 1656 fait mention de subsidio realiter extradito; car l'estat n'a donné pas un sol de subside à Dansigk.
Mais le sens est, que la bourgeoise de Dansigk (qui est tertius ordo) ne veut pas donner reelle ratification, qu'aussy cet estat ne donne réel subside. Car la susdite ou presente ratification (dont cette lettre fait mention) n'est qu'un project, tout de mesme comme certain poëte, ayant fort exaltè un homme de sa liberalité, & demandé si l'homme estoit tel, dit, non; mais il le devoit estre.
De mesme ceux de Dansigk disent extradi curarunt, hoc est, debebant curare extradi. Et pourtant cette acte n'est qu'un project. Quand nous aurons la real extradition du subside, alors nous donnerons telle reale ratification sous nostre sceau, &c. Comme voulant dire: Messieurs les estats nous prennent-ils pour duppe ? leur donnerions-nous part en nos droits & franchises? & ils ne nous donneroient pas du subside, ains verba ?
La grosse defaite des Polonnois ne continue point.
Hier l'on a este long-temps assemblé pour la collation de la charge d'escoutet de Boxtel, qu'ensin le fils du president Ruyter a emporté.
Ce n'a aussy fait lire un long advis secret des deputez de l'admirauté sur l'employ de la flotte, item sur le nombre de navires desja sortis & à sortir, comme 22 sous Ruyter, six dans le Bocht sous Cornelis Everts, &c. Mais en effect, les provinces ne sont pas encore d'accord pour la saisie par mer; mesme l'estat est fasché & perplex de ce que Ruyter a vendu l'un des navires à Cadix, comme dira cette adjointe resolution.
Pour l'employ du conte de Witgensteyn peu d'apparence, mesme non pas pour le declarer general des 1500 hommes à mettre à terre. Car cela (N. B.) seroit signe (disent-ils) comme si desja on avoit resolu de mettre pied à terre en France.
Lundy, le 12e ditto.
L'on a resolu de respondre aux lettres des electeurs de Bavarie & de Heydelbergh respectivement; mais d'autant que celuy de Baviere n'a donné aux estats generaux le prédicat de vos hautes puissances, mais simplement les seigneurs, die herren, à l'Alemande, on le traitera dans la response de mesme.
Mais à l'electeur de Heydelbergh on donnera le prédicat de de vostre altesse electorale, à cause qu'il a donné aussy aux estats generaux le predicat de vos hautes puissances.
Le sieur conte de Witgensteyn a derechef, par le sieur president, fait memorer son affaire, que la derniere cession estoit opgehouden, n'entendent pas que opgehouden est en effect à dire, excuse. Mais l'on persiste pour les considerations cy-devant dites, à decliner son postulé. Et ce bon seigneur, estant d'ancienne famille, & si proche parent des princes, est mal avisé, de vouloir se mettre parmy des matelots, qui encore se moqueront, à cause qu'il n'entend pas la marine. Mais autrement certe ledit conte a l'intention genereuse, disant, J'ay une compagnie d'infanterie; je ne rens nul service; aussy par terre il n'y a point d'apparence d'employ à la guerre: mais à cause que l'estat fait la guerre par mer, je veux me rendre capable à server par mer. Mais il semble, que ny la Hollande, ny le sieur admiral Opdam, ou Wassenaer, ne desire pas tels capitaines de mer.
Il y a eu une lettre du prince d'Ost-Frise, aussy une de estats d'Ost-Frise, excusants l'envoy de leurs deputez pour le jour préfix, pour des empeschements, lesquels passes ils promettent d'envoyer.
Pour le sieur de Sterrenburgh est requis acte ad omnes populos.
De Dennemark, ny de Marienburgh ne sont venues nulles lettres à l'estat; mais d'ailleurs on sçait, que le ministre de Swede à Coppenhagen avoir desja sa resolution du roy: qu'il desiroit satisfaction réelle, & assecuration. Et sur cela ledit ministre estoit prest à partir; & le roy a commencé la rupture.
Advis estant venu aux estats generaux, que les capitaines la Lande, & autres prisonniers, estant arrivés à Amsterdam, & logés chez le prévost, ils ont ordonné que leurs commissions & papiers seront mis ès mains du Fiscal, pour visiter & examiner.
De Paris le sieur Boreel en escrit pas encore d'aucunes moderations.
Jeudy, le 24e May.
Aujourd'huy est rapporté par le sieur de Renswoude, que hier l'ambassadeur de France l'avoit veu chez luy, & qu'alors il declaroit n'avoir encore rien reçeu de la cour sur la response envoyée par Courtin.
Le sieur raet-pensionaire a reporté, que ledit ambassadeur l'avoit veu à ce matin, & qu'il luy avoit donné à connoistre, qu'il avoit reçeu quelque chose; mais ledit raet-pensionaire avoit peu connoistre, que illud aliquid nihil erat. Neantmoins on a trouvé bon, que l'agent de Heyde allast voir l'ambassadeur, pour le demander, s'il se trouvoit idoine, ou instruit, à entrer en conference; & qu'en ce cas on l'iroit voir demain au matin. Et le sieur de Gent a dit à quelqu'un, que demain à 8½ ils auront conference avec son excellence.
Sur la lettre de l'ambassadeur Boreel est resolu de rescrire; que l'ambassadeur de Venise s'offrant à l'entremise, Boreel l'acceptera, ou declarera, que son interposition sera à cet estat agreable. Notez, qu'à Munster on déclinvoit toute mediation, specialement celle de Venise.
Un de l'estat m'a dit, que l'affaire se tireroit bien à la longue.
Vendredy, le 25e ditto.
Ce matin il y a eu conference avec l'ambassadeur de France, dont la fin & but a esté pour savoir, si ledit ambassadeur auroit eu quelque response ou resolution de la court, sur la response & resolution qu'il a eu de cet estat. Il a declaré n'avoir rien eu qu'une lettre du conte de Brienne, contenant encore continuation de ce que l'ambassadeur a demandé par sa premiere audience.
Après quoy ils sont venu à discourir sur l'affaire mesme; & l'on a insisté & soustenu, que doncques au moins le roy devroit mettre en execution les arrests & sentences par luymesme données, pour la restitution des prinses. Sur cela l'ambassadeur dit, qu'icy mesme il y avoit bien d'exemples, que les admirautez n'avoient pas restitué telles choses, ny obei aux ordres des estats generaux, sans toutefois nommer personne.
Ceux de Hollande ont après cela proposé dans l'assemblée, qu'on devroit resoudre la saisie des biens & navires Françoises en mer; mais la Zeelande l'a sursis.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Vol. l. p. 121.
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Des lettres du sieur Nieuport l'on voit le grand candeur de protecteur envers estats generaux, comme en effect la chose mesme parle; car ceux de estats generaux en usoient bien autrement en leur temps, consiscant navire & marchandise, qui entroit ou sortoit, sans aucune grace; voire consisquoient des navires, quand on les attrappoit, à 10 au 20 lieues de là, sur la moindre supçon: & neantmoins qu'elle (chose qui parle) declare, ou proteste le protecteur, si ne le croyent les estats d'Hollande de pure jalousie du commerce. Et pour cela font bien des devoirs près de protecteur, mais point ne le prient pour mediateur; & toutesois seroient fort aise, si protecteur de soymesme les tiroit d'embarras; car ils tiennent fort le loup par les oreilles, & ne croyent pas, que par douceur ils en viendront a bout, mais qu'il le faut faire par force ou par terreur; & donnent assez à connoistre, qu'ils veulent troubler tant l'Orient que l'Occident, considerant bien, qu'il ne leur sera autrement possible de conserver le commerce; desja les 2/3 à Amsterdam ne fait rien, & de plus en plus cela s'empirera. On console bien les estats d'Hollande par des advis, qu'en France on patit aussy fort; mais céla n'est rien; les Anglois & Osterlins peuvent très-aisement suppléer cela. Ils voyent bien cela, & ne voyent nul remede pour se conserver le commerce, que par la voye indirecte; & incommoderont par recherches tout ce qui entre ou sort d'eux en France: & à cela sera employé cette flotte. Les Pays Baltiques estant fort ruinés, ils n'en attendant aussy guere de commerce; & toutefois, sous pretexte d'y asseurer le commerce, y envoyeront aussy (si aucunement ils peuvent) part de leurs navires, pour secunder le Dennemark; car la presence seule des navires d'Hollande animera les enemies de Suede. Et avec Dennemark le sieur Beuningen aura dereches fait un traité, qui en effect choquera la Suede, en mesme-temps qu'ils professent grande amitié, correspondence, & affection à la Suede. Mais tant Amsterdam que estats d'Hollande sont fort charmé de Dennemark, laquelle confidence a prins grandes racines, lors que Dennemark a prins & confisqué les vingt-deux navires Anglois l'an 1652. Je ne sçay pas ce que France sera; mais s'il persiste tant soit peu, les estats d'Hollande seront bien embarrassés: car Boreel leur a fait acroire, que France pliera le premier; & qu'il faut monstrer les dents; que le peuple se revoltera; bref, que estats d'Hollande ne sauroient mieux faire, que de traiter le France in virga serrea. Et toutefois je suis d'opinion, que Boreel s'abuse. Je suis,
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L'on me veut acertainer, que ceux de Amsterdam prennent grand ombrage de ce que protecteur envoye ces six mille hommes en France, & tient les havres de Duynkerke & d'Ostende bloqués. L'on craignoit fort, que le protecteur n'aye stipulé pour son partage quelque place de Flandres; ce qui fait crever les estats d'Hollande & Amsterdam de jalousie; car ils sont enragés de voir, que protecteur tirera le commerce. Il est très-certain, que le embassadeur, de d'Espagne doit estre icy dans trois jours: & l'on parle, mesme en asseuré, que Amsterdam a des intelligences fort secretes avec Espagne, tant pour le transport d'argent, que pour la conservation de Duynkerke, voire qu'un des bourguemaistres de Amsterdam va pour cela en Flandre.
Ce 25 May 1657. [N. S.]
Vostre très-humble serviteur.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. l. p. 137.
Right honorable sir,
I Hav this week receaved a letter from Mettam at Lisbon, wher he wold be necessitated to stay eihty dayes before permitted prattik or admittance to the shore. The lyk advys I dout not but your honor has from him. He wryts me, his mony by this delay wasts apace, and therfor desyres a further suply. I hav given him this answer, that when your honor commands me to giv him a further suply, I shall redily do it.
The French affaires in the state of Millan seem to be in a defensiv condition, for the
Spanyard has blockt up Valenta at som distance, insomuch that vittels begin to be very
scarce; and 'tis sayd, the forces intended thether by the French ar cal'd back, and sent for
Germany, from whence the Spanyard has latly had ten thousand soldiers com into the
state of Millan. The Duch here report theyr nation in Holland ar concerned in the
plate landed at the Canaryes, at least three millions of crownes, which the Spanyard owes
theyr merchants; and that Ruyter is at Cales with 20 good ships of war, and more coming to him; and that he will sudenly hav order from theyr states to go to the Canaryes
for the sayd mony, which your honor may consider of. I hav seen this week in the newesbook from Ingland your honor's great dexterity and dilligence in discovery of a plott against his hyhnes and the state. God, I hope, wil mak you further instrumental for the
good of thos nations; which is the humble prayer of,
Leghorn, 25th May 1657. [N. S.]
Your faithful servant,
A letter of intelligence.
Vol. l. p. 123.
Yours dated the first May I received the 9th, and uppon tuesday following I went to Bridges, to see what I could heare, there, having hard, that don Jon and the rest weare expected to have bin there at that time; but they are not come as yet: but they weare uppon theyre way coming this way, but being met, are folloed by the Spanish embassador, hee being come very privatly from the upper Hauge the 6th of this present; and soe they returned all back to Brusseles, wheare the embassador stayd but one night, but returned in hast back to the Hauge. It is thought they will accept of some prossers, that has bin made to them from him; but nothing can be knowne sertaynly as yet. My frind tould mee, you have taken colonell Rogers; hee is one of his highnes capital enemies, and I am sertayne hee knowes all his master's frinds there, and all them that furnishes him with mony, and doth know as much of all his byesnes as any man that belongs to him, except the markes and chanceller, and hath don this long time: but if they that tooke him had taken his boy likewise, that was with him, you might have learned that from the boy, that I doe beleve he will not confese himselfe; for I doe verily beleve hee will rather suffer any thing, then discover any of his master's frinds or secretes, for hee is a very resolute person to doe his master servis, and hath bin alwayes imployed in most part of his messages heare. They have a desine on some of his very good frinds, that I well know, that have had formerly very good frindship with mr. Henry Cromwell: they doe intend to write to him, if they have not don alredy, to see if he can procuer his releasement from you, and stand in dout themselves yet, whether they will com to solicet some that are very nere about you for his deliverie; but if hee or they doe com, I shall give you notis time enof, for they cannot come but I must know of it, and then there wil be to more almost as good as himselfe. His taking was conseled a good while, 'til such time his box came over, which is aboute som ten dayes since. Hee is nowe with his good frind the lord Gerrard. My frind tould mee, his master the chanceller is most mightily trobbeled for him; for hee sayd for some weeks before the box came, hee was soe crosse, that hee could doe nothing that would please him; and soe is still, it seems. It doth much trobel them. There be divers, that have bin in England, are returned, as Farlo, Geebson, Howard, Stevenson: these came from New-Castell, and passed through the plase of my resedence uppon the tenth of this present. There be divers others gon to Brussels, but hoo they all weare, hee knew not yet; for the taking of this partie hath made a greate scattering amongst them. Don Jon his baggage for the fild was all pack ed upp upon fryday last, and is gon towards the plase of theyre randevoe, which I heare wil be aboute Dixmuden. The markes of Ormon's regement hath theyre patent thether likewise, which is the strongest regiment of all: the other regements will be removed shortly, but they have no patents as yet. The English regements hath lately more decreased then increased, for they have bin lately il payed; and many souldiers that went from these plases, some are returned, and some are gone some other way: and if they pay the English noe better, they will not keep many of the comon sort long. My lord Wilmot's lestenant-collonell, sir William Througmorton, and his major Godfre Floyd, has lest theyre places, and is gon for the Hauge. I thinke his major hath taken conditions of the Danes embassador, for hee takes on offecers here still. This Floyd is a very good ingenere. The Irish and the Scotch stur not from them, for the Irish is a greate deale stronger then the Scotch and English. Midelton is expected to come from Danswike with some Scotch troopes, which has bin there a longe time, expecting some other byesnes should have fallen out before this; but now he is to bee here by these troopes very shortly.
There bee some men put into Denkerke three dayes since, but I cannot tell how many
yet; but none into Oestend. Wee heare nothing of the French armie's advance as yet.
Mounser de Thou hath sent the states answere to the king his master by an expresse, but
stayes heare 'til his returne. The talke goes heare at Bridges, you doe intend to land some
forces betweene Blankenboro and Plase. There bee some sent to ly uppon those places,
and more are to come to them. There is gon from the Tessell about 40 shipes, some
sayes more, to theyr vise-admarall de Rudder. They be gon at too severall times: the
vise-admarall of North-Holland comands the last that went. The reporte goes heare, that
de Rudder is besett in the Canaries by the French and some English shipes; which if it be
soe, there will fall some bloes, for he has 5 of the French shipes by him, that hee has taken; and all French goodes are forbidden to bee brought into these parts by proclamation
throughout the land. I thinke this daye the states breake up theyr generall meeting, and
all the rest of theyre affaires are remossed, as ordenarily they be, to the states generall and
provinciall, which continewally sets. Heare is like to bee greate differences amongst the
princes of Garmany aboute the election of a new emperor; for theyre be some of them
would fayne put it from the house of Austria. The apoynted time of the election, if
theyre resolutions continew, will be in Augest next. The newes continewes heare for
sertayne, that the Swede has won a greate battell of the Powle, and taken 40 peeces of
ordenance from him. Soe resting hee that is
Flushing, this 15th May, ould stile, 1657.
Your most humbell servant to comaund
to the uttermost of his power,
A monsr. monsr. Abraham Bobington, woonende inden Thredneedel-streat tot Londen.
An intercepted letter.
Maestricht, 25th May 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. l. p. 135.
For news, the king and his two brothers go this summer into the field: the king's troops are to be commanded by general Marsin, a brave man. The king's troops lie about Dunkirk, where 'tis expected the English will land in favour of the French; and then we shall know whether there be any honest men amongst them, or no, that will come over to us. The duke of York goes with don John, and the duke of Gloucester with the Marquis of Caracena. The news of the Spanish fleet being come safe to the Canaries hath made Flanders smile, and Blake mad: he attempted the fleet in the port, but with no success, for the money was landed, and the ships drawn on ground. Cromwel is reported to take the crown, though all the great men of his party declare against him. His troops are now come from Ireland, and Scotland; and six new regiments are levied for France; all are billeted about London, as near as he can, and shall be there, 'till he be crowned and settled, and then he will send his men for France. The Dutch and French talk high; but there will be a peace. My brother, doctor Killegrew, that was tutor to the duke of York, is now gone for France, and so for Italy, governor to the young earl of Devonshire. Pray when it comes in your way, be kind to him.