A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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May (6 of 6)
Mr. R. Jenkes to secretary Thurloe.
Give me leave to say, that the cause of my repaire hither was my owne domestick affaires, of which I coulde expect no better account then of the city itselfe, which is in a narrowe and sadd condition. At my arrivall, which was the 6th of May st. vet. I made my addresse unto the burgermasters, upon some private occasions of my owne, whoe in discourse acquainted me, that the senat had lately receeved a letter from his highnes, the lord protector, in behalfe of the English, but more especialy concerninge theire prisoner, generall major Konigsmark, of which they intended very shortly to returne an answer. Some fewe dayes after hee sent me a letter to inclose and convay; but in my apprehension the title not being fully superscribed, as having left out Scotiæ & Hiberniæ, &c. I advised them to amend it, and soe they have, as now inclosed. Your honor may expect but little newes from hence, because (the passes hereabouts obstructed) what comes is very uncertain, conjecturall, and more partialy reported. If the Poles had any note-worthy successe, wee should quickly heare it; which (under correction) makes me thinke the king of Sweden still prevalent, especially being joyned with the Transylvanian and Cossaks. All the visible newes, that this place affoards is, that about the 12th of this present, this city had a designe upon the Swedes garrison called the Haupt, which to cary on the more secretly, they caused their city-gates to stand shutt two daies, which on the contrary (as I suppose) proved the discovery of the plott; for the adjacent boores acquainting the neighbouring Swede garrisons thereof, speedy reliefe from Elbing, Marienburg, and other places was made, soe that those marching out (with assured confidence) about 4000, with the loss of a few men, returned re infecta. Likewise since that, some considerable officers of the Swedes, with a small party, descending out of Poland into Pomerania, to make levies, were accidentaly intercepted by a stronger number of Poles, and cut of, a considerable booty of moneys being taken from them. It is heer reported by shipes of a young date out of the Sounde, that the rupture betwixt the Dane and Swede is already made visible, both by sea and lande, which conjecturaly will prove a further obstruction of the smale residue of trade in the Baltick-sea. Noe more, but the humbly recommending the care of the enclosed into your right honorable hands, and your much honored person into the divine tuition, rests.
Dantzigk, 27 May 1657. vet.
Middlesex, ss. The information of John Coltman of the Tower of London, gent. taken upon oath the 27 th day of May 1657,
This informant faith, That he having received information (upon the arrival of the several Dutch vessels, in the port of London) that divers parcels of prohibited and uncustomed goods, were concealed in several houses in and about Wapping, Ratcliff, St. Catherine's, &c. whereupon this informant, according to his duty, made search in several houses in and about the said places, and on tuesday morning last, searched in the house of Samuel Rogers, a strong-water-man, a St. Catherine's-dock, and there found seven parcels of books, entituled, Killing no murder, &c. containing about 200 in each parcel, which this informant accordingly seized, and brought into the publick warehouse of the custom-house London. He also saith, that the said Rogers pretended, that they were left there without his knowledge, and against his consent; but Elizabeth Cole, his servant, then confessed, that she did receive the same into the house in her master's absence of one, who brought them thither, whom she knew, if she could see him again, but knew not his name; but said, she knew not what they were; but that she was told by the said person, when he brought them, that they were papers. This informant further faith, that he hath since seen the said Elizabeth, and the person, who she said brought the said books to the said Rogers his house, together, and that the said person called himself Edward Wroughton; and further saith not.
Middlesex, ss. The information of Henry Matthews, of the Tower of London, gent. taken upon oath the 28 th of May 1657, before the said sir John Barkstead, &c.
The informant saith, That he, together with George Curtis, being employed upon service for the publick by mr. John Coltman, did accordingly on wednesday morning last attend the said mr. Coltman, and were by him appointed to be in and about the house of Samuel Rogers of Catherine's-dock, distiller of strong-waters, to see if the person which the day before had left several parcels of papers there, intituled, Killing no murder, &c. would come thither again; and accordingly about 11 or 12 of the clock a man came thither, whom this informant, according to his direction, immediately seized upon, and asked Elizabeth Cole, the servant of the said house, whether he was the person, that had the day before left the said parcels of books there? who told this informant, that he was the person. Thereupon this informant took him along with him; and as this informant and the said George Curtis were going along with the said person towards the Tower, he took opportunity and run from them from the Tower-gate to Galley-key near the customhouse, before they could recover him, and then brought him into the Tower. Saith, that he since heareth his name is Edward Wroughton: and further saith, that when the said person came to the house of the said Rogers that day he was apprehended, he said unto Elizabeth Cole, the servant of that house, that he was come for the papers, and asked where they were? whereto she answered him, they were safe laid up: and further asked her, whether any body had enquired after him since he left them there? and said, there would come two or three presently to help carry them away; and when he was apprehended, defired to see a warrant for it, which when the said George Curtis had shewed him, he said, the warrant required the assistance of a constable, and thereupon the said George Curtis was going to send for one, which when the said Edward Wroughton saw, he then obeyed, and came along with him and this informant, as aforesaid, 'till he run away, and further faith not.
Middlesex, ss. The examination of Edward Wroughton, of the liberty of the Tower of London, Haberdasher, taken the 27 th day of May 1657,
This examinant saith, That about a week since one Sturgeon sent for this examinant to a place on Tower-hill, and told this examinant, he had some goods come from Holland, which he would be willing to save the custom or excise of, and desired this informant would help him to house some of the said goods; and this examinant went accordingly on monday last in the evening, by the direction of the said Sturgeon, with a woman, unto a gate near Catherine's, and did receive some parcels of the said goods, not knowing what they were, from the said woman; and saith, that the said Sturgeon was then present, and that a skipper of a Dutch ship did help in bringing ashore some of the said parcels; which parcels he since understands are books, intituled, Killing no murder, which he did leave at the house of one whose name he heareth is Samuel Rogers, in Catherine's-dock: saith, that he knoweth the said woman, but desireth to be excused in telling her name: saith, that the last night the said Sturgeon's wife came to this examinant, and told him, that her husband was apprehended, touching the said books; and thereupon this examinant, fearing some prejudice would accrue to himself, or the persons of the house, where he had left the said parcels, and fearing that they were such books, went thither this day, and was there apprehended, and further saith not. Being desired to subscribe his examination, refuseth so to do.
The fourth examination of the said Edward Wroughton, taken the 28th May 1657.
This examinant being this day shewed John Sturgeon, now prisoner in the Tower, and asked, if he the said Sturgeon were the person, that desired this examinant to help him ashore with the said parcels of books on monday night last, and whom be did then help accordingly? saith, he is the person; and further saith not.
London, ss. The information of Thomas Banks, one of the officers belonging to the excise-office in Broad-street,
Who saith, That upon monday last, being the 25th day of this instant May, about four of the clock in the afternoon, he went with his partner John Spencer and John Marden, unto East-Smithfield, and parts adjacent, and attended thereabouts until betwixt nine and ten of the clock at night; at which time the said John Spencer told this informant, that he verily believed yonder man (pointing at him) was the man, that talked with the woman, from whom he had taken two bundles of books that afternoon, which books had this title, viz. Killing no murther. Whereupon this informant laid hold on the said man; and upon laying hands on him, he let one bundle of books fall to the ground, and had another bundle under the other arm, which this informant took from him; and saith, that he resuseth to tell his name, until being examined by alderman Ireton, on tuesday morning last, and then gave his name to be John How; howbeit since he saith, his name is John Sturgeon. And this informant saith, that both the said bundles of books had paper about them, and were tied up with pack-thread; but the paper being loose and ruffled up, the titles of the said books were very visible, they being severally entitled, Killing no murther: and said, that one of the said bundles of books he did tell over, which contained 154 in number; one of which said books this informant hath in his custody, and believes, that the other bundle did contain as many; but that in taking them from the said Sturgeon, divers of them were scattered and lost. And this informant further saith, that the said Sturgeon, upon his apprehension, had a pistol about him, which had four barrels, and was charged ready for execution; which pistol the said John Spencer took from him. And further this informant saith not.
London, ss. The information of John Spencer, one of the officers belonging to the excise-office in Broad-street,
This informant saith, That upon monday last, being the 25th day of this instant May, about 3 of the clock in the afternoon, he met a woman in East-Smithfield, and suspected she had goods about her, for which the duty of excise was not paid, followed her, until she came to Tower-hill; at which place he staid the said woman, and made seizure of two parcels of books, in a blue bag, which she carried, and demanding what they were (before this informant looked on them) she replied, it was paper: thereupon he opened one end of the said parcels, and seeing the books to be Dutch print (as he supposed) told the said woman, she must go with him to the excise-office: and demanding further of her, where she was carrying the said books, she replied, she was going along with a gentleman; and asking her, where the gentleman was, she looking round about her, cried out, O me! he is gone. And this informant further saith, that before he seized upon the said two parcels of books, he saw a man talk with the said woman, and went from her again: and saith, that the books he took from her contain in num ber about three hundred and eighty, the title of them being Killing no murther; which said books this informant carried to the excise-office, and acquainted the commissioners therewith, and gave the aforesaid information upon oath unto alderman Ireton, a justice of peace, from whom he received a command presently to repair again to East-Smithfield, and to take two other officers with him, and to continue thereabouts that evening, to see if he could meet with the said woman, or with the man he saw talking with her; who accordingly went thither, and waited thereabouts until betwixt 9 and 10 of the clock at night; about which time he saw a man coming from East-Smithfield towards London; and discovering, that he had something under both his arms, he this informant said to his partner Thomas Banks, that that was the man; and thereupon the said Banks laid hold on him, who would neither tell his name, nor whither he was going, until before he was brought before alderman Ireton, and then said, his name was John How, but since confessed his name was John Sturgeon. And this informant faith, that the said Sturgeon had under his arms two bundles of books, one of which this informant told, which contained in number 139, and are severally intitled, Killing no murther, &c. one of which books he hath in his custody. This informant also saith, that the said books were wrapped about with paper, and tied about with back-thread, in two parcels or bundles, but not so covered with paper, but that the title of the said books was very visible. And further this informant saith, that at the apprehension of the said Sturgeon he took from him a pocketpistol, which was in a money-bag, with four barrels in the stock, being all charged and ready for execution. And further saith not, &c.
Middlesex, ss. The information of Elizabeth Cole, servant to Simon Rogers, of the precinct of Catherine's, Tower, distiller,
This informant saith, That on monday last, in the afternoon, one Edward Wroughton, whom she now seeth, came to her master's shop, being a strong-water shop, with two bundles under his cloak, and desired of this informant, that she would give him leave to set two or three bundles of papers there; which this informant accordingly permitted him to do, and then he immediately departed, and told this informant, he would fetch them away presently, and that he would content this informant for letting them stand there, and in less than a quarter of an hour returned with two bundles more, and left them also, and went again and brought more of them in; and so went again so often, until he had brought into this informant's shop nine of the said bundles, and then departed, telling this informant, he would speedily fetch them away; but this informant did not see him any more that night, but saith, that a man, whom she knows not, came afterwards and told this informant, he must have two of those bundles, which this informant accordingly delivered to him. Saith, that she did not see the said Wroughton since that time, until yesterday morning, and then he came to this informant, and asked for the said papers, and during the time of his being there was apprehended: and further saith, that the two bundles of books now shewed her, she doth verily believe are such as were brought by the said Edward Wroughton to this informant's house, as aforesaid: saith, that she did see one of them opened, and see, that it was intituled, Killing no murther; and saith, that she could not very much take notice of the person, that came on monday night last, after the departure of the said Wroughton, by reason it was in the evening, and that the person, that came for them, had a perriwig; but doth believe it was one John Sturgeon, whom she hath seen in the Tower, and hath heard, that he was the same night apprehended with two bundles of the said books about him: and further saith, that she never knew nor had any acquaintance with the said John Sturgeon, or Edward Wroughton before: saith, that neither her master nor mistress was within, when the said bundles were left in the shop; but when they came home, were very angry with this informant for receiving them, thinking they might be uncustomed goods: and further saith not.
Middlesex, ss. The information of George Courtis, of the parish of Allhallows the great, London, haberdasher,
This informant saith, That he being employed by mr. John Coltman, to search for prohibited and uncustomed goods, went with the said John Coltman to search in several houses for such goods; and this informant, on tuesday morning last, with the said mr. Coltman, went to search in the house of mr. Samuel Rogers, near Catherine dock, and there seized upon seven parcels of books, intituled, Killing no murther, (containing in each parcel about 200) which Elizabeth Cole, the servant of the said house, told the said mr. Coltman, in this informant's hearing, were left the day before by one she knew again, if she should see him, but could not tell his name; but said, she knew not what they were, but that she was told by him, they were papers; whereupon the said mr. Coltman seized them, and this informant assisted in conveying them to the publick warehouse of the custom-house London: and further saith, that he, being to that purpose directed by the said mr. Coltman, did attend in and about the house of the said mr. Rogers the next day; and being there about 11 or 12 of the clock, a man came thither, whom this informant and the said Henry Matthews immediately apprehended; and Elizabeth Cole, the servant of the house, did in the presence of this informant say, he was the person, who the day before had brought those seven parcels of books thither: whereupon this informant took him into his custody, and with the said Henry Matthews went along with him to the Tower; and at the Tower-gate the said person, having an advantage, run away from the Tower-gate to Galley-key, near the custom-house, where this informant and the said Henry recovered him, and then brought him into the Tower: saith, he since heareth his name is Edward Wroughton: and further saith, that when the said person came to the house of the said Rogers that day, he said unto Elizabeth Cole, the servant there, he was come for the papers, and asked where they were? and she answered him, they were laid up safe: and further asked of her, whether any body had inquired for him since he left them there? and said, there would come two or three presently, to help him to carry them away; and when he was apprehended, he desired to see this informant's warrant; which when he had shewed him, he said, the warrant required the assistance of a constable; which when he saw this informant was going to send for, he then obeyed, and came along with him, this informant, as aforesaid, until he run away; and further saith not.
Middlesex, ss. The information of Thomas Gregory of the Tower of London, gent. taken upon oath the 28 th day of May, before sir John Barkstead, &c.
This informant saith, That on fryday night last, he being going home to his house about 12 of the clock, as he passed along in the Minories, did find a bundle of books, called Killing no murther, &c. containing about one hundred and forty, near unto the pails, under the step of a house there: saith, he knoweth not the house, where he found them, nor any more touching the same: and further saith not.
Middlesex, ss. The examination of John Sturgeon, prisoner in his highness's Tower of London,
This examinant being asked, Where he received the bundles of books, which he had about him when he was apprehended? saith, he will not give any account thereof. Being asked, whether or not he hath delivered any such books to Edward Wroughton? saith, he will not answer to that nor any other questions, that shall be asked of him, though it be whether two and two make four. Being asked, if he knoweth Edward Wroughton, whom he now seeth? saith, he hath seen him. Being asked, if he were on monday last with the said Wroughton? saith nothing thereto. Being desired to subscribe his examination, refuseth so to do.
Col. Barkstead, lieutenant of the Tower, to secretary Thurloe.
I Have herewith returned the twoe bundles of papers you sent me, and have since examined Sturgeon touching them, whoe is very resolute, and will give noe other answer then what is sett downe in the enclosed. I likewise examined the person, that helpt him to house those books, being one Edward Wroughton (whom I had formerly apprehended for dispersing some scandalous papers amongst the people at the meeting in Coleman-street) is fully as perverse as Sturgeon; and after he had confessed his receiving those parcells from Sturgeon, would faine have shifted it off; as alsoe, that when he housed them, he did not call them papers, but goods or linnen, though myselfe and severall other persons, that were present at his examination, are able to testifye, that he did soe acknowledge. I have therewith alsoe sent you the information of mr. John Coltman and the persons by him employed about the seizing of the said books, which doth fully recite all the circumstances of it. Neither Sturgeon nor Wroughton would subscribe any examination, but refused. Sir, one of my souldiers going abroad late last tuesday night, took up a bundle of those books in the streets. I have sent you his own relation of it, as he gave it upon oath before me; and likewise of the maid, with whom Wroughton left his parcels. Sir, this is all at present from,
Sir, Tower Lond. May 29th 1657.
If you make a warrant for committment of Wroughton, I desire it may be to some other prison then this, in regard I caused him to be apprehended; and that it may be dated on tuesday last, he having been ever since in custody. Sir, it will be necessary to give strict charge for his security.
After Wroughton had told me of the skipper, that assisted in helping the books ashoare, while Sturgeon was present, I sent for about 10 of the skippers of the Dutch vessels hereabouts, and shewed to him; but he would not then discover any of them to be the person. I shall use my utmost endeavour to discover it, and as much more of this business as I can.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
La Hollande a derechef proposé & poussé la saisie des biens & marchandizes Françoises en mer; comme aussy l'on a convoqué les deputez des admirautez icy, vers le 11e de ce mois. La Hollande ne veut nullement escouter les offres de la France, ains veut precisement l'execution des arrests, & sentences de restitution, & aussy la decision & justice sur les procès indecis, & aussy ne veut pas, qu'ils soyent juges selon les ordonnances du roy de l'an 1651.
L'agent de Heyde livreroit cet après-dîner à l'ambassadeur le concept traité de marine, mentionné dans la response à luy donnée le 31e May, & demanderoit par escrit une response de l'ambassadeur de ce qu'il a dit dans la derniere conference. En laquelle l'ambassadeur entr'autres aura dit diverses fois: Messieurs, j'admire vostre constance (voulant dire opiniastreté.) Bref, la Hollande semble resolue à ne rien lascher.
Aujourd'huy est leu un long memoire du sieur colonel Wylich, ministre de l'evesque de Munster, contenant des raisons & arguments, pour lesquels cet estat icy ne devroit pas écoûter ny traiter avec ceux de la ville de Munster. Cela est mis ès mains des commissaries sur les affaires des electeurs & princes alliés.
Aujourd'huy il y a eu un memoire des envoyés des consederés electeurs & princes, representant leur long sejour icy: & que le 9e Avril ils ont presenté les points ingredients à un traité, sans encore avoir reçû aucune response, ny contre-ingredients; pourtant requerants une declaration ou resolution, pour expedier l'affaire de l'alliance qu'ils ont proposé. Sur quoy n'est conclu autre chose, si non que les provinces sont admonestées & requises de vouloir se declarer.
L'affaire de France a esté dereches sur le tapis; la Hollande & semblables ont declaré, qu'on ne doive plus ny parler à l'ambassadeur, ny plus respondre. Autres au contraire. Et sur le tout sera demain dereches deliberé.
De Dennemark en ont esté nulles lettres. La Hollande proposa ce matin, qu'on devroit envoyer l'agent de Heyde à l'ambassadeur de Thou, pour luy demander, s'il n'avoit pas ordre de presenter plus que ce que contient son dernier escrit ? En cas que si, qu'on l'attendroit au plustost; si non, qu'on abromperoit ulterieur traité.
L'on a fort deliberé, si on s'addresseroit encore à l'ambassadeur; aucuns vouloient, que point du tout; autres, qu'on le feroit demander par de Heyde, s'il n'avoit point autre ordre, ou instruction plus expresse ? Mais en fin, pour luy donner la mesure pleine, on a trouvé bon de le voire encore par les deputés, qui durant l'assemblée luy ont demandé, s'il n'avoit plus rien à proposer sur l'escrit de cet estat du 31e May ? Il ne réspondoit rien de cathegorique, ains discouroit en general. On luy demandoits'il n'attendoit pas autre instruction ou ordre. Il ne faisoit encore que la mesme response. On luy demandoit, s'il n'avoit point envoyé ledit escrit en France, pour demander ordre là-dessus ? Mais il ne fit que discourir là-dessus avec grande verbosité, & un bargouvin qu'on n'entendoit pas; si qu'on ne sçeut rien tirer de luy, si non qu'à la fin il dit, Je vous diray mon intention par escrit; ce qu'on esperoit encore recevoir durant la session, mais ne vient pas. Bref, l'affaire est encore fort enaigry; ou s'il ne donne pas autre satisfaction, toutes les provinces sont assez resolu ou enclin, à resoudre la saifie par mer. Il dit un ou deux fois, Consulez vos amis; ce qu'on prenoit, comme s'il vouloit dire, Envoyez mes memoires aux provinces, & attendex leurs ordres. Mais je le prendray qu'il vouloit dire, Consulez vos voisins, & tous diront, que vous les avez traité pis que ne vous a fait le roy.
En Overyssel il y a un fort de guerre, ceux de Hasfelt ayants tiré sur le Veerschip de Zwol; ceux de Zwol ont dressé une batterie, tirants de là sur Hasfelt; ceux de Deventer ont envoyé une compagnie de secours à Hasfelt.
Au contraire y a esté un memoire de l'ambassadeur de Spaigne, disant avoir esté en Brabande y communiquer quelques choses; & que son altesse le prince don Jean l'avoit chargé de declarer, que S. A. estoit marry des mauvaises procedures dont la France rencontroit cet estat. Que S. A. offroit d'assister cet estat de toutes les forces de S. M. C. Sur ce memoire n'est encore rien fait, que le prendre par copie, personne n'osant se beaucoup manifester; mais je suis bien asseuré, que tout le party tenant avec la Hollande est fort porté pour l'Espaigne.
En Overyssel il est presque guerre ouverte. La ville de Hasfelt estat bloquée, ou tous passages luy estants bouchées, & on la canonne de batteries; & tant l'un que l'autre party fait battre le tambour pour levées. Tout cecy ne vient encore que par notification, ny l'un ny l'autre party ne volant implorer la generalité, de peur de monstrer pusillanimité.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Il semble que la Hollande veüille encore opiniastrer contre la France; toute la question principale estant à present, pour avoir un interim, ou traité provisionel de marine, semblant à la Hollande estrange, que la France ne veut pas conceder à cet estat la mesme chose qu'elle concede à l'Angleterre, Venise, Gennes, & Osterlins. Mais si la France concede cela, elle condemne toutes ses actions precedents, & se sera railler, que la Hol lande l'a contraint a coup de baston (par la prinse de ces deux navires qu'a sait de Ruyter) à donner ce qu'elle n'a pas voulu faire par sept ans de sollicitation & negotiation. L'on s'est icy fort rejouy de la malhereuse rencontre des Francois devant Cambray, se persuadant, que cela fera plier les Francois; mais j'ay de la bouche de l'ambassadeur de France, qu'on se méconte, & qu'au contraire la France auroit plus concedé sans ce rencontre, & que maintenant la France se joidira tant plus. Et en effect, la prinse de deux navires de guerre, appartenants immediatement au roy, ne sauroit estre expliquée que pour une pure hostilité. Et toutes les prinses, qu'ont fait les Francois, n'ont esté que des navires marchands, portant contrebandes à l'ennemy; en quoy s'il y a eu de l'excès, les Francois demanderont, si ceux de cet estat (ayants eu cet prattique durant tant d'annés) n'ont point excedé ? Etcet estat n'oseroit pas le nier, car le ciel & la terre reclameroit. Mais l'outre-guidance & orgueil de Amsterdam & les estats d'Hollande est insupportable: voyants tout le monde en union, ils se croyent maistres de tout, & se mocquent de tout, croyent tout leur estre permis pour commerce. Ceux de Amsterdam & les principaux de Hollande ont une profonde intelligence avec Dennemark, & sera bien estrange, si Cromwel souffre, qu'un sien si villain ennemy, comme Dennemark l'a monstré l'an 1652, à l'instigation de les estats generaux (comme l'an 1652 semblablement) insulte sur les amis & interests de Cromwel estant un example de perfidie inoüï, & ainsy villaine: comme l'an 1652, quand contre la paix, foy, & amitié publique, il voloit à Cromwel ces 22 Hennip-scheepen. Dans peu l'on verra comment finira cette negotiation avec la France. Je suis,
Vostre très-humble servant.
Embassador de Thou, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
I Writ to you by the last post. As to the affairs here, I sent you in my last a second proposition, to which I have received an answer, which doth not please me, which caused me to make a third instance by a memorandum of the 2d of June; by which you will judge, that his majesty cannot advance any thing more than he hath done; nor yield any thing more in favour of this state; and certainly, if they accept not of what is offered, one must be forced to say they are blind, and that a spirit of dulness hath seized upon them, to refuse the clearing and setting at liberty of above 100 ships seized upon, instead of restoring two, which are demanded, and consequently a treaty of alliance for a point of honour, who shall make the first step. I send you here enclosed the declaration of the chevaliers de la Lande and d Allegnac, which doth wholly condemn the action of Ruyter.
Marigny to Stouppe.
I Sent you word of the raising of the siege of Cambray, which is very certain; monsieur the prince forced the quarter of monsieur de Turenne; he lost some 300 men, taken, wounded, and kill'd; the mareschal lost no less. The prince forbid his men to plunder, or take any prisoners; in the mean time, some on his side were taken prisoners, as the marquis of Cugnac, his gentleman of horse, a gentleman and a page. The next day after he was entred he put his army in battle-array, that is to say, those 4000 horse which he had; whereat the said mareschal did so admire, not thinking, that the relief was so great, that he raised the siege in haste, and went and encamped himself between Castelet and Cambray. Your English do not like the ammunition-bread, it is said, they sent over a piece for a taste; they will have better bread and English bees. In good earnest, those of Flanders are not afraid of them; and before the campaign be ended, they will be taught something, which they understand not. It is very certain, that general Hasfelt hath brought 15000 men to the king of Poland, and that the king of Denmark hath declared war against the Swedes, by his taking of three ships in the Sound. Mons. de Thou is not yet agreed with this state; affairs do not seem to incline to an accommodation between this state and France; on the contrary, you will hear them speak shortly after another manner than you do speak at London.
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to Ruysch.
My lords burgo masters of Amsterdam delivered to me, in the year 1650, a list, whereof here inclosed I send their H. and M. L. a copy, containing 54 Netherland ships, taken only in the Mediterranean-sea by the pirates at Toulon since the year 1641 to 1650.
Besides the ships and goods aforesaid taken before my arrival in this embassy, there be yet many more taken during my residence here; for since November, that I came here, till May 1651, there have been brought in near 40 Netherland ships, which number in June and July was encreased to 70. But to give their H. and M. L. a particular account of all, I have here enclosed sent you the lists.
Mr. Bradshaw to the protector.
May it please your highnesse,
Since my arrivall here the 25th instant (of which I gave notice to mr. secretary by that daye's post) I have accordinge to your highnesse command signifyed the cause of my cominge both to the great duke of Muscovy and the king of Sweden. I shall here attend the duke's answer, if I can with safety continue soe long in the place, an insectious disease rageinge soe in it, as that in the generall's own house severall of his nearest servants have lately dyed suddenly of it, as himselfe told me. The duke of Coerland's court beinge within a daye's journey of this citie, I shall send to salute him; and if I find myself necessitated thereunto, I shall remove thither, until I receive the great duke's answer. Count Magnus de la Gard, high-treasurer of Sweden, and general-governor of Livonia, here resideing, hath received me with great demonstration of respect to your highnesse: the citie allsoe have testifyed their great joy and sense of your highnesse favour in commisseratinge their and this poore countrie's sad condition, hopeinge of relief by meanes of your highnesse interposition. Soe soon as I receive the great duke's answer, I will humbly signifie it to your highnesse; and accordinge as I find he entertaynes the mediation, I shall either proceede on my journey, or here attend your highnesse further pleasure. Most humbly referinge myselfe to the particuler intelligence herewith given to mr. secretary, prayinge for your highnesse preservation, and for good successe to all your great affaires, I crave leave to subscribe myselfe,
Riga, 29 May 1657.
A brief narrative of his highness's publick minister's arrival and reception at Riga.
The 23d of May, towards evening, his honour being safely arrived in a Lubeck ship at the Dunne-schants, a Swedish fort and garrison, about two Dutch miles from Riga, the governour of that fort, upon notice given him, that his honour was on board the said ship, saluted him from the fort with two guns, and forthwith sent a couple of gentlemen to congratulate his honour's safe arrival to that place. The next morning his honour being desirous to refresh himself a little on shore (having first desired the governour's permission) went up to the fort, and was very civilly received by him; and after half an hour's friendly entertainment, returned back to the ship, being (both at his landing and going away) saluted with several pieces of ordnance. The same day his majesty of Sweden's brother-in-law, count Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie, general-go vernour of this province of Livonia, and grand-treasurer of Sweden, a gallant nobleman and commander, sent a gentleman of his in a barge unto his honour aboard the ship, most civilly to congratulate his safe arrival, and to know, when it would please his honour to come up to town, that the count, his master, might against such time prepare his barges, in which he intended to bring him up and his company; who returned the gentleman suitable thanks for his civil respects to his highness in him his publick minister; and told him, that he was loth to trouble his excellency for any thing that day (it being sabbathday), but if his excellency would be pleased the next morning to do him the favour as to order one of his barges to bring him up to town (there being no other conveniency, which he knew of to go up) he should be glad to accept of his noble offer, and duly acknowledge his extraordinary obligations to his excellency. Whereupon, accordingly the next day about noon two of his said excellency's barges came on board, the one, which was intended for his honour, being filled with gentlemen and commanders of note, amongst whom was also the city-governour, who having most civilly received and welcomed his governour in the name of the count, waited on him into the barge, and so rowed up to the city; his honour passing by a Swedish man of war lying in the river, was saluted with his guns; and afterwards coming up to the castle and city, with all the ordnance, that were on that side the walls, both of town and castle, divers more than ordinary having been brought up there for that purpose by the count's command. As soon as his honour landed, a deputation from the magistrates of the city stood ready to receive him, and congratulate him, demonstrating the city's general and excessive joy for his honour's safe arrival there, and especially their great and humble obligations to his serene highness the lord protector of England, &c. in that it had pleased his highness so graciously to consider and pity the great miseries and calamities lately befallen their unfortunate province by the hands of their barbarian enemy the Muscovities, as to have resolved to endeavour, by his gracious interposition, the composing of the present unhappy difference, and re-establishment of peace, and a good understanding between his regal majesty, their gracious king, and the great duke of Muscovy; hoping, that this highness's gracious mediation would much redound to his perpetual glory, and particular great comfort and satisfaction, &c. His honour being brought to the lodging (prepared for his reception by the count) in two coaches with six horses a-piece, was forthwith again visited by the city, and presented after their usual manner with a cask of wine, and some other provisions; and having forthwith sent his secretary with one of his gentlemen to the count, to present his excellency with his humble thanks, for his great respects, and to desire leave as soon as his excellency's leisure would permit, to come himself to wait upon him, the said secretary, after long and tedious intreaty made to his excellency, could not prevail with him to permit his honour's coming to him, before he had himself given him the first visit: so as he was forced at last to give way unto it, &c.
Mr. Bradshaw to secretary Thurloe.
By the post on monday last, I gave your honor notice of my arrival heere: since then I have dispatcht letters to the great duke and king of Sweden. The first I sent by a gentleman of my suite, with a trumpet, and a party of horse from count Magnus, to the governor of Cokenhousen, the duke's frontier garrison, desireing his care in the hastinge of it to the duke's handes: the other count Magnus hath undertaken to send unto the kinge. I shall (accordinge to my instructions) attend heere the duke's answer. The inclosed gives your honor an account of my reception here, and of such intelligence as this place affourds, where I perceive they have but litle knowledge of the proceedings of the great duke, or other matters of importance. I have not received any letter from you since my departure from Hamburgh, but expect, that the next post will bringe me answer of my letters writ from thence, that I may be satisfied of the payment of my bill of exchange, and the other particulars I wrote to your honour of.
It will be verie dangerous for me to continue heere, untill I have answer from the great
duke, by reason of the infectious disease, of which many dye in the place, occasioned by
theire owne nastiness within the citie, and not buryinge the dead of the Muscovites army
without the towne. I hope your honor will not forget the indignitie offered me by the
senate of Hamburgh, of which I gave you notice from thence; and that the business of
mr. Townley be also remembred, that I may at last have that piece of right and justice
done me. I have inclosed my humble address to his highnesse, and per next you shall have
duplicates of my letters to the great duke, the king of Sweden, and the governor of Cokenhousen, which is what I could doe heere at present, in order to the negotiation com
mitted to my charge. Haveing not further worth your trouble, I affectionately subscribe
Your honor's very humble servant,
A letter of intelligence.
The states of Amsterdam, that went to Bridges and Oestend the last week, I writt to you of, are not returned yet; but there be some of the counsell of Brussells come to them; but don John and the rest are not come yet, but are expected to come as this day. There is for sertayne some secrete contract to be made with the Spaniard. I have writ to the Hauge to the grafere of the states-general, hoo is my very good frind, to see if I can learne from him, what this meeting there is for. For the Spanish ambasador, that went from the Hauge to Brusseles, that I writt to you of too weekes since, returned into the Hauge but uppon the 18 of this present, and the next day after his arrivall, the above-named states came from the Hauge this way. The French ambasador hath delivered his master's answere to the states, which is the same as his master's first demaunds weare, which will not here be understood soe. The states gave order, to send theyre letters of mart out to all theyre sea-townes. Mounseiur de Thou did desier soe much respite, till his secretary should returne; but it would not have been granted, but by the persuasion of Sealand and Overissel. But however, there be divers shipes gon out to take what they can get of the French. There be ten of their best shipes gon for the Sound, to take what French shipes or goods, that shall come that way. The French had berounded the towne of Cambray with theyre cavilry, and some foote; but the prince of Condé beate through one of theyre quarters, and has put both horse and foote into the towne, and other necessaries, and soe marched out of the other side of the towne with some lose to the French: but the French does keep by it still. Our governor cam to dayes since from the Hauge, and is to returne against the generall meeting, which is to be uppon the 8 of June, for hee sets all meetings with the states-generall. I hard him say, that it was concluded in theyer last meeting last, that if the French king would not deliver theyer, and make them satisfaction for all the losses, those ships his had taken from them in the Strates, which his captayne confessed at Amsterdam, they are resolved to do theyre to force him too it. They have likewise concluded to strengthen theyre armi with 16000 foote, but the letters are not come yet; but it is fast arested, if this war goe forward, which wil be seene within this 14 dayes. It is sayd heare, the wil asist the Powle and the emperor's sonn, for hee hath lately mustered a very good armi both of horse and foote. Sir Gorge Ratlese was byreed at Flushing uppon monday last; all the cavalers was at his byreall, except the chanceler and too more, that was at Bridges. They are generally sory for him, for the say hee was the best counselor theyre master had. Theyre be some of the English, which be come for France, are run away to Bridges alredy, and doe assewer you, that if theyre be not good care taken, that they bee weekly payd, they will most of them com over; for don John, they say, has taken a very good order to pay the duke of Yoark's troopes dewly, which wil insite many of them, if they bee not weel payd: for I knowe theyre shall be some sent for to advayse them to come over; therefore it would not be amise, to let the comaunders there know of it. For I shall intreat you eyther to pay that I have disbursed to one Frances Boswell, or to send mee a bill; for I doe assewer you, when I have payd what I have boroed, there wil be but littel left; for, beleve mee, I cannot hould out longer, to goe weekely to and fro by reason of that lose I have receved from him, which I hope in a shorte time to doe him as good a turne. Therfore desier you wil be pleased to let me heare, for I assewer you I have taken a greate dele of paynes, and run through a greate dele of danger, which I hope you wil be pleased to thinke uppon. Soe assuring you I shall never fayle to remayne
Your must humbel servant in any thing to comaund,
I have hard by one this morning, that came out of the Hauge last night, and sayes for sertayne, he knowes it very well, that the states will agree with the Spanniard, and that souldiers shall goe from hence within this month; and that they are now about condisions for Graveling and Dunkercke; and that there will be greate alterations heare in a shorte time. I shall doe my uttermost indevor to know with the best meanes I can youse, and let you know.
Sir Edward Nicholas to lord Culpepper.
My very good lord,
By your lordshipp's of the first instant yow have abundantly recompensed my 3 former letters, for which I humbly acknowledge myself much obliged to your lordshipp's goodnes. I am very much of your lordshipp's opinion, that Cromwell's manifesting his great ambition to be made a king hath given him a blow at the heart, and that he will not long be any thing. God enable and direct his majesty to make a right and proffitable use of the advantages he may have by it, for recovry of his just rights. My letters from Vienna say, the king of Hungarie's forces under generall Hetfeild had order to assist the king of Poland, in case the prince of Transilvania did advance into Poland; and those I have lately receaved from Dantzick say, the king of Hungarie's and king of Poland's forces are joyned, and that the Tartar is advanced with a numerous army to assist the king of Poland. The same letters say, the Muscovitt is coming with one army against Riga, and with another into Prussia.
I wishe your newes true, that the king of Denmark has declared against the king of
Sweden, as I believe it is, that the former has a good army. The night between the
29 and 30 of May, mons. de Castlenau invested Cambray with about 5 or 6000 horse,
and presently the marshall de Turenne came to him with the French army; and having
drawne his lyne, and begun his trenches, which were rising almost brest highe in some
places, the prince of Condé being about Valenciennes, came seasonably with about 5000
good horse, and 2000 foote, and forcing his passage, cast all his foote and store of provisions into the towne; whereupon the marshall drew off his army, and marched to Crevecœur: since which tyme wee have not heard any more of the motions of the French,
thoughe there was a speech, that they were returned againe to Cambray. Sir Geo. Racliff dyed this day senight at Sluyce, and is there enterred. I heare there is like to be an
accomodation of the domestique differences at Heidleberg, to the satisfaction of the landgrave of Hesse. The duke of Yorke having receaved att Bruxelles all his monny, and
there being 50 horses delivered to his officers to mount his R.H. gardes, he was to take the
feild too morrow, or the begining of next weeke. The duke of Gloucester goes a voluntier with the marquis of Caracene for this summer, to be initiated in the warres. We have
here seene a most excellent treatise entitled, Killing noe murther, dedicated to Crumwell,
shewing both scripture and many reasons, that its not only lawfull, but even necessary to
kill him, being an usurper and tyrant, who ought noe more to have any law then a wolf
or a fox; and I heare Crumwell is much afrighted att the publishing that treatise; for,
that he sayes, it will satisfy any man in point of honor and conscience, that they ought
to kill him; and it renders him noe lesse fearefull then Cain was after the murther of his
brother Abell. We have not here heard any thing of the English landed in France, since
they marched towards the French army; neither can any of them, if they were never soe
willing, be able to come over as yet to see the king. Wee have noe certeinty who shall
command them in cheif; but most say it will be Lockhart. The king hath not yet receaved his mony soe long since promised him, but yet mr. Cha. tells me, his majesty wil
be here next weeke, but which next weeke I cannot assure your lordshipp; and it's to
me a signe, that it will not be suddainely, since col. Blagg even now sends me word, that
he intends to goe for Bruxells this morning, which I suppose he would not doe, if he expected the king here shortly. I am with much truth,
My very good lord, your lordshipp's most humble servaunt,
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to Ruysch.
Saturday last the lord protector (as I am informed) sent to the register of the admiralty here, for the depositions and papers concerning the ship Morning Star, brought into Milford harbour, and mentioned at large in my former. And in regard I had understood, that the council was to meet on tuesday, I thought fit earnestly to desire the lord president and the lord Strickland, who were both present at my audience, that they would be pleased to give speedy order for the releasing of the said ship and lading; and I am told, that the next day the business was debated in the council, and that my memorandum was sent to the judges of the admiralty, to serve for advice. On the 6th instant a messenger brought me a letter from the lord secretary of state, whereof I here enclosed send you a copy; since which I have also received their H. and M. L. resolution concerning the said ship. I shall endeavour to find an opportunity to speak with the lord secretary of state further about it, to get it discharged with as much speed as may be, and give you an account from time to time how I speed herein.
The king of Denmark's declaration about the salt-company.
That which the lords embassadors of the states-general of the United Netherlands have earnestly desired of the king of Denmark in their memorandum of the 6th of October 1656 last, in their memorandum concerning the abolishing of the inequality of the toll set upon the salt in this kingdom, and that according to the pacta the inhabitants of the United Provinces ought not to be higher taxed than the subjects of his majesty, and that the salt-company ought to be abolished; which being duly examined and debated by his majesty and his council, although there be no great exception to be made against the said salt-company, it being lawful for strangers and foreigners to be admitted into the same, and that the subjects of his majesty, who are not of this company, do pay the same toll, that the foreigners, and so without distinction an inequality is observed, and by this company a great advantage doth yearly accrue to his majesty's kingdoms, and within a few years a good number of ships will be built by the means thereof for the defence of the said kingdoms; yet, notwithstanding all this, his majesty out of that singular affection, which he bears to their H. and M. L. at the request of their lords embassadors, thereby the more to oblige them, and to further the commerce, is willing to abolish the said company of salt, and to tax the inhabitants of the United Provinces in the toll of salt no higher than the natives of Denmark themselves. In witness whereof we have hereunto set our royal hand and seal in Copenhagen, this 9th of June 1657. [N. S.]
To Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
We are very much troubled here at the ill success our army had before Cambray. This day our generals have a rendezvous at Peronne, where the king is to meet them with his eminence, to confer about some new design.
An intercepted letter of sir R. Honywood to sir W. Vane.
The states of Holland separated monday last, after having given mr. Downing audience in the afternoon, as he had with the states-general in the morning. What they have done as to the sending assistance to the old troops of Denmark hath not yet much certainty in it. When there is, you shall not sail to know it. This yet seems to be resolved, that a fleet of 48 ships shall be made ready.
Here has been reports, as if the Danes had some advantage on the Swedes in Holstein; but they prove all false. The coronation of the emperor will be hastened, but not so soon as we expect to hear of that of the protector. The king of Hungary without all peradventure will be the man, and neither France nor Sweden will be able to hinder it, though the first levies a very great army in Alface, and the other hath one already levied very considerable. If he were discharged of the war with Sweden and Poland, the which their engagement only to the house of Austria hinders, and whom to oblige them to scare out both the ministers of France and England, which are with Denmark and Sweden, press very hard; the latter having declared to the ministry of this state, that if it continue to assist Denmark, the protector will find himself obliged to assist Sweden; from whence may come ill blood at last.
Prince Rupert, I hear, is coming hither so privately, that the colonel knowes nothing of it. He may probably be apt to do some riotous thing or other, and some of our fellow inquiets, that lie there, I am told, apprehend it, and so hasten the voyage for Spain, which has been long talked of.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Par la lettre des ambassadeurs en Dennemarc so voit à present la sin & l'effect de tout le negoce de Amsterdam les estats de Hollande qui de tout leur sens, force, & pensée, ont travaillé à cette rupture de Dennemarc contre la Suede: & cette haine de les estats et d'Hollande, contre Sweden n'est que parceque Sweden ne se voulut pas laisser engager contre Cromwel; comme fit Denmark par la prinse de ces 22 henip-scheepen, à l'induction de les estats d'Holland. La pretendu cherté du grain n'est rien; car pour toute la guerre de Pologne, le prix du grain n'est rien monté. Estant une belle illusion que les estats generaux envoyent des ambassadeurs en Prussie, pour moyonner la paix en Pologne avec Suede, en mesme-temps qu'en Dennemarc ils suscitent une nonvelle guerre: voir Amsterdam meme luy preste trois de ces beaux navires, qu'elle fit bastir durant la guerre d'Angleterre. Quand les Suedois ont rompu la tréve avec Pologne, (que toutes fois les Suedois pretendent avoir esté rompu par les Polonis) qu'el cy ne firent les bons les estats d'Holland & Amsterdam; mais quand le Moscovite & le Danois rompent une paix perpetuelle; cela n'est nullement par eux blamé; ains cet ambassadeur Beuningen n'a pas honte de le colorer en ses lettres, apris avoir long-temps sué & travaillé à procurer la rupture de cette paix; pour l'observation & garantie de laquelle cet estat s'est obligé par traité solemnel; mais c'est le monde, & Dieu dirige tout à sa glorie, punissant l'une nation par l'autre pour leurs pechés; mais toutes ces menées & machinations de les estats d'Holland & Amsterdam, ne sont pas tant de jalousie contre Sweden comme elles sont contre Cromwel car Sweden n'est pas ny situe ny capable de commerce mais Cromwel: au contraire: pour la situation & force de navites de guerre est tres propre at capable denaire on donner jalousie à les estats d'Hollande et Amsterdam, Jesuis,
Vostre très-humble serviteur.
Je voy que les estats de Hollande prenent icy un singulier contentement en ces irresolutions du parlement, ou bien entre Cronwel et son arnée Car l'on asseure entierement, que Cromwel voudroit bien le titre; mais que son armée le luy empesche: & on bastit sur cela des bastiments & consequences fort advantageuses pour Ch. Sewart, & je dois dire qu'à present j'entens le seur D o l e m a n aussy parler mal & avec mescontentement de Cromwel quoy que cy-devant tousjours il aye esté non-seulement moderé, mais aussy affectionné; & d'au(tant qu'il est favorit de raedt-pensionare & Beverning les voyant souvent & familierement) cela me fait juger que ces messieurs de les estats d'Holland brassent quelque chose avec Ch. Stewart & Spain contre Cromwel. Car on ne peut nullement digerer, que la grande correspondence & union, qui est entre Cromwel & France La proposition de rapeller le sieur Nieuport, vient de les estats d'Holland mesme; car raedt-pensionaire & Beverning (dont le Nieuport est tenu pour grand amis & confident:) ont aussy des ennemis; & jaloux de la grande direction de r. p. Bev. taschent sous pretexte de mariage, de faire changer cet ambassade extraordinaire en un ordinaire. Aussy l'on croit, que Nieuport ne fait que s'engraisser & s'enrichir. Quant audifferent, que les estats d'Holland ont avec France, les estats d'Holland voyent, que France est embar rasse, & s'imaginent qu'ils obtiendront de France ce qu'ils voulent, à savoir de predominer dans le Commerce. Et certe, la grande civilité & equanimité de Cromwel rend les estats d'Holland tant plus insolens, à insulter au France, & à taxer en France des choses, qu'eux-mesmes ont fait continuellement.