A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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August (1 of 5)
Mr. Bradshaw to secretary Thurloe.
I Am now with your honor's letter of the 3d July, in answer to mine of the 5th June from Riga, being glad that his highness is so well satisfied with my poore endeavours in his service. It's much to my encouragement, amidst the many dangers I am surrounded with. I hope his highness's enlargeing of his commission as to my character will prove to the advantage of the negotiation committed to my trust; but above all I rejoyce in the accompt you are pleased to give me of the settlinge of the government by parliament
I question not, but before theise come on, your honor will have received my severalls of the 17th, 20th and 25th of July; the two first from Mittaw, the last from hence, all inclosinge copies of a letter received from the great duke's chanceler, with my answer to it, the which againe I here inclose, with a duplicate of my last to your self, least the posts (which now by reason of the plague, and my often removes, grow more uncertain to me) should miscarrie. I bless God my servant is pretty well recovered; his sickninge presently upon our comeing from an insected place affrighted the whole country as well as our selves, in soe much, as this day I could not prevail to get a physician to him, whoe now declares it only a sever, of which I hope he will in few daies recover. Truly, were it not that this noble duke of Courland commands a respect from the country by his owne example, in providinge me of a house of his owne to reside in, with gentlemen to accompany me, and all other necessaries, I might have perished in this countrey at my first comeinge from Riga, or been forced to returne to Hamburgh; and though I would gladly stay heere for his highness's pleasure as to my proceedinge, yet that course I doubt I shall e'ere longe be constrained unto, the plague very much spreadinge over all theise countries. This day I am informed, that it's broke out within halfe a Dutch mile of this place. I had some thoughtes to have gone to Memel, the frontier towne of the elector of Brandenburgh, about 100 English miles from hence; but they now write the plague is begune there alsoe.
I shall, accordinge to order, salute his electoral highness by letter, and give an accompt thereof per next, wishinge I had had that in commission at my first comeing to Riga, the prince beinge concerned in the affaire I goe upon, as the king of Sweden's confederate. This unhappie accident of the omissions in the great duke's title, together with the increasing of the plague in theese partes, will, I doubt, overthrow the negotiation, at least retard my goeing to Muscoe till the deepe of winter, as I have formerly writt, before which tyme it will be noe travellinge in that countrey; but it may be his highness will thinke fit, upon sight of that insolent letter from the chanceler, to revoke me; which truly I rather desire, feareinge his highness's friendly mediation will not be sutably entertained; but if it shall please his highness, that I doe proceed as soone as the season of the yeare will permitt, I shall not decline his service; only I hope your honour will then procure the word legatus added to that of oratour in my credentialls; and that therewith an able interpreter of the Russe language may be sent me, together with some gentlemen to accompanie me, whoe noe doubt will be willinge to goe, when they shall understand, that it will be acceptable to his highness, and that they may travell at another's charge. I have soe sadly experienced the want of a minister and a physician alreadie, in a country where our lives are daily exposed to danger, as that truly I dare not proceed through soe many insected partes without them: therefore I pray your honor, if I must goe for Muscoe, cause at least an interpreter, a minister, and a physician to be sent to me by sea to Hamburgh, and from Lubeck they may come by sea in three daies to Libo or Windaw, sea-ports in Courland, not above 12 Dutch miles hence. Your honor sees by the chanceler's letter, that its expected I should appeare with some of his highness's gentlemen with me; and I appeale to your honor's judgment, whether it sute with his highness to send unto soe great and stately a prince, on such an important affaire, one under a publick character not otherwise accompanied than only with hired servants to attend him. If at first I had beene sent an envoy, I should much more chearfully have soeaccepted it, for then I could have gone as obseurely as I would, without exception. I profess, I am soe sensible how much his highness's honor is concerned in my appearinge before the great duke in a handsome equipage, that I earnestly beseech your honor, I may be either soe sent, or revoked. If I could furnish my self with such men in these parts to accompany me, I would not trouble your honor to send them from England; but that cannot be done, though I would give never so much; besides, it would soon be noted in Muscoe, if I should take up strangers instead of English gentlemen; neither indeed are strangers willinge to goe with me unto Muscoe through soe many infected countries, in the winter tyme, as I must pass. And the truth is, the servants I have with me, findinge that I am thus retarded in infected places, begin to desire to be dismist, except I will leave this countrey, and returne for Hamburgh, or some other parte of Pomerania, seeinge its like to be so many monthes yet before I can go for Muscoe, if I be commanded unto it, and ennabled for it. I here inclose your honor a Dutch Romanca, sent me this day by the duke of Curland, which he received per post from the Hague. I suppose his highnes will think fit to take notice how strangely they seeke to possesse the worlde with their owne fictions to his detriment, as if indeed they had some designe in hand of quarrellinge, and therefore endeavour to make their neighbours believe they have cause given them for it. It remaines, that I returne my heartie thanks to your honor for your care of me, and promise not to cease, till I be sutably repaired by the senate of Hamburgh, who I hear have sent a notable smoothinge letter to his highnes, denyinge their arresting of my servant, and affirming their great and constant respect to his highnes in me; all which I shall prove to be most untrue, and themselves the veriest dissemblers on earth. I have writt your honor nothing but the truth concerninge them and the malignant English, whom they have countenanced, and shall be made good upon oath; but if their denying of the truth shall serve both their turne, I must not expect reparation for the grosse and intollerable indignities and affronts put upon me by them. I have staied the post a little to furnish my letter to the elector of Brandenburgh, of which I heere inclose a duplicate. I would not delay time, being in this juncture of affaires I hope it will be to the satisfaction of his highnes. I have returned thankes in his highnes's name to count Magnus de la Gard, whoe stands now on the borders of Muscovie with about 5000 good old souldiers. I heare not of any forces like to encounter him out of Muscovie or other places. Referring your honour to the more certain and fresher intelligence from Hamburgh, as I have ordered it, and earnestly entreating to speed your answer to theise, I affectionately profess my self
Mrs. Katharine Bradshaw to secretary Thurloe.
I MAKE bold to present unto your honor these lines, and therein my present estate and condition. The absence of my husband is not my only troble, though far removed, but in truth the danger of his life, in respect of the general infection of the country, where hee either hath been, or doth now reside, or is yet intended, is that which fills my heart with care for him; and the more, because hee hath not any person about him, that in case of sicknes, knowes to use meanes or physicke. I need not tell you how generally the infection is spread over Livonia, Lithuania, Curland, yea, and all Muscovia itselfe, the grand reason wherefore that the great duke could not bring his forces together this sommer. And when I consider these things, and how one of my husband's company, mr. Reignalds, is already dead, and that now, by the last letters, his secretary was fallen sick, it doth, you may well imagine, not a little perplex my mind with grief and feare; and my affection doth enforce me to become a suiter to your honor in this behalfe, that if it were possible hee might be recalled from this dangerous negotiation, which threatens so much perill to me and mine; but if my suit herein cannot be granted, then it is my earnest entreaty, and humble request, that hee might be furnished with some able and trusty physician, as also a man-cooke, and a chaplaine, but especially the two first. The company's ships are now preparing hither, and may be ready by the 8th of September; soe that if your honor please to grant my latter request, and not my first, here is an opportunity to effect it. I will not troble your honor with the reports of our enemies, nor their wageings, that my husband should never returne with life. I trust and hope in God, who knows how to turne their rage to his own praise; but surely they are much animated by the returne of mr. Townly hither, which sills the mouthes of all men, both Dutch and English, with scorn, contempt and railings against my husband; and hee boasting his release and full discharge in dispight of his accusers, doth make the stranger to laugh us to scorne; and the dishonor is soe great, that it will be impossible for my husband to serve his highnes in these parts, being rendred obnoxious to the contempt of the most vile amongst us. I will not question but your honor hath acquainted my husband how, and in what manner mr. Townly is discharged, and what his highnes pleasure is concerning him. I should be glad I might receve the honor of a few lines about it also: however, I doe beseech you againe, that you would please to pardon my importunity for the physician and coo lie desired, without which I know not how to quiet my mind, and will make me repine at his present negotiation; which will be an affliction to him. I hope your honor will candidly interprett the trouble of these lines, as proceeding from my tender care of my husband, and in him my selfe and children. I humbly present your honor with my service, together with your virtuous lady, and her lady mother; and I shall not presume to detayne your honor longer from your greate affaires, but assure you that I am
My husband doth not know of this conveniency of the shippes from London, or I believe he could have writ for some gentlemen to have accompanied him; but that, and all other needful things, is referred to your honor's consideration, upon this opportunity of shipping.
For news, the king findeth little resistance in Holstein; the Dane flieth before him. Field-marshal Wrangel hath cleared the shift of Bremen, except Bremesford, and hath ruinated above 3000 men in 14 days. All goeth not well in Poland.
A letter of intelligence from mr. Vernatti.
Now may I say, I beleeve, that Montmedy is yielded. The death of the governor, which happened not till the day before, did precipitate the necessitie of her fatal fitt. It is esteemed as it is a considerable loss, in respect as well of the opportunitie of her seate for convenient comers with Germany, as of relieve the hors heere received in that province by winter quarters; for Luxenburgh, which is the metropolitan of it, is helt to be of no force, to make any considerable obstacle against the course of a victorious army. Such is it indeed, being master of the field, and wee not able to denie itt. Itt went over upon tusday last; but as yet kept secret heere, so as I am not able to give you a particular account of the tearmes itt had; and you may heare itt is lyck from elswhere with more truth then this place will afford me. Our armle marches towards Auenne, hath a hundred and fifty wagons to attend her with provisions, either to serve her for a little while in a country, that of herselve can subminister no releeve, or that the number of combatants are proportionable to such a small convoy with necessaries. Tis verie lyck they cannot be greate in such a continued exigency of money, and ruinous condition of circumjacents; yett will they say to to have fifteen thousand hors and foote, with the returne of Conde's men from the chace, which they pretend to have ben upon in France, in one body together: that is the extreame of the moderat boasters. For a truth, I cannot affirm the quantitie; but believe not it to be so greate. There is no desein but to forme ours to the motions the French shall make, and to continue in the defensive posture in places where his countenance shall . . . us. C. continues in this place, because for want of money, the common disease, he is not able to stir from it. Both his brothers are in the armie with D. J. I came last night hither from Brugges, whither I was returned since my last to loock for newes from my children, and met with letter from colonel Blagg, that said, that the governour was not moved with his master's letters to part with them, without D. J. authoritie to make him. That there was no hopes for them to go to the camp, where he had hoped to do me the service he intended; and that therefore I must go or send; and that he did assure me of a good sucess in it. He is real, I believe, if I can judge of a man, and will accomplish me that good deed; but advises me to forbeare a day or two, till the armie is fixed, which is fleeting now, and that he will watch the opportunitie to do, or to make me to do what shal be required for the speediest release of my sons. He is a man of witt and worth, and not amongst the considents of court, and uses me with great indearements. I cannot conclude of any ends he hath of me, in hopes to receive the like good offices by me; but hath lett fall in no obscure tearmes the desire he hath to leave the unrestfull life he is in, and repratriat in the contry where he was borne. He sees it incline to peace, and under the wise rule, it is not subject to the alterations threatened by the wors ennemies itt hath; and he is in the right, though he has more art then sir Marmad. Langdel hath. Poore man, itt is no wayes correspondent to the reputation itt had: I mett with him att Dotson's, upon whom I went to bestow a visit att my last being at Brugges, to see whether I could serve you in ought; but it is, as I sayd first, he is of the excommunicated tribe, and cannot make his penny pas but with them of his owne seeling. He keeps as secretly as he can, nor can I heare of any correspondency besides the party named he hath: betweene them I see some plotting, but to what end, I cannot guess; in neither of them is any stock, that promiseth the least improvement. In a long conference we had, for my brother serving with a troop under him, inclined him to be acquainted with me, the result of many unconcerted propositions was, that my countrimen, if willing, were able to do the deed. I smiled att his conceit, and easily could demonstrat how unacountable itt was with both. The last of all was this, that if he were master of three hundred thousand pound sterling, that he was sure to mannadge the affaires of Charles Stewart to an indubitable good success. The ridiculous meanes were, with a navie in winter, when yours were forbid the sea, to waight about the north, and of a sudden come down to a place (he named not what) to take in the strength must serve to make the invasion, and forthwith land them there, the coast being of length enouch to surprize you where you did not expect itt. I may seeme to contrive a story of a man, that pretends but to reason; but I assure you 'tis true, and was delivered with earnest in the presence of Dotson, who seemed to applaud the good sense. I was ashamed to reply, but composing a sober face, I referred him to the story of Philip in 88, where preparations of a long time, and far a greater chardge, miscarried in one only accident of a hundred that he should meete. Dotson pretends to go for Holland, to practice compendious wayes for draining, if in that country they neede. The other stayes where he is, with a little acces to Hide for his interest in the north; both laughed at for theire cunninge, even by theire own factions.
The gentleman, mr. Crisp, they say coms to offers of ransom of one thousand or two thousand pounds. The report is of others. The demanders stand upon stiff tearmes, and need a greater sum to supply their riotous course. They drink and rore like beasts, and shew how unworthy they are of any the wast successes. There is not a man of note, that I heare of, in the whole crue. Some are colonels Morgan, Breame, Pamer, capt. Lindal, Loveles, Gilbreth and Goldling, who was neighbor to the gentleman, and is said to be author of the plot. The shallop stayes at Sluys, and they talck as if they meant to practise som more such prancks; but the warning is enouch to make others vary, and be fearfull too, if they regard their necks. I stay for nothing but the end of this unfortunate accident of the captivitie of my boys, to becom obsequious to your commands, when God sends itt, without any order to the contrary, which I will always preferr before my owne affections. I will make haste to kiss your hands. As to the provisions I need, I will make them as wel as I can, and with your permission, in the end draw them in a sum upon you. If som considerations should draw me to the armie this weeck, impute not to negligence, if you should have no word from me; for I intend not to write, except some moment oblidge me, and then all the privat interest shall be laid aside, that your true servant is capable of.
The king of Poland to the Dutch embassadors at Marienburg.
Illustres & magnifici, grate nobis dilecti, exponunt nobis gratitudinis vestræ per literas suas, vigesimâ quartâ Julii, Mariæburgi scriptas, nobis verò nuperrime redditas, quod celsi & præpotentes fœderati Belgii Ordines maximè tenentur desiderio pacis in hoc nostro Poloniæ regno constituendæ, eamque nobis pro suo nos optimo affectu suadent. Gratissima nobis est tam propensa in nos voluntas celforum & præpotentium fœderati Belgii ordinum, ac gratitudinum vestrarum in eâdem pace promovendâ indesessa cura & studium. Cæterum sicut nota est gratitudinibus vestris ex anterioribus nostris declarationibus nostra summa ad pacem propensio, ita non dubitamus gratitudines vestras de hâc re celsis & præpotentibus ordinibus perscripsisse. Nihil itaque in nobis desiderari potest, quod ad pacem faciendam pertinet, & nunc sine mora cum nostris confœderatis serenissimis Hungariæ & Daniæ regibus ac magno Moscoviæ duce conferemus de pace cum hoste communi faciendâ. Interim gratitudines vestras bene valere cupimus. Datæ in castris ad Cracoviam, die 12° mensis Augusti, anno Domini 1657, regnorum nostrorum Poloniæ IX Sueciæ verò X anno signatum erat.
A letter of intelligence.
I Suppose you hear of the little reputation the titular duke of York hath gotten, by having a small thing rendred unto him, that was garrisoned with 150 English, who have all listed themselves in his regiment. I hope things are better with you in England than they are here reported; which is, that major-general Lambert is raising men in the north against his highness, and the surprising of Hull; but I do not believe it.
Extracts out of the secret register of the resolutions of the H. and M. L. states-general of the United Netherlands.
The lords Schook, and others their H. and M. L. commissioners for the affairs of the sea, have reported, that their lordships, according to their resolution, of the 2d and 7th instant, had drawn up in writing some points and articles, to serve for the making of a treaty of accommodation, about the differences and misunderstandings risen in Brazile, Angola, the island St. Thomas, and elsewhere, under the district of the Octroy of the West-India company, between the crown of Portugal on the one side, and this state on the other; which points and articles being read in the assembly, and there being debate had about them, after some alteration made in them, the same are held concluded, and to be inserted in the instruction for the commissioner or commissioners which are to be sent, in the behalf of this state, to the king of Portugal; which instructions being also read in this assembly, shall be concluded, and the letters of credit, procuration, and all other dispatches for the effecting of the said commission, shall be forthwith made ready.
Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.
My lord Strafford, who, to my wonder, gave me a vissit, and desyred me to bringe him to kiss his highnes's hand, was twice there to doe it, ere he lest the towne; but not havinge admittance, desyred me to let his highnes know he was to performe his duty, which I really forgot to doe, and therefore humbly beg you to doe it.
I humbly beg, that the inclosed memorandum about a lease for mr. Standish may by your favour be drawne up into a letter, and signed by his highnes, and sent me to Dublin by the post. I have inserted thos words in the close, which I hope wil be sufficient for him, and not unfit for his highnes to send.
I have done all I could to perswade mr. Sharpe to accept of 100 l. to beare his charges, but he would not upon any termes. I therfore most earnestly desyer you, that that draft I left with you, for to confirme his brother in an office the council of Scotland gave him neere two years since, and which he now actually injoyes, and is not worth 25 l. yearely, may be signed by his highnes, and given him by your owne hand, which I know will much oblidge him; but I know too, unless you doe it of your selfe, he wil never open his mouth for it.
I pray sir, be not unmindfull of haveinge my lord Glencairne and my lord Lorne sent for into England; for theere they will be safer kept, and have less trinketinge; and I thinke they wil hardly have any man fit to head a party in the nation, if they two be kept safe. Indeed I thinke 'tis a thing of consequence, else I should not be so sollicitous.
I doe in the last place humbly desyre, that you would be pleased to get his highnes to signe a licence for my lord Marshall to goe from Newcastell into Scotland, and send it to general Monck, who (if he thinks it not fit to let him goe thither, upon good security) may keepe the licence; but if otherwise, may send it to him from Scotland to Newcastell, without any trouble. Be pleased to send the letter about the Spanish business to me, that I may deliver it, and pardon all the troubles, since 'tis necessity that makes me guilty of them, and that they are layde upon you by me, that duringe his life will never be other then,
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of the H. and M. lords states-general of the United Netherlands.
Was heard the report of the lords Huygens, and others their H. and M. L. commissioners for the affairs of France, according to their resolution of the 11th instant. They have communicated to the lord ambassador de Thou the letter of vice admiral de Ruyter, concerning the issue of the blocking up of the French ships in PortoSpecia. Also, having founded the said lord ambassador, whether he do pretend the restitution of the ship Regina, or will be contented with the true value thereof, that the said lord ambassador did return thanks to their H. and M. L. for the communication of the said letter; and, that he had undertaken to write about the ship Regina to the king his master, to know his mind about it. Whereupon being debated, it is resolved to expect the answer of the said king, about this last point.
Resolutions of the states-general.
After deliberation had, it is resolved herewith, to send monsr. Marcus du Tour, and monsr. Nicholas van Hove, or one of them that shall have most mind to it, as commissioner, in the behalf of this state, for Portugal, and to effect by the present government of that kingdom their H. and M. L. good mind and intentions comprehended in their resolutions of the 8th of October 1649, 27th January 1650, and the 2d instant; and monsr. Gilbert de Witt is appointed hereby to be secretary to the said lords commissioners. This commission shall be managed after the regulation agreed upon on the 9th of December 1651, for commissioners which shall be sent abroad in the behalf of this state; and the said de Witt, together with the lords commissioners, shall have so much allowed them per diem: and they are desired to make themselves ready for the voyage with as much speed as may be, without losing time.
The commissioners of the province of Friezland do adhere to their former declarations made in the affaires of the West-India company, protesting therewithall expresly against the said conclusion, and reserving to the lords their principals, to make such further insertions as they shall think fit.
Lockhart, embassador in France, to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your lordship,
I Have received your last of July 26th, and ame in some troble, that myn to your lordship have so often miscaryed; for since my comming from Paris, I have not miss'd to wrytt by every post, save one, when I was on my jorney betwixt Reims and Sedan. By my last two I gave your lordship an account of the state of affairs heare, which hath received no greatt alteratione since; only at a councell held upon the last Lord's-day it was resolved, that mr. Turein should march up to the enemy, and offer them battle; and should also endeavour, by all possible means, to gett betwixt them and the sea-cost: and if he could effectuatt neither of theise two, in that case he was ordered to make use of any other advantage should offer itself.
At an audience upon the saturday at night before (being animated by the just resentments expressed in your lordshipp's of July 13) I did in all the plainnesse and freedom remonstratt to his eminence the ill consequences, that were lyke to follow upon their delays; and told him, that the remissenesse of their procedure, in what concerned the keeping of their promises, did very much loose the affections of many persons of interest in England, who had hitherto always expressed great zeale for the alliance with France. He did heare me with much patience, and afterward vindicated himself from having been wanting in any thing that lay in his power; and promised, that he should prosecutte the main businesse with as much zeale, as if his own standing did wholly depend upon the successe of it.
When by his secretary he communicated to me (upon the sabbath-day at night) the resolutions that had passed in the councell, the secretary told me, his eminence hoped I would now beleeve him to be a man of his word. I answered him, that no body could have a higher esteem of his eminence then I always had; but I knew my master would expect, that their actions should answere their engadgements, as his own had done.
The cardinall hath been of late very melancholly, and often alone; the cause of it is not knowen; but it's conjectured, that the little intrigues of the court goe not off at that rate they were used to doe: besides, his majesty beginns to love a more free converse then he hath formerly been accustomed too; and the free accesse many hath to him, may at last prove a little dangerous. The cardinall received the news of my lord L—'s dismission, and of Sexby's imprisonment, as became one, who hath a great respect for his highnes. The Lord only can judge of the harts of men.
The commissaries, that are to receive the provisions at Calais, beginn their jorney thither this day. They cary ready mony with them for three parts of their pryce, the fourth part is layed 'till I have the honor to heare from your lordship about it: the reason of it is partly scarcity of mony, and partly ane esteem some have, that the goods are overvalued. The cardinall ordered the payement of the whole mony; but when I came to close the business with mr. le Tellier, I mett with such difficultys in it, as I was gladd to supercede the payment of the fourth part for a fortnight or three weeks; by which tyme I shall receive your further commands touching the particulars complained of, which are mark'd upon the account that came inclosed in your lordship's. In the mean tyme I dare engadge, that the interesses shall suffer no prejudice by that delay.
Charost, governor of Calais, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Since that you have been taking the air in the country with some ladies, expecting the taking of Montmedy, which you are to know is taken sooner than it would have been, if it had not pleased God to have removed the governor into another world; for he would have held it out to the last; and in dying he said, he would never surrender the place, nor capitulate: but it hath happened otherwise, the place is surrendered. For further particulars I referre you to your letters, from the court, which will inform you what our armies will undertake next.
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Received your's of the 28th and 30th of July, and returne you most humble thankes for the care you have had of the order I received, for fire and candle for the guards and garrisons; and I must crave your pardon for giving you of that trouble, which truly was a worke of such necessitie, that I know not to carry on businesse without itt, if itt had not been done speedily. I am glad to heare, that the officers of the army att their meetinges declare soe much affection to the present government, his highnesse, and familie. Mr. Downing came this afternoone hither. I have nothing else att present, butt that I am,
Dr. Tho. Clarges to secretary Thurloe.
I Was to wait on you the evening before I came from London, and the morning followeing; but your servant told me, you were so retired, that I could not have the opportunity to present my service to you as I desired, to receive your commands to Scotland: and since I have bin in this place, I have not thought fitt to let my letters divert your occasions, which I know to have bin more than ordinary of late; but at this time I hope you will not think me impertinent, if I am so bold to renue my suite to you, concerning the commissioner's place of the admiralty, in the vacancy of mr. Hopkins, of which his highnes was once pleased to give me some kind of promise upon a letter to him from my brother Monck; and I presume he is not altered in his intentions. I must confesse, I had so much unhappiness in my application, as to move at such a time, when matters of the greatest consequence, that ever were in these nations, were in agitation; which made me unwilling to trouble his highnes with my importunity, allthough he commanded me sometimes to wait upon him; so that I must now relye upon your favour, to convey this to me. And I am therefore so bold to intreate you to be so kind to put his highnes in mind of my pretences, and let me have the honour to receive his answere to them, which will be a civility I have no other title to, then your own promise at Whitehall, when I sometimes moved you to this purpose; and whatever the result be, it will not be unwellcome to,
Col. Bamfylde to secretary Thurloe.
I Have obey'd your commands in signing the enclosed paper; which (if you had soe pleased) would not have been very needfull, after the promise I made you of never returning hither without your privity and leave. I shall likewise observe your order with all possible diligence, of repayring into Germany; in which I muste be unhappily obstructed 12 dayes at Paris, for want of my bills being drawne at sight, which at this conjuncture will be tyme ill loste. I wish it could be rectifyed; and then I would quit Paris within three dayes of my arrivall. I goe hence with harty and syncere affections, and refolutions to serve you, and will preserve them 'till you absolutely reject me: and if thereby I shall ever be constrayned to vary from these intentions, I dee promise you moste faithfully, that I will be soe juste both to you and myselfe, as to let you know it freely; for I will never deceave you willingly, either in what's publique, or that relates to your owne particular. Pray, sir, be pleased to send but one messenger with mee, whose expences, I protest, I am not possibly able to bear. I am,
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
I Am now with your honor's of the 10/20th July, not doubtinge but by this tyme mine of the 17th, with coppies of the chancelor of Russia's letters to me, with my answer to it, and an inclosed to his highnes is come safe to your hands, with my followinge letters of the 20th and 25th, with inclosed duplicates thereof, the poltes beinge soe uncertaine, as that I am forced to give you the trouble of coppies, as at present of the coppie of my last; which I hope your honor will soe take into your consideration, as that I may, in the course of the post, sind the good effect thereof, in either beinge sutably sent to the great duke, or recalled. The more I consider of that letter from the chancelor, and the present condition of the king of Sweden, the more I am consirmed, that his highnes will not judge it meet to command my proceedinge for Muscovie, before the success of the present Swedish and Danisli forces on soote to be knowne; which probably will be ere theise come on, beinge so neare each other (as the last letters from Hamburgh mention) as that they cannot long forbeare giveinge battle. Is the king of Sweden mould prove victorious, I could not carrie a stronger argument with me to prevaile with the great duke for peace; but is otherwise, I doubt my goeinge to him will be to little purpose. Meethinkes, I see a providence in it, that I should be thus unexpectedly kep: up, either tendinge to the more facilitatinge of the worke if I goe, or to ground a good reason of my revocation.
Your honor will observe, that the chancelor presseth much for the inserting of that arrogant expression, is not blasphemous, of self-uphoulder, in the great duke's title, together with lord of east, west, and north; which I question whether his highnes will thinke sitt to give him; nor was it given by mr. Prideaux, as the chancelor untruly affirmes; for since I found and perused a coppie of the letter sent me by the Muscovia company; and surely, is the title be not given him to a syllable, as he hath set it downe, I beleeve he will dispute againe, and not admitt me without it, and that to the full; especially is he heare, that the Danish warr succeeds against the king of Sweden.
The duke of Courland, by reason of the insection, lest Mittav, the same day I did, and is now, as I heare, at Liboe, one of his sea-ports, 12 or 14 Dutch miles distant from this: place, and removes from place to place, to oversee and settle the affaires of this country; but as soon as I can learn certainly where he is, I will goe unto him about the business your honor writes of, and give you an account what can be done therein. I shall be glad to doe the service to the state in that particular, tho' I have beene unhappie in my former endeavours in that kind, through some secrett abuse whereever it was; and I beleeve it will be found to have been nearer home than Hamburgh, if ever the truth appeares; I mean the business of powder; but if this duke will undertake to furnish you with considerable quantities of those comodities, it will be worth the while to send men of your owne to manage the businesse. I am very much satisfied and obliged by your honor's kind expressions in this and your former letters, wherein you are pleased to assure me of your readyness upon all occasions, to give me reall testimonies of your favorable regard of me; which I humbly thank you for. I shall endeavour to preserve myself in your good opinion, and to testifie upon all occasions my readiness to serve you, wishinge I had never been forst by those ill-natured and ungratefull men at Hamburgh, to have troubled your honor and my other good friends, as I have done.
I have signified to count Magnus de la Guard the reason of my detention in theise parts, and desired him to acquainte his majestie of Sweden therewith, that he judge not the delay to proceed from any command of my master, or neglect of my owne. The Grave knowes very well, that it's usual with the great duke, to dispute about his large title, when he hath a mynde to delay time, and prolonge business.
I hope I shall be able to continue here in safetie, 'till his highnes's pleasure come, as to my proceedinge or returninge, being very much respected by the duke; which I presume will not be forgot. I am,
A letter of intelligence.
Mr. Wiliam Nut,
Here is news, but I do not yet believe it, that the Poles have beaten Ragotzky, and forced him to meet dishonorable conditions; so that he must not only desert the Swede, but become his enemy, by joining with the Poles against him.
An intercepted letter of lord Craven to sir W. Vane.
The ships of these people, that were in arrest in France, are not yet released. Admiral Opdam went this day to Helvoetsluys, and with the first good gale he goeth to sea. The Swedes and Danes are within three hours of each other. Suddenly there will be a push for it, according to the success of which, the one or the other will be ruined without recovery. The Swedes are 12000 strong at least; they lodged a while before the gates of Hamburgh, and marched away the next day towards Holstein. They have beaten 20000 Danes, and that king and his army forced to retreate deeper into the country. There is an apprehension here, that general Montagu's fleet is designed for that coast. The admiral of this state was going in all hast to sea; but 'tis probable he may be stayed for a while. The ship said to have brought such a mass of money hither from the Canaries, proves to have had in her but 150,000 pieces of eight. It is said here, the English have taken a ship on the coast of Spain, coming from thence with betwixt two or three hundred thousand pounds; which troubleth them of Amsterdam.
W. Somervaile to his cosin major John Somervaile, at Edinburgh.
I Am very glad, that you did remove from this place so soon as you did; for the truth is, your enemyes here had diverse wayes layd to have one affront or other put upon you, worse than the first you had received, and was very mad, that you was gone so unexpected; and they did not stand to let me know so much, and that I should find the smart of it for your cause; which made me to advise with some, that desired me to make them beleeve, that I had a warrant from his highnes to apprehend such and such persons; which, after I had let them know of it, they were afraid, and are now a little more quiet. Yet I am informed of two, that are shortly come to this place from beyond seas, that goe after diverse names, and are so bold, that they very much frequent Whitehall; which I beleeve, if I might be at a little charges with one, who is very intimate with them, I might by this means discover somewhat, which will be worth the taking notice of. However, while I hear from you, I will be very diligent to observe those commands you laid upon me; and shall still continue,
Peter Holme of Newport-street, in the parish of Martin's in the Fields, in the county of Middlesex, gent. examined this 5th day of August 1657, saith as followeth.
That he being at Hampton-court, on saturday last with his wife, in order to have delivered a petition to his highness, he met at a tavern, called the Toy, near Hampton-court, a person, named (as he informed the examinant) Thomas Gardiner; who offering to sup with this examinate and his company that night, he so did at the place aforesaid, the lady Crosby, mrs. Bickerton, and the examinate's wife being also there. And there being but two lodgings in the house free, they agreed, that the three women should lodge in one of them, and the examinate and the said Gardiner in the other. And on the next day, being the Lord's-day, the examinate asking the said Gardiner, whether he would go to church ? he refused it, saying, he was of another church, or to that effect. And lodging again with him that night, the said Gardiner did on monday morning rise about 5 of the clock, walking near the doore, 'till the examinate came down; and espying his highness standing at the lord deputy's door, the said Gardiner moved, that they might go see his highness: who going after into his coach, the said examinate went within 3 or 4 yards of the coach, throwing his cloak on his shoulder, and using to the examinate words to this effect, My lord (meaning his highness) is so thick, that sure he wears a coat of mail, so that no pistol can pierce him. During all which time he espied no pistol to be about the said Gardiner, only that he wore a stilletto in his pocket. That after dinner, his highness being gone to London, the examinate and the said Gardiner, and the rest of the said company took a boat, and went also; and coming together to mr. Bickerton's lodgings in Bedford-street, the said Gardiner flung off his cloak, and thereupon the said lady Crosby espied a pistol in his pocket; which he taking forth, the said Gardiner pulled out another; both which he said were charged, and that they cost him fifty shillings, being both scrued pistols. After which the said examinate departed, leaving the said Gardiner with mr. Bickerton. And he further saith, that the last night, about 9 of the clock, the said Gardiner, with the said mrs. Bickerton, came to this examinate's lodging (he being then in bed with his wife); and being let in, the examinate asked him, where he had been so late? who answered, that he just then came out of James's Park. The said mrs. Bickerton also saying, that she then had met him coming thence, the said Gardiner having his pistols then about him, as the examinate verily believes, his pocket making a swoop against the stool where he sate. And this morning being informed by the examinate's wife, that the said Gardiner was in the Stone-gallery at Whitehall, he communicated the former passages to mr. Rolt; and upon the examinate's making known his person, the said Gardiner was forthwith apprehended. And he further saith, that while he was at Hampton-court asking the said Gardiner what business he had there ? he answered, not much; or to that effect.
The information of Margaret Holme, the wife of Peter Holme, of Newport-street, in St. Martin's parish, in the county of Middlesex, taken this 5th of August 1657.
Who saith, That on saturday last this informant went to Hampton-court with her husband, the lady Crosby, and mrs. Bickerton, with intent to deliver their several petitions to his highness; and being come thither, first mrs. Bickerton in the park delivered her petition going into the gate of the house; this informant delivered her petition to his highness hard by the bowling-green by the gate before his highness came upon the bridge; after whom, a little nearer the house, the lady Crosby delivered her petition. After which this informant with my lady Crosby, mrs. Bickerton, and the informant's husband went towards their lodging to the Toy near Hampton-court; and com ing into that house, in the kitchin, this informant observed a gentleman, a stranger, who was called Thomas Gardiner, fitting at a table smoaking tobacco, and a glass of wine, with a pint and a half pint pot of wine before him, who invited this informant, with the rest of her company, to accept of a cup of wine, being come out of the cold, which they drank round. And there being at fire a small breast of mutton for this informant's supper with the rest that came with her, this gentleman desired to sup with them, and came in and they supp'd together. After supper this informant with her friends went to their chamber, where was two beds prepared for them. The lady Crosby and mrs. Bickerton seeming unwilling to have this informant's husband a-bed in the said chamber, notwithstanding he being in bed he arose, and got leave to lie with the gentleman stranger, who supp'd with them before, the which the said gentleman admitted him to. The Lord's-day being come, this informant's husband ask'd the said gentleman, if he would go to church? who answered him, no, he was not of that church, but that he was a Roman-catholick. All that day they observed the said gentleman's carriage to be civil and inoffensive. On monday morning the said gentleman rose by five of the clock; and being ask'd by this informant's husband, wherefore he arose so early ? he said, to go and view the park, and the house, and went out. About 9 o'clock this informant with the other gentleman of her company standing at the gates of the Toy to see his highness pass, the said gentleman came up near to that side of the coach where his highness sat; and the coachman driving speedily away, the gentleman came not nearer than within three yards of the coach before the coach was driven away. After which this informant coming with her company for London in a boat, the gentleman came in the same boat with them; all which time neither this deponent nor any of her said company observed any arms that he had about him; but coming to mrs. Bickerton's lodgings (which is in Bedford-street in Convent-garden, a corn-chandler's) the said gentleman casting off his cloak, lady Crosby spying a pistol-head out of his pocket on his left side, she snatched it out, saying, why ho'now, what do you with this weapon ? Whereupon he presently drew out another pistol, and presented it to the lady, with these words, Have at you, madam. Whereupon the said lady replied, Nay, sir, if you be at that work, (presenting the pistol at his breast) have at you, sir. Whereupon he said, madam, take heed, do no harm, for they are charged. The said lady replied, How dare you, sir, carry such weapons, they are unlawful, put them away. These passages being observed by this informant's husband, he came to her the said informant, saying, Peggy, I am sorry we have hit into such a person's company, he being, I apprehend, some dangerous person; saying further, that I call to mind this morning (which was monday) this gentleman ask'd me at Hampton-court the same day, whether I thought his highness had a mail coat on or not ? to which I answered, I knew not, but that I thought he might do well in wearing one for his own security, he having many enemies; whereupon this informant, with her husband and the lady Crosby lest mrs. Bickerton and the said gentleman, and came away. Yesterday night (being tuesday) the said gentleman came to this informant's lodgings about nine o'clock in the evening, this informant and her husband being in bed, he having his pistols about him, as this informant observed upon his sitting down; and this informant's rising out of her bed, let in the said gentleman and mrs. Bickerton; whereupon this informant's husband ask'd the said gentleman from whence he came so late ? he answered from St. Jame's Park. This deponent's husband asking him, whether the park-gate was open at that time of night? he answered yes, I came from thence now: and having a little while staid in the said lodgings, after drinking one cup of ale, this informant parted. Hereupon this informant with her husband resolved to come and declare what she had seen and observed.
The French embassador to the states-general.
J'ay creu, qu'il estoit de mon devoir, de ne me contenter pas de presenter à monsieur le president de l'assemblée la lettre, que sa majesté vous escrit, & dont vous venez d'entendre la lecture; mais de l'apporter moy-mesme en cette audience, à fin de confirmer à vos seigneuries avec plus de solemnité des asseurances de la sincere & royale affection, que sa majesté a pour vostre-dit estat en general, & pour toutes les illustres parties, qui le composent en particulier.
Vous voyez, messieurs, quelle genereuse inquietude sa majesté a tesmoignée, quand elle a appris, que ses ordres n'avoyent pas esté executez avec cette promptitude & cette diligence, que la prudence de son conseil avoit resolu; & avec quelle severité elle veut, que l'on agisse contre les particuliers, qui peuvent avoir contribué à ce retardement, & avoir touché quelque argent, au préjudice de ses commandements, & de ses deffences.
Mais comme par tous ces soins, & par le contenu de la lettre de sa majesté, il ne peut plus rester aucune scrupule dans vos esprits, qu'elle n'aye pour agreeables & ne confirme bien authentiquement toutes les choses, dont je suis demeuré d'accord avec messieurs vos deputez; il me ne reste plus, qu'à exhorter vos seigneuries, de vouloir de vostre part contribuer à restablir la confiance, en levant au plustost ces deffences, qui retardent & interrompent le cours du commerce de vos subjects: car comme l'amitie ne se nourrit & ne s'entretient, que par des offices reciproques d'une mutuelle correspondence, il est impossible, qu'elle arrive à sa perfection, si de part & d'autre il n'y a un concours des soins & de diligences pour se subject.
Or, comme sa majesté n'oublie rien de sa part pour achever cet ouvrage, elle se promet aussy de vos prudences, que vous ne vous laisserez pas vaincre dans cette belle emulation, & qu'en toutes occasions elle recevra des marques & de vostre affection, & de vostre reconnoissance.
Mais comme l'office d'un bon & sincere amy n'est pas seulement, de donner en une simple occasion des marques de sa bonne volonté, mais generalement en toutes rencontres, sa majesté, qui veille incessamment pour le bien & l'advantage de ses alliez, ne peut s'empescher de vous temoigner le déplaisir, qu'elle a de voir, que vous soyez prests d'entrer en guerre avec la couronne de Portugal.
C'est pourquoy elle m'a commandé de passer auprès de vos seigneuries le mesme office, qu'elle a fait auprès de la reyne regente de ce royaume, dont elle attend à toute heure les resolutions, qu'elle ne doute pas de voir estre conformes à ses bonnes intentions, puis qu'elles vont à luy procurer la paix, & à la reconcilier avec vostre estat; dont elle peut recevoir beaucoup de mal dans une guerre, & au contraire beaucoup d'avantage dans un accommodement de justice & de raison.
Mais je crois n'avoir pas besoin de representer à vos seigneuries, qui sont très-seavantes dans la connoissance de leurs interests, que celuy de vostre estat en cet occasion est, que le different se termine plustost par un accommodement, que par une guerre, comme seroit celle-cy, dont les evenements sont tousjours doubteux & incertains, puisque non-seulement on a à combattre contre ses ennemis, mais encore contre les vents & les tempestes, qui ont souvent ruiné de grandes & puissantes armées, sans coup ferir; & que dans un accommodement vous y pourrez trouver des guarants de tel dignité & authorité, qu'il ne vous sera pas permis de pouvoir doubter de la seureté des choses, qui seront resolues & accordées.
Je ne puis aussy finir cette audience, sans vous convier & requerir avec le mesme esprit, de la part du roy mon maistre, de vous entremettre, pour appaiser la presente guerre de Dennemark, & pour ce subject de joindre une mediation à celle de sa majesté, qui a esté agrée par les deux roys; lesquels estants dans son alliance, sa majesté croiroit manquer au devoir d'un bon amy & confœderé, si elle n'alloit au-devant, & ne se mettoit en peine d'éteindre dans sa naissance un feu, dont l'embrasement se peut étendre jusques à ses voisins.
C'est de quoy, messieurs, j'ay ordre du roy mon maistre, de vous faire une très-forte
& très considerable instance; & pour mon particulier, je vous prie d'estre persuadez,
qu'en toutes les choses que j'auray à traiter avec vos seigneuries sur ces rencontres, vous
trouverez en moy cette mesme franchise & sincerité, que sa majesté demande & desire de
ceux, qui ont l'honneur d'estre chargez de l'execution de ses ordres & de ses commandements. Fait à la Haye ce Jeudy 16 d'Aoust 1657. Signé,
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Received two letters from you concerning capt. Rosse's commissaries place of Dumfreize and Kircudbright, and am sory there should bee such unhandsome dealings, to putt an honest man out of his place, knowing that hee was a freind of mine, that they should offer to doe itt, being he is a man, that hath deserved soe much from the state as hee has done. But wee hearing of itt, hee had a commission under the privie-seal during his good behaviour, which the councell granted before the other; which if you acquainted his highnesse with, and how much he hath deserved from the state, I beleive his highnesse would not recall; for truly hee has been as serviceable to mee in giving intelligence, and apprehending of rogues, that noe man that I know in Scotland butt one like him, and never received any salary or incouragement for his paines; and now to be putt out of his place in this unhandsome way; and if you please to prepare his highnesse with itt, to lett him know soe much, his councill heere will speedily write to his highnesse about this, and one or two more that have bin given away in the like kinde; which is all I can advise you to doe in this businesse: but I hope his highnesse will bee so favourable to his councill heere, and to the honest gentlemen, that are putt in, some of them by speciall order from himself, and continued by order under the privie-seal, that hee will continue them: and truely I think they have abused his highnesse and councill heere in procuring those orders for putting out these honest men. I remayne
The councill have given an order, that these gentlemen's commissions may nott be passed by the judges of the exchequer heere under the great-seale, till his highness's further commands bee knowne: and truly by the lawes of the land, they having itt before under the privie-seale, the gentlemen cannot bee putt out, unlesse some thinge be proved against their good behaviour, being they have their commissions during their good behaviour.