A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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February (2 of 4)
A letter of intelligence.
Monsieur de Marsin est de retour de Bruges fort satisfait du roy d'Ecosse. Je ne scay pas, quel dessein ils ont, mais asseurement ils en ont un pour l'este prochain, auquel ils esperent de trouver des grandes facilites, selon les intelligences, qu'ils ont d'Angleterre, d' ou je vous asseure, qu'ils recoivent des lettres tous les ordinaires par la voye de France et de Hollande.
Lockhart to Thurloe.
May it please your honor,
I Have sadd apprchensions, that your indispositione mentioned in mr. Morland's may have continued or increased upon you, especially since the last post broght me no account of your health. I pray God, my fears may be disapoynted, and that next may give me the happynesse to heare of your being as well as your servant can wish you.
I have at my two last audiences this week broght the businesse of Dunkirk to neare a close, as mons. de Brienne and mr. Lion are to receive their commission upon monday to conclude and syn. I ame affrayed the conditions will not answer all your desyers, and yett to gett things broght to the state they are in, I have used all the precautions and little industries I can pretend too, and mett with so many variations and alterations in their propositions, as I may really say I was many tyms tempted to the design.
His eminence is still afflicted with the gout; that and his sorrows for the losse of his sister and niece hath broght him so low, as it's too visible to all, that have the honor to see him, his indispositione is not pretended but reall. The pope's nuntio is very busie, hath often accesse to q. France, upon whose biggott zeale its feared he may at last gain too greatt a prevalency. The consideratione of the great alteratione will be in the state of affaires here, if the cardinall's indispositione shall increase, with it's being more than probable, that it Spain be not kept hard to it in Flanders he will land an army in to England; and the season being so far spent as you will hardly have convenient tyme for your pre pa ra ti ons, hath made me give way to some things, that otherwyse I would have stood upon; but withall I have not been unmyndfull of my instructions. The particulars will be of lenth, and must either be sent in cyphers, or sent by ane express, which so soon as they shall have a conclusione, I shall rather inclyn too.
I hope by the next to receive your order concerning the le vy mo ney. I believe you may now think on the choice of your o ff i c e rs; it will exceedingly concern you, that to the very meanest of them they be persons of extraordinary con fi d e n ce and valor. Your pretence of the le vie, may be for Jamaica or Cadiz, but I justly deserve your censure for trobling your honor with my foollish opinions in particulars, that will be much better adjusted by that discretione, which waits on all your cownsells.
Sir, I have been much pressed to engadge, that his highness shall assist France, in case of it's being invaded by the emperor. I was so putt to it in this particular, that I had no refuge lest me but this generall, that if the emperor broke the treaty of Munster, it would be fitt to enter into as strict a league against him, as could be aggreed on; and it would be absolutely necessary to engadge as many German princes in it, as was possible; and urged that these princes would be ever jealous of the emperor's greatnesse, and glad to begg the protectione of England and France upon his breaking the aforesaid treatty; but if they sound, that England and France stood already ingadged by a treaty to joyn their forces against the emperor, they would prove sick of that disease naturall to all princes, which is to be willing to see their enemys opposed at the expense and hazard of others. And being asked, if I thoght the duke of Saxe, Brandeburg, and prince elector would enter into any such confederacy ? I answered boldly, I thoght they would, and was oblydged to say so, least they should have been jealous, that what I sayd before did proceed from a desyer to temporize and elude the propositione. They are now very earnest upon a new overture, and would have delayed the affaire touching Flanders, till I had received your commands concerning the last overture. I did absolutely refuse to wryte in it upon these tearms; and assured them, I would meddle with no new businesse, till I knew your last thoghts in the first; but howsoever I think it my dewty to acquaint your honor with the propositione, which is this; If France thinks it convenient to make pe a ce with Spain, France shall assist England with a considerable number of men to be aggreed upon, or a sum of mony equivalent, during all the time the protector shall continue the war with Spain; and the same assistance is reqwyred from you in the contrair case. I am forced to give your honor short and confused hints of theise things, by reason I have spent most of this day with Brienne and mr. Li on in debaiting the particular pay of the severall off i c ers, and was kept so late, that it's now near two o'clock in the morning. I ame,
The postmaster's forgetfullness of former directions is the cause, that I have received in one week two of your letters, whereof the last was of this month; and both being to the same effect, I make this one answer unto them, that the commodities you mention being not permitted, nor the persons without danger that bring them, a place near unto or upon the frontiers of Liege would be as the most convenient, and out of the way, so the most secure; and such I conceive to be Namur or Huy. Let me know, if you approve of it, and accordingly you shall hear further from me; but by no means think of Antwerp.
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland.
The bearer John Laffau pretends, that he is very able to discover any design, which the Irish may have in Connaught; and findinge that he hath a certificate from my lord Broghill and others, I have ventured to give him a pass, and directed him in case of any intelligence to acquaint your lordship with it. I have given him some money; and in case he be able to doe any service, I shall let him have more according to his merit. I rest
The Dutch embassadors in Denmark to Ruysch.
Our last to your lordship was of the 14th instant; since the lord resident of Sweden hath produced and delivered a further power drawn up in very large and satisfactory terms, and doth desire to have a conference about the same. The said power is dated, as we are truly informed, upon the 21st of December old-stile. This king maketh account to have the states to meet precisely upon the 23d instant; and in regard the same is at hand, and that special notice will be taken in all their deliberations (as the lords chief ministers do still inform us) of the intention and resolution of their H. & M. L. concerning what we advised in our former letters about the present consilia of this crown: wherefore it is earnestly expected and desired here, to receive some fundamental information concerning the same; and they do speak to us from post to post about it; but in regard we have no answer, and that we are not advertised, whether the least reflection be made by their H. & M. L. we want means to perform the service of their H. & M. L; and they begin to shew here a doubtfulness, which if it be not suddenly removed, may chance to cause an alteration of designs. And although his majesty and his ministers are minded, animated, and do remain so as we have written, and do seem to be persuaded more and more of the necessity and usefulness of strong consilia, yet they do clearly give to understand, that unless their H. & M. L. will set their hands to work, the crown will also sit still, and hearken to a treaty. And therefore we are told, that by this post reiterated orders are sent to the lord Charisius, to desire overture of their H. &. M. L. intentions concerning the same; that so they may be informed here against the said assembly of the states at Odenzee, what their H. and M. L. do intend to do. We find, that the persuasions about the same one way or other will do very much, either to advance or delay what they intend here, and will be a means to bring on the treaty with Sweden, or wholly to decline the same. In the mean time they do what they can by the lord Rosenwinge, to encourage Dantzick, in regard they begin to be troubled more than formerly for the said city.
We are desired to propose to their H. and M. L. that the king will stand in need, for the furthering of his levies both by sea and land, of some land-officers and seamen out of the United Netherlands; and that his majesty would gladly see, that the request to that end made on his behalf be granted by their H. & M. L.
An intercepted letter.
Yours of 19/29 Jan. I answered the 1/11 current since none came from you. Every evening am I for many late days tired with diligent labours in my affairs; and when of late (with good authority) at Bruges to bring thence to Ghent all the goods in process, means was found by the adverse party and the king of England (as is said) to stay the remove of the goods six days time. Interim strong endeavours have been employed in Brussels to procure authority for stay of the goods in Bruges, contrary to the will and command of the lords of Ghent. And the lords of Flanders have commanded those of Bruges, to let be brought to Ghent all the goods on pain of fifty guilders to be paid by every one of them to the king's use. And this hour we wait the success, whether the goods shall come to day or not. God will ordain what shall be. In haste I conclude,
Resident Sasburgh to the states-general.
H. and M. Lords,
My lords, in my last I advised your H. & M. L. that here was an express arrived from Spain. Since I have heard, that he hath brought news, that those of the church in Spain have contributed eight millions to help carry on the war; and he hath brought express order to cause those of this country to contribute likewise. Those of Antwerp desire, that the jesuits may pay for the time to come; and if they refuse it, that they be extirpated as pernicious men, who make no other profession but to incorporate and engross all to themselves.
They have advice here, that the king of Sweden hath received four millions of guilders from the crown of France. That the king of Denmark is making great preparations of war both for sea and land; and that he hath already an army of 10000 men, and within a short while will have a far greater number; and that he will demand restitution of the crown of Sweden of those places, which belong to Denmark, and which are now in the possession of the Swedes.
Mr. William Birde to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your honnour, that my last was in Dezember, wherein breifly gave an accompt of affaires heere; and though I doubt not but that our confull doth it largly by every packett, yet in obedience to your honnors comands, I presume in these to acquainte you with what of importans came lately from Spaine, where that counfell endeavours to worke out by pollicy and bloody (though darke) designes what force cannot effect. To which ende (there is secrett intelligens) that they have bin tamperinge with persons in power heere, that kinge sendinge grants to some for them to sett downe what titles of honnor they please to accept or annuall gratuity they will receive; upon what prepounded as to the betrayinge this kingdome, the earle of Sure Dom John de Costa, generall of all the forces in this country, was one, unto whom these great proffers were made, which (as is reported) he discovered in the counsell of warr; and the 16th of this instant returninge here from court in his coach (though well accompanied with servants) yet two cavalheers on horsebacke came behind him, his coach beinge glazed, and discharged at his heade and backe two blunderbusses laden with bulletts, which tore his coach all to peices, and, as God would have it, at that pressent he was layd downe in the sayd coach to ease his wounded leg, by which means miraculously escaped an eminent danger, the persons not to be found, though strickt dilligens is used thereabouts. It's to be feered persons of honnor are ingaged in this soe secrett a designe, which argues the Spaniards ernest and close endeavours for the subvertion of this kingdome, where he well knowes the gentry are too ambitious and envious against one another; and it's to be feered he hath too many freinds amongst them. The earle of Miras power is much envied, though he acts with much pollicy and discretion; and if his cholericke disposition put noe demurr in the proceedings of affayres, they will goe well. He hath and doth dayly shew his readines to comply with the articles of peace. The freedome of these ports will bee of much importans unto our fleete for a recruite after bad weather, at which the Spaniard is much enraged, and endeavour he will to prevent itt. I presume the confull hath given an accompt upon what grounds they heere deferred publishinge the peace, which they say all desire may be done, and the articles rattified in this king's name, though the contrary is knowne; for I understande from a person of honnor, that they are affrayd to doe it, seeringe the inquisition and clergy, who are generally of the Spanish faction, and wold be glad to lay hold on any occasion to put the people in an uproare. They hope his highnes will mitigate the articles in dispute at mr. Meadowe's beeinge heere; but what grounds they have for such hopes not knowne.
The fleete in Spaine (which will not passe 25 to 30 sayle) will speedily be ready to depart for the West-Indyes (where the face of assayres begins to looke with a sad countenans, as they write, for want of recruites) but I hope ours will prevent them. Colunia is the place designed for their returne; but I question not, but there will be a tymely prevention for there hindrans. In what I may be any wayes serviceable unto your honnor, may please to command me, who am
Mr. Tho. Maynard, consul at Lisbon, to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your honour,
A FRIEND of myne brought me a letter this very instant, which he received this morninge by way of Pharo; a coppy of the intelligence exprest in that letter goeth hereunder verbatim.
For newes, although my laste told you, that our preparations for the West-Indies did cease, there is now all dyligence possible used to sett out all the ships wee are able. Here is lately arryved a Hollander from the Canaries, that brings two packetts, one for the kinge, another for the duke de Medina Cely, which packetts came to the Canaries by two ships, that arryved there lately from Porto Rico with four hundred and fifty great barrs of silver, part of what was saved out of the Almirante de Galiones, which was lost last year in the Indias; which shipes come loaden with hydes, sugar, and logwood, and bringe certain advyse, that the Nova Spania fleete winter in Vera Crux, and will not come from thence, till an armada goes from Spain to convoy them home. Upon which the kinge hath given express order, that all the ships in Cadiz shall be made ready with all expedition, and the duke de Medina Cely assists in person at the Caraxas for the speedy caryinge on of this worke.
Consul Maynard to secretary Thurloe.
I HERE withall sende a duplicate of my laste to your honour; which wente by the Roebuck packet boate, that departed from this place sixteen days since. The 14th present here came in a merchant ship from Tituan in Barbary, whoe came out of that porte in company of general Blake's fleete, where they ridd all the laste storme. He leste the whole fleete three dayes since betwixt cape St. Marie's and Cadiz, unlesse the Worster frigott, which was here, and departed the 16th present towards the fleete, and two other frigotts, which were gonn farther into the bay. The fleete are all well, notwithstanding it was confidently reported here, seaven frigotts were loste in the laste greate storme; which reporte was risen by some dissaffected persons of our nation. They are in a very good condition since the arrivall of the victuellers. Captain Adams in the Maideston frigott mett a West-India ship, which came from St. Domingo loaden with Varina tobacko, hydes, and caccau, which hee tooke neare the south cape. The shipe is now with the fleete, which general Blake intends to sende for Ingland, as I am informed, but the goods are for the moste parte distributed into severall frigotts. I hope they will meete more of them. What intelligence the generall hath gotten by this ship, I know not, beeinge noe letters came from him since that reencounter. All the provitions general Blake hath had from this kingdome hath hitherto paide custome, which might be saved, if your honour please to give an order to aske it of the queen, for it was graunted to the enemies of the commonwealth, when they were here, and I am sure it will not be denyed his highnesse fleete. There will be monyes saved other wayes by buyinge wynes at the tyme of yeare when they are cheapest: and otherways, if your honour please to lett me have the mannaginge of this businesse, I will be faithfull in it, and husband all things for the benefit of the commonwealth. A merchant of this citty, whose name is mr. Amory, hath the ordering of the provitions by the generall's commission.
I have certinge intelligence from Cadiz, that the Spaniard is providinge but eight shipes in all, which he intends to sende for the West-India, if they can escape the fleete under the command of general Blake. They have noe intent to fight; neither are they in a condition to doe it, and whatever intelligence your honour may have, that they are preparinge a great fleete, you may please to give little credit to it, for I have my intelligence from a good hand, and am sure it will not deceive me. I cannot get any certinge intelligence, when the Nova Spania fleet will be home. By way of Pharo from St. Lucar I am advised, that September will be the soonest they will come; but a Portuguez that came very lately from Cadiz sayd, they are expected dayly, and tis supposed they will goe for some parte of Galitia or Biskey; but this is but the reporte of the vulgar. The common people are much discontented in Spaine, especially the merchant, for wante of trade, and that his highnesse fleete lies so longe before thire harbours.
The Spainard is rysinge all the land forces they are able, to fall on this kingdome; and here is a jealousy amongst themselves, that all are not loyall to the queen, which invites the kinge of Spaine to come in person to the frontiers. The queen hath intelligence, that his lodgings are preparinge in Merida, a fronter towne, and not in Badajoz, as my laste informed your honour. Here are some preparations makinge for defence, and the country people are unanimous, but the nobillity are divided and discontented, but what is moste to be feared is the clergy, because the pope will not confirme thire bishops; and 'tis too aparent, the inquisition affects the Spaniard more then the present governours.
Aboute two or three dayes hence will departe from this place a Dutch ship for 158 on whome will embarke the person I formerly imployed, and with him I sende an Inglish merchant, whose name is 96 20 66 31 20 96 39 30 2 22 50 21 30 75. He hath lived sixteen yeares in that place, and is very well acquainted there; he goes purposely to make a full agreement with a freind, whome I have ordered to meete me at Pharo, if possible. Mr. 22, 50 21 30 75, will be backe at the Algarves aboute three weeks hence, where I doe intend to settle him, beeinge a discreet person, and well acquainted with the Spanish affaires. If my friend cannot now come with him, I shall be sure to know when I shall meete him at Pharo. I question not, but I shall settle this businesse much to your honour's satisfaction: the charge will amounte in all to 400 l. per ann. rather more then lesse. I shall be as good husband for your honour as possible.
Since my laste to your honour, I had audience from the queen, when I spoake to her at large concerninge the packett boates. She did assure me, wee should not be disturbed in the receivinge and dely very of our letters, but might use what liberty wee thought good in that businesse; and after I had given her some arguments, how reasonable it was, shee should contribute something towards the charge, beeinge the benefitt this kingdome received was as greate as what did accrue to the commonwealth of Ingland, shee told me, shee had had some conference with the condé de Mira aboute this businesse, to whome she referred me, sayinge he would give me satisfaction to my demands in this perticular. The next day I wente to the condé, and desired his answer, that I might satisfy your honor by this packett boate; he replyed, whatsoever was reasonable, should be granted us; but when I desired him to satisfie me more particularly to the sume I demanded, which was six thousand crowns a yeare, he told me it was a great sume: however that and much more should be granted, if his highnesse would be pleased to consent to the mittigations in the articles of peace. I replyed, that did not concerne me, neither did I dare mention any such thinge. Then he broke out into a passion, and saide, if that were not graunted, the inquisition and the common people would ruine them, especially in this occasion, that they are fearfull of the Spaniard; and he added, that if his highnesse would graunt them that favour, they would requite it with a farr greater benefitt, and whatsoever was desired, which lay within the power of the secular jurisdiction, should not be denied. I should not have presumed to have mentioned this, if I could have given your honour an accompt what I had donne in relation to the businesse of the packett boat without it; allthough in many other occasions, when I demand justice, that is sure to be mentioned, especially when the great somes of mony are required, which is owinge by the king of Portugal and his subjects to our nation. And 'tis cleare, they delay the publication of the peace on noe other ground (whatever is pretended) but hopes, that his highnesse will at laste grante them thire desire, searinge the inquisition beyond measure. God make them sensible of thire slavish condition, and give them spiritt to caste of that yoake, and ever blesse your honour, are the frequent prayers of
The queen of Portugall's affaires looke with an ill aspect, for since the writinge of the abovesayd, the generall of the army, who is the conde de Sore, that came lately from the frontiers, and is dispatcht againe to his charge, as he was goeinge at 9 o' clocke at night from the pallace to his lodgings in his coach, two fellows a horsebacke discharged two carabyns into his coach; but by his accedentall stoopinge the shott went all over his head, so it pleased God he had noe harm. The fellows, that attempted his lyfe, presently fled, but are not yet discovered. This makes all beleeve and feare, that are well wishers to the crown of Portugall, that the Spanish faction grows high in this courte; the inquisition is the cause of all. Those people have here strange reportes, that Charles Stuart hath thirty thousand men to invade Ingland, and that wee have greate divisions at home, and much more to this purpose. They are extreame sickle, and are so blinde as not see these reports are rissen by disaffected people both to the Inglish and Portugall government. There is now one mr. Christopher Waringe, an Inglish merchant that hath lived 8 or 9 years in this citty, speedily dispatcht by the conde de Mira, though he pretends otherways. I have reason to conjecture from his hasty goeinge, that he is to give them intelligence of the Inglish affairs. Your honour may please to have an eye on him.
A letter of intelligence.
There is nothing here worth writing. Our armies are still in their winter quarters. We hear from Rome, that cardinal Mazarin having often received complaints from the pope, because of his obstructing the general peace, has sent an answer thereupon to his holiness, saying, that he has always much desired that peace, which seems impossible to him in the state that affairs now are. Nevertheless the king and himself refer themselves wholly to him, to the end he may see their readiness to it.
We hear also, that the jesuits entred into Venice upon these terms, that they should have none but the wonted college and schools; that they should visit none upon their death-beds without special leave; and particularly, that they should buy no inheritance without the placet in scriptis from the republick.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.
Before theise come to hand, I presume it will have pleased his highness to declare himselfe in that longe dependinge busines, that the truble thereof may come to an end; but if it should be layd aside, as heere mr. Townley's partye conclude it is, because nothinge is done since his returne, and the presentinge of the petition by the company at London, I ernestly request, that I may knowe it, if I may not allsoe receive soe much satisfaction, as to knowe the reason of it. Lookers on will not believe, but that there must be some other cause of his highnes longe silence in a busines, wherein his owne honour is concerned, than onely multiplicity of greater affaires. I beseech you, sir, endeavour some end of it, that I may be either sutably vindicated or revoked. The condition, into which I am reduced through this long delay, is neither for his highnes honour, nor my comfort. I am told that yesterday the deputy published a letter in this court from the governor sir Christopher Pack, wherein there was not any mention at all of the company at London's dislike of this court's late rejectinge of their advice for the re-electinge of mee, but rather an approbation thereof, accomptinge their referringe of the business to his highnes, and closinge with an assurance, that they would have a care of them. This, with what I writt your honour formerly, lookes out, as if that letter penned with soe much seeminge zeale were not really intended. Haveinge nothinge to ad to the inclosed intelligence, I cease your further truble, and shall remayne.
Letters from Olmik relate, that divers ambassadors sent by the Silesian princes were passed through the said town, going to the imperial court about weighty affairs and especially to make known unto the emperor their matter's great fears and jealousies of the duke of Transilvania's near approach with so puissant an army to their territories; and to consult with his majesty, in what manner to oppose his great strength (the more formidable, because of his present authority on the Cossacks, and their submission to him); as also the alliance, which he is said to have made, or at least to be making with the Tartars, (if he shall be found to break his parole and promise) which is not to attempt any thing against the imperial dominions, but only to assist his majesty of Sweden against the Poles, according to their late consederacy, and contrary to the same promise (wherein they have no great considence) act or intend any hostility against them. The said court, as the last letters from Vienna affirm, is also in no small perplexity about it; and though indeed they have considerable forces on foot at present, yet they acknowledge, that in tali eventu it would be very difficult for them to defend their dominions against so formidable an enemy. The Danish affairs are yet broke out no further; and it's like 3 or 4 weeks will yet pass, before we shall be able to judge rightly of their intentions; the conclusion where of its thought will be suspended, until they see the issue of the treaty appointed between them and the Swedes at Odensea; before the finishing of which they will, nor can, probably, take no fixed resolution. If the said treaty succeed well, and that they can find a way to make a league offensive and defensive, which it is said both parties purpose to endeavour, and have great hopes to effect, the Danes may then have a fair opportunity to employ their forces against this city, and perhaps be able to force, if not the pretended homage, yet at least a vast sum of money from them. But if the said treaty be dissolved re infectâ, its probable they will make use of this advantage (if they shall find, or believe to have any against the Swedes, by reason of their present distraction and employment another way) to revenge the injury they pretend to have suffered by their arms some years ago. From Dantzick they confirm general Czarnetsky's unexpected coming on there with 500 horse, having left his army (consisting, according to their compute, of 10 or 12000 men) about Dirchshaw, and brought 13 of the elector of Brandenburgh's colours (which he faith to have taken from a party of his of 1500 men, whom disputing his passage for Dantzick he hath totally defeated) to the said city, and presented the same to the king; who having commanded them to be hung up for a triumph in the catholick churches, departed with the said Czarnetsky from Dantzick the 31st of the last month with great pomp, all the citizens being in arms, and conveying him out with beating of drums, founding of trumpets, and divers times firing of all the guns round about the walls. What course they with the infantry, which continued all this while at and before the said city, may have taken, is not certainly known. Some say the king is going towards Buzeist (lying between Poland and Littaw) to convocate a parliament there, for the confirmation of his in a manner concluded treaty with Moscow. But the Swedes say, the great duke utterly denies, that there was any thing but an armistitium concluded betwixt them, which he now presents to take up, and to join himself in their consederacy with Ragotzy against the Poles, preferring such reasonable conditions, as that his majesty of Sweden resolves to embrace his friendship, having ordained commissioners to treat with the said duke's ambassadors for that purpose. The Swedes are said to have divided their army into three squadrons, in as much as whatever way the king and Czarnetsky take, its thought they will be met with, and that by the next post we shall hear of some bloody rencounter betwixt them. This unhoped for accident of Czarnetsky's arrival, and the king's departure from Dantzick, is like to put the treaty (at P. Holland appointed) to a stand. Friday prince Adolph, brother to his majesty of Sweden, came to this city. Its thought his highness will not continue long here, but according to the king's special order, hasten his journey to the army, being now wholly restored of the late mischance he got in Poland.
The Portuguese agent to the protector.
Most serene lord,
By the 25th article of the treaty, it was agreed, that for the conclusion of all that was pretended by the 2d and 5th of the six preliminary articles, there should be four commissioners named in equal number of both nations to judge and determine it; and that such causes as they should not agree upon, should be referred to an umpire chosen by your most serene highness out of his council.
In pursuance of the agreement the commissioners met, and decided many of the questions, leaving such as they could not agree upon to the umpire. To this end your highness was pleased to choose the honourable colonel Philip Jones, who being ready to begin his judgment, gave me notice thereof by a letter written in April 1655, to which I answered, desiring him to consider the reasons, by which the commissioners of the king my master were moved to refer to him all those actions. But the ratification of the treaty having so many doubts (as 'tis known to your highness) the umpire did not further proceed, until the peace was of both sides ratified; and then thinking it a fit time to come to judgment, he made it known to me by another letter written in July last. And having received order from his majesty some months before to assist in his behalf to this judgment, not only with the obligation of his master, but also with the express quality of his procurator, I answered the umpire's letters, acquainting him with the function his majesty had charged me with in this business, desiring him to delay some time the judgment; for I expected some papers out of Portugal, which might serve not only to defend the king my master's justice, but to give also light to the business. The umpire was pleased twice to grant some time, and though this was an effect of his goodness and civility, yet was not enough; for seven weeks, which he allowed, could not be sufficient, the wares by sea being so liable to changes. And the umpire intending to proceed in his judgment, I desired, that according to the 25th article I might have the fight of all the papers, and though at first denied, yet at last granted, but with the allowance of only 14 days to see, consider, and answer them, the causes being 23, some very diffuse, written in English, and the hand not very good. I did with a very special care consider the least time I could take up for the traduction (for otherways I could neither give any answer to the umpire, or discharge myself in Portugal) to see and consider them; and avoiding all delays, I sent him word upon the 10/20 of October last, that I was not able to do it in less than six months; which was not only agreeable to reason, but to the said 25th article, ordaining that the procurator shall de novo be heard in the following words, viz. Et si ante datam a dicto consiliario sententiam chartæ nonnullæ e Lusitania pervenerint, vel procuratur ad aliquas ex iis causas agendas, dictus consiliarius eum de novo audiet. All those reasons were not sufficient to prevail with the umpire the staying of the six months, sending me word six or seven times in the space of three months, that it would proceed, being urged unto it by the interested, whose papers he sent me several times, containing rather scandalous words against the designs of my function, and consequently against the authority of his majesty, than of any reasons or grounds of their justice. The punishment whereof I might had endeavoured your highness should cause to be inflicted upon them, it being a dishonour to the protection of those immunities, wherein your highness preserves me as a minister of a king, his friend and ally. I did herein acquiesce not to take up the time to your highness's ministers, supposing the merchants had not understood what they had written, and applying myself newly to the umpire by many letters in answer to his; and often in person I did endeavour to perswade him, that it was not possible for me to give an answer in less time, that it was according to the clause, eum de novo audiet, to grant me all convenient time that I had for the traduction one only person, and that by my instructions I was ordered not to make use of any other; that the time by me desired was prefixed, and of the delay there could come no hurt, to the actions, or their satisfaction, in regard that the half customs appointed for their payment were deposited in such treasurers hands as your highness had named; so that the delay could never be any damage to the parties, whose pretences were very suspicious; and he, as an impartial judge and umpire, was obliged to reflect upon all the particulars, when his majesty supposing his impartiality did consent he should be named for the said judgment. And lastly, in all my letters to him, I did protest in the name of the king my master, that all such sentences as he should pronounce should be void, unless he should hear me with those circumstances that the 25th article commands, cum de novo audiet.
These reasons (which may appear by my letters that are in his power, and by other documents that I have in mine) were not powerful to disswade the umpire from proceeding to judgment, as he acquainted me by his letter dated the 24th of January, and so I thought myself obliged to acquaint your most serene highness in the present narrative with the manner wherewith it was proceeded in the behalf of the king my master, in the present business; for as in Portugal the sentences will not be judged lawful nor binding, the proceedings being against the clauses of the article, which gives jurisdiction to the umpire, it may from this very time be present to your most serene highness, the reason and justification of my proceedings, desiring your highness would be pleased to cause this business to be considered, and that I may have an answer to this paper for my discharge.
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Received yours of the third instant, by which I understood, that Charles Stuart intends to land 5000 men some where about the north; and it is probable they will bee assisted by the Dutch shippes; and I am consident the Dutch wish them better than they doe us; and truly I have heard a longe time, that they waite butt for a fitt opportunity to fall out with us again; butt I believe they dare nott as yett show themselves soe openly, butt in case they should land any men in these parts, we shall be ready for them. For the highlands, I never had them in that order since I came into Scotland, that I have now; and I thinke they will prove pretty sirme to his highnesse, for I finde them very punctuall in observing of any orders for apprehending any broken men or theeves in that country, which I could never bring them too till now of late. Major Straughan, that was heere, went upp and down the hills in a plade, and had written and sent to most of the heads of the clans, to know whether they would joyne with Charles Stuart, which I have bin informed from some of the heads of the clans, they absolutely refused, and nott one of the chief of them did agree to itt; and some of them would have taken him, had hee bin in their bounds. Hee is gone over very lately, and I thinke what hee can acquaint Charles Stuart with, will give him little incouragement to come to that place; for I thinke the people in the hills are more peaceable then those in the low lands, for any thing that I can perceive. I am glad to heare, that there is 400,000 l. to be advanced to his highnesse towards the Spanish warre; and I hope all thinges will go on well, to the satisfaction both of his highnesse and the country; which is all at present from
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland.
I had your lordship's by the last post without date, and upon occasion hereof will assure you, that your letters either to his H. or others here deserve noe such censure, as your lordship is pleased by your last to mention. Nor hath your lordship bene too suddeine in discoveringe your oppinion, nor doe you differ therein from very honest and knoweing men. For ought I see things are driven on in the same chanil, and is become soe open and avowed, that there is scarce a man, but takes notice thereof, and have their fears about it. And I wish hartily, that some be not too remisse, or at least too patient in matters of soe great consequence, espetially when things are manifested so clearly. I writt by the last freely upon this subject; since which nothinge hath hapned of of any great consequence, unlesse it be some further confirmation of what I have formerly writt. The parlament have voted a three months tax at 60,000 l. per mensem in England, and that Ireland pay 20,000 l. in a grosse summe, and 15000 l. for Scotland. To that vote they added, that in the act to be passed for this money, the right of the people should be asserted, viz. that noe money was to be leavyed but by consent of parlament. This was done on saterday; but the house was very thinne; and this day that voet was recalled againe, though it was opposed by severall gentlemen, from whom that was not expected. All the discourse is here about a new settlement. But I doe assure your lordship, I do not yet understand the steps, by which that buissines doth advance. When I knowe more of it, your lordship shall. Sundercombe was tryed yesterday at the upper bench by a jury. His jury was a very substantiall company of men, most of them beinge justices of the peace. The evidence was most cleare and full; and they found him guilty with difficultie. He is to be executed to morrow. He appears to be a most desperate felow; and since his conviction, he would have poysoned hymselfe to escape hangeinge.
The comon enemie is certeinly stirringe, and that very vigorouslye. They threaten an invasion some tyme in March, and have directed their partye here to prepare for it. Wheither they will be ready soe soon, I am not able to say; but I doe beleeve, they will give trouble this springe, unlesse the Lord prevent it; which I trust he will, though we doe little towards it ourselves. I remeyne
The following draught of a letter is in the hand-writing of H. Cromwell, on the cover of the preceding.
A Remiss or over patient spiritt at this time in any, espetially those whoe are at the helme, were very dangerous; and therefore I hope you'll not suffer that to prevaile. I assure you subtile and more fly enemies are very busie, and doe under specious and religious pretences make strange representations of your intentions, and doe endeavour to prepossess men with prejudice. I hope those men will be narrowly watcht and ey'd. I shall use the best care I can to prevent the breaking out of any distemper here, either for pretended friends, or our more open and common enemy, whome you say is quickening his preparations to disturb you. The Irish here, by what means I know not, begin to have some new hopes revived among them. Without peradventure wherever C. St. layes the stress of his design, he will endeavour to finde us all worke, that soe wee may be . . . from affordeing reliefe to each other. What a lamentable thing it is, that wee should be weakening one anothers hands, while the comon enemy is endeavouring to devour us all.
An extract of the news from Switzerland.
The marquis of Carazene, governor of Milan, hath so threatned the people of the bailliages of Italy, which do belong to the cantons, that although they have resolved to remain in neutrality at this present conjuncture, yet he hath obliged them to send a considerable relief to the lesser cantons, and their troops are in the field, and are marching over the Alpe Gothart, where there is at present very little snow. The arch-duke of Tirol is very much sollicited to assist the the popish cantons, but as yet he hath not declared much inclination thereunto, and hath only been pleased to strengthen the garrisons of Constance, of Uberlingen, of Zell, and of Bregens. The abbot of St. Gall hath not yet stirr'd, is very much observed by those of the religion of Appenzell, and by the city of St. Gall.
The Grisons were willing to raise a considerable army in favour of those of Zurich, and upon the opposition, which the bishop of Coire maketh, colonel Guler, the most considerrable amongst the reformed Grisons, having a design to seize upon the person of the said bishop, and not being timely seconded by his men, he was miserably knocked on the head with one of his men, which doth very much grieve all the Grisons of the religion, and which is able to prejudice very much their designs, and the more, in regard the earl of Casati, ambassador of Spain, doth powerfully uphold the popish Grisons, and doth promise them great sums. The canton of Glaris doth yet remain in neutrality. All Turgovia hath made homage to the lords of Zurich, who have left one troop of horse and two companies of foot for a garrison in Traweafeld; the other Zurich troops, which were in Turgovia, are marching before Rappenschuyl. That place is now formally besieged. They have opened the trenches some sixty paces from the city, and endeavours are used to break down the bridge. The cannon of the besiegers hath beaten down several places in the city. The besieged make great fire, yet they have not lost many men; they have had more wounded than killed. The troops of the cantons of Usy, Schwitz, Underwalden, and Zug are encamped at Hessicon, and are preparing to relieve the said place.
The lords of Zurich do cause extraordinary prayers to be made every day throughout all the country, and do raise officers and soldiers in all parts. The three companies of Geneva were expected at Zurich on the 19th of Jan. about three of the clock in the afternoon, and a counsellor of the said city was to go to meet them two or three mile off to conduct them into the city. The army of his excellency of Berne hath received some check by the Lucernois, but he doth hope to be revenged on them for it, and the officers do all what they can for it.
The Dutch embassadors in Denmark to Ruysch.
Our last to your lordship was of the 18th instant, since that we have received their H. and M. L. resolution of the 9th instant, by which we perceive, that their H. and M. L. persist as yet by their former orders and resolutions, given as well to their lords ambassadors in Prussia, as to us; and that what we formerly advised concerning the project or inclination of this crown being of great consequence, is sent into the provinces for them to declare themselves upon the same. We will make use of the said resolution, with their H. and M. L. good liking, to give them notice here of the condition of their H. and M. L. deliberation; and as we have done hitherto, as much as is possible for us, humbly and faithfully observe the terms of what is committo our charge. By the last post but one order was sent to the lord Rosendale at Dantzick, to make a journey to the duke of Brandenburgh, as we are certainly informed, to thank the duke for the good offices offered by him by the furthering a treaty between this crown and Sweden; but also friendly to remonstrate at the same time, that to bring the same to perfection, and to establish a firm peace and tranquillity, it is requisite, that Dantzick be preserved, and Prussia be restored to its former state, and the commerce and navigation to its antient course; and if so be the duke shall think fit to apprehend so much, and to embrace the interests of this crown, and them of their H. and M. L. his majesty together with their H. and M. L. will embrace and further them of the duke's; but if so be the duke resuseth to do this, his majesty will hold himself guiltless of all that may happen otherwise than well to the duke.
The resident of Brandenburgh doth press very much, to the end that the treaty between this crown and Sweden may be taken in hand; and faith, that he receiveth pressing orders for the same from time to time. The ryckshoffmaster doth assure, that nothing final shall be done, till they see their H. and M. L. resolution to what we have formerly writ over, and is remonstrated by the lord Charisius, which is most earnestly desired here, in regard of the assembly at Edenzee.
The lord Rosenwinge adviseth in his last letter to the king, that the ambassador de l'Ombres did declare himself in a conference with the chancellor of Poland, as if the Swede would be contented to make peace, so they may but keep Elbing and Marienburgh, and that a good sum of money be given them; but the chancellor asking him, where the king should find that money? the said ambassador answered, it would be no charge to the king; the same might be raised by raising the tolls at Dantzick; but the chancellor replied, their H. and M. L. and Denmark must first give their consent to that.
D'Avaugour to Bordeaux the French embassador in England.
You will be able to judge by the little matter I have to entertain you with, that I I only at this time aim to perform the duty of my correspondence with you. Since my last there hath been nothing further done in the negotiation here. It now depends upon the resolution, which the court of Sweden will take upon that, which we brought from Dantzick. In the mean time they seem to have contrary dispositions as to the restoring of Prussia; and they speak only of preparations of war to return into the field; but it may be so, that they imitate those, who will pass over the water, turn their backs, where they will land. I hope to tell you more in my next, having only conjectures to entertain you with at present.
Lockhart to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your honor,
I Have received yours of Feb. 5/15, which broght me the good news of yowr recovery (for which I desyer to blesse God) and signifyes the dubble honor yow have done me, in seeing my wyse, and entrusting me with one so nearly relaited to you. I was so much ingadged to yowr honor before, as I know not what to say to those new favors, save that I esteeme your goodnesse to me greatter, then I can be able to answer either by words or deeds.
By this I can give yow no greatt account of businesse, having not been in condition to stirr abroad since my last; and mr. d'Lion hath been so taken up with a law-suitt (which importts him much) as I have had no visitt from him. This afternoon I intend to see him, and expecte awdience either this evening or to morrow.
Mazarm told me upon fryday last, he would send 381 me 20000 c ro un s, to the end the l e vi s might proceed without staying the conclusione of the t re u tie, since the substance was agreed unto. I told him, I showld obey his commands, and was prompted to this answer from a desyer to have the businesse (in so farr as that might signify) some way fixed; but upon monday when I found, that he, who came to pay the mo ney, would abate that, which he called the fees or the right of the officers of the treasury, I deferred the whole businesse, till I should speak with the cardinal.
Sir, I heartily thank yow for yowr care for my subsistence heare, and shall beseech yow (if your lady need any of the little knackes, that are to be had now in the faire of St. Germans) that yow will obtain me the favor of being employed by her, as one for whom yow will answer, upon the account of his being,
An intercepted letter of mr. J. Johnson to John Ashe, esq.
My last unto you was of the 9th present, to which I humbly crave to referr you; since is come to my hands yours of the 5th instant; and for answer to what you mention as to matter of trade, I wrote you in my last, that according to the season of the yeare, which for sales is ever bad in Jan. and Feb. we had sold but few of your cloaths, but that in March we expected most of our chiese merchants to come out for their easter fortment, against which tyme I desired you would be pleased to give orders at Freshford, that there might be reddy about. . . red markes in 5th and 6th . . . for to sort those remayning unsold, which are now most at neat marketts, and of which our markett vents not so great a quantity by far as of the red. I hope there will be such care taken in the future, that we may have found cloth free of faults, well mixed, and bright lively cullers, by which we shall be able not only to bring the marke in esteem again, but also to rayse the price in the sale to all our profitts and content. The cullers yet in request heer are the light greys abovementioned: so soon as the fancy alters, we shall give you timely notice thereof. Wee return you our humble thanks for the newes you were pleased to communicate to us, being very glad there is soe good an understanding between the protector and parliament, which people heer beleeve to be only outwards for his owne ends; and that soe soone as you have done his businesse as to the matter of mony, you will quickly see the difference he putts between yours and the major-generals satisfaction, whose high carriadge after their putting downe gives great hopes to some heer of a new revolution of affaires, in which you may be sure every party will be endeavouring to advance their particular interest. As to the state of affaires in these partes, they remayne in the same posture as in my last; for although the states of the country be finally agreed with his highnesse don Juan for the payment of 250000 l. ster. for the redemption of their winter quarters, yet they doe suspend the payment thereof till they see some effectual course taken for the redressing of the grievances they lye under by the insolency of the common souldiers, who have of late comitted as many outradges in their several quarters throughout the country as ever, and therby soe much incensed the people, that 'tis very much questioned, whether any monys will be paid on the late agreement or noe. The English court remaynes still at Bridges, never in greater want, nor greater expectation of monys, without a speedy supply of which all their levies are like to be at a stand; for English men cannot live on bread alone. A considerable sum is every week expected from Spain, whether one sir Henry Bennet is dispatched to sollicite and remonstrate the necessity of the same, and to prepare the way for my lord of Bristoll, who is suddenly to follow on another account. Monsieur Marsin, once comander in chief in Catalogna for the French, now one of the prince of Conde his followers, and principall collonel of horse, is made lieutenant-general of the English forces, by which it is evident the Spaniard wants to christen his owne child first, and to make use of them this campagne against the French. The Duynkerquers have of late been very rampant, and have brought up of late several considerable prizes, out of the proceed of which they have made ready eight good friggatts, which lye in a readinesse to put to sea with the first occation. The Oftenders are not behynd them; soe that unlesse the English do tymely stop up their ports, they are like to doe more mischeese this yeare then the last. We have had nothing considerable from Spayne this weeke more then the non-arrivall of their West-India fleet hath necessitated the court there to rayse the taxes and gabelles. The designe against Portugall continues; but I doe not understand for all the great talke of their navall preparations, that they intend to fight the English fleete, or will be in a capacity to doe it this good while. 'Tis true the Hollander assists them under hand what they can, and have for their mony furnished them with several new friggatts built purposely for them; and their are now in Holland six great friggatts of about 60 or 70 guns, which are almost finished, and are to goe for Spayne with the next convoy; but whether the English having intelligence thereof will permit them to passe through their fleete under the notion of Geneoses, as the last did, is much questioned. The king is to be at Bruxells on wednesday next, when the princesse of Orange is alsoe to leave Bridges, and goe for Holland, she having by her mediation fully reconciled the difference between the king and the duke of Yorke, having at last brought the duke wholy to relinquish sir John Berkely and the French faction. What further occures shall be weekly advised you by,
Antwerp, 22 Feb. 1657. [N. S.]
A paper of the commissioners of the admiralty of Holland, exhibited and read the 22d of Feb. 1657. [N. S.]
The present commissioners of the colleges of the admiralties residing at Rotterdam, Amsterdam in Zealand, and the northern parts (those of Friezland being not yet arrived) having considered of the proposition of the lords their H. and M. L. commissioners in pursuance of their resolution of the 18th of January last, and considering the present constitution of time and affairs concerning the welfare of the state in respect of the trade at sea, do judge, that for the repairing of damages sustained, the preventing of threatned and feared dangers and calamities, and the obtaining and endeavouring of that which is just and reasonable, whereof the particulars are sufficiently known to their H. and M. L. by the advices received from all parts, and their own experience, that there ought to be forthwith equipped and speedily set forth to sea a fleet of 48 capital ships, frigats, and ketches of war, to be divided as followeth.
And the admirals, commanders, and captains are to govern themselves so as in conformity of the treaties made with neighbouring kings, princes, and potentates shall be sound requisite, according to the constitution and condition of those parts where they are to be employed respectively, without exceeding therein, or suffering any infraction in the same amongst the rest, especially not only to protect, but also to oppose the intolerable rigorous proceedings, which are undertaken by private men of war of France and others against the good inhabitants of these countries, by exemption and distinction of others under the benefit of the royal edict, and consequently not only such private men of war, but all others who shall have authority to attempt and execute the same, they shall endeavour to sight, ruin, and destroy them as enemies of the state, till such time the said edict be recalled, or that the same be remedied by renewing the maritime treaty at the instance of this side; likewise to demand of the crown of Portugal reparation of the damages persidiously done to the West-India company of this state in Brazil; and in case of denial, to act against the said crown in conformity of the resolution of their H. and M. L. of the 8th of October 1649, taken concerning that subject, with such alteration as shall be found requisite, according to the present constitution of time and affairs; which being resolved upon, there shall be further advice about the means.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of the states-general.
There being again proposed to the assembly the supplying of the vacant residentship in Denmark, the provinces of Utretcht, Friezland, Overyssell, and Groninguen do declare to the end above-mentioned in favour of Jacob le Maire.
A letter of intelligence to resident Bradshaw.
Right honourable sir,
Since my last of the 20th currant the news of prince Ragotzy comes now, as it seemes, with more ground as before; the letter of Ragotzy to the king of Sweden concerning his march into Poland for to joyn with him makes the world here make no doubt of it, which in short time the effect of it will be more knowne. This letter the king of Sweden hath sent in original to the duke of Brandenburgh to let him see it, that he is in the march into Poland strong 40,000 men, for to joyne with the Swedish forces against the Poles. And to this purpose the king of S. prepares for to meet him with a great cavalcade, and takes horses of our contry people for to mount some regiments of the musqueteers, for to make them horsemen. With this cavalcade the king of Sweden intends also to draw near the place, where the king of Poland is to keep a parliament called Brescie in Lithuania, and to endeavor for to trouble this parlament and their counsells, although the Polish general Charnetzky is there with a strong army, for to keep watch there. In this parliament it is thought the Polish treaty with the Muscovites is to be confirmed; and consequently both their forces and the Tartars also are to joyne against the Swedes. The resident of the Cossakes hath gott lately from his master general Chmielnitzky a letter for the king of Sweden, wherein he disswades the king to make no peace with the king of Poland, because he and Ragotzy comes for to joyne with him. This newes makes or will be a great hindrance to peace. I have promise from the gouvernor's secretary to have a copie of this letter within an hour; if I get it in time, I shall enclose it in this letter; if not, I shall send it with the next post. The king of Sweden is resolved to goe with the above-mentioned cavalcade next week from Marienburg for to meet Ragotzy; and the last tuesday the town of Marienburg did sweare to the king of Sweden the oath of sidelity, for themselves, their children's children hereditary; which oath seems to bee an extraordinary heavie oath, especially for tender consciences, never before done in such a form to king Gustavus Magnus of happie memory. This towne of Marienburg is the first, that hath done this hard oath. It is seared, that Thorn and Elbing will not bee exempted. This proceeding makes many beleeve, that Prussia will never be restored againe to his old master, and consequently there will be no peace at all. Thus I remaine,
From Elbing the 23d of Feb. 1657. [N. S.]
A letter of intelligence.
My lord of Ormond was three or four days since in this city, when he came to fetch back the duke of York to Bruges, where they say is intire reconciliation made between the two brothers; though some say the difference was but out of policy. At Amsterdam I met with sir Marmaduke Langdale, whom I had known formerly at Rome, who told me, that he heard that doctor Bacon was now an agent for the man, that ruleth in England. The states here are much discontented at the French's searching there of ships; and therefore are setting forth 60 men of war, half being to go for the Streights, and the other half to attend the coasts at home. Some will suppose they are to help those at Bruges, if occasion be.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of the lords states-general.
There being once more proposed to the assembly the provisional re-inforcing of the squadron under vice-admiral De Ruyter, being at present in the Mediterranean sea, and to put the same into such a condition, that it may not be assaulted or affronted by unequal power; and that therefore the college of the admiralty at Amsterdam may be authorized to send thither with all speed six good men of war: after deliberation had, it is thought fit and understood, that a letter be writ to the said college, that they will send presently the said six ships to the end above-mentioned. The lords commissioners of Zealand, Utrecht, Overyssell, and Groningen do consent in this conclusion.