A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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August (4 of 5)
General Monck, and the council of Scotland, to the protector.
May it please your highnesse,
Upon intimation from mr. secretary Thurloe to general Monck, and by him to your highnesse's council here, that there was a letter sent to us for an accompt of the state of your highnesse's revenues of Scotland, both as to the receipts and disbursements, wee gave order to the auditor-general of your highnesse's revenues to bring into us such a state of an accompt as was desired; which was accordingly done, and which was also sent to mr. secretary. Since which time having received your highnesse's commands more perticularly by that letter, which it seemes was by some accident for a while miscarried, in obedience thereto, do humbly returne these: that as to the three first branches of your highnesse's desires, viz.
The stateing it in parts, whereby the cleer proceed of such branch may appeare, the charges thereof deducted, the inclosed accompt wee hope may give satisfaction, which is an accompt for a yeare, viz. from January 1655, to January 1656. Onely therein your highnesse may please to observe, that the ancient crowne-revenue certayne and casuall returned in the first collumne to be nine thousand six hundred twentie-two pounds seaventeen shillings sterling, is to be understood will amount to that sume, if all the lands given away (but reduceable both by the lawes of Scotland, and your highnesse's late act of pardon and grace, and by your highnesse's exchequer now upon legal reduction) were recovered; such as the earldoms of Orkney, Huncingtore, Dumferling, Ilay, Bute, Sterling, Kelsoe, Arbroth, and divers others; but that for the present it hardly exceeds the one halfe, and out of this is also payable, by order of your highnesse, these following annuall pensions, viz.
To John Vance twentie pounds. To Edward Hughes two hundred pounds. To William Mayne twentie pounds. To John Hill thirtie pounds. To the lady Scotscraig one hundred pounds. To the lord Ochiltree one hundred twentie one pounds thirteen shillings fower pence. To John Aird twentie pounds.
Wee have therein alsoe voluntarily passed by the interest of ten thousand pounds sterling, mortisied for the salaryes of the judges, in regard, that nott onely a great part of the principall is truely desperate, but very little of the interest also can be gotten, though urgently pressed for, by reason of the universall poverty of the nation, whereby that interest-money is att present of little service for the uses and end intended, and therefore omitted.
Wee have also passed by the sequestrations, both as inconsiderable and incertaine, what may from them arise, three thousand and seaven pounds onely being brought into the treasury of all the arrears of the crops 1651, and 1652, and upon accompt of the rents for the crop 1653. But how this comes so to passe at present, wee cannott give your highenesse satisfaction till enquiry be made therein. Most of this alsoe was received and disbursed before October 1655.
May it please your highnesse, there was allowed formerly out of the assessments for fire and candle for the guarrisons and guards in cittadells and emptie howses by establishment here, five thousand five hundred and fistie pounds; that is to say, two pence halfepenny a man in summer from the first day of May to the twenty-fowerth of September following, and five pence a man in winter from the twenty-fowerth day of September to the first day of May, besides one hundred pounds per annum paid for Ruthven-castle, and some grounds adjacent thereto. But the moneyes for fire and candle is now to be paid out of the customes and third part of the excise by your highnesse's late order, dated the eight and twentietieth of July last. And how the same ariseth, this inclosed list of severall guarrisons and the souldiers therein will sufficiently cleere, which cannott well be diminished.
Whether, as affaires now stand, any reducement may with conveniency be made in the expences of the civill-government there? And in what particulars? and in what proportions? and how the whole affaires may be put into such a way of management, that the publique may be eased of all such expences, as shall be found not absolutely necessary?
That the salaries for the clerks officers of the court of justice may be reduced, which will amount to yearely one thousand one hundred and seaventy pounds, since the guist of clerk-register, by which he has the fees of their offices, which for the yeare mentioned in the said accompt amounted to two thousand two hundred and fowerteene pounds fifteene shillings eight pence. But the judge's salaries and contingencies of that court, which at present are fower thousand one hundred and fifty pounds, cannott well be lessened: that is to say,
|Fower English judges at six hundred pounds per ann.||2400 l.|
|Fower Scots judges at three hundred pounds per ann.||1200 l.|
|Contingencies for the circuit and criminall courts||550 l.|
That the admiralty-court may be best settled and mannaged as formerly by a deputy and other officers, who may be sufficiently satisfied out of the duetyes of that court as formerly, for it brings nothing at all into the state.
That the forraigne customes and excise being now farmed, all those salaryes and contingencies may be reduced, unlesse your highnesse please to continue some cheques and waiters in the respective ports, to the end the farmers of the said customes and excise for their private advantages may not suffer the acts of parliament for increase of shipping and other prohibitions to be infringed; and the charge of them, as also for mannageing the inland excise by commissioners and other officers, may be reduced to three thousand one hundred pounds for salaries and contingencies.
That the hospital, as now lately settled, cannot well be altered, their salaryes being in the accompt, with augmentation onely of fiftie pounds a yeare for mr. Madden upon your highnesse's order; but all other charges are reduced to nine pence a day for each souldier that is admitted, and sower pence a day a man being deducted upon the musters, towards defraying the said charges.
May it also please your highnesse to take notice, that by the establishment of the army there is allowed onely one thousand eight hundred pounds a moneth for all manner of contingencies; that is, one thousand pounds for carrying on the workes of Ayre, St. Johnston's, and Inverness, which is so little, as cannott keep the workemen att constant worke; and eight hundred pounds for the generall contingencies of all the rest of the guarrisons in the list for the repayres of the castles and howses, for bedding, sheetes, and all other domestick utensills; for baggage, horses upon occasion, transportation of provisions from guarrison to guarrison, intelligence, and all other accidentall charges whatsoever, for all the rest of the guarrisons in the foresaid list, and of the army in Scotland: and whether this can any way be lessened, is humbly submitted to your highnesse. The guarrison of Inverlochy it self stands in one thousand pounds a yeare for building, reparation of the workes, and other incidents, and the cittadell at Leith being as yett unprovided for.
As for the fynes and forfeitures, there is remayning in the treasury of the fynes imposed by the ordinance of pardon and grace, onely one thousand three hundred pounds two shillings nine pence half-penny, which was part of the money sett a-part for satisfaction of colonell Overton's donative; but what arrears there are of those fynes wee cannot give your highnesse any exact accompt till mr. Bilton's returne, who had the particular charge of them.
As for the fyne of fortie thousand pounds imposed by your highnesse's order of the thirteenth of November 1656, in liew of the forfeitures, there is very little money of the first moyety brought as yet into the treasury, what payments haveing been made thereupon, being by discharges of the donatees upon transactions amongst themselves. There is two thousand fower hundred eighty pounds per ann. in donatives, which at ten years purchase amounts to twenty fower thousand eight hundred pounds, besides eight thousand pounds in moneyes granted (as wee heare) to the dutchess-dowager, to be satisfied out of the said fynes of forty thousand pounds; soe that in case punctual payment should be made of the whole, the foresaid eight hundred pounds, together with seven hundred twenty-six pounds for sir Thomas Thompson's second moiety, which is discharged, and six hundred eighty pounds ten shillings for major-general Middleton's whole syne, which is excepted, being deducted, there will remaine onely five thousand seven hundred ninety three pounds ten shillings to be disposed of, though it should all come in.
This other inclosed paper will present to your highnesse the state of the charge of the civil-lift, according to this retrenchment, which amounts to twenty-five thousand nine hundred forty-three pounds, which is three thousand sower hundred ninety-five pounds lesse then the former, the fire and candle-money being added to the former.
Lastly, wee humbly offer it as an expedient to your highnesse for the necessary carrying on affaires here, seing the forraigne customes and excise are farmed, whereby, without some other supplies, the third part of the inland excise will not be sufficient to defray the charge of the civill-list, the two parts of the said excise being settled towards satisfaction of the arreares of the army.
Your highnesse will be pleased, that the farmers of the said customes and excise in this nation may pay into your highnesse's treasury here weekly or monethly such sume or sumes of moneyes for defraying the charge of the civill-government, as also to continue the two parts of the use of the army as formerly, as your highnesse, the premisses considered, shall in your wisdome judge convenient. All which by appointment of your highnesse's councill here is humbly represented to your highnesse by your highnesse's
The annuall charge of sallaryes and contingencies of the civill-list in Scotland, for carryeing on the government there, according to the retrenchment humbly offered to his highnesse by his highnesse's councill there, in their letter of the 20th day of August 1657. in answer to his highnesse's letter of the 16th of July preceeding.
A List of the garrisons in Scotland, and the forces in them, who have allowance for fyre and candle by establishment of the councill in Scotland, besides the allowance given for fyre and candles and governor's pay by the establishment of the army of the 26th of July 1657.
Besides all these, the guards in the garrisons of Edinburg, Leith, Glasgow, St. Johnston's, and others. Quarters, where horse and foote lye in Scotland, have also allowances for their fyre and candles for their guards.
A letter of the king of Denmark to the states-general.
We Frederick the third, &c. That which we long since feared and declared to the lords, that long delaying, and the cessation of arms made at the Hague, would induce many inconveniencies and disasters upon us and our kingdoms, doth now fully appear, by the effects, that arise from thence, in regard the enemy hath got so much advantage by this cessation of arms and tedious treaties, that he hath no mind nor desire to the projected treaty. And although we have shewed ourselves willing to a just and reasonable peace, we have declared so much to the lords mediators, that they are content with it; yet the king of Sweden doth conceive, that we being hindred of our assistance, are brought so near our ruin, that there is no escaping of him. I believe your H. and M. L. commissioners extraordinary will acquaint you, not only how averse he is to the treaty of peace, but how he hath put several affronts upon them, and endeavoureth nothing more than to gain time, and so to master us, when the fleets can act no more, and to bring this kingdom under his power. Wherefore I hope your H. and M. L. will have regard to your own interests, and observe how ill your good intentions are interpreted by our enemies, and how little there is to be obtained by longer delays and cessation of arms; and in what a poor and sad condition we are fallen in the mean time. And then we hope, that you will take such vigorous resolutions, as will rid us out of all our troubles, by assisting us with their militia and money; upon which we do wholly rely.
De Groot to Petkum.
The fleet of this state is still expecting a wind to carry it out. The king of Sweden is at Gottorp with his father-in-law; and as yet we hear of no action, only that he hath been before Streloe. The king of Denmark is still at Copenhagen; we do not hear where his army is. Monsieur Wrangel hath been in the Stist of Bremen, and is past the Elve with some pieces of cannon, and, as is said, is gone before Rensbourg. Cracow is not yet surrendered, but sorely press'd.
Peterson to Petkum.
I Hear the king our master is about sending an express to his highness the lord protector; but since it is not writ me from court, I know not what to believe of it. It may be, that monsieur Rosenwinge, who arrived two days ago at Amsterdam with the lord embassador Amerongen, to negotiate something (whereof I am not yet well informed) with the lords states-general, hath order to transport himself for England afterwards. If you have friends at court, I would advise you to endeavour to keep them, that you may be kept where you are. The fleet of this state doth go for Portugal, there to demand satisfaction of the Brazil business; and in case of refusal, to declare war against them. I cannot tell you any thing from our parts, since that the Swedes will not suffer the letters to pass.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Les sieurs Van Hove & De Wit prirent le 25e d'Acust congé & dimission dans les estats generaux, pour s'embarquer dans la flotte de l'admiral Wassenaar, & aller en Portugal; redemanderont tout ce qui aura esté prins par ledit roy de Portugal sur la compagny de West-Inde icy, St. Tome, Angola, Martinico & Brezyl, &c. & si dans trois semaines ils ne reçoivent satisfaction, qu'ils retourneront à bord, & que l'admiral agira selon son instruction.
Ceux de Zutphen aussy-bien que ceux de Groningue ont fait plainte de ce que leurs frontiers estoient si despourveu de garrison, & que cependant sur leurs frontiers & voisinage s'allume un grand seu de guerre, si qu'ils ont demandé plus de garnison. L'evesque de Munster assiege la ville de Munster avec les troupes de la ligue papistique. Il est vray, que la ville n'a pas grande garnison, mais la bourgeoisie est forte, & l'armée de l'evesque ne sauroit estre de 5000 hommes, & des paysans; mais cela n'est pas sufficient de contraindre & forcer une si grande ville. Hier fust demandé de la part d'icelle ville secours & mediation. Provisionellement sera escrit à l'evesque de Munster une lettre serieuse, pour le dehorter, & puis l'on deliberera pour envoyer une deputation à s'enterposer. Sur quoy faut voir si nomination sera faite.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Icy & ailleurs a couru un fort bruit, qu'une flotte Angloise estoit passé les costes de Zelande & Hollande, pour aller vers le Sound; mais on le trouve faux. Comment cela aura allarmé les Hollandois, je vous laisse penser. La bonne ville de Munster se trouve assiegée de son evesque assisté des forces de la ligue catholique, dont l'intention sera de passer outre, aussi-tost que Munster sera prinse, vers le pais de Bremen, pour attaquer les Suedois. Et cependant de mesme le Dennemark a envoyé icy le sieur Rosenwinge, pour les fins qu'on peut aisement conjecturer; & avec luy vient un colonel, pour faire des levées nouvelles, principalement des officiers: item vient aussy le sieur d'Amerongen, un des ambassadeurs de Dennemark, si que l'on voit le party entre Dennemark, l'empereur, Brandenburg & Poland, tout-à-fait formé: & les estats d'Hollande favorisent cela ouvertement en toute façon; & ce qui est pour rire, se fachent quand on l'escrit; comme en effect ils font faché contre le resident de Sweden, pour avoir escrit cela au Sweden, comme si Sweden & tout le monde ne le sçût pas sans cela. Ory auroit-il fort bon & aisé moyen de secourir la susdite ville, (car la force de l'evesque n'est pas grande) mais la Hollande ne veut. Les estats d'Hollande desire & aide, que le party de l'empereur & Brandenburg soit forte, & sur pied contre Sweden, non-seulement en Poland, mais aussy icy proche près de Dennemark. Il n'y a rien plus veritable que cela. Et quant à Cromwel, les estats d'Hollande pretend luy donner tant de besoigne environ P o r t u g a l, que l'envie luy passera de songer à Portugal & Sweden. La verité de tout cecy se verra assez clair, & assez tost. Je suis,
A letter of intelligence.
After eleven dayes contrary winds, stormes, and tossing at sea, we are arrived at Lubec, where wee have bin to refresh these five dayes, but shall this day set forwards towards the Swedish king, who is at present at Hadersleve in Jutland. Our embassadors have reiterated orders to hasten and employ their utmost endeavours to accommodate the two crownes: the count d'Avangour embassador of France has the same; but I feare will be forced to stay here, to make his owne peace with God, for hee is very ill, and the doctors feare him. The Brandenburg's embassador hath already broken the ice, having bin to and fro betwixt the kings; and both parties seeme disposed to a peace; the Dane for want of monys for the war, and to save his country; and the Swede, to preserve his conquests in Prussia and Poland, and to bee at libertie to look elsewhere. When I am upon the place, I shall bee able to give yow a better accompt of all. I wrote to yow from Dantzick, that yow send mee those things I desired yow to Hamburg, which if yow will still doe, yow will oblige mee: send them to mynheer Romer, resident of the states there, for mee, with the Holland's embassadors, and send the letters by the post to him, for m. Eyckberg, secretari to the embassie, and all will come safe to my hands. The king of Denmarcke is retired with his army into Juer, having abandoned Holstein and Jutland to the enemie, who have alreadie put the first wholy, and a great part of the later, under contribution. Some 3 or 4000 of the Danes are still upon the continent, encamped and well fortified at Frederick's-Ort, where undoubtedly they will be shortly visited. The Poles are extreamely obliged to the Dane, to free them from so troublesome a guest as the Swede; though I beleeve he repents him of his kindnesse. 'Tis said here, that an English embassie is on the way to the king of Sweden, as also 4000 auxiliarie souldiers. If my frends did but think upon me, I should not bee thus long a vagabonding up and down the world. Thinke you at least sometimes on
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to Ruysch.
With the letters of the 17th instant, received the day before yesterday, I find, that their H. and M. L. are satisfied with the consent of his majesty in his letter from Sedan, of the 9th of August.
So long then, that I receive no further instruction, I will regulate myself according to that of the said 20th of June 1657; or if so their H. and M. L. are pleased to make any alteration or addition therein, I pray let me be advised of it by your favour, to commit no fault.
This day I receive again a very complaining letter from the Netherland merchants at Roan, whose houses are seized upon by serjeants, to force them to pay the strangers tax: I do oppose it, but the court is absent.
The parliament at Roan is separated, and the farmers of that revenue do proceed very severely, to prevent the orders of the court to take it off. If so be their H. and M. L. will be pleased to speak with the lord embassador of France about it, it will do much good.
Col. Bamfylde to mr. James Smith at Whitehall.
This is but a reitteration of my former request to you, for the speedy causing of fifety pounds to be payd to mr. Lucye, to be remitted to Franckfort by the way of Paris, and by the hands of mr. Heusch, whoe without that advantage will not take care of the conveyance of your letters to mee, or mine to you. When you consider the length and expence of this journey, together with the reall necessity of reasnable accommodations for myselfe, and of paying some debts, that I had contracted here, without the discharge of which I must have solde this country, never to have appeared more in it, you will not thinke a hundred pounds ill husbanded; and without the supply I now desire, it will be impossible for me to subsist at Franckfort, till I can write to you, and hear from you. I am really troubled to press you in the poynt of money, remembring the dissatisfaction it often gave to you during my laste correspondence; but the some being more necessary to your affayres then considerable to your exchequer, I hope you will neither stick at it, nor be further displeased with mee. I have yesterday read and burnt all your letters to the reserve of the enclosed, which I have sent you, to let you see the grounds I had for the second and third letter I wrote to Machill, which is one of the things you seem so much to wonder at, and be displeased with; for the firste I sent in terminis as it was written, and at such a conjuncture, when monsieur De Leonne was in the beginning and heat of his treaty, considering; the invitation I had from the letter, that was shewed mee from thence: the moste cautious man alive might have done the same thing; but though you may judge it indiscretion, yet I am sure 'twas zeale to your service, that led mee into that fault, if it was one. Mr. Cockayne was from unavoydable necessity trusted as well by you as by me, at least halfe way in this business; and since I must needs have some body to take care of my owne small affayres in England, and to sollicit you in what requires it, I held it not imprudent to truste him just as far as he himselfe would have seen into from the bill of exchange from the money he received for me, and of what you said of him concerning the messengers. I have knowne him longe, and ever founde him very honest and faithfull, and I beleive will be secret, if you conjure him to it. I truste him but as I did my man heretofore, and beleive I may as surely doe it. I have noe more at this tyme to say, but to assure, that I have noe discontent, noe jugling designes, noe hopes or desires greater then to give you all the assurance that lyes in my power of my being as hartily as ever I have professed myselfe,
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states-general.
H. and M. lords,
My lords, by the last post out of the Netherlands I received your H. and M. L. letters of the 17th instant, and there inclosed a copy of the king's letter of the 9th from Sedan, tending to a consent of the negotiation concluded at the Hague the 20th of June last, and that your H. and M. L. were satisfied with it. I hope, that upon his majesty's declaration the desired effects will follow.
This week I received letters from Marseilles and Bourdeaux, whereby I am assured, that the main-levée in Provence and Guyenne was at last likewise published, and all seizures and arrests taken off, as the same hath been done at Paris; so that the first point of my instruction is effected. Likewise my letters are dispatch'd at court, concerning the restitution desired by me of the ship the Red Fox and her lading, taken since February last in the Mediterranean-sea, and brought into Toulon; and withal I have writ this day to the king, directed to the earl of Brienne, as also the cardinal, desiring, that such necessary orders may be given, to prevent the violent proceedings, which are used at Roan against your H. and M.L. subjects in the business of the strangers tax; which I leave to your H. and M. L. consideration, whether it will not be thought good, to cause the lord embassador de Thou to be spoken to about it, that by his credit here at court the execution of the said tax may be suspended, as is already granted to the English subjects and those of the Hans-towns.
The four Netherland ships, which were hired at Rochell in the king's service, whereof the masters are here at Paris, have been at Lisbon, and at Roses they delivered and unloaded several provisions and ammunitions of war, and are now arrived safe again at Toulon. I am endeavouring to get the said ships restored, and freight for their voyages.
The court is now gone from La Fere towards Peronne, and so for Amiens; as soon as the same shall abide for any time in a place, the lords embassadors of Venice and the pope's nuntio will go from hence to court, to make a new admonition, as mediators for a general peace between the two great crowns, by provision to admonish them to a cessation of arms.
With the last foregoing letters I writ, how that the Spaniards had sent a great relief into St. Venant, and that the mareschal of Turenne went to besiege it: now I understand, that all the lines are finished, and the trenches will be suddenly opened: 2000 horse under the conduct of Bouteville have defeated and intercepted the baggage and carriage of the French army, and carried away the same. The said carriages is said to consist of 400 waggons (others speak of a greater number) and 4000 horse.
Upon the 28th instant here passed an express through this city, which came from Italy, and is gone to carry the news to the court, that his majesty's army was forced to raise their siege before Alexandria, and to quit the same for want of money and infantry; which news is since confirmed by letters from Lyons of the 25th instant.
Consul Maynard to secretary Thurloe.
I write your honor lately by a ship of London, that departed from this place nineteen days after general Blake; and haveinge notice of some Dutch shipes, that are to passe the channel, I tooke hold of the occasion, to signifie to your honor the intelligence I have from Cadix. The Spaniard maks all the haest possible to sende out thire fleete, and give out, they may departe aboute the end of September; but my authour sayes, it will be December before they cann be ready, by reason of the greate wante of men and money. The duke de Madina-Cely hath sente for all the seamen they cann gett in Biskay, which are to come to Cadix over land; and two regiments of foote are called home from this frontier, to imbarke in the Armado at Cadix. In Bonas Ayras and the country thereabouts seaven thousand of the clergy have taken armes againste the vice-king of Perru; and in many other places of the West-India there is greate murmurringe for wante of trade and necessaryes, which they wante, without which they cannot longe subsiste. Some of his highnesse's frigotts under the command of admirall Stoakes in the bay of Cadix have lately taken two prizes, both Dutch ships, one cominge from Biskay loaden with iron; the other bound from Cadix to the Canaries, which had a good quantity of oyles aboarde her, and severall papers were found in her of greate concernment, which capt. Stoakes sendes home translated by mr. Bland. All things here are now quiet: here hath been noe action since the loss of Miroan to the Spaniard. The new Portugal general Johnny Mendez is takinge the field, in hopes to doe something against the Spaniard before winter come on. In the north of Portugall the Galegods lye entrencht on this side the river Minhy. From Levorno I am advised, that the 4 Spanish men of warr, which did insest that coste, are now gone up as far as Alexandria and Scandaroon, where 'tis feared they may doe much mischief to our Inglish shipes tradinge in those seas. The conde de St. Lorenco, who was the late generall in this kingdome against the Spaniard, tooke his callinge home so much to hearte, that he dyed in few dayes after his beeing at his own house.
There are still greate complaints by the merchants, that they cannot get the monies owing by the king of Portugall, especially the halse-customes: mr. Bird assures me there is fifty thousand crowns now due; and notwithstanding wee doe dayly sollicit for satisfaction, all the justice wee can gett are delayed. I am desired by the merchants resident in these parts, humbly to beseech your honor to be pleased to make the Portugall ambassador sensiof the abuse they receive by detayning their estates from them; which may be a meanes, that they may at laste receive what is their just due; and wee shall pray, that the lord will ever blesse and prosper your honor: which shall ever be the hearty prayers of
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to Ruysch.
Upon saturday last in the morning the lord secretary of state came to me, and declared, that he had been hindred by several important affairs to come to me the day before as he had promised, with many civil expressions desiring that I would excuse him. I had understood by another hand, that his honour was sent with general Desbrowe and colonel Jones, to conclude with the earl of Warwick the marriage between his grand-child and the lady Frances, youngest daughter of the lord protector. I told his honour, that upon his often and reiterate promise I had assured their H. and M. L. from time to time, that as soon as the great domestic affairs concerning the settling of the government should be finished, that then there should be endeavoured to finish the maritime-treaty, and to settle other business, that their H. and M. L. should be able to see in effect the good affection of the lord protector. That at present his highness was not only so solemnly invested in the government, but also in the council confirmed, and yet I could not perceive (though I had lately made some further earnest instance) that any thing was furthered about the said treaty: that I had not received any answer to any proposition concerning the unfriendly and neighbourly act of the 29th of October 1651. His honour answered me, that he the day before had earnestly proposed in the council the business of the maritime-treaty; and that it was resolved, that upon the tuesday following the 28th instant, there should be report made to the council of the points not yet agreed, to see what issue can be found concerning the same; that he consequently would further the same; and concerning any other proposition tending to the recalling of the said act, that therein nothing could be done as long as the parliament did not meet; and that he did admire to see, that I should so earnestly urge the recalling of the said act, since that no other of the friends or allies did complain about it. I replied, that there was a great deal of difference between them and the state of the United-Netherlands, as his honour might have perceived by what I fully declared concerning that subject; declaring to him, that their H. and M. L. had another intention or design, then thereby to strengthen the band of amity between both, and to remove all occasions of ill-will and disaffection. His honour said, in truth his highness had the same inclination as he had formerly de clared to me, but that all things could not be dispatched at one time; that good regard must be had to the constitution of affairs as well at home as abroad. His honour speaking of the war between the two northern kings said, that the lord protector wished, that peace and amity might be re-established between them; that he would send to each of them an extraordinary envoy, and that the contents of their instructions should be communicated unto me, whereby the justness and sincerity of his highness's intention will appear; and in conclusion he said, that he would ride to Hampton-court, and faithfully report to his highness all what I had proposed unto him. Yesterday morning mr. Meadowe, envoy extraordinary to the king of Denmark, communicated to his majesty's resident here, that he was ordered to recommend most seriously to the king his master to make peace with the king of Sweden, and to offer thereunto the mediation of his highness. He also declared, that the like order and instruction was given to col. Jephson, and no other. He also assured him, that his highness did not send a man, nor any money to his assistance, nor did not as yet intend to send; but that he as a good friend did first try viam concordiæ.
A letter of intelligence.
I saw yesterday the express that came with the news of the French being beaten before Alexandria; all their officers and baggage taken. This news was presently sent by the marquis of Caracena's lady to her husband in the camp. Don John did what he could to relieve St. Venant. Ardres, which was besieged, is relieved by the French. Ragotzky hath surrendered Cracow and all other garrisons to the Poles. He is bound never to join with Sweden.
Secret instructions to major-generall Jepthson, delivered to him 22 August 1657.
Haveing discoursed with the kinge of Sweden upon the matter of your other instructions, you shall let his majestie knowe, that the lord ambassador Bond, duringe his residence here, and the lord George Fleetwood since, have in his majestie's name very much pressed us to ayd and assist him in his warrs by money, ships, and men, or such of them as our own occasions would best permitt, enforceing their desires from the great difficulties wherein his majestie is involved, by haveing the Muscovite on the one hand, and the kinge of Hungary on the other, takeinge with and faveringe his enemye in Poland, who make open warre upon him in those parts; threatninge not only to drive him out of those places which he hath lately obteyned, but to invade Pomeren and all that he hath on this side the Baltique-sea; and that as they are labouringe to divert the prince of Transylvania, who came into the assistance of Sweden, and to force him to marche back for the defence of his cuntryes against the Tartars, whom the enemies aforesayd doe dayly stirre up to invade him, soe they use all endeavours to seperate the elector of Brandenburgh, and to joyne his armes with them against him and his interest, insoemuch, that it would be impossible for him to subsist in the midst of all those enemyes.
2. You shall further informe his majestie, that wee have allways had a deepe sence of the condition of his affaires; and although wee were not, nor are in a condition to contribute money, (our late civill-warrs at home, and since that our warrs with the Lowe countryes, and now with Spayne, haveing in a great measure exhausted this nation) yet wee were not unwillinge to consider our owne affaires, in order to such assistance as wee were able to afford him, and might consist with the treaties wee have with other states and kingdomes. But not findinge them impowered to treate with us upon the termes of that assistance, such as wee did and doe judge necessarye to be knowne and agreed upon before wee imbarque, in a busines of soe great consequence, wee were not able to come to any resolutions thereupon.
3. For in case wee should be able to afford either ships or land-souldiers, or both, wee could not understand from the said persons, what places of safe retreate for our men, or secure harbours for our ships, should be put into our owne power and dispose; a thing soe just and necessary in itselfe, and soe usuall in all such like agreements, that noe nation hath ever ingaged in any actions of this kinde without first haveinge assurances therein.
4. Furthermore, this assistance beinge desired by the kinge, and wholly upon the account of his interest, the expence and charge of such an undertakinge is to be considered, if not in present, yet hereafter, when it shall please God to put his majestie's affaires into a more peaceable condition.
5. You shall therefore endeavour to understand his majestie's minde and intentions in these particulers, and what he judges reasonable to be done on this behalf, in case he shall still desire our ayd and assistance.
6. If his majestie shall upon this or any other occasion take notice of what was writt to him from hence by the lord George Fleetwood, touchinge the puttinge of the dukedome of Bremen into our hands, you shall endeavour to understand what his majestie's inclinations are thereunto, and acquaint him, that some discourscs of that kinde had beene upon occasion of the ayde and assistance, which was desired from us by the sayd lord Fleetwood upon this ground, that it was not fitt for us to expose our ships and the lives of our men in a forreine warre, without some place of strength and securitie to have recourse unto.
7. And if you shall find the king disposed to consider and treate with you upon this subject, and desirous to have us undertake it, you are impowred to agree, that wee will undertake to secure for him the dukedome of Bremen, and such stronge holds there as he hath put into our hands, and shall forthwith send over forces both horse and foot to take the possession thereof, and shall likewise keepe such ships of warre upon those coasts as shall be necessary for the ends aforesaid.
8. And that at any tyme upon demand of the crowne of Sweden, beinge first payed the charges wee shall bee att over and above what shal be leavyed upon the countrie, in and about the keepinge and securinge the said dukedome, wee shall deliver the same, and all the places of strength there, which shall be then in our hands and possession to the crowne of Sweden; but you shall not make any mention of this of Bremen unlesse his majestie shall administer the occasion thereof, and expresse himself inclined to put it into our hands.
9. And in case he shall he willinge thereunto, before you accept thereof you shall informe yourselfe of the condition of the forts and places of strength, how tenable they are, what force will probablye defend the same, and wheither any of the places may be releived by sea, if an enemy be master of the field, and which of them, as also what contribution may be had in the countryes towards the defrayinge the charges of an armye, with what else may be necessary to be knowne of the place as to the aforesaid purpose, that you may be the better able to judge, wheither it will be for the good and service of this nation to accept of the delivery thereof into our hands upon the grounds aforesayd.
10. In case a treatye be entred upon, there will be many more perticulers necessary to be provided for on both parts in a buissines of this nature then can before-hand be exprest: haveinge therefore received his majestie's intentions upon the generall propositions, you shall forthwith dispatch them unto us, with such other matters as shal be offered to you on his part, that you may receive further directions thereupon; and in the meane tyme shall proceed as farre as you are warranted by these instructions.
The protector to the king of Sweden.
Most potent and serene kinge,
This noble gentleman, major-generall Jepson, a member of our parliament, who will have the honour to deliver this letter to your majestie, will informe you with what trouble and grese wee have receaved the newes of the unhappie warre, which is arrisen between the crownes of Sweden and Denmarke; and the passion we have to doe all good offices, which God shall put in our power for the healinge of this breach, and thereby prevent the evils and inconveniences, which must arrise upon the common cause from this warre, at a time when our enemies are uniteing and engageing themselves in most dangerous counsells and practises against the profession and professors of the true religion. This, with some other thinges of neare concernment to both these nations and the publique interest, hath moved us to send this gentleman to your majestie in the qualitie of envoye extraordinary, whom wee entreate your majestie friendly to receive, and to give hym full credit in what he shall communicate to your majestie on our behalf, being a person whom wee entirelye trust. And wee entreate your majestie to be assured of our true affection and good-will to your person and affaires; whereof we shall give reall demonstrations on all occasions, which shall be offered to
An intercepted letter to the lord Conway.
Since the loss of Turenne's baggage, which is very great, he hath lost also a very considerable convoy coming from Arras to his leaguer; yet notwithstanding these misfortunes he hath taken St. Venant, and immediately relieved Ardres, which was be sieged by the enemy. Since, it is said, they intend towards Dunkirk, as soon as they can recruit their loss both in baggage and in money. By the way I must tell you, that much honour is attributed to the redcoats, who desired the honour to storm, which was granted, and performed so bravely, that they took St. Venant by storm at the very assault, but with very great loss; which gallantry was very much commended, and notice sent of it to the king and cardinal, which hath got them great reputation. It is and will be a very active time here.
Resolution of the states-general.
Was heard the report of the lords Huygens and others their H. and M. L. commissioners for the affairs of Sweden and Denmark, who having examined the proposition of monsr. Aitzma, made to the assembly on the 13th of August last, in the name and on the behalf of the city of Bremen, and in regard of the present war risen in and about those parts between the kings of Sweden and Denmark for assistance and security; whereupon being debated, it is resolved to declare herewith, that in case the casus do chance to happen, mentioned in the treaty made between this state and the Hans-towns on the 4th of Aug. 1645, that then their H. and M. L. do find themselves obliged, and will not fail to perform all what can be desired of them in conformity of the said treaty; whereof the said city may be consident.
Sir John Reynolds to secretary Thurloe.
Since the going of major Haynes, I received your's of July 30th (old style) as I supposed, and shall onely adde what may be satisfactory to your commands therein, least he should not be able to do it. Concerning my not wrighting, I have not onely a good excuse (but impossibility of sending letters untill now) to pleade for my silence: and as to our mens going away, I suppose the want of seizing on them in England is the chiese cause, divers having wrote letters thence to their comarades, that the passage was easy: and some have had letters from their wives, that such as came over were againe listed in their old regiments. This deserves examination, and an order to all officers by sea and land to seize such as were not discharged thro' unfittness to serve in France, yet are returned without leave. I much wonder at the rumour of your souldiours running to the enemy, having lately by a sergeant in my regiment, and formerly of my regiment in Ireland, a full information. The same person was taken with our sicke men goeing to the hospital of St. Quintin, who I doe not thinke (notwithstanding the officers paper of grievances) were lost willfully by the French: he being knowne to have a relation to me, and having uttered words of affection to his highnes, was constrain'd, for feare of death, to take up armes, and was made a lieutenant in the duke of Yorke's regiment, in which he continued six weekes, and saw all his men, who are Irish and some Scotts. There were not at his coming, which was two dayes since, more than twenty-eight souldiours, who came over with this army, in the whole Spanish army; and not one man, except Elwayes, who was made a lieutenant, and one more, who was in armes; but they marched loosely and disconsolately, seeking meanes to run home, or backe againe, as some have done the last night. The tide turning, the duke of York will loose some speedily.
I desire the friends of Elwayes living in Lincolnshire may be examined concerning his designes in coming into France, and that they give notice of his coming over into England at their peril; this Elwayes being of a gentleman's family, yet a villaine of debauched life, who hath threaten'd to endeavour to kill his highness. Wee have had some blasts of northerne aire amonst us. It was wrote hence, and more spoken of by an eminent officer heere than there was cause, or (as it appeareth) truth, that the command of your army was given to the lord Rich, and not to the lord-deputy; and that he who lost it did not resigne it, but it was commanded from him by his highnes, neither was he permitted to continue of your councell; but these are over and past, yet not without my observation, which I esteeme part of my duty. I much rejoice to heare of the good frame of the officers: my prayers have been amongst them, and my endeavours should be with them to the hazard of my life, that kindnes may be shewed to the house of Gideon by the people, whom he hath, as David, delivered on every side. Wee have here a rumour, that general Blake is slaine. The lord ambassador hath, I suppose, inform'd you of the sending money from court, which is arrived, and, as the cardinal assured me in a kind message, more shall follow, to advance money to the souldiours. That which is come hath paide until September; so that I am of opinion, our treatement hath not been bad; and where we failed, it was against the cardinal's mind, as particularly our bad armes delivered at landing, and some other things mentioned in your officers paper, which I desire may not be made use of, except it be to hasten the supply of clothes sent for by major Haynes, without which your souldiours will certainely perish in winter.
I have lately againe renewed my pressing mr. Turene to endeavour something of advantage to England, as wel as France; and have so stated the possibility of getting a good fort, if not a good towne, that I think nothinge but a pure French interest can hinder. Mr. Shomberg is verry much possessed of it, and hath undertaken to renew the proposition; but all is referred to the court, which is expected to come to the army suddenly, or to St. Venant, which is not far from Litters, whither we march in the morning. I know not what resolutions will be taken, but do much feare upon La Ferte's advance to a conjunction with his army, (which will be when the court advances, or before it) that our march will be retrograde, or upon some inland place, or another passe into Flanders, to enlarge contribution. I could by no meanes prevaile, that there was a safety in marching beyond the Lis without a passe upon it. I shall not father detaine you, but commit you to the Almighty guidance, and remaine,