A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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September (3 of 4)
The answer of the king of Denmark to the protector's offer of a mediation.
Serenissimus & potentissimus Daniæ, Norwegiæ, Vandalorum, Gothorumque rex, & dominus noster clementissimus, ex propositione iteratâ serenissimi ac celsissimi reipublicæ Angliæ, Scotiæ, & Hiberniæ, protectoris, &c. nobilissimi domini ablegati extraordinarii, Philippi Meadowe, coram intellexit, quam gravi dolore bellum nuper inter suam regiam majestatem & regem Sueciæ coortum sua serenissima celsitudo perceperit, quibus argumentis prægnantibus pacem ac concordiam suadere, ac quanto ardore belli infinita incommoda inter religionis communione & sanguinis vicinitatisque vinculo conjunctissimos reges avertere studeat, suamque meditationem hunc in finem offerat. Et quanquam prædicta sua regia majestas, dominus noster clementissimus, has ex bello orientes miserias maturè secum prependerit, & semper summâ curâ sinceram stabilemque cum omnibus, præcipuè regnis vicinis, amicis, ac confœderatis concordiam ac amicitiam conservare studuerit, extremâ tamen urgente necessitate post intolorabiles injurias ac varia damna illata spretisque à sacris æquissimis pacis conditionibus ad arma accipienda compulsa. Nihilominus in limine belli hoc sibi proposuit, proptereaque arma suscepit, ut per illa tàm suæ regiæ majestati quàm omnibus accolis maris Balthici ad commerciorum ac navigationis libertatem sincera, tuta, ac secura pax reducatur, neque quicquam hactenus prætermisit, quo tàm salutare pacis negotium promoveatur. Et cum serenissima sua celsitudo singulari quodam studio, prudentiâ, animi magnitudine, suam interpositionem ac mediationem ad componendas has lites & controversias inter hæc regna septentrionalia offerat, seque cum omni æquanimitate atque indifferentia in hoc negotio gerere velle promittat, serenissimæ suæ regiæ majestati hæc cura pro tranquillitate regnorum suorum, evangelicorum inter se concordiâ ac commerciorum libertate gratissima omnino est: & uti serenissima sua celsitudo haud parum suæ regæ majestatis domini nostri clementissimi animus sibi novo hoc amicitiæ officio pacis restaurendæ devinxit, ita gratâ mente hanc operam agnoscet, & ob allegatas rationes ad istiusmodi tractatus pacis securæ, honestæ, firmæ, ac inviolabilis, sub interpositione serenissimæ suæ celsitudinis consentiet. Quam primum verò altissimè memoratæ suæ regiæ majestati innotuerit serenissimum ac potentissimum Sueciæ regem ad pacis negotium pari studio collimare, ratione temporis, loci, ac modi tractatus pluribus mentem suam explicabit. Quod speciale mandatum serenissimæ regiæ majestatis, domini nostri clementissimi, nobilissimo domino ablegato extraordinario ad ea, quæ oretenus proposuit, ac in scriptis exhibuit, loco responsi regii sub sigilli suæ regiæ majestatis impressione exhibitum.
A letter of Intelligence.
For news we have a report here, that the two fleets met last saturday and sunday. The Swede had thirty two good ships, and six branders; the Dane hath twenty five, and two branders. It is supposed the Swedes had the better. The certainty we shall have in a day or two. The king is at Wismar. There is nothing between the land-forces.
A letter of information.
Being with Fitz-Symons on thursday last, and among other discourses that past between us, I asked him, what was his intention to wait on my lord in his circuit? who answered, that it was to take notice how the army should be quartered, and who should command such and such garrisons; a relation of which he was to send to Spaine, and directed to O-Neil, who by the persuasion of the clergy there is to be chief of those, that are designed for invadeing this nation. He tells me, that O-Bryan Roe O-Neile and O-Sulivan Beare mett with a Spanish vessell in Munster, which took them aboard into Spain, and brought along with them several petitions from the Catholicks of this nation, declareing under what tyrannicall government they live; makeing mention more than at large of this oath, which is to be forced on them, and craveing assistance from all the catholick princes of Christendom, and offering all that they have for the reception of their assistance.
De le Becque, post-master of Calais, to mr. Blancart.
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwel, major-general of the army in Ireland.
The French buissines is now soe much upon the anvile, that there is little else minded here for the present. The French armye is near Dunkirke and Mardyke, and pretend to lay siedge to it at this tyme of the yeare, and demaund some further assistance hence, which is now under consideration; and untill this be resolved on, nothinge else will be taken in hand. I am not insensible, how much the affaires of Ireland deserve consideration; and I doe not thinke of them without some shame, that a business of soe great importance should be soe ill provided for. What your lordship hath mentioned concerninge some persons, I shall not forget, when the time comes for the settlinge this affaire, which wee must waite upon God in.
Many considerations have beene about the reducement of Ireland. The way, that is for the present thought of, is, to allow you a certeyne sume of money, and to leave it to you there to bring your charge to it, by such wayes and meanes as you shall judge most proper and convenient. I am well satisfied with the way, if your lordship be with the same. The whole, that is spoke of, is about 312000 pound per ann. viz. 7000 per month out of the 35000 l. taxes here; which with the 9000 l. per month ariseinge out of the taxes of Ireland, and the other revenue there, will (wee thinke) make up the former sume. If I may have the favour of your lordship's thoughts in this particuler, I shall endeavour to rectefye any thinge, that shall be amisse, either in the computation or manner of reducement; although in this latter, I judge it cannot be put in a better way, whereby it will be in your power to avoyd the inconveniencye of reduceinge the souldiers, and keepeinge on foot all the officers.
The foreine post is stopped at Dunkirke by the Spanyard, soe that wee are kept wholly in ignorance as to the affaires of Sweden, Denmarke, and the empire: the reason of this stopp is the approach of the French soe neare that place. I remeyne
Mr. Samuel Disbrowe, one of the council of Scotland, to secretary Thurloe.
Att my coming downe, not finding the comission for administring the oath to the councill arived, I troubled you with a few lines to put you in mind of it, and hoped before this it might have bin sent; but knowing the various ocasions that attend you, I thought once more to tell you, that the councill acts not, neyther may they, untill that comission comes; and therefore beg, that you will please to mind it, as also the signature for the colledge of Aberdeene, and the letter that concernes the commissioners of claymes; both which you were pleased to comit to your servant, to write over the night before I came away, and were pleased to promise mee to send them downe also with the other. As to the comission concerning the exchequer, although the objections, as I hear, that are made against it, be noe other then what may be made against any proceeding, though never so right and legall, if it takes away any thing from any considerable persons, viz. that it may put them into discontents, and as some posibly may say, tumults; which kind of arguments will serve to deterr from most necessary dutyes; but I would not urge any thing, especially when it may seeme to some, that I am looking after poure to myeselfe, which if others and myselfe named in that comission had, it would bring more trouble and paynes then any one thing wee att present undergoe. Therefore in reason, and lookinge to my owne ease, I should not desire it; but if thereby wee might have had a further oper tunity to serve his highnes, I think it would have pleased every honest mind; but because I heare som thinges in that commission doe sticke with som members of the councill with you, I have thought with the rest of the comissioners of the exchequer here, to make a tryall of recovering these concealed or dilapidated estates in the ordinary way, before the comissioners for administration of justice, wherein, if wee find the Scotch judges to act handsomely and roundly in the busyness according to their dutyes, wee shall not need to trouble you for any other comission. That which I informed in my last, concerning the gift of his highnes to the coledge of Glascow, I find by further inquiry to be truth, and greatly to his highnes's prejudice. I have noe more, but to returne my humble and harty thankes for your care and respects to mee while with you; and soe subscribe myself,
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Received your letter of the 9th instant, and humbly thanke you for the care you have had of sir Alexander Inglis businesse, to which truly if his highnesse please to give a favourable answer, hee may doe his councill heere a great deale of right in itt, as alsoe the honest man concerned. The councill heere are att a stand in theire businesse, till such time as his highnesse and councill send downe an order for takeing their oathes. Wee understand the councill have past itt in England; but where it sticks now, we know not. I thought fitt to acquaint you with itt, being some of the members are not free to act till itt comes. I am glad to heare, that the forces sent to Jamaica are like to doe so well, and that the island proves so good a soyle, and so healthfull: I hope in a short time there will so many people flock thither, that it will be secured from any injury the Spaniard can doe to them, and be a meanes to get us further footing in that country, when wee are better provided with monie. The newes wee heare from Charles Stuart is, that they have a mind to attempt something about the midle of October; but my intelligencer sayes, hee beleeves itt will come to nothing: and I am perfectly of his opinion, unlesse the Dutch fall out with us; which I hope they dare not doe. I remayne
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
In the civill-list, lately presented to the councill here by his highnesse, wee have taken off all the officers of the admiralty: butt I thinke itt will be convenient to have some man appointed to judge those matters, though itt happens but seldom, and the salary being but little. And truely if I might be so bold to recommend to you sir James Mac Dowall, who is a discreete gentleman, that hee might bee appointed to have that place, if itt be thought fitt by his highnesse and councill to have one to execute that place. Which is all at present from
Mareschal Turenne to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Je suis fort aisé, que nous soyons approchez de vous. Vous voyez bien, que le temps presse fort; & voicy une conjoncture à ne pas perdre, & il n'y a que la saison contre. Mais il ny a rien de si necessaire, que des gens frais, & que monsieur le protecteur sasse un effort pour envoyer le plus qu'il pourra.
L'ennemy a peu d'infanterie; & quand il y en aura icy beaucoup, on gardera de porter encore, qu'ils ne soient pas bien fortifiez. Je vous supplie de parler à monseigneur le protecteur, asin qu'il y vienne quelques batteaux chargez de foin, & aussy quelqu'un avec de l'avoine. On ne le prendra qu'avec bon compte pour le payer; ou bien, que monseigneur le protecteur le donne sur le tant moins de ce qu'il fournira.
A letter of intelligence.
In my last of the 12th of this month, I writ you at large conserning the discourse I have had with the collonell that was with you in lent last, by the name of Vinson; the other name I writ you in my last; being present monsieur Lambert and major Scippon. The rest you know, and I doe very well know what servis hee is abele to doe you in the gayning of the sea-ports heare. Now since upon furder conference together hee hath shewed me a letter sent lately to him by an exprese messenger from the cardinall Maserine, sined by the king, that if hee and his partie doe make themselves master of Oostend, the towne should remaine in theyre hands, and hee would protect them, and furnish them with all thinges they should stand in neede of, after it was taken. Now the byesnes was in a very good forwardnes to have bin peforemed before this, if mounser Tourayne had not come soe sowne into West-Flanders, and caused all the contre peopell to fly into that towne for the strength of it, and many into the rest thereabouts: soe that his partie at present is to weake, til such time those peopell are gon out agayne. Now hee teles mee, hee and his partie had rather put themselves under your protection, if you like of it; for they have no greate trust in the French; for Massarine sent him word, hee should not adrese himselfe forder to you, for hee is to have neither men nor money from the French, neyther doth he desire any from you, till the byesnes bee don; and then they wil make conditions with you: and as for the next towne to it, if you doe agree, hee wil undertake you may have them both in your hands this winter yet, and the rest in a short time after; for I cannot exprese soe much with my pen, as I have hard from him. I doe beleve, if you doe but send a smale answere of my last, or this with the first, I should persuade him to come to you: but hee was discovered the last time hee was there, and was put into theyre coranto of Bridg, uppon the 25th of May last, that hee was to goe with your men to the French; therefore he is very scrupelus to come; but, uppon my life, hee is abell with his frinds heare to doe you more servis then any in these parts; for the Flemings heare are very weary of theyr new master's oppression: for hee lives at soe high a rate, they are not abele to beare it; and there bee divers townes wil rather imploy theyre monyes in defence of themselves, then bee so hardened as they are. I make noe dout you know the French are a fortifying of Burburg, 9 miles from Mearedike, which place they have beseged on sunday last; and if they tak it, they doe intend to make a line of communication betwene the Burburg and that, if they can, which will ax a greate many men to maynetayne; for the flankerege to those courtines wil take up a great dele of ground more, and if they make this line, and can keep it, Graveling is blocked up on this side. I heare, they doe intend to put the Englise souldeers to winter into Burburg; which if they doe, I feare it wil prove an ill garrison for them, for the French cannot stay long heare, for there is hardly meate for man, and worse for horse: and if they can deliver you Mearedike, it will be all they can doe, and that will cost very much to be kept this winter, except the line be made, and can be mayntayned; for the Spayniard hath within few dayes got a supply out of Dutchland of 6000 horse and foote; and the report went yesterday about, that they did intend to give the French battell within 3 or 4 days; and if I durst speake my opinion, I see the French do not meane, what they make shew of: I could give you my reasons for it, but leave it to the end, or to them that knowes much better. I pray be pleased to send the partie some smale answer one way or other; and if there bee any thinge wherein I can serve you, hee shal be alwas that has ever bin, and shal stil remayne
H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
That you gave mee but a hint concerning the state of affaires, I take to be your tenderness toward mee; for whereas you say, [there are some hindrances, which God in his good time will remove out of the way,] I suppose you did not speake more plainely, for feare of frighting mee with the power of my adversaries, and the mislike of mee and my proceedings, which are the hindrances I conceive you meane. Indeed I believe those hindrances are such, that (as you very well note) God only can remove them. This I collect as well from others, as from those wary and gentle expressions of yours. Wherefore having done what I cane, and indeed as much as in good conscience I dare, but seeing, that what is done, doth produce so much hæsitation concerning mee, I am more and more inclined to that retirement, which I have severall times formerly mentioned. It is neither sullenness, nor impatience, nor frowardness, that ocasions this repetition of my desires; for when I see I can be usefull, I shall submit to any thing, that may be for publick good; and in whatever condition providence shall caste mee, I shall still owne your friendshipp, and be carefull to acknowledge my thankes. I remaine
Consul Maynard to secretary Thurloe.
Yesterday arryved in Calais-roade 14 Holland men of warr commanded by admirall Opdam; and De Rutter is dayly expected from the Straites with 15 shippes more to joyne with him; which putts all those that fitt at the helme here in this kingdome at their witts end, and breeds a huge distraction among the common people, beeinge they expecte theire Brazill fleete betwixt this and the midle of November next. If they should loose this fleete, they are ruined; and to oppose the Hollanders in this conjuncture of tyme they are not able. This day admiral Opdam sent a messenger to the kinge to know, whether he would admit of a treaty, haveinge brought with him three men deputed by the states of Holland to treate of all differences betweene the crowne of Portugall and the United Provinces. The kinge readilly consented they should come ashore to treate of the business they came aboute; and I understand (by the Duch consull) their demands will be so much beyond reason, that it will be impossible for this nation to graunte them. They (by his reporte) will demand 5,000,000 of crowns ready money, and a free trade into the Brazill with all goods and shipes whatsoever belong to the subjects of the states of Holland. They may as well ask the kingdome of Portugall, and it would be as soon granted them. This troubles the Portugese more than theire warr with Spaine a great deale; for they can make noe resistance against the one, but they will be able to defend themselves from the Spaniard, against whom they have lately had good success. In Alentejo they killed and took aboute 150 of the Spanish horse, and in the north of Portugall they killed about 200 horse and foote the last weeke; which are looked on here as great victories.
This day came into the harbour the Lamport, commanded by capt. Coppinge, one of his highness's frigotts belonginge to the squadron under the command of admiral Stoakes: she could keep at sea noe longer, beeinge extream leaky. The captain reports, that 7 or 8 more of the squadron will be necessitated to come in here within 10 or 12 dayes, beeinge in the same condition he is. He tells me, that 2 Hollanders richly loaden from the Canaries, are lately got into Giblatore, and that the Spaniards are makinge extraordinary heaste to sende out their fleete from Cadix, that they may be at sea before another fleete come out of Ingland, beinge confident, that the greateste parte of the fleete, which are now on the coaste of Spaine will be able to keepe the sea, when the winter weather comes on; which by all the information I can learne will prove too true. I have formerly hinted to your honor the abuse, which is here in the sale of the prize-goods taken in these portes: all is leste to the disposinge of one man, whoe, noe question, is a buyer as well as a seller. The iron lately taken was sold for a quarter lesse than other Inglish merchants would have given for it, if it had been exposed to publick sale; but all thinges are solde in secrett, in which his highness and the commonwealth are extreamly abused. About 15 dayes since admirall De Rutter came out of Cadix, and exprest a great deal of submission to his highness's fleet. He was himselfe aboard admirall Stoakes, and told him, he was then goeinge to convoy some shipes into the Straites, but was to retourne with all expedition to meete admirall Opdam before Lisbon. These people support themselves with hopes, that his highness the lord protector will assiste them in convoyinge home theire fleeteI beseech the Lord to blesse and prosper your honor, which shall still be the hearty prayers of
Don John of Austria to the states-general.
Leroy, mon seigneur, en témoignage du desir, qu'il a d'ajuster & accommoder amiablement avec les seigneurs estats-generaux des Provinces Unies, & à leur entiere satisfaction, autant que faire se peut, les affaires & matieres, qui s'offrent à demester journellement entre sa majesté & lesdits seigneurs estats, & particulierement celle, qui reste en execution & accomplissement du traité de paix concernant le païs d'Outremeuse, m'ayant donné le pouvoir & pleine puissance pour en traitter & conclure avec lesdits seigneurs estats, ou ceux, qui seront à ce specialement commis & autorisez par eux: & ayant consideré, qu'il m'est impossible, durant encore le temps de la campagne, & devant que les quartiers d'hyver de l'armée soyent faits & distribuez, de vacquer & m'employer en personne à cette affaire; & d'autre costé desirant de seconder & l'advancer, autant qu'en moy est, la droicte intention desdits seigneurs estats, qui est de par la composition & accommodement de cette matiere, couper à la racine tous subjects & occasions des mesintelligences reciproques, & obvier à toutes voyes de fait & repressailles, pour ce est-il, qu'en la qualité de lieutenant & capitain-general de sa majesté dans ces provinces de son obeissance, nous donnons par la presente pouvoir & faculté à don Estevan de Gamarra, ambassadeur ordinaire de sa majeste, resident vers lesdits seiganeurs estats, d'entrer en conference amiable avec lesdits seigneurs ou leurs deputez, à ce specialement authorisez, sur ces difficultez, qui restent ouvertes par ledit traité de paix concernant ledit païs d'Outremeuse, & recevoir & convenir des moyens d'accommodement & composition de cette matiere, & en conclure le traité sous nostre adveu & approbation, promettant & nous obligeant de ratifier en vertu du pouvoir, que nous en avons de sa majesté, ou le faire ratifier par sadite majesté ce que par ledit ambassadeur sera fait, geré, negotié, & accordé en ce regard, en la forme que dit est, & ce en dedans le temps, qui sera specialement arresté pour l'exhibition des ratifications reciproques. Fait à Duynkerrk, le 26e de Septembre 1657. [N. S.]
The chevalier De Terlac to mons. De Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Being yet here with the king of Sweden, after the death of mons. D'Avaugour at Lubeck the 11th instant, I thought I could not do amiss, if I answered the letters, which the court continueth to write to the deceased, before they knew of his death; and if I undertook his correspondency, which he held with the ministers of our king in foreign parts: and I was the more willing to begin with your lordship, that I might thereby have an opportunity to assure you of my most humble service, and to give you an account of what passeth here. The king of Sweden will stay here some time for several reasons, expecting with impatience news from his fleet, which is at sea, and which some persons affirm to have engaged with that of the Danes, and that the Swedes had the better of it. We expect the confirmation of it every moment.
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Have received the commission for administring of an oath to the councill of Scotland, for which we returne you thankes, being heere were some, that were unwilling to act, till such time as the oath did come. Sir, I must desire one favour of you, that as the order for the 9000 l. uppon the excise of beere and ale brewed in Edenburgh and Leith is not yett come to our hands, and the time being come for the setting itt out, I shall desire, if it be not too much trouble to you amongst the multitude of your affaires, that you will please to speake to the clerke of the councill, that itt may bee sent away to us. For newes heere we have none at all. I remayne
From Boreell the Dutch embassador at Paris.
Some dare report, that the journey of the cardinal and mons. Servien to Philipsburgh and Brisac (whereof the report goeth very strong) that it is to speak with the earl of Pigneranda, and to treat about a general peace; for which the said earl is said to have full and ample power and authorization from the king of Spain. If so be this journey do proceed, some hope, that it will be a means to put a good issue to this long-continued war; yea, there be some persons, that conceive, that the business of the peace with Spain is far advanced.
The revenue in this kingdom doth begin to fall somewhat short, and in my mind the inclination here doth increase more and more for the renewing of the ancient alliance with their H. and M. L. and to strengthen the same, in regard they say, there is more certainty and advantage to be found in that with their H. & M. L. than with any other.
The agreement made in the Hague, on the 20th of June last, doth seem to reduce all things here to good decorum and order again, although here and there some obstacles do arise; but in time all will go well.
Gubernatori Kockenhusensi, Offonasion. ord. in Hassokin.
Illustrissime ac excellentissime domine,
Acceptatissimis vestræ excellentiæ literis humanitatem & savorem spirantibus jamdudum respondissem, ni horetena expectatio novorum meorum diplomatum à suâ serenissima celsitudine, protectore reipublicæ Angliæ, Scotiæ, & Hiberniæ, domino meo clementissimo, uberiorem materiam oblaturam pollicita fuisset. Quandoquidem igitur hæc demum rectificato titulo assunt, consultum putavi (respiciens autumni injuris iter ad celeberrimam Mesinam dissuadentes, suadentes potiùs differre in viarum accommodatiorem hyemem) præsentem expressum ad suæ potentissimæ cæsaræ majestatis dominum cancellarium (ad maturationem, quoad ejus fieri potere, arduæ istius negotiationis, quàm cùm suâ serenissimâ cæsareâ majestate accipere clementissimé amandatus sum) repentè mittere, & ut satis vestræ excellentiæ mihi spectata & explorata sit benevolentia & savorabilis comitas, ita & pœnitus consido, vestram excellentiam dictum hunc expressum cùm benignè recepturam, tùm etiam ist is omnibus, quibus exorsum iter indignerit, ad invictissimæ cæsareæ majestatis omni mundo celeberrimam metropolin, provisuram, siquidem cum primis hisce in arduis comparatis moræ periculum (cum ut certior factus sum multorum magnatorum confilia ipso tempore ad hunc scopum seriò & pronè colliment, quo nimirum omnes diffensiones inter tres potentissimos monarchas Suecum, Polonum, & Danum ortæ è medio tollantur, & universali pace coronati acquiescunt) non solum humanissimam intermediationem magni mei & clementissimi domini feriendo feliciffimæ & æternæ pacis fœdus cum suâ cæsareâ majestate & serenissimo Suecorum rege impediret & distraheret, verùm etiam suæ cæsareæ majestatis opinanter conceptum inclinationis affectum sterilem & cassum redderet, si astans occasio elaberetur. Insuper vestram excellentiam obnixè rogatam volo, ut de omnibus sufficiens notificatio quàm primum ope vestræ excellentiæ mihi contingat, illamque præviâ amica salutatione divinæ tutelæ commendo.
To mr. Bradshaw.
Illustrissime ac excellentissime domine,
Literas sat desirabiles illustrissimæ excellentiæ suæ ad czareæ majestati domini mei clementissimi dominum cancellarium directas, pro more & officio meo, cursu singulari in Muscoviam expediam, illincque responsorias, uti primum pervenerint, sine mora remitti curabo.
Vestræ vero excellentiæ tempori inservire pro majori tuâ commoditate placeat: autumnus enim (quo invisibilis hostis venenata lue amicissimis etiam intersepsit) per sylvas & nemora lutosum solet adferre iter. Hyems vero placidos comparat vehiculos, nec ille plus, speramus, grassabitur. Me interim ad sua desideria affectu & officio obsequiorum paratum esse, cujus felicem adventumque hospitemque gratum utinam amplecti meis vicibus possim. Hisce brevious favori suo me quam diligentissimè commendo, manens
An intercepted letter of sir Robert Honeywood to sir Walter Vane.
It being now friday 4 of the clock in the afternoon, and no letters yet come from your side, I suspect mine of the last week may have suffered the like interruption from the interposition of the armies; the French, as was written from Dunkirk, on monday last the 24/14th instant having been then at Bourbourg, and the Spaniards having put their little all into garrisons, don John at Dunkirk, prince of Condé at Wynoxbergen, Marsin at Armintiers, and the prince of Ligné at Graveling, having withdrawn the cannon out of Mardyke, and prepared mines in the bulwarks, to make it as little useful as may be, if they see they must quit it: as being only a fort of four bastions without any outworks, it is not easy to be held; but I conceive the wet weather may prove a great diversion, and let things remain as they are till the next year. The great towns of Flanders seeing the little care taken for them, having first made a declaration to don John of their intention to remain the king of Spain's faithful subjects, have resolved to provide for their own safety, and do all take on men upon their own pay, which, though he like not, yet he cannot in this conjuncture help. That province is very miserable, lying for the most part under contribution to both sides. It is believed here, that though there be a treaty betwixt the French and the protector concerning some maritime place to be put into his hands, yet that the former will find means to elude any such engagement; and it is not a little wondered at, that the protector contributes so vigorously to the putting of that province, or some considerable places of it, into the hands of the French; the effect whereof, in all probability, may at last turn to an account of great disadvantage to him. There has been a coldness between don John and mons. the prince ever since the withdrawing off from Ardres, which the latter promised himself to take in 18 hours, and reckoned mons. de Turenne could not be there in 24: but the former would not hearken to it, as not willing to be engaged to a possibility of a battle, though the latter offered with 3000 foot and 1000 horse to make the retreat; the particulars of which were so pressed and rejected by the one side and the other, that something yet sticks from thence betwixt them. From Denmark the letters from the ordinary are not yet come; and though something be spoken to the disadvantage of the Swedes, yet this is certain, all Holstein and Jutland are under their contribution, and the king of Denmark crieth out for help to this state of men and money. The latter is granted them, but how they will be able to perform the other in such a proposition as is offered, I know not.
The embassadors are gone this morning to use all endeavours to oblige the bishop of Munster to withdraw his siege; and it is probable they may prevail, if what be advertised to day be true, that the town hath made a fally out, and killed 600 of the besiegers, who are not of foot above 3000, besides some boors. This state doth intend to assist the town, and to that end patents are given out for horse and foot.
Sir John Reynolds to secretary Thurloe.
I am very unwilling to give more hopes than there is a just ground for; but I hope the promise of mouns. Turenne to attempt Mardike so soone as he hath made the passage cleare from Burbrooke to Ardre in France (which the enemy quitted the last night) which I doubt not will be effected within three dayes. In the meane time he hath desired me to write unto his highnes for supplyes of morter-pieces, greate cannon, and ammunition, with pioner's tooles. I pray your speedy order therein, and that the fleete may approch upon the coast, with orders to afford their assistance, if there be occasion, at the siege. The body of English being much lessened, mons. Turen is verry desirous of a supply of 2000 or 3000 soote to be sent over; otherwise he suspects his sorces to be insufficient: but I dare promise no such assistance, beseeching your opinion and order therein. I shall leave the particulars of this affaire to be represented by the bearer; and humbly comitt you to the Almighty guidance, and remaine,
Sir John Reynolds to general Montagu.
I am againe commanded by his highnes marshall Turenne to give your lordshipp a second invitation with the English fleete to the coast of Flanders; and if there be possibility of safe riding, it would much conduce to the service, if your lordshipp would appoint the fleete to ly before Mardyke and Dunkirke: and that correspondency may be hindered betweene them, it is desired by mons. Turenne, that your lordship be pleased to appoint some good number of small ships to anchor betweene the flats, or sands. This being of so greate importance to the service of his highnes the lord protector, I do not question your lordshipp's sence thereof, and shall only remind your lordship of the engagement of his highnes to the king of France, that artillery, powder, and morter-pieces, should be sent, and we hourly expect their arrivall, and shal soone want them at our siege of Mardyke. I shall not farther trouble your lordshipp, but conclude, and remaine,
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to Ruysch.
Since the 13th instant I have receiv'd no letters at all, yet I hope you will have receiv'd my letters of the 14th and 21st instant; and in case the armies in West-Flanders do remain upon the sea-coasts, and there be no other order taken for the passage of the letters, I hope their H. and M. L. will take care to send me their letters by some other way; they knowing, in their great wisdoms, how necessary and requisite it is for their ministers abroad to know the commands and intentions of the lords their principals. I was to see the lord secretary of state yesterday, and to know of him, if there was any thing further resolv'd upon the subject of the marine-treaty since the last conference held with me. His honour said, report had been made, and that it was thought good, that a whole projected treaty should be drawn up, and proposed to me, in regard, that upon the considerablest points of the same so many several debates on both sides had often happened, that he believed there could be nothing more said upon them. I desired, that it might be done as soon as may be, believing, that the reasons alledged on bahalf of their H. and M. L. were so powerful, that the said business would be at last made an end of. Furthermore, I recommended unto his lordship the releasing of the ship Morning-star, and also of a ship called the Cat. belonging to Horne, the skipper whereof in April last sold some deal-boards to bay provisions with, and to pay for some things which he owed: whereupon some informers went and arrested the ship and goods, by virtue of the act of parliament of the 19th of October 1651. His honour promised me to propose it to the council, and some of the lords promised me, that some order shall be made in it at their first sitting.
P. S. Upon the 24th of this month the return ship, called the Henrietta Louisa, arrived before the harbour of Weymouth, and the skipper bought there some refreshments, causing the same to be brought aboard of him, with an intention to sail directly for Zealand, without staying any where.
From Monsr. De le Becque, the post-master of Calais.
All the baggage of our army is in the Basse-ville, with about 4000 horse, which do utterly ruin the country. All our farmers are quite undone. Burbourg must remain in the hands of the French. This all the news I have at present.
Our army hath been encamped these ten days about two leagues from Graveling, on that side of the river, and yesterday they decamped, and as we hear are marched to Mardyke to besiege it: but if they have not present success, I suppose they will not be able to continue long before it; for they have already sent a good part of their baggage this way. The reason why our army did lie still so long, was to receive advice from our protector to mareschal Turenne's remonstrance, that the season was too far spent to meddle with Dunkirk: so I suppose we shall only alarm them. Your English army is in good condition.
Charost, governor of Calais, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
As soon as your gentleman arrived, I gave him one of my horses to go find out mons. de Turenne, who is before Mardyke; and I am the most deceiv'd in the world, if the fort did not blow up yesterday in the afternoon at four of the clock, the enemy perceiving our army to approach them. I do not write to mons. Talon, believing him to be dispatch'd, and on his way back. I pray, if he be still in England, let him know, that I am his servant, and that I sent his letter to mons. de Turenne. I believe, that Mardyke being blown up, it will be very difficult to do any thing else this season, the sea being troublesome at this season of the year; for Dunkirk and Graveling are well provided. We should have begun this business in July. The return of mons. Talon will let us know all things. The English ships will now have liberty to ride all winter under Mardyke.
The bishop of Munster to the states-general.
We have understood by your H. and M. L. letter of the 24th instant, how that your H. and M. L. have sent some commissioners unto us; and in regard we were ready, just upon the receipt of the said letter, to depart for our castle of Almys, and to be there against to morrow at noon, where we intend to stay a-while, we shall be glad to receive the said commissioners and their message there; and we shall always remain to demonstrate unto your H. and M. L. all manner of acceptable, friendly, and neighbourly service.
Mr. Henry Booth to Regnier.
Mardike is now besieged; the English fleet is before it, the French by land; so that it's believed it cannot hold out long; and whether they will end the campaign so, or undertake something else before they go to winter-quarters, is uncertain. The poor countrymen suffer much on both sides, being as much ruined by friend as soe.
A letter of intelligence.
I Wrote to you at large on monday last. I am still with the ambassadors, and much wooed by them to stay with them 'till their revocation. They have to much obliged me, wholy to refuse them, and the rather, beeing I may be of use where I am, and possi bly stumble upon a fortune. Pray let me know, whether you receiv'd my last; it was materiall. Their hath nothing happened since worthy your knowledge. The king will treat no more with us, 'till he have reparation for the cassation of his agent at the Hague, and several other small traverses we have made him, as the sending of our fleet last year, the continuation of our militia in Dantzick, &c. His majesty is gon to his fleet from Wismar; and 'tis possible may hazard in person in a sea-fight. The fleets on both sides have skirmished already from far; some tackling and sayls have bin endamaged: the Swedes had the wind, but contented themselves in shewing their teeth, and lye now under Jasemont in Rugen. 5 or 6 of their captains, all Hollanders, may be trussed up; they refused, or were not forward in the fight. The Danes are upon their coasts. The Swedish fleet is full of soldiers; and 'tis probable, if they force the Dane to quit the sea, will venter a descent in some of the neighbouring islands. Passengers from the Pillaw say, they have bin a plundring in Bornholm, to revenge the ravage in the island of Rugen. 'Tis no more doubted but the elector of Brandenburgh is agreed with the Poles, who are expected dayly in Prussia. The Swedes have already quitted Lowenburg and Sturgard, and fortifie themselves amayn in Elbing, Marienburg and Thorn. 'Tis most certain, that Ragotski is ruined, and Cracaw surrender'd. Direct yours, as I have formerly told you, to mons. Romer, the states-general's agent in Hamburgh, and they will be faithfully conveyed to me. Fail not to let me hear from you, unless you will have me believe, that my correspondencie is not pleasing. There is no newes out of Holsteyn and Jutland that there is no action. Remember me to all my friends, especially to them in the countrey. I am
Charost, governor of Calais, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
I have writ to you at large. Mons. de Turenne hath finished his circumvallation about Mardyke: he only expecteth the English ships, which are in the channel; for he will make no assault upon the fort till they be arrived. It is thought, that Mardyke is undermined. Mons. Lockhart is gone by sea to find out mons. de Turenne, and the admiral. The wind is contrary, which hindreth the ships from coming into the channel. I believe, that mons. de Talon is upon his return.
A letter of intelligence.
The king of Sweden is at Straelsund. Concerning the fight at sea, they did but bark the one at the other: no ships sunk or taken. The Dane was sain to fly: the Danes lie at Elsinore, or thereabouts, and the Swedes at the island of Rugen; some say they are gone for Bornholm. We expect daily some action. The Pole is fallen into Hinder Pomerania; the Danes are fallen into the Stift of Pomerania with 2000 men. We hear as yet they have effected nothing, only ruinated the country. From the army we have no news.
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
Haveing given leave to mr. Hane (his wife being very sick) to goe for England, and the bearer comeing with an expresse to send him to the French army, that lyes before Dunkirke, I presently sent him away after mr. Hane to call him back, and hee overtook him at Alnewick. I offered him to pay the charges heere, but he would by no means receive itt, because hee said hee should be blamed for itt; so I thought fitt to ac quaint you with itt, that hee may receive satisfaction for the same. Which is all at present from
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland.
Beinge at this present very ill in my health, I can only begge leave to inform your lordship, that my expressions in my last, as to the settlement of the affaires in Ireland, were apprehended by your lordship somethinge further then I intended: the delay hath, I can assure you, another root then your lordship suspects: but I hope now, that your lordship shall not be put to expect much longer, I haveinge received orders from H. H. this week to prepare matters in order thereunto.
Wee are here very buissie about the affaires of Flanders, the fort of Mardyke beinge now besieged by marshall Turene; which seidge is assisted by general Mountagu at sea; and besides, the English, which are already there, H. H. is sendinge 2000 men more: they are already on board. Some great-guns and morter-pieces are alsoe sending. If it please God it be taken, it is to be put into H. H. hands. Wee can get no letter as yet from the eastern parts, the post being stopt. I begge your lordship's pardon for this short scribble, being indeed not able to write more.
Secretary Thurloe to lord Broghill at Dublin.
It pleaseth God, that I have not health enough at this time to give your lordship any longe trouble in any of your last. I can truly say, that there is noe person, that sits more uneasy then I doe under the confideration of the condition of the affaires of Ireland; but I am not now out of hope to see a fittinge settlement of that nation, as to the civill-government, having but lately had some neare discourse about it; which is all I will say now upon such subject. Mardyke sort is beseiged by the French army at land, and by younge Van Trump by sea. H. H. is alsoe sending to the army by land new supplies of men and other things. If it pleases God to give successe, this place is to be put into H. H. hands. I have noe other newes; if I had, I professe to your lordship, I am not able to write it for want of health. But I am, and wil be through the help of the Lord in all conditions,
Resident Sasborgh to the states-general.
My lords, yesterday at night arrived here an express from the Spanish army, who brought news, that the English had quitted Bourburgh; that the French with a good number of horse and foot were marching towards Mardyke, as I advised your H. and M. L. in my last; but changing their resolution, they were returned back. He also reporteth, that the said fort is well provided with all things, in regard the marquis of Ledu, governor of Dunkirk, had altered his resolution of flighting the same, did now intend to defend that place as long as it was possible; and it is conceived, that they will be able to hold out for fourteen days, and thereby hinder the further progress of their enemy for this year,
A letter of intelligence.
Fitz-Simons to the first of the queries sayeth, that by directions from Mc Loughlin he waited on my lord in his circuit, who (as he believes) received his directions from O-Sulivan Beare, and col. Bryan Roe O. Neile.
To the second he saith, he had no particular fellow in all his journey, but did freely discourse with any that spoke to him; and his excuse was, if any questioned what he was, that he was solicitor for Conly Magohigan; to which purpose he had several petitions and papers belonging to the said Magohigan.
To the third he sayes, that he went no further than Portumny, and that some dayes he went not in my lord's company, having some occasions to speak to some friends out of the road, and that at Portumny he received a letter from M Laughlin to come to him, which accordingly he did.
To the fourth he sayeth, that Londonderry, Carrickfergus, and Donnegall are the chiefest sea-ports that he knoweth in the north; the first being governed by lieutenantcolonel George, and strongly maned; the second having in it two foot companies, whose officers do receive their orders from my lord Chichister; the third by major Brookes, who comands two foot companies there, and is more, being a fort which comands the harbour.
He sayes likewise, that lately he received from Bonaventure Mc Loughlin, who is the chief from whom he receives his directions; that he finds from all parts of Ireland, that the Irish are greatly minded, with the least assistance from any foreign nation, to make warrs, and that they are ready on the first alarum.
H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
I Hope the alowance of 312,000 l. per ann. will bee sufficient: but I am afraid you mistake the revenew of Ireland, which cannot be extended to more than 70,000 l. per ann. untill the quitt-rents become due: for there is now a letter from H. H. to suspend the payments of them from the old proprietors; and by the act of parliament the adventurers and souldiers are not to pay theirs these 3 or 4 years next to come. Wherefore the good per mens. of assessments, with that 70,000 l. of revenew, will leave a 134,000 l. per ann. which is above 11,000 l. per mens. to be supplyed us from England; which I pray consider.
I well enough approve of the way of reducement; that is, your leaving it to be done uppon the place; yet I heare my brother Fleetwood has a modell prepared in England to bee sent us hither; which I pray consider likewise. My lord Broghill haveing been here about ten dayes making visitts and observations of all sorts, returned yesterday for Munster.
The oath of abjuration begetts much disturbance here; for the Irish, upon apprehension thereof, sell off their cattle, to buy horses, to putt themselves into a shifting condition, either for force or flight. Sober men are very apprehensive of the issue of this bussiness. I wish this extrame course had not been so suddenly taken, comeing like a thunder-clapp uppon them. I wish the oath for the present had provided (though in severest manner) for their renounceing all forreign jurisdiction; and as for other doctrinall matters, that some means had been first used to have informed their judgments with such ordinary smaller penalties as former experience has found effectuall. I wish H. H. were made sensible hereof in time. In the mean while I have issued fresh directions unto the army, to be carefull in their respective duties.
Dr. Carterett haveing been censured by the most part for his gross partiallitie in the case of lieutenant-colonel Brayfield, did, in a heatt, offer mee his commission. I wisht him to consider it; but after some time of pause, he did the same twice or thrice, desiring he might, in lieu of it, have some civill employment in England; but now seemes somewhat to recede from that offer. I hear you have a respect for him; wherefore, although I believe one of a more moderate temper would better become that place, and he better some other, yet I shall wholly follow your advice in disposeing of him, which I pray you to that end to impart to mee. I feare, that as things stand, I meddle with these things more than becomes mee; nevertheless think the best of my intentions therein; who am
Mr. Pell, the English envoy in Swisserland, to secretary Thurloe.
This last weeke the duke of Modena's sonne (who hath married one of cardinal Mazarin's nieces) came to Zurich, with 30 horse and some mules. He had passed through Geneva, where it was said, that he intended to go to Frankfort; but at Zurich he said, that he came from the camp neere Alessandria, and intended to goe to Modena, but was forced to take such crooked course, because he could not safely get home by any other way.
Yesterday a senator of Zurich, with a secretary of state, delivered to the English resident coppies of those writings, which the senate had promised him, and prepared to be by him sent to the English ambassadour at Paris. But they said, that all the other Protestant Cantons had by letters admonished them, not to make haste, but to deferr the sending them till their deputies had consulted at their next assembly at Baden, which will not be till Octob. 18; adding, that there could be no inconvenience arising from that delay, as long as the English ambassadour was so farre from the French court, which is now at Metz.
1. 2. The draught of the league and of the lettre annexe, to be subscribed both at one time, as they were sent August 10, 1657, to Soloturn, to the French ambassadour from the deputies of Zurich, Bern, Basil, Schaffhausen, and Appensell, then assembled at Araw.
The French commonly say, their king shall dispose of the voices of the electors of Collen, Triers, and Bavaria; and that the voices of Brandenburg and Heidelberg will follow. The Bavarian hath declared, that he will not refuse the empire, if he be chosen.
It is very likely, that the French king will shortly goe from Metz to Brisach, and perhaps as farre as Philipsburg. When he comes so neere Switserland, the Protestant Cantons may doe well to treat with his majesty, who perhaps lookes for it, and hath therefore bound the hands of his ambassadour at Soloturn. I am,
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of the H. and M. lords states-general of the United Netherlands.
Was once more produced to the assembly the advice of the council of state, formed here in the Hague, the 17th of September last, according to their H. and M. L. resolution of the 11th of the same month, received here on the 19th following, and read upon the revocation of the militia of this state, being at present at Dantzick. Whereupon being debated, it is resolved herewith, to desire the said council of state, that their lordships will be pleased to send for the said militia from Dantzick, and to transport them hither with as much speed and as little charge as may be.