A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
October (1 of 3)
Mr. Robert Browne to secretary Thurloe.
The 7th of August last I sent the bassa's and devan's answeere to one of his highness letters, demanding satisfaction for those shippes taken with forran collers, which they then promised to take into farther consideration, and see, that justice should be done, when they that did the act were returned from the Levant. Since which I have received yours of the 16th of June, adviseinge of another from his highness, (concerninge the premises sent by theire owne messengers, to which I desired an answer; but e'er I could procure it, a new bassa arrived, and the principle men of the devan turned out; so I suppose they changed theire resolutions with theire governours: for instead of takeinge the businesse into farther examination, they told me the shippes and captains that did the act, were taken, and the greatest parte of the men killed; soe impossible to make satisfaction. To which I replyed, that although some of the shippes were miscarryed, yet here was sufficient to satisfie us, if they were pleased to order it: so supposed to be no satisfactory answer; on which they defferred me till the next devan-day, when I should receive their farther answere; which in briefe was this, that their peace was with English, and not with Duch and Leghornesses; and whatever shippes have or shall be taken with their collers and seamen, they will make prize of them; as your honour will perceive more at lardge by theire letters, which goe here enclosed; soe no satisfaction nor restitution to be expected hence, unlesse forced from them, which leave to your honour's consideration; ever assuminge the confidence and constancy to remaine
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.
My last of the 25th of September inclosed duplicates of my late letters to the chancellor of Russia, and the governour of Kokenhousen, upon the receit of the rectified credentiall from your honour; as also copies of my letters to the kinge of Sweden and the prince elector of Brandenburgh. The governour Nashokin (a copie of whose answer I heere inclose) would not permit the expresse I sent to proceede for Musco, but sent away my letters to the chancellor by a messenger of his owne, pretendinge he durst not, by reason he came fourth of an infected countrye, though the place where hee resides, with the whole Russe border, is now as much infected as this country. I was in hopes by this post to have received his highness's resolution for my proceedinge or returninge, promised in your honour's last letter; but from Hamburgh they write, the post was come in there without any English letters. If the order come not shortly, I shall be shut up in this infected country this winter. I trust the reasons I formerly gave will be so considered of by his highnes and the councill, that if I must goe for Musco, I shall be suitably fitted for it from England. The wayes allready are soe bad, as that I doubt it will be neare two moneths e're I shall have answer from the chancellor. Theise parts assourdinge nothinge but uncertayne stories, I referr to the weekly intelligence from Hamburgh, resting
I here inclose a copie of the articles betwixt the king of Poland and elector of Brandenburg, as I had them from the Swedish agent here. I somewhat doubt the truth of them; but we cannot heere * * information. Some are of opinion, that the * *
A letter of intelligence from Holland.
Ceux de Hollande ont propose, & fait resoudre, qu'on escrira à tous ministres de l'estat, estant près des princes alliez, une justification de la flotte, avec laquelle l'admiral Wassenaer est allé en Portugal, semblant, que le protecteur en aye sait saire quelque pleinte.
Lettres sont venues des deputez, qui ont veu l'evesque a Aahuys, pour la ville de Munster, offrir la mediation; mais il l'a excusé, disant cela estre contre les constitutions de l'empire; & qu'il traite avec la ville par ses estates (stenden) & qu'ils sont en termes d'accord.
Aussy rapport est fait de la conference tenne samedy le 6' avec l'ambassadeur de France, qui a fait pleinte, que l'ambassadeur Boreel fait prescher en Francois baptiser, & marier en sa maison: item, il a purlé à divers, que ledit sieur Boreel n'èst pas propre pour leur court, & qu'on veüille le revoquer, si que certain dit, il aura la mesme difficulté là, que le resident Appelboom a icy.
La Hollande a donné un advis assez long, touchant l' affaire & declaration du roy de Swede, justificant encore ce qu'on a fait, eserit, & resolu le 17e d'Aoust; & que la retorsion faite contre les trois ambassadeurs n'a point de proportion, &c. Neantmoins il y aura quelque temperament, qui se verra dans l'avis.
Le protecteur ayant recommendé tel Cœne aux estats de Hollande, pour luy donner une compagnie, on l'a prins mal; & resolu de ne plus donner nulle charge à la recommendation de prince estrangere: & dit on, que le protecteur a esté trop souvant importun.
Touchant Munster, avec le counseil d'estat aujourd' huy il y a cu grande deliberation. La Hollande est la plus scrupuleuse, desirant, qu'on prenne encore des informations. Demain ils en parleront derechef.
L'affaire de Swede, tant en suite de la resolution de Hollande du 4° Octobre, que sur
la lettre derniere de l'ambassadeur Beuningen, a aujourd' huy aussy esté fort sur le tapis. II
y a inclination d'un costé d'en faire une paix generale, & de l'autre costé à une redintegration des ministres de costé & d'autre. Je reste
Ce 12e Octobre, 1657. [N. S.]
An intercepted letter from sir Robert Honeywood to sir W. Vane.
Dear sir Walter,
My former told you, the states had drawn forth 36 companies of horse, to second 4 commissioners sent to second the bishop of Munster, to offer mediation betwixt him and that town, which he beseigeth. The report is, he hath not used the commissioners well, and hath refused their mediation. The rhyngrave is said to have order to go visit the troops, and then to return hither to make a report, and to receive further order. The king of Sweden is with his fleet at Straelsund. The Dane with his in the Sound. The French embassador is at Amsterdam, where he is seasted by the magistrates of that city.
An intercepted letter from lieutenant-colonel Dolman.
By the taking of Mardyke you have an entry into Flanders; and tho' our wisemen believe, that France would not willingly see you much prevalent there, nor (perhaps) you them; yet they conceive, that may so much contribute to those provinces, that may free themselves from the Spanish dominion, and constitute unto themselves a government of their own, and so reconcile the jealousies of their neighbours.
Of our victory obtained against the Swedes cometh no confirmation. The resident Appleboom doth begin to creep into favour again; and here is great hopes of our reconciliation with Sweden through the mediation of this state, which is said to have sent for thir fleet home now upon the feast of Portugal. I can add no more at present, being in great haste. I remain, &c.
Schlezer, the elector of Brandenburg's agent, to secretary Thurloe.
Permittat mihi, quæso, dominatio vestra, salvo, quem ipsi debeo, respectu liberiùs aliquantò ac familiariùs cum eâ agere. Responsum celsissimi domini protectoris ad petita nostra sollicitus expecto. Nec post tot mensium spatium ne nunc quidem odiose illud urgerem, nisi alterutrum mihi incumberet; nempe ut vel intimam celsitudinis suæ intentionem de subsidio esslagitato suetâ cum reverentiâ ac submissa sedulitate, denuò explorem, ac hoc ipso die ad serenissimum principem meum prescribam, vel opinionem saltem meam, quidnam serenitas sua electoralis à celsitudine suâ expectare debeat, apertè ac liquide declarem: ego verò neque * * * * * impossibilitatem ullam, eo præsertim modo, quem nuper proposui hâc in re, invenire, neque de celsitudinis suæ propensione vel tantillum dubitare possum. Quod si vero ex animi sententiā loquendum mihi sit, post tot oppositas difficultates, post tot allatas moras, tempestivè aliquid suturum esse, hoc est, quicquam futurum esse, promitere serenitati suæ electorali non ausim. Hic igitur aqua mihi hæret. Multa enim ob oculos versantur, quæ quandoquidem sincerissimo, quod colligendis arctiùs animis ac in commune bonum prosequendum dirigendis hactenus adhibitum est studio præveniri ac corrigi nequeunt, satis permittenda sunt.
Secretary Thurloe to mr. P. Meadowes, the English ervoy at Copenhagen.
I Received yours, dated the 11th of September old stile, from Elsenore, signifieing your safe arrivall at Elsenore. Since that I have had nothinge from you, although the last post be come, whereby I hoped to have received a letter from you. That I have not, I attribute it to some miscarriage by the way, believinge you will not omitt to write by every opportunitye, that soe H. H. may have a constant account of your negotiations there. By every letter be as particular as you can, as to all accounts. I heare the Dane expresseth hymselfe willing to treate, but that the kinges of Hungary and Poland are to be parties, if not the Muscovite alsoe, with whom they say the Dane is in a very strict league, and undertooke this warre by intelligence with them; which I pray enquire into, and if it be possible, by money or otherwise, to procure the knowledge of what treaties they have made with any of the states aforesayd, and whether he is obliged not to make peace without them: this will be a great service, if you can obteyne it. I knowe he is in a close allyance with the Dutch; but whether there be any treatye betweene them yea or not about this warre, that I would be farther informed of; as alsoe what assistance the Dutch give hym, by money, men or ships, and what ships the Dutch have in his service now, and whether those ships are the states owne, or merchant-men.
I desire alsoe, that you would write what condition his affaires are in; what fleet he hath; where the fleet is; whether Gottenburgh be still beseidged by sea, and what the force are at land. I pray procure as much certeintye as may be in these thinges, with what else occurs to you.
Since you went hence, the French army, with the assistance of the English, have beseidged Mardyke in the sea-coasts of Flanders, tooke it, and put it into the hands of his highnes. They intended a further progresse, but the season of the yeare will not permitt them to doe more this campain. There is nothing else of newes. I remayne
Secretary Thurloe to major-general Jephson.
I Have at last received all your letters from Hamborough, soe soone as the Spaniard would lett them passe through Flanders, where he stopped them 3 posts together; by reason whereof we remained wholly ignorant of what was done on the other side of the water. The cause of stoppinge the post was the comeinge of the French armye towards Dunkirke, and the seidge of Mardyke, which is taken, and put into his highness's possession; which if all the newes we have on this side.
The stop on that side was the occasion I writt not from hence for one of two posts. Twice I have writt to you; the second was a duplicate of the former. I was unwillinge to write, because it was very hazardous, whether my letters would come or not to your hands; but now they pass freely againe.
In that letter I gave you an account what had passed between H. H. and the Swedes two ministers here. Since that there hath been some conferences, but nothing can be resolved upon; and wee do very much longe to heare what the kinge of Sweden will say unto them: it may help us very much here to take our measures.
It were very necessary for you to be informed of the true state of the Danish and Swedish affaires; what treatyes there are between them and other princes; and whether the Dane be so oblidged to the kinge of Hungary and Poland, that he cannot make a peace without them. If that be soe, it is very considerable how to steere in that affaire. I defire to get as good intelligence as may be of that. The Portugall ambassador doth ly still here, and doth nothinge. In the mean time his countrye is in great danger to be lost to the Spanyard, the Dutch being before Lisbon with a fleet, and the Spanyard invading them by land. I remayne
Secretary Thurloe to mr. Blank Marshall.
I observe by your letters, that your newes comes usually a week after all other letters, which speakes the intelligence to be lesse considerable; which I desire you to remedy for the future. I pray alsoe informe me what strength the enemye hath, and what it is; how many horse and how many foot are in Dunkirke; how many are in Winnoxburge; how many in Gravelinge, and soe in all the other garrisons in Flanders. This you may doe with a little paynes; but doe it exactlye, that I may certeinly knowe how many effective men they are, and not as they are computed; and how many Irish, English, or Scotts there are amongst them. If you will take paynes, I will not fail to answere your desires; but a flight doinge of this business will be of no use to me, nor can it be expected to be of any great profit to you. I have told you the truth, and you will always find me make good what I say. I rest, &c.
A letter of secretary Thurloe.
It seemes by your last, that Holland is resolved to assist the Dane with money. I should be glad to knowe what sume it is, that shall be lent; and what securitie it is, that Holland will expect; and the other papers, which passe betweene Holland and the king of Sweden, looke as if a warre would ensue betweene them. I thinke a good purse were good for them both, and for the Dane alsoe: The states-general pretends to be very desirous to have a peace betweene the kinge of Sweden and the kinge of Denmark; but most here doe believe, that they incited and procured this warre: How then can they be for peace? If they be for a peace, what would they have the conditions of the peace to be? what would they have the Dane to doe? and what would they have the Swede to doe? I should be very glad to understand, what their true minde and intention is in this matter. It's sayd, that the Dane cannot make peace without the Pole and kinge of Hungary. What doe you know of that? If it be soe, it's very materiall. Some write from the Hague, that there is some intention to call backe their fleet from Lisbon. If what I heare be true, they had need to doe it. I can assure you, the marine-treaty with the Dutch will goe on here hea vilye. The Dutch will be able to procure none of those points they insist upon. They here say, that what is just shall be observed; but they will not have novelties put upon them. The Swedes presse hard for assistance. The protector in all these cases governes himself by the Protestant cause, and he thinkes a peace betweene the two northern crownes is best for that, if it may be had. I remeyne
Lockhart, embassador in France, to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your lordship,
I Writt yesternight by captaine Compton, and have nothing to add, save that I left the general Montague this morning in the channell. He was bound for the Downes, who will give att his arryvall their a full account of all thinges about Mardyke. And that his highnesse might want no informatione, that can be given him concerning that place, mr. Hains, the ingeneer (who hath visited the place, and consithered all the defects of it) will be with his highnesse before these can come to your lordshipp's hands. To morrow morning I goe to marshall Turenne's camp; and as soon as shall be possible for me, I shall give your lordship an account of what successe I shall meet with.
The Hollanders have sent a vessell into Graveling this last week, with wyn, strongwatters, tobacco, and severall other necessarys, for the encouradgment of the garrison, as alsoe two little barkes loaden with salt, of which that place stood in greatt want. It will not be amiss to take notice of that unfrendly action to their ambassador, and to order him, that now commands the fleet in the Splinter, to have some eie towards the aforesaid harbour. The enemy hath been either so unprovident, or so low, that they could not help it, as that place wants every thing fitt for the keeping it out any considerable tyme. I am,
A letter of intelligence.
I Question not but e'er this you have understood of the French armies advance towards Dunkirke, and their takeing in of the fort Mardyke, which commands the roade, and is within a league of the towne. Wee have this weeke beene in expectation, that they would have attempted something against Winoxbergen, or Dunkirke itself; but now wee hope that feare is over, the grosse of their army being drawne from thence towards the Pais de Bolognois; but whether with intention to leave the field for that yeare, or onely to endeavour a diversion of our forces, is uncertaine; for wee understand there are more provisions of warre and forces shipt in England for these parts; which we suppose the French would not have sent for, had they not an intent to attempt something considerable this yeare. Wee have newes now, that the states of Flanders having lately with much adoe procured audience of don John, the court hath in this exigency of affaires given them leave to raise men for the defence of their country; but upon what terms, and in whose name, we knowe not as yet; neither do we believe, that any thing of that high nature can be consented unto, without expresse order from Spaine: soe that 'tis thought the report is given onely to allay and stopp the carreere of some turbulent factious spirits, that take liberty upon this occasion to fulminate against don John and the Spaniards in such high and passionate expressions, that uttered by a lesse flegmatique and over-awed nation, one might rationally conclude it portended a sudden revolt. Don John is yet in Dunkirke, the prince of Condé at Winoxbergen, and the most part of the army ly upon the river, to keep the French from comeing on this side, and hath beene strengthened of late by the comeing of Marsin, and the drawing part of the garrisons out of the great townes. The grand businesse of the election of the new emperour is now againe put off, soe that it is very uncertaine when or where the meeting of the electors will bee; but the former may bee ghessed at by the age of the king of Hungary, who in June next will have attained to those years, under which by the golden bull none is to be chosen. The duke of Brandenburg hath for certaine engaged to give him his voyce, and by that meanes hath made an advantageous peace for himself with the Pole, betwixt whom and the Swedes, they say, he now endeavours to gett a peace alsoe; but in vaine, for the Pole is ingaged with the Dane. The great noyse, that the Sweedish fleet should have been beaten by the Danish, is now come to nothing. It seems both fleets mett and fought, but soe poorly, that never a ship was lost of either side. The Hollanders doe now take the Danes warre to heart, having raysed a vast summe of money, and some companys of foot, to send to their assistance.
Mr. Talon to Bordeaux the French embassador in England.
If the marquiss of Mountpouillan had not departed hence fully instructed of all our affairs, whereof he will give you an account, I would not have failed to have writ to you all the particulars, whereof you shall be hereaster punctually informed. The army is emcamped at Ruminghen, to endeavour the communication at Bourbourgh, Calais, and Ardres, and to furnish that place with all things, which we shall endeavour to preserve this winter. Monsieur de Schomberg is in with 3000 foot, and 400 horse. The lord embassador of England embarked yesterday, to go to give order for all things necessary for Mardyke, tho' the army had like to have perished upon the march which is made to block up Gravelin, which the bad weather hindered. The rain was so very violent, that we lost a good number of foot upon the march, and our equipage. The Hollanders have played us a very ill turn; they having put into Gravelin two vessels, one of salt, and another of wine, which they stood in great need of. I have complained of it everywhere. Those ships had false charter-parties, which they shewed to the English ships. It is said, they will under-hand lend some forces to the Spaniards, to help retake Mardyke; whereof I pray give advice to the lord protector. I am
Col. Barkstead, lieutenant of the Tower, to secretary Thurloe.
The master of the Elizabeth coming from Mardike on thursday in the evening, and not knowing whether you have heard from thence by soe quick a passage, I thought it my duty to present you the inclosed, being all that he can say. Having, I feare, given you trouble herein, I begg your pardon, and rest
The information of Henry Butler, master of the ship Elizabeth, laden with plank and deal-boards for Mardyke, taken 3d October 1657, at 8 o'clock at night.
Saith, he went over with the last fleet, and together with them arrived upon monday last in Mardyke-road; and this informant receiv'd orders for the lord Montagu to land his goods at Mardyke-fort; which having done, he came from thence thursday about 5 o'clock. And faith, that on tuesday one of the ships landed their soldiers into the fort, and the rest of the ships with their men set forth wednesday last for Calais; and he conceiveth they were arrived safe there before he came away out of Mardyke-road. Further saith, neither mortar-piece or other ammunition or provisions had, whilst he was there, any order for landing; only upon thursday a vessel with bawks and spars were landed here; and he heard some here say, that the mortar-piece would be sent by them home again, or for Calais: and faith, the French army had layn down before Gravelin, but by reason of the rains, and the enemy's opening sluices, were risen again, and are now about 4 leagues distance from Mardyke and the Spanish army, just without Dunkirk, upon the south-part thereof; and from which fortress he could easily defend them and their tents: and faith, as far as he could learn, colonel Clarke was commander in chief in the fort, but sick; and major Littleton gave him orders for the disposal of this informant's goods at landing. He saith also, that there were, as he heard, about a thousand men within the fort, and within the Splinter against Mardyke; there rode six fail of men of war; and he left the general with about 12 fails lying without at the west-end of the Splinter, in Flemish-road, and 3 men of war at the east-end of the Splinter, at the mouth of Dunkirk: and saith, that ships of about 30 or 40 guns may ride before the fort; and further faith not.
Mr. P. Meadowe to secretary Thurloe.
I Hope my pacquett, of the 26th of September, came safe to your honor's hand, wherein I gave you an account of the honorable reception, which I have had heer from his majestie of Denmark, with that respectfull solemnitie as has not been practised in this court to some ambassadours extraordinary; as also his said majestie's resentment of his highnes's offer, and his willingnes to enter upon a treaty for accommoding the present disferences betwixt the two crownes, under the mediation and interposition of his highnes. A copie of his said majestie's answer deliver'd me in writing, under his seal-royall, I then sent your honor, and now this duplicate enclosed. The Dutch ambassador is angry and jealous, because of the civilities I have been treated with. I have not yet visited him, because the first visit is du to me, as the last comer; but if your honor think it sitting for me to begin with him, I shal be ready to doe it upon intimation hereof. If the busines issues to a treaty, I shal be glad to receive a further instruction as to my demeanor in point of precedencie; becaus I suppose some other princes and states wil interest themselves likewise by their ministers in the mediative part, although the words of the king's answer are, sub interpositione serenissimæ suæ celsitudinis; which I know not whether they will be meant exclusive of others or no. The French ambassador, monsieur Avaucour, died here since my last. Mr. Missenden, secretary to the Hamburgh company, is sent to me hence touching the debt du to the company from the king of Denmark. 'Tis but a bad time to solicit for monies. His majestie went six or seven dayes since to his army in Sconen, but is expected back hourly. I have communicated al proceedings with colonel Jephson, but I heare he stops at Hamburgh, awaiting orders from the king before he advances further; so that not being yet admitted to audience, and doubtful when, I feare I shall stay long before I receive an answer from thence; for the busines stops 'til his majestie of Sweden shall declare a concurrence on his part. No engagement yet betwixt the two fleets: but it's said, that the Swedish is retired. It much depends upon the issue of a naval fight, which makes both sydes cautelous. This is al at present from
Beuningen, the Dutch embassador in Denmark, to Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England.
The same day that I writ to your lordship, the lord Wreigh, envoy to the duke of Brandenburgh, had audience of the king, and only desired, in a complimental proposition, commissioners, to make further overture of what is given him in charge. In a conference since, I am told by a good hand, his lordship communicated, that the duke his master concluded a peace upon the 4th of the last month with the king of Poland, to be ratified within six weeks after signing of it. He hath not yet made known the contents of the said treaty.
The king, with the lord ryx-hosmaster, are gone for a few days to the army in Sconen, with an intention to follow the Swedes, who are retreated into Holland: but scarcity of provisions in these parts will cause the Danish army not to continue long there.
A letter of intelligence from col. Blank Marshall.
I Cannot but admyre I have not receved your commands, I haveing so earnestly beged for them this 5 or 6 monthes. I am almost afrayd to wryt any more, least myne doe miscary, or not accepted of. I have this 4 last posts pressed I might come and give you a perticuler account of your affayres heer, which in my opinion wold bee to your advantage. I doe now againe most humbly beg a lyn or two from you, or by your apointment, to satisfy me so farr, as that I may know, whether myne comes to your hands or noe? or whether I may be incouraged to proceed further in your business? As for my difficulties, I leave them to yourselfe to consider: yet although I should perishe, I shal bee faithfull to you. I thought to have sent you sum account, that concernes you; but fearing that they should miscarry, I will keep them, untill I heer your further orders: but the sooner you had them, the more it wold be for your advantage. Sir, as f o r k. Charles was to be h e e r e without d o u b t on t u e s d a y n e x t w e e k; but I understand, his m o n y, that is ordered, was stopt: what the reason is, I doe not yet know. I admyre at the F r e n cn a r m y' s goeing a w a y without doeing m o r e; for most of the a r m y h e e r ar in the o s p i t a l l. D. rork is g o n i n t o D u n k i r k, and intends to a t a e k M a r d y k; but all his owne p e o p l e ar f i c k and in o s p i t a l l s, and the c o n t r y n a t e th d. John. You will have by the n e x t s h i p p i n g from F l u s h i n g. f i r C i c e l l H o w a r u. who is sent about business from king Charles. This is all at present, but that I am,
Col. Gibbon to secretary Thurloe.
Since my last of the first of October instant, on fryday we marched with our marines to this towne of Guisnes, about seaven or eight english miles from Callais. On saturday last I sent an officer to general Reynolds, to give him an account of our being here, and to desire him to give directions about the receiving of our men; whoe sent officers last night hither, to receive seaven hundred, and march them to Bourbroch, and others to receive and remaine with the rest here, whither hee intends to send the sike men from Bourbroch to quarter alsce.
This morneing my lord ambassador being come to Ardres from on board generall Mountague, understanding what orders we had received, sent mee a letter to continue the men under our command here for two dayes, till he had been with marshall Tureine, to make better provision for the English army, being much unsatisfyed with their present condition; and that to-morrow morneing I should either see him, or heare from him, where in the mean time we shall continue.
I have notice, that yesterday some of them, if not all, that were lest behind, landed at Callais, and that they would march hither this day. I left an officer there, to direct them when they landed. I am,
Major-general Jephson to secretary Thurloe.
Intending, untill I receyve your further directions, to observe this more private way of sending you my letters inclosed to my cousin Bathurst; and having, as thinges have fallen out here, not much to write this weeke, I make use of this smaller volume at present. In my last I gave an account of my receipt of yours of the 11th of September, where of I had a duplicate by the last night's post: and having already given you my sense thereupon, not worth reiterating by a duplicat, I shall not now give you any farther trouble upon that score. The day after I wrote my last, upon consultation had with the governour of this towne (a discreete person in good esteeme with his master) 'twas thought the most probable meanes for my speedy and certaine comming to see the king, to dispatch a messenger purposely to his majestie, to give him certaine notice where I was. and to expect his orders, when and where I was to wayte upon him; and this was advised, by reason of the uncertaintye of his majesty's stay in any place, and the probabiltye of his speedy repaire hither, in regard of his fleete's now riding in this harbour, and the men under the commaund of major-general Werts from Cracovia in this towne, both which expect his orders here according to his conjecture (tho' the express bee not returned yet). The king's quarter-masters are come in this morning, and bring word, that his intent was to bee here this night or to morrow morning; soe that I hope by the next I shall bee able to give some account of my negotiation; and likewise give you more particular information how affaires stand with his majesty in all those parts. For as to those I mentioned relating to his t r a n f a c t i o n s with the k. of Poland and Brandenb. I can finde noe certainty here; b u t b e l e i v e hee is l e f t by the one, and treat ing with the other. As much as I can informe my self of the c o n d i t i on of t h e 82 51 2 51 f l e e t s, Sweden's is the w e a k e r; for it is f a i d the Danes f l e e e t t hath h o v e r a three 3 or f o u r day s before this harbour. shall not be e s o r r y, if they fight not before it b e heard, that the b r e a c h bee not ma d e w i d e r. Just as I am closeing up my letter, I have receyved a very civill one from the king's secretary, adviseing my stay here, and assureing mee of the king's speedy repayre hither. I place my confidence in your friendship for satisfying his highnesse and the councell, why I have as yett made noe addresses to them: and really, sir, if you please to continue your favours towards mee, you shall at least find you could not have placed them upon a more gratefull person then
An extract out of the governor of Riga's letter, dated the 16th of October, 1657. [N. S.]
I Could not but give your majesty notice of what the agent Ruse imparted to me from Goldingen by the last post, viz. that his highness the duke of Courland, to testify the special trust reposed in the said agent, had communicated to him in secret, that not long ago the great duke of Muscovy had sent to him in a box the ratification of the league made between the said great duke and the crown of Denmark; desiring him to cause it safe to be carried over by water to his majesty at Copenhagen, which the said duke of Courland for your majesty's best advantage had put off for three months together, pretending, that by reason of both fleets now at sea, it were too dangerous to send any thing of concernment.
William Cooper to H. Cromwell, lord-deputy of Ireland.
Having had the honour and opportunity to present this booke, with its author mr. Henry Philips, a godly man, my neighbour, to his highnes, your father, who with a very favourable countenance accepted both, and promised his thorough perusal of it, and to recommend it to his generalls at sea, and commissioners of the admiralty and navy; for promoting the honest and seasonable designe of the booke, gave encouragement to present it your excellency also upon this double account, both because it encourageth and helpeth on the naval interest of this British iland, which is indeed of our greatest civill interests, considering the present posture of our's and the world's affaires; as alsoe because I do greatly rejoice in the Lord, to heare your excellency so exactly to patrizare in being zealous for the gospel of Christ, in mainteyning a found, able and godly ministry, in encouraging godlines by a holy example, as well as in the way of your government, and in the advancement of every thing, which concernes that weighty trust the Lord hath layd upon your shoulders, for the honor of God and these nations, wherein your owne honor, and that of your family, is so greatly ingaged and wrapped up. My lord, as the designe of the author of this booke is neyther for gaine or honor tohimself, but purely publick; soe I crave leave, with humble boldness, to profess, that my heart's desire and designe in this addresse is honest, candid, and innocently unselfish; desiring to advance in my spheare every good worke, to congratulate your excellency's happiness in being soe nobly instrumentall for God and good men in your spheare and orbe, which I doe not only heare from dr. Tate and mr. Baines, my good friends and neighbours, but from all, that observe your actings uno ore. Ride on, noble sir, and prosper upon the wings of the saincts's prayers, in sincere faithfullnes to the Lord, and the nation's interests, in courage, in wisdome, in patience against the malevolent eyes of crooked and perverse men; shining as a light of the greatest magnitude, and as the sun, that rejoiceth to run his course, like a strong man, and as a lyon, that is stately in going, and turneth not for any. Which that it may be your lott and worke, is the prayer,
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland.
I find my selfe very much obliged to returne my humble thankes to your lordship for the great honour you have beene pleased to doe me, in haveinge so great a regard to dr. Carteret for my sake: for though he be but a very late acquaintance of mine, upon occasion of a little boy I had with hym for some tyme in Jersey, yet the favour is as great to me, as if he had beene the dearest friend I had in the world. And your lordship adds to the favour, by desireing my oppinion as to the acceptance of his commission; which seeinge you are pleased to command, I shall take the boldnes to give it, and shall not ground it upon any respect I have for dr. Carteret; for truly I can't put that (though he were the best friend I have) into the ballance with your lordship's service; but doe judge, that as affairs are, and consideringe the nature of the bussinesse itselfe, it were much better to resuse his comission then to accept it; the reasons wherof I need not mention, beleeving they are very obvious to your lordship. And seeinge I have this occasion, I desire your lordship to give me leave to mention that bussines of Colo. Brayfield. I perceive by the papers, which I have seen of that tryall, that your lordship was no wise concerned there in that tryall or sentence. 2. That he denies the words, and professes on the contrary, that he beares your lordship all the honour that can be; and some proofe was offered of honourable expressions used towards you upon all occasion. 3. I heare he is a sober Independant, and noe wayes factious. 4. That he was a friend to his highnes's government with the first. If this be soe, why will not your lordship oblige him, by passinge by his offence as a matter of grace? My lord, let me be understood in it; my ignorance both of things and persons there may lead me into errors; if they doe, I hope you will give your pardon to
Your lordship's most humble faithfull servant,
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Am glad to hear of the good successe of the French; butt I thinke, if Gravelin should bee putt into our hands, itt would bee of little use, butt charge, being that harbour is soe badd, that none but small shippes can come into itt. I could rather wish, wee had Dunkirke and Ostend, which would bee of more consequence to us than any other places. I am glad to heare, that the kinge of Sweden prospers soe well against the kinge of Denmarke; but I am sorry to heare, that Ragotski is gone home. I am afraid the kinge of Sweden will bee shrewdlye putt to it, if hee does not conclude a peace with the Polander. I have written to his highnesse something concerning the reducement; which letter I suppose will come to your hands. I shall earnestlie entreate, that when that businesse comes into debate, you will putt his highnesse in mind, that itt may be done according to the inclosed list, which is all that I know can bee done, untill they reduce two regiments of horse and foote into one, or three into two. Which is all at present from Edinburg, the 6th Oct. 1657.
Mons. Talon to mons. de Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Although there hath happened not any thing in the army since my last, yet I cannot leave to give my self the honour to tell you, that all possible endeavours are used to secure all the passages of Bourbour upon the rivers and channels, with forts, redoubts, sluices and other means; and no moment's time is lost about the fortifying of Bourbour: and we intend to leave in it this winter 3000 soot and 500 horse. The army goeth to morrow to Esperlee being forced to quit Runinghen by reason of the waters. I yesterday caused 200 good English soldiers to be landed, which mons. Charost hath lodged in thelow city of Calais. I will cause them to have some money paid them to night for their subsistance. I have sent to the court for money to pay the 2000 English newly come. I have sent your letters to the army. I am
Van Renswoude to the states-general.
My lords, by occasion of solliciting of several pretences, upon which your H. and M. L. have been pleased to send me now and then their commands, I perceive, that amongst the rest there be some, which take their source from the sea-passes and cockets of the skippers, which are accused falsly in the courts of judicature here, in regard the enemies of this crown know how to get such out of your H. and M. L. state, and make use of them to pass for your subjects; whereby it happeneth, that oftentimes through suspicion your H. and M. L. good subjects come to suffer here, in regard, that they do accuse here in this court your H. and M. L. subjects of such deceit, I have endeavoured to contradict it; and I make no doubt, but your H. and M. L. will give this crown satisfaction therein, and cause such to be punished as shall use any deceit. They write to me from Barcelona, that by the approaching of the French troops to the gates of that city, some plot or treachery was discovered within, and some of the conspirators are already executed; and in the mean time the marquis of Mortara was expected there to make a surther discovery of the said conspiracy.
This morning the king went from hence to the Escurial (otherwise called the Cloyster of St. Laurence) situate seven miles from this city; the same being a very noble fabrick, built by king Philip the second, where is kept in a very rich tomb the body of the emperor Carolus quintus, together with those of his successors of both sexes, which die in this kingdom, or have been brought hither after they were dead, that only excepted prince Carolus, who by his father Philip the second's order was condemned to death, and was buried in this city. His majesty was accompanied thither by several lords, and some few of his domesticks, to assist at the usual anniversary devotions, which are observed there in memory to the said deceased royal persons.
H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
The speede and privacy you enjoyne mee concerning the accommodation of our good friend dr. Goodwin, makes my returne less perfect then I could wish. It is a hard matter to find a proportion of church-land lying together of the vallew you mention, especially at any tollerable distance from Dublin. However, I have sent in the inclosed two parcells, both in East-Meath near each other, and neither above 22 miles from hence, which containe 1350 acres, Irish measure, which will certeynly yeild about 150 l. per ann. if least for 21 yeares. Wherefore I thinke it a convenient parcell for this purpose. And to let you know how willingly I contribute my endeavours to this good worke, I tell you plainely, I wish all the church-lands of Ireland were converted to the like uses; and that his highnes might upon fitt occasions dispose them for the encouragement of eminent divines in those other labours besides preaching, which concern their sunction. I remayne
The protector's commissioners to Nieuport, the Dutch embassador.
The articles hereunto adjoyned are sent unto your excellencye, as the result of the several conferences had with your excellencye upon the marine-treaty, and hope they will appeare just and reasonable in themselves, and suitable to the constitution of asfaires, which must regulate all transactions of this nature. If any thinge herein should seeme otherwise to your excellencye, wee shall be ready by conference to cleare it at such tyme, as you shall appoint; and in the meane tyme rest
To secretary Thurloe.
May it please your honor,
Wee have taken advice from severall bricklayers upon the sand, which some of our vessells brought as ballast from Mardyke-forte, and sold it to artificers here for the makeing of mortar for brick or stone: and being fully satisfyed, that a sufficient quantity of that sand is att all times to bee had upon the place, wee think it not necessary to send any; but have given advise to the right honorable the lord Mountague, that it may bee had neare the wooden-forte att Mardyke. Wee have also taken effectuall course for the shipping of four-score chaldrons of lyme from Dover, that place not affordinge one tenth part of that quantity; and wee doe not question, but that the said lyme will bee at Mardyke by fryday next. Wee have alsoe applyed our utmost dilligence for the getting in the other things, and have putt all hands to work both day and night; and doe hope, that all the nayles, spades, shovells, and pick-axes, together with a sufficient number of handbasketts, wheel-barrows, and hand-barrows will meet the lyme att that place by the tyme aforesaid. Wee synd vessells in the river loaden with raffe, but noe deals, though a convenient quantitie may bee had att 4 l. and 4 l. 5 s. the sixe-score; which wee thought our duety to certifye, although wee suppose provision is made for the same by some other hand. Wee remayne
To his most serene highness the lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scot-land, and Ireland, with the dominious thereunto belonging.
The lords the states-general of the United Provinces considering, that many disaffected persons labour daily to soment jealousies, by calumniating, and making untrue and perverse constructions of the good and equitable intentions of the said lords the states, concerning the employment of their fleet before the river of Lisbon, who seek a wrong and sinister impression to his most serene highness, and, were it possible, do endeavour to induce his most serene highness, to oppose the said good and equitable intentions of the states of the United Provinces; the said lords the states-general have ordered, that the subscribed extraordinary embassador shall, in their name, and in their behalf, communicate and assure his most serene highness very sincerely, that they have to no other purpose or intent dispatched their said fleet, as also extraordinary deputies to the said river Lisbone, and the government there, than to the end, that they should demand and obtain for the known injuries and persidious dealings, which since some time have been received from the said Portugal, satisfaction, and restitution of some countries wrongfully taken; as also a reparation of the damages sustained, in furnishing and paying a certain summe of money, or by other equivalent means of the like nature. And that the said lords the states have not had any the least intention, thereby to support or facilitate the designs and warlike expeditions, which the king of Spain is making now against the kingdom of Portugal: and moreover, that concerning the setting out or employing of the said fleet, and what is more thereunto belonging, the least communication hath not held, nor ordered to be held, directly or indirectly, in any manner soever, with the said king of Spain, or any of his ministers. Beseeching therefore, that his most serene highness will be pleased, by his very considerable perswasions, to dispose the said king and the government of Portugal, to let the said lords the states-general have the said equitable and reasonable satisfaction. And the said lords the states-general truly and uprightly assure his most serene highness, that in such a case no manner of annoyance, læsion, or offence shall be done unto the king and kingdom of Portugal; but all good neighbourly amity and correspondence shall be held with the same. Given this 8/18 of October 1657.
Consul Maynard to secretary Thurloe.
By way of Bristoll the 17/27 Sept. I signified to your honour, that the Dutch admyrall Opdam was before this porte with 14 shipes of warr, and expected De Rutter with 16 saile more to joyne him. Five dayes since came into this porte admirall Stoakes, who paste thro' Opdam's fleete, and saluted the Dutch admyrall with seaven guns, whoe anhim with seaven more. Some here did find it much strange, the English admyrall shott firste; but admyrall Stcakes gave this reason, that the Dutch had thire whole fleete in fight, and he but single ships. The day before the admyrall, came in there three friggotts, and the next day after him the James and the Unicorne, and three other friggotts; so with the Lamport, which arryved formerly, here are in all 10 saile of the fleet, and the Plymouth, Diamond, and Rubie are dayly expected: so there is now lefte a weake guard before Cadix. These that are here, are fittinge as fast as they are able, and in a few dayes they will be ready to retourne for the bay of Cadix. The Spanish fleete will consiste of thirty six sayll. The duke de Medina makes all the expedition possible to sende them to sea; but my intelligence assures me, it will be towards the end of December before they cann be ready to come out. Sixteen or seaventeen are shipes from 50 to 70 guns, the reste are inconsiderable, beinge for the most parte Dutch bottoms, and carrye from 20 to 34 guns: thire great wante is men; which makes me wonder to see the Spaniards, which were prisoners in the fleete, to be discharged, with lycence to goe for thire country. Wee are in hopes to have some fresh ships from Ingland; for 'twill be impossible for some of those shipes, that are in the fleete now, to endure the winter weather; so they will be forced to lye in harbour at a greate charge, without doeinge service, if they be not sente for home. The Portuguese keepe thire owne by land; and 'tis little to be feared, that the Spanish will worst them, if the Dutch fleete were gone of thire coaste. All their care now is, how to preserve the Brazill fleete from falling into the hands of the Hollanders. Opdam with 14 saile continues before this port, and De Rutter is dayly expected to joyne with him with 16 sayle more. There is noe hopes of any accomodation between them and the Portuguese. The Dutch demand what is impossible to be graunted by the king of Portugall. I shall now give your honor the relation of what paste in the treaty, as I had it from the secretary of state, by the queen's order. The Dutch demanded at the firste conference fower eminent places in the Brazill, viz. Pernambuco, Pariba, Sanct Francisco, and Tamaraca, with all thire suggar-workes and cattle; more, they demanded the restauration of Angola, St. Thome and Marinham to the Dutch, with six hundred thousand crowns in mony towards their losses. To which the Dutch were answered by the Portuguese commissioners, that 'twas impossible for the kinge of Portugall to return the places which were demanded; for if the kinge should consent to it, the Brazillians would never be persuaded to be outed of their estates and livelyhood. At a second conference they demanded the fower places in the Brazill, mentioned before; but were contented the Portuguese should keepe Angola, Marinham, and St. Thome, on condition, that no nation should have liberty to trade in any of these places but the Dutch; and that they might be permitted to build a fort in Angola in any river they should nominate. To all this they were answered, as at the firste, that it was impossible such things could be consented unto. At the third meetinge they were contented to wave all their pretences, on condition the 4 garrisons in the Brazill before mentioned should be surrendred to the Dutch, and 3 millions of slorins to be paide them within a yeare; for the performance of which they required present security to be given; but they had the same answer given as to their former proposition, that it was impossible to deliver them any garrisons in the Brazill; but if they would accept of the monyes, the Portuguese commissioners told the Dutch agents, they would straine themselves to the utmost to complye with them. But nothinge would content the Dutch, but the surrender of the 4 garrisons in the Brazill; and their limitted tyme beeing expired, they desired lycence of the queen to departe. On which the conde de Myra gave the agents a visit at thire lodgings, and prevailed with them to stay eight dayes longer; which being ended, I suppose they will departe; for here is noe hopes of accomodation as longe as they stand on such high terms. Here is a fleete provided to fight the Hollander: they have aboute 20 shipes, 13 of which are gallant men of warr; but they wante both commanders and seamen. The generalitie of the people make greate braggs of beatinge the Hollander; but the gravest and most prudent say, they are a loste nation, if his highnesse doe now assiste them in the convoyinge of thire fleete out and home from the Brazills; and, without doubt, they would be willing to desray the greatest part of the charges of his highnesse on this coaste, if he would be pleased to take them into his protection. The French ambassador is in a faire way to conclude with these people. They offer the French two millions of crowns, to be paide in six yeares, on condition the French will keepe an army against the Spaniard in Cattalonia. The ambassador demands more, and would have all paide in fower years; but on the cominge of his new instructions from France, which he expects, 'tis supposed there will be a conclusion.
I have formerly writt to your honor of the abuse in the sale of prize-goods: if that and the buyinge such provisions as the fleete wants, were well managed, it would save a vast sume of money. If all the prize-goods were exposed to the publicke sale, they would give much more mony, then now they are solde for; and the wynes, which coste nyne pounds a pipe, might be bought for lesse then five pounds. I will engage to furnish better wynes then are now spente in the fleete for lesse then five pounds a butt. I thought it my duty to hint this to your honour; for I desire in all thinges to approve myselfe
Charost, governor of Calais, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
I Received none from you by the last post; but I must give you thanks for all your civilities done to my son, who is arrived in good health: and I am obliged to you for all the troubled he gave you. If there be any thing, wherein I can sesrve you, pray dispose of me. My lord embassador of England is fallen sick, so that he could not go to find out monsieur de Turenne. Monsieur Talon is returned from monsieur de Turenne. Bourbour and Mardyke are still fortifying. The court is still at Metz. His eminence has been somewhat indisposed. I am yours, &c.
To mr. John Upton, merchant at London.
Le 26e September a esté ma derniere, depuis n'ay reçû aucune des vostres; & c'est seulement derechef pour accompagner la cy-jointe, & pour vous reiterer ma priere, qu'est, que si vous desirez y faire response, de me la vouloir addresser, sçavoir, à monsr. Jean Christophle Bosch, au Fauxbourg St. Germain, à l'ensigne de la princesse; vousasseurant, que je l'envoyeray plus outre, seurement & sans perdre du temps; & si en d'autres rencontres me trouvez capable pour vous rendre mes services en ces quartiers icy, il vous plaira honorer de vos commandements celuy, qui se dira tousjours,
A Paris, le 20e Octob. 1657.
Mr. S. Desbrowe to secretary Thurloe.
There being a letter sent lately from his highnes to the towne of Glascow, requiring them to deferr the election of theyre magistrates, untill his highnes was informed, &c. which letter hath made a great noyse heere, and raysed feares in the burroughs, that it may be their turne shortly: and if a magistrate should be imposed upon that towne, it's lookt upon by many as a high breach of theyr priviledges setled by law, and confirmed, as they thinke, by the parliament in theyr petition and advise. Now, sir, though it be a most desirable thing to have a godly magistracy setled in that borough, as in all others, yet good thinges would be atayned lawfully; and that it might be so, I have bin thinking, that if his highnes may please to recommend to that towne som honest godly man of his own knowledge, to be elected by them to the magistracy, and to write to the council there, or the generall, that he or they doe improve theyr interest, to have other good men chosen into the towne, I am perswaded, it might effect the end, without any noyse or trouble. This notion came sudenly into my mind; and I could not but lay it before your honor, though raw and indigested, being hartily desirous, that in the whole administration of the government, the lawes of the nations may be inviolably observed. Pardon my boldnes in ofering my opinion uncalled. I am,
Edinb. 10 Octob. 1657.
There is one captain Langley hath wrote som lines to you of late, as he informes me. He tells me, he is a stranger to you, but is willing to doe what service he can, expecting noe reward. The gentelman hath bin a captain in that regiment, that hath layd att Leyth this many years, and hath bin ready to doe the state service.