A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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October (2 of 3)
John casimir, by the grace of God king of Poland, great duke of Lithuania, Russia, Prussia, Muscovia, Samoitia, Livonia, Smolensko, and Czernickow, hereditary king of Swedes, Goths and Vandals, duke of Opelen and Ratisbor. We do by these present letters patents, intimate to all and every one, whom it may concern: Whereas the most serene king of England, Scotland and Ireland, by reason of the ancient amity between us and our kingdoms, and the said king and his kingdoms, hath dispatched certain commissaries into this our kingdom, to summon all his subjects now in our enemies service against us, and to induce them to forsake the Swedish party, and to adhere to their own sovereign and king. And we sufficiently know, that there is a whole regiment of Scots in the garrison of Thorn, who have not only been raised by force in England, but also carried over by fraud, and now are kept there against their wills. We therefore intending not only to gratify the said king of England, but also to withdraw these forces from our enemies, do, by our royal word, offer and promise all the officers and common soldiers of the said Scottish regiment, and all others, that are willing to join with them, if they by their real assistance (upon occasions whatsoever) will facilitate the speedy retaking of the said town, or, leaving the same, come over to us, we will cause a month's pay to be paid to each private soldier, and a reasonable reward to every officer, according to his degree, rank, and quality. And it shall, moreover, be left to their own liberty, either to take service under us, or our dear cousin the king of Hungary and Bohemia his armies, until such time as they shall be recalled by the said king of England. And in case they enter into our or the king of Bohemia's service, we promise them to be entertained by us, and paid like other regiments of ours, and by the king of Bohemia like other soldiers of his. And we assure them furthermore, that the officers as well as private soldiers shall be left together in one body or regiment, and not forced to serve under other regiments. In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hand and signet. Dated at Stectowin, the 21st of October 1657.
Major-general Jephson to secretary Thurloe.
I had last night the honour to receive your's of the 2d instant, whereby I am glad to find, that you have receyved some of my former letters from Hamburgh, wherein I have informed you of my misfortune in beeing something longer than I hopt I should have beene before I should gett to the king; which, as I conceyve, fell out wholly by the miscarriage of my first letter, which I sent to his majesty, to give him notice of my arrivall; by which meanes hee on the one syde began to thinke I might have some order not to hasten to him: and I relying upon his majesty's resident at Hamburgh, who daily fed me with hopes of a positive aunswer, when and where I should find his majestie, thought on the other syde my master was slighted, and that the king had noe mind to speake with mee. But truly, when at last I found him out at Wismarre (by his orders) I find nothing lesse but that wee have beene under mistakes: and truly, when I see under what weyght of businesse hee is, and how many daungers are round about him, I cannot wonder hee is soe intent upon his present assayers. Beeing at Fredericksodd, on the confines of Denmarke, at my arrivall hee was forct instantly to post away to Stetine, his farthest garison in Pomerania, to make head against Charnesque the Poles general, who had began to make an inroad into Pomerania; but I think did more mischief to the elector of Brandenburg's subjects then to the king of Sweden's. They are now wholly retreated; but the king may reasonably suspect they may make some inrode upon that or Prussia, this winter, hee beeing forct to keepe his chiefest force against the king of Denmarke. But to return to my negotiation: upon fryday last I had my first audience, where (according to custom) I spoke only in general, and that in English, and am confident was understood by noe one person, but those I brought with mee. But after I had delivered my paper in Latin, my credentiall letters, and the ratification of the peace, the king spoke to me in French, and made a greate many very high, and (I believe) very cordiall expressions to H. H. of his reall desyres of his peace and tranquillitye at home, of the prosperous and honourable successe of his affayres abroad, and above all things, of an intyre conjunction betweene themselves: and, I assure you, doth expresse himself in very good language, and strong. The next day, as a civilitie, he appointed the vice-admirall and the major-generall of the souldiers (whereof there are some 3000 aboard the ships) to come and invite me to see the fleete; where I was intertained very freely and civily aboard of the admirall, without any imposition of the customes of the country, but leaving mee freely to mine owne liberty, as I did them to theirs, which they used more moderatly then I expected. I was saluted by every ship in the fleete by two peeces of ordinance a piece, at both goeing and comeing. They are in all about f o u r and t h i r t y; three have a b o v e s i x t y g u n s, s i x f o u r t y, and the r e s t about t w e n t y, one with a n o t h e r. They are very strongly made, and well apointed, and I beleive will s e l l them selves d e a re, it the Danes a s s a u l t them; but I think k. of Sweden t h i n k s him s e l f t o o w e a k at present; for he told m e e this morning that st. gen. had s e n t to the Danes s e v e n great frigots full of men. Sir, the last night I receyv'd a letter from mr. Meadowe, together with a copye of the instrument, wherein the king of Denmarke hath declared his acceptance of a treaty of peace with the king of Sweden, under the mediation of his highnesse, which I assure myself you will know long before this comes to your hands: thereupon I sent the last night to presse for a second audience this morning, that I might bee able by this post to give some account of his majesty's inclinations in that particular; which accordinglye was graunted mee this morning at seaven a clock, which lasted a good houre and a halfe upon severall debates; every particular whereof would bee impossible to relate: therefore I shall only tell you some particular passages, and the results; for what I propos'd, it was the matter conteyned in the paragraphes of my generall instructions, from the beginning of the second to the latter end of the thirteenth, with the addition of my newes from Denmarke; to every one of which his majesty gave awnswers by little and little, as he remembred them; and truly I thinke hee forgott very few materiall thinges. Hee is very well satisfyed both of his highnesse's sending mee soe soone as hee did, and in the condition I am. Hee is very sensible of the greate expence and difficulty incident to the warre with Spaine, and gives greate expressions of rejoycing at the greate successes God hath given H. H. against that potent enemye. Hee very much approves H. H. pious intentions, indeavouring a generall peace amongst the Protestant partye. As to that betwixt the Dane and him, hee hath already exprest his consent to treate with him upon honourable tearms, but could not have time to advise with his councel what awnswer to give by way of assent in writing to H. H. mediation; but in mine owne opinion, I doubt not but to give you full satisfaction therein by the next. The manye thinges which I finde stick with him are these two; First, The f e a r, that the i n t e n t i o n s of the King of Denm. are not r e a l l to man, b u t only d i l a t o r y. Next, that this treat y may r e t a r u a f i n a l l a g r e e m e n t b e t w i x t him and his h i g h n e s, which I find is the thinge, that he l e e m e s most to r e l y on, as the s u r e s t ground of his p r o c e e d ing s. I rejoyce very much at your possessing of Mardyke, which I conceive to be of no small consequence. My former discourses have answered the latter part of my letter; for in the instrument, accepting the mediation, K. of Demn. hath m a d e no m e n t i o n, n e i t h e r K. or Sw. or Polland, and here he is f e a r e d to be too much e n k a ge d.
The time I have lost this day, and the post comming in late last night, and goeing about 5 a clocke this afternoon, as it may have been an hindrance to mee for making this relation soe punctually as I could wish, to save you a longer trouble, I thought to have written to some of my noble freinds; but really I am cut short. I find at this distance, where my letters must runn soe many hazards, I can write nothing either to H. H. or the councill but ordinary thinges: but I beseech you, sir, as the friend on whom I chiefly rely, be pleased to give mee your advice, whether it bee fitt for mee something to write to them, or noe, and accordingly I shall behave myselfe, and I hope evidence to you by all my occasions, that I am,
The information of Thomas D'oyley, Daniel Steere, and John Hoskins, taken the 14th October 1657.
Say, that they were this day at the chamber of colonel Edward Sexby, in the Tower of London, together with sir John Barkstead, knight, and mr. Joseph Caryll, minister, where the said colonel Edward Sexby did then and there acknowledge before them all, and own the confession he had before made before the said sir John Barkstead, upon monday last, being the 12th instant; and said, it was all truth: but withal said, it was very indiscreetly done of him to own the letters at Whitehall, which were charged upon him for his, as he did then acknowledge them to be all his, before he had again seen and perused them. And touching Syndercomb, the said colonel Sexby said, he was the only man, that put Syndercomb upon the design to kill the lord protector; yet now says, he is much troubled, he should be so unwise to make that confession upon monday aforesaid, because, he said, none could else have forced him to it: so, as he saith, he hath willfully cast away his own life thereby: but yet said, he should be a mad rogue indeed, if he should go about to cast away the lives of others. And therefore as to the confederates, he was unwilling to discover other persons; yet this, he said, he could say, that he is sure, they will not meddle any further in the said design, having had their undertaking so frustrated, and seeing plainly, that God was against them. And as touching the books, intitled Killing no murder, &c. he said, he owned them as his own work, and was still of that judgment: and said, he might have destroyed the protector, because he was not chosen nor set up by the people; but that now the case was altered, the parliament having settled the government on him. He confessed, he had correspondence with the Spaniard, and received money from them to carry on his said design against the lord protector, but discovered not the sum. As to that passage in the said books, charging sir John Barkstead with having smothered Syndercomb in his pillow and sheets, he said, it was foolishly and knavishly done by him in so writing. He said further, that he hath some of those books in London, which he understands are burnt; and he hath 250 of them in Holland. And also said, he was taken in July; yet, he said, the books were made before the lord protector was settled by parliament. And being urged, upon what account he came over, since the act of parliament? and whether it was not to carry on the same design of killing the protector, notwithstanding his former expression, the case was altered, the parliament having settled the same on him? he presently seemed to fall into his former distraction and wild speeches, and appeared unwilling to discover any further.
An intercepted letter to Hugh Curtise, esq.
Haveing speciall occasion requireing our being in this town to-morrow, which wee fear wee shall not be able to wait upon you to col. Rich, and yet cannot say when in the 3 dayes onely wee have to tarry in these parts wee can obtaine time to goe more conveniently: so that if you still resolve to call us by seven in the morninge, wee shall break through the inconveniency, and endeavour to redeem the time after to accomplish much business upon us, in order to our journey towards Devonshire on munday: but if you call not by that time, wee shall presume you conclude not to go. In which case, when you see him and mr. G. Harrison, wee earnestly request you to present our verry hearty service unto them, as wee doe by these unto you. Beseeching the Lord to uphold them, you, and us, in the patient expectation of his blessings upon his people, wee remaine
Marshal Turenne to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
In regard we are here embarked in affairs, which are difficult enough, and that the season and the ways do add very much, and so the foundation is not altogether certain; this is the reason why I have not been able to write to you any thing positive. All possible care will be taken for the preservation of Mardyke and Bourbourgh. I believe monsr. Lockhart will go for London, to inform the lord protector of all things. The English who were at Mardyke, kept very bad guards there. It is not credible how very much the English are startled at the labour which they undergo; they cannot bear it in any wise; and it were well if you would be pleased to let me know, if my lord protector doth greatly desire to maintain Mardyke. You know, my lord, the season of the year is not for action, and the campaign is ended, and there is no pay to be had; so that, if he doth not assist us, the French cannot maintain the said places. There is no good will wanting, which seth this weakness, but an ordinary accident.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Jusques encore l'estat ignore, comment il soit de Munster; si la ville est accordée, ou point. Mais quand bien elle soit accordée, l'on aura resolu d'offrir tant à l'evesque, qu'à la ville, la garantie de l'accord; & quand bien l'on vient à secourir la ville, on ne l'obligera en nulle saçon à prendre garnison ou protection de cet estat; & de religion ne leur sera dit pas le moindre mot. Et sera le dessein de la marche simplement un convoy des deputez vers la ville, à cause que l'evesque a rejetté la mediation, que cet estat pretend estre sans exemple; & que tous princes, & bien plus puissants, & de meilleure naissance, ont accepté & qu'on n'a donné nul sujet de refus à l'evesque.
Le Ryngraef a demandé, où & comment il logeroit les troupes de cet estat environ le païs de Zutphen ? sur quoy sera escrit à ceux de Zutphen, de luy adjoindre quelques commissaires, avec lesquels ce logement se fera avec ordre.
Dans son instruction estant, qu'il n'attaquera personne, ains simplement ira droit à Munster, pour conduire: si des troupes ennemis s'estoient mis contre luy, on luy a dit, qu'il sçavoit comment en ce cas falloit faire; & qu'il en useroit selon la saçon militaire. Avec cela il a pris son congé, & partit lundy le 22e.
Le sieur Nieuport aura escrit, que le protecteur luy a fait beaucoup de pleintes de ce, que cet estat favorisoit tant le party de Pologne, Austriche, Dennemark; comme aussy, que les Anglois recommençent leurs pleintes & doleances touchant les Indes orientales.
L'affaire de Ravensteyn a esté sur le tapis; la Hollande & autres inclinent à ce qu'on examine ses documents du costé & d'autre. Autres veulent, qu'on le mette à la chambre my partie, ou aux arbitres. Le conseil d'estat a fait pleinte, que les Espagnols ne relaschent pas les prisonniers, les nostres ayants relasché les leurs.
A letter of intelligence.
Captain Henton informes me, that he met with a greate Dutch shipp, about 5 dayes agoe; she laded rice at Venice, and comming downe the Streights sprung a leake; and when she came off Cadiz, the master of her would have gonn in there to stopp her leake, but captain Stoakes would not suffer him, but told him, if he would goe to Lisbone, he would convoy him that way. And as they were off the bay of Lagos, they espied 8 sayle of shipps standing towards the bay of Cadiz, after whome, he sayth, captain Stoakes with the fleete gave chase; but what they were, he knew not. He parted from our fleete the 19th day of September. I desire you will acquainte the commissioners herewith. I ame yours,
An intercepted letter of Robert Hougwood to sir Walter Vane.
Dear sir W. Vane,
On sunday last the Rhynegrave, having been in all the garrisons to view those troops designed for the relief of Munster, came in the evening hither: the next day, at 10 at night, he was commanded away, having received his commission and instructions, which are with 47 companies of horse, 4000 foot, and 4 field-pieces, to convoy their commissioners; who, having been with the bishop to offer their mediation, were refused not only that, but admittance into the town. This morning Somerdike and all those who were yet in the town, are gone hence; tho' it be well known, that there hath been a cessation of arms ever since this day eight days: the town having notice what was the intention here, insisted to have the mediation offered by these; but that was waved, and the conditions agreed upon, as to all matters of moment. The town will go no further to the conclusion, unless this state may be admitted by the bishop, as ground for performance of the agreement, which is in effect to put themselves under the protection of the states; and it is believed, a garrison will be reviewed, as at Embden. This week hath brought us no letters from your side, though the wind was good when they were to pass; and we have had a constant report all this week, that Mardyke was retaken, and, as whispered amongst some, delivered by captains Scott, Bedell, and Littleton, &c. This was added, discontents betwixt them and the French, they being separate in affections as well as bodies; and so the English left to the mercy of the Spaniard, who had put 1500 of them to the sword. And this was a story you will easily believe not unpleasing to some; but we are at last advertised the good correspondence is not broke, nor the French retired, but both contributing, as much as they can, for the preservation of those places, which the English, as well as they, possess in Flanders. And the letters from Paris say, that monsieur de Turenne has writ to his wife, not to expect him there till the new year at soonest; so that the face of these affairs seem to be changed. Here are we as thoughtful, what will become of the provinces, if the war be carried on with vigour next spring, as probably it will; and not with much opposition, if some miracle happen not to put the king of Spain's affairs into a better posture, towards which there are no visible steps as yet. As I had written thus much, I received yours, and am glad to find all mine are come safe to you.
The discourses are various here about the maintaining Mardyke, and concluded, that without a quarter to maintain 2 or 3000 men without the fort, it is not to be done, if the French retire. We say, Bourbourgh is garrisoned only by the English, and that Schomberg commanded there. Letters from Antwerp say, we are to expect out of England one of the greatest turns to affairs that can be imagined. One of the states asked me yesterday, if I had not heard of that report, and what I conceived it could mean: I told him, I did not believe the one, and therefore I could not take upon me to guess at the other.
An intercepted letter of Dolman to Nevill.
I Am just now going on an employment (which of all other is the most acceptable to me) to releive a poor towne against a tyrant. The bishop of Munster, with his confederates and forces, hath for some months beseiged the towne, and it not being far from our frontiers, this state, as good neighbours use, have offered their mediation, which he hath not only insolently refused, but uncivilly opened their letters they wrote into the town, and returned them back. I am going this morning towards Groll (according to my order last night from the Hague) to meet the Rhyngrave, who is there assembling the most of our horse with 3 or 4000 foot, that are designed for this business. We shall do our endeavour to releive the towne; so just a cause, and so uninterested, will (I doubt not) not want a blessing. Sir, I would not but give you this trouble to inform you of it, as not distasting such an employment; and that if it be my lot to perish in it, you might the less regrett the loss of so unusefull, though
Charost, governor of Calais, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Perceiving the wind to be contrary, and the French packet-boat to be ready to depart, I send you these lines, having nothing more to write to you, than to advise you of the conference held between monsieur de Turenne and monsieur Lockhart, who is gone to find out the lord protector. Monsieur Talon doth give me good hopes, that all will go well with the fort of Mardyke: it is said, that the enemy is resolved to assault it. We shall see what they will be able to do, and whether the strength of the English and our army together will not be able to hinder them. Bourbourgh is strongly fortifying, and we are providing it with all things necessary. There is fifty thousand escus coming from the court, besides what is come already: judge you well, whether we do not do well. But my lord protector must also assist in the business, which, as you know, doth very much concern him; and in the spring he will reap the benefit of having maintained the fort of Mardyke. I confess to you, as I told the lord embassador Lockhart, my lord protector ought to transport all his sick men into England; for they will not so well recover in France, as in their native country. My lord embassador said, that that would discourage the recruits. In short, all the misfortune is, that the English and French did not begin the work in the month of July last. We must now have patience till the spring.
Col. Tho. Cooper to H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland.
May it please your excellency,
I Have receaved yours of the 13th instant, by which I perceave the examinations conserning mr. Leviston came to your hands, since which tyme thear hath been a meeting of the presbittery, and have considered of the carriage of mr. Leviston, and given him a farther reproofe, and have appoynted mr. Dryseale and mr. Hearte to waite upon your lordship, to give you a full account of the same. I hope what hath been done may bee of good consequence, to teach men of different perswasions (in the things of God) to carry it peacablely towards one another. The Scotch ministers doe promise veary faire, and according to my observation and experience, may with more ease bee led then driven; and the tendernes your lordship shews them is the lyklyest way to gaine them. The lord, I hope, in this, and all other your great affaires, will guide you in his fear, and by his councell to doe that, which is pleasinge to him; which is, and shall be the prayer of him, whoe is,
Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.
The honnor of yours without a date I recieved yesterday, and pay you my humble acknowledgements for it. I am glad at last to finde, that you have a day sett for determininge our civill settlement heere; tho' I hope you doe not intend by that restrictive word, either to seperat the military from the civill power beinge in one, or that we must stay soe longe for the establishing of the former, as we have done for the latter. I mention this, because of som such taulke, which this week has flowen about heere.
I thought I had in that letter, which acquainted you with what had past between 990 and me, told you, what he then told me, of the business now on the table, which was, that by his principle he could not in conscience appeere to desire any governor in cheif, and that had my lord deputie's frend spoke to him, 'as the others did, he would have given him the like answer: and being asked by me, what he thought of 300, he spoke very worthyly of him, and professed, if he were named for the cheif person heere, he would as cheerfully and faithfully serve under him as any man; and more than this, I found, he would not freely goe, and since his scruples therein were conscientious, could not press it farther. I humbly begg your pardon, that I soe grosly omitted the giving you this account, which I would not have beleived I had bin guilty of, had I not seene it under your hand. I doe find by dayly letters to me from my lord Hary, that thos seeds of a better understandinge betweene them, which I endeavoured to sowe, are not like to prove alltogether unfruitfull. My lord Hary was pleased to send us hither your letter to him about dr. Carteret and liut. col. Braifield: it was without a date; but my lord writt me word, he thought it came from you the 6th instant, and I doe not dispaire but what I finde is your sense therupon, wil be observed. I shall in obedience to your judgment, and the waite I observe you put upon Braifeld's business, within these ten days, attend my lord Hary at Kilkenny, which is halfe way between this and Dublin, whither his lordship will then com on purpose for me to have 2 or 3 houres discourse with him; and from thence I shall give you a full account of your commands to me therin. I have, in this post, in my letter to his lordship, presumed to acquaint him, that I was of the same oppinion with you, and if any thinge doe styk there, I trust then I shall removve it: I know ther wil be no small difficultys in it; tho' possibly this will much more arise from others, then my lord himself, whos tendernes to all men of godlines, and whos respect to your judgment is very greate. I wish his comission were com over, that this restitution might be the first acte of his government, and therby give in the bud a taste of what the fruit of it will be. I have now nothinge more to trouble you withall, but this cordiall assurance, that you have by your favors and kindnesses to me oblidged me to be in all conditions and places,
Commissioners at Steinfort to the states-general.
H. and M. lords,
This morning we received your H. and M. L. letters of the 19th, being a duplicate, and of the 23d instant, together with five letters to the lords Chur. and dukes of Mentz, Triers, Cologne, duke of Newburgh, and bishop of Munster, all under flying seals.
Last night arrived here the lords Keppell and Knippenburgh, sent by the burgo-masters and council of the city of Munster; who, after they had delivered their credentials, desired audience of us, which we gave them after morning-sermon. The said lords said, they were come to salute us in the name and behalf of the magistrates of the said city, and to let us know the agreement, which the said city hath made with the lord bishop: whereof we here enclosed send your H. and M. L. a copy, declaring sincerely, that they had no body to thank next to God Almighty but their H. and M. L. from being delivered out of all their troubles occasioned by the siege. After evening-sermon we had a letter delivered to us from the said bishop, wherein he giveth to understand the said agreement, and that things now were re-established on their former course, and gave us thanks for the trouble we had undergone. H. and M. L.
Mr. P. Meadowe to secretary Thurloe.
I Have not heard from England since my arrival heer, nor from col. Jephson, no more then the bare intimacion of his arrival at Hamburgh, which puts my busines to a pause. Since my last to your honor of October 11th, the king is returned from Sconen, whereby I have had oppertunity to communicate to him my 6th, 7th, and 8th instructions. As to the 8th, it is certaine Denmark has made no al l y a 24 nce 21 6 with Austria, although much courted unto it. My 7th relishes wel heer, and I beleive I should be able to give a good accompt of it, if so be I were more perticularly instructed; but till then I can make no progres. Dutch embassador has endeavoured to perswade Denmark, that his h i g h n e s has granted a levy of 3000 to be transported for Holstein, to serve Sweden against Denmark; which if tru, would be il resented heer, the afore-named having taken upon him the m e d i a t i o n. I long to heare from your honor, whose I am
One that beares the title of major-general Montgomery, son to the earle of Eglington, came lately to this town to seek an employment under his majesty. If your honor think good, give me a word how to demean my self in cases of this nature, when any of the old cavaleer party shal address themselves hither, who possibly may not be comprehended under the prosugi and rebelles mentioned in the 5 article of the last treaty.
A letter of intelligence from col. Bampfylde.
This weeke has not produced any thing remarkable in this place, all things beinge at a stande till the arrivall of the Spanish ambassador, whoe is expected here in a short tyme after his entry at Prague. He had his private audience from the king of Hungary before his publique, none being present but the king, the arch-duke, and the king's cheife minister the count de Portia. To the firste and the laste he brought the order of the golden fleece from his master, with an assurance to the king of Hungary of his marrying the Infanta, soe as if he be chosen emperour, the empire, the crowne of Spayne, together with that of Poland, which he is to enjoye after the death of him, whoe reignes at present by the conditions of the late league, being all united in his person, will render the house of Austria much more considerable to theyr freinds, and more formidable to their enemyes, then heretofore they have ever been, since the time of Charles the first, and gave them a great advance towards the westerne monarchy, whereunto they have longe aspired. And if the newes prove true, which I have seen yesterday from a very good hand in a letter at Prague to 744 143 627 86 30 37 24 25 19 89 65, that the elector of Brandenburgh has agreed with the king of Poland to invade Pomerania, to whose armye his highnes is to joyne 12000 men for the recovery of all that the king of Sweden holdes in that dutchy, which is to be restored to the sayd duke; it will soe rivit him into the interests of the Austrian family, as there will not remayne either hopes or fears for the one side or the other of his ever being divided from the concernments and proceedings of that family. There are divers reasons, which would induce me to beleive, that the duke of Brandenburgh would not use soe great expedition in an affayre of this nature; but when I consider the certeynty of this offer having been made him by the house of Austria, and that the Polish troops are at this tyme either in Pomerania, or upon the borders thereof, and that the elector went lately to meet the king of Poland; I cannot thinke the advertisment hereof comeing from a considerable person very improbable. The house of Austria herein observe wisely the antient maxim, dividere & imperare; when they have divided three such eminent branches of the Protestant religion from the body thereof, as the king of Denmark, the duke of Saxony, and the duke of Brandenburg, they thinke they may much the better deale with the rest. Tis a conjunction, that seemes to carry somewhat an ominous and fatall aspect, when the enemyes of a relidgion can drawe the professours thereof to sheath theyr swords in one anothers hearts, that they may triumph in their generall ruin. The house of Austria say, that they have not broaken the treaty of Munster by the assistance, which they have given the king of Poland, they being obleidged to assiste theyr allye in a defensive warr, being out of Germany; and to make this finesse good, or at leaste the more plausible, they leave the Polander to invade the king of Sweden's terretoryes in Pomerania, whilest they only recover for theyr allyes what they had lost in Prussia, which is very likely they will as well keep as regayne for him. On the other side, wee have letters from Prussia, which say, the duke of Brandenburgh cannot be drawne further then to a newtrality, and that he endeavoures to mediate a reconciliation betwixt the kings of Sweden and Poland, which agrees with the intelligence and beleife, that 411 has concerning this affayre. The king of Hungary has given orders and commission to gen. Lamboy for the levying the 8000 men. Since the arrivall of the Spanish ambassador, I am informed that 342 has recieved about 2000 sterl. of 744 371 lately, and that he is levying two regiments more out of hand: his designe is to have an army of 10 or 12000 men: I hear likewise, that he desires money of 308. This is all the newes of this place at the present, except an od encounter which fell out here on monday laste betwixt two English, the one called mr. Roper, whoe, they say, is resident here for the king, and col. Bampsylde: the first, it seems, had recieved some letters out of Flanders from secretary Nicholas, to advertize him, that the later was employed as a spye for the protecter. The letters were shewed to prince Rupert, to the ambassador of the duke of Bavaria, and divers others, in soe much that at last Bampsylde was informed thereof; but not findeing the lodging of this resident, and being advertised, that he was constantly at the comedy, he went thither, met him, tooke him aside, and desired in very civell termes to knowe his lodging, haveing something to say to him, that was not very proper to be debated in that place. The other suspecting what the business might be, told him, that he neither knew the street nor the man's name where he lay. Whilst they were in this discourse, another gentileman interposed, and asked what the matter was; col. Bampsylde answered, that he had only two or three words to speake in private with that gentileman. The other began to make more noyse then was convenient for such a place, in soe much that Bampsylde tolde him 'twas not handsomely done of him to make any stir theire. Whereupon Roper swore a great othe, that he lyed, that he was a publique minister, and that he would have a course taken with him, if he did him the least affront; upon which Bampfylde gave him a box on the ear. He complayned to prince Robert, whoe bid him right himself with his sworde; but not likeing that way of redress, he went to the magistrates of this towne, whoe would not take any cognessance of it; and laste of all to the elector of Mayance, whoe alsoe refused to intermeddle therein. What the issue of it will prove, is to be expected from Flanders. I have given you this narration, leaste you should meet with a false one, this business being like to make much noise. I have receaved both your letters of the 28th of September, and of the 8th of October. Since my being here, I have wrote seven to you, by 372, and 376. I earnestly desire you to lett mee know, if you have them; and that you will constantly advertise mce of the receipt or miscarriage of my letters, much depending thereupon. I doe not intend to saile you one post; therefore if you want my letters at any time, conclude they are miscarryed. I had the newes before of the duke of Buckingham, but not of the protector's being displeased thereat. I think he has done very wisely: for if he has leave to stay in England, he will have a good estate, and his father-in-law's interest, which is held very considerable, to employ as shall be thought convenient: if he be forced to quit it, he is sure of an honorable subsistance, and my lord protector of two considerable enemyes. Of the takeing of Mardyke wee likewise heare, and of the putting it into the hands of the English. The observations thereupon are here, that the English are to mannage the warr in Flanders against the Spaniards, and the French to draw this way. What theyr influence is here, what the inclinations are of the severall electors (as far as is for the present to be known) I have adverused you of in my former letters; but least they should not have come to your hands, you shall have a full accounte by the next, I not haveing tyme to doe it by this, your letters comeing not to my hand till late this evening. For the professions you are pleased to make, and the particulars you desire, I neither doubt the one, nor will faile in the other, being free from all discontent and dissatisfaction, and with all my heart,
Major-general Jephson to secretary Thurloe.
Being much strengthned in time when I wrote my last, I cannot satisfye myselfe without giving you a more particular account of what past betwixt the king and mee in my second audience, which I must mix with some other discourse, which I had with his majesty upon tuesday in the evening to the same purpose, when I spent a greate deale of time with him, not as by way of negotiation, but as a visit of civilitye and a desyre to kisse his majesty's hands as a private person; which hee very kindly received. You may please to remember, that in my last I told you the maine bulke of his majestie's discourse (after his high expression of affection and esteeme for his highness) tended to these two ends; first, to shew the little probabilitie of the Dane's c l e a r in t e n t i o n in this a c c e p t a n c e or H. H's m e u i a t i o n, in order to the settlement of a firme peace b e t w i x t the k. of swed. and the king of Denmark. Secondly, to inculate the prejudice, that might accrew both to the p u b l i c c a u i e of the P r o t e f t a n t r e l i g i o n and to their private in t e r e s t, in case by meanes of this treat y a t i n a l l a g r e e men t betwixt H. H. and k. of Sweden should be y e t a g r e e d. The proposition hee proved by the unkind and unneighbourly beginning of this warre: for that when the king of Sweden heard the Dane's propositions to make warre against him, upon pretence of certaine injuries and indignities offered him by the Swedes, his majestie gave power to his resident at Hambrugh to give him full satisfaction, by a treaty by chosen commissioners in any such particulars as could bee made appeare to bee reall; a slight awnswer was given, that many injuries had beene done him by the Swedes, but noe perticulars mentioned, soe that the king of Sweden was put under an impossibilitie either of giveing any awnswer or satisfaction to that, which was pretended to bee the ground of the warre: and soe was it begunn against him, on the in t e r e s t of king of Poland, and house of Austria, and that at such a time, when it was infinite pre judice not only to the particular affayres of his majesty, but alsoe of greate disadvantadge to the Protestant interest in generall; for when his majestie was almost master of all Poland, and of such an armye as the enemy was noe way able to resist, hee was, by the diversion caused by the Danes, forc'd to draw off soe greate a part of his army out of Poland, as by that meanes and the enemy's strength increaseing by the addition of the king of Hungarie's forces, his two confederates, Ragotsky, and the elector of Brandenburgh, were forced to dishonourable tearms of peace, and hee hath since lost one by one all the townes and forts hee had in Poland, and his enemyes left at libertye to make inroades into Prussia and Pomerania. Most of this is well knowne to you already. That which seemes to make this matter clearer, is taken out of some letters lately intercepted (whereof I gave you some touch in my last) the copys whereof, or at least soe much as is pertinent to this businesse, I herewith send you. Hence I doe apprehend a greate difficultie too neare of kinne to an impossibilitye of r e c o n c i l ing these t w o king d o m s by a treat y. Neverthelesse I have received another letter from mr. Medowe, assuring mee a great inclination in the king of Denmark and his counsell to a peace, which I acquainted his majesty with upon saturday, and hee promised mee a speedy awnswer in writing. There is a passadge, which you will find in one of the letters, which seemes to intimate, that the king of Denmark will never tye himself up soe to the Pole, as to disable him to treate without him; which I hinted to his majestie: but hee told mee, the king of Denmark had formerly made the same expression to the French agent, who being now return'd into Denmark, informes his majesty, that hee hath since neverthelesse bound himselfe up; but. I am willing to hope the contrary, since I cannot find any certainty of any such agreement, and the assent given to his H's mediatione seemes to imply the contrarye. I send you the letters in theire owne languadges, not to anticipate your judgment upon the words themselves by my translation. I have likewise sent you a copy of the articles betwixt the kings of Poland and Hungarye, which I suppose you may have seene before this; because 'tis insinuated in the letter, whence they were taken, that they were printed in Holland. To the second proposition concerning the danger of a delay in his treat y betwixt H. H. and the k. Sw. hee urged the greate preparations made by all the Catholique princes in these parts of the world, that himself was forsaken by Ragotsky and the elector of Brandenburgh, and left single to prosecute not only the warr for the Protestant interest in Germanie, but alsoe to defend his territoryes against the Pole, Muscovite, and king of Denmarke. To both these I tooke the boldnesse to give him these awnswers on the suddaine: as to the first, if the king of Denmark should (after having accepted his H's mediation) refuse indifferent conditions of peace, and not meane really, it would the more oblige his h i g h n e s to as s i s t him against the other; and that therefore I thought it might bee for his interest, to drive this businesse to a speedy issue. To the second, that it need not interrupt his affayres with H. H. for that I was ready to treate with his majestie, or whom hee should please to appoint, uppon any proposition, for a s t r i c t e g o n j u n c t i on of arms and coun sells in the meane time. This was said upon tuesday, but nothing yet proposed; which I a little wonder at, but conceyve it may bee by reason of his expectation of the successe of his neg o t i a t i on now on foot in E n g l a n d. This the king hath since told mee plainly; as also, that hee hath heard, that an expresse parted 3 weekes since, to bring him an account of it, but is not yet arrived. I received the awnswer to my proposition for the treaty with Denmarke see late, as I had not time to peruse it, much lesse to send you a copy, before the post's goeing away. I can only say his majestie hath consented to it, under the consent of H. H. and the king of France; and deffer the perticulars untill the next. Charnesky is againe entered into Pomerania, against whom the king is sending the prince of Soulsberghe, lieutenant-generall of horse; ne m u s t fight with him; for s h o u l d he suffer him to w a s t Pomerania, his garri sons would bee much f t r a i g h t e a d. I still tyre you with my tedious letters, but you have not chidden mee for that fault: and I am sure they proceed from the greate respect and affection of
Excerpta ex literis Poloni legati, qui apud status Hollandicos residet.
Unus legatorum D. ordinum ex Daniâ reversus mihi retulit, regni Daniæ aulæ magistrum illum certissimum reddidisse, Daniæ regem conditionem istam [quod uni sine altero cum communi hoste de pace agere vel tractare integrum esse non debere] cum domino Morstenio nunquam iniisse, nec unquam initurum: quod & dominis ordinibus retulit, qui conjunctim cum Gallis omnem impendunt operam, ut quantotius pax inter hos septentrionales reges componatur; quâ compositâ. vel initâ certum est Suecum auctis viribus ac militum numero in Prussiam reversurum, ac ulteriùs adversus domum Austriacam castra moturum. Hæc enim est Gallorum maxima, ut domui Austriacæ negotia facerent, ne domus illa ad summam, quæ illis formidabilis est, provehatur potentiam. Verum quod confæderatio regni cum domo illâ Poloniæ regnum constringat nonnisi conjunctim cum domo illâ de pace cogitare, nobis pacis successum dissiciliorem futurum animadverto.
Contento conditionum fæderis inter majestatem s. Poloniæ domumque Austriacum initarum.
4. Ut salisfodiniarum Vilicensium, Boshnensiumque reditus tantisper in hypothecâ teneantur à rege Hungariæ, donec expensas bellicas ii reditus exequarint: inde commissarius regni Poloniæ ad jurisdictionem tenendam manebit in his salisfodinis; alter verò ibidem commissarius regis Hungariæ aderit ad recipiendos omnis fructus.
Commissioner Pells to the states-general.
H. and M. lords,
The uncertain informations and reports, which arrive here daily, are such, that we cannot write any thing certain of the affairs in Poland. The most letters from Silesia and Thorn do mention, that Cracow was surrendred to the Swedes on the 13th currant, the Polish army being defeated and ruined; and that the king of Poland was in the city Glogau, upon the frontiers of Silesia. There are letters on the other hand, which speak positively, that Cracow was not taken on the 13th currant, but held out. The general meeting at Marienburgh is not yet ended, nor the commissions agreed. The small places are agreed with the elector, the other cities do yet pause upon it.
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, commander in chief of the forces in Ireland.
I Was not in case to write to your lordship by the last post, beinge very much indisposed in my health: and although it hath pleased God to restore me in some measure, yet truly I take noe great pleasure to give your lordship this weekly trouble, unlesse I were, or rather that things were in that condition, that I might give you a comfortable and reasonable account of the management of affairs here, at least in what concernes Ireland; which to my great trouble and griefe I am farre from beinge able to doe. I prosesse to your lordship, I never consider that busines, but I am ashamed, yea confounded; and doe wonder with myselfe, what reason will be renderd for it either to God or the nation. It's but a small satisfaction to me, yet some it is, that I have with some conscience towards God, and honestie towards men, laboured in this affaire, though with noe more successe then I have done in other things; and truly the frustration, which I have met with therein, should not, I hope, disquiet me, nor worke my trouble, if there were noe consequence in it of ill, and disservice to the publique. Your lordship may well wonder at this manner of writeinge; it is all I have to say upon this subject; and I would have it signifie thus much to your lordship, that some of us are more sensible of the ill posture of affaires then able to help them; and this sence wee shall never want, nor, I am sure, hearts full of duty to your lordship, and well wishes to the publique. Yet as thinges are, I think you have need of more profitable and powerfull servants, which I heartily wish in my room and place; and that, I am certeyne, ought to be the desire of every honest man, who finds himselfe become uselesse and burdensome. For that I mentioned by my last to your lordship, about lieutenant-colonel Brayfield, I hope your lordship did pardon my boldnesse in it; I had a very honest meaninge in it, and judged it to be for your service: but I will not trouble your lordship in it, perswadeinge myself, that you took it not ill from me. As to the new reducement, it's true 2 or 3 gentlemen have framed somethinge in it; but neither his highnes, nor the counsell have yet soe much as seene it. For my parte I think the reasons you have given against the manner of it are very good. I hope you have writt at large to my lord Fleetwood about it; and if your lordship satisfye him, there will be noe difficultye to carrye it, either left to you at Ireland, or else to have it done in the manner your lordship propounds.
The information of Sarah Shepheard, wife of David Shepheard, of NewportPagnel, in the county of Bucks, taken upon oath this 21st day of October 1657, before . . . .
This informant saith, that on monday last was sevennight she this informant was at the Saracen's-head in Newport-Pagnel aforesaid, in the next room to the great chamber, where the justices usually sit, and heard mr. Thomas Duncomb of Broughton in the county of Bucks, and one Brett Norton of Sherington in the said county, and Patrick Saunders, this informant's brother, talking together in the great room to this effect; viz. The said mr. Duncomb asked the said Patrick Saunders, what news out of Staffordshire ? To which the said Patrick answered, that he had a letter from captain Erswick, which the said Patrick took out, and read; which letter being read, he this informant heard them say, it was a question, whether it were best to lodge the king at sir Richard Levison's, or at mr. George Digby's? And it was resolved by the said Saunders, that the lady Levison, if she be alive, was an inconsiderable woman for such a business, but mr. George Digby has as good a head-piece as any man in England, and his wife not inferior to him; and they had but one only daughter, an heir of 1000 l. a year, upon pretence of which he might lie there as a suitor, changing his name, so that none might know of it but themselves. Then the said mr. Duncomb asked, how the number of his friends did increase? To which the said Saunders answered, if they might believe little Kitt, they were increased like hydra's, for they were so weary of the burthen of this government, that thousands would be glad with all their hearts to see a king in England again; and that if he, that is at my lord protector's elbow, be but true to his principles, they should see it before Christmas-day: and they were sure, that if the protector's eye were out, if the king came to London but with a crowne of gilded leather upon his head, the soldiery would all throw down their arms at his feet; and 'till that day there will be no peace in England. Then Duncomb asked Saunders, how my lord of Bedford relished the news ? He answered, he would not resolve him as yet; but my lord of Peterborough is extreamly glad of it, for they have pickt his pocket of many thousands of pounds. They then spoke of a meeting at one mr. East's at Weston. Then mr. Duncomb asked, who was there ? To which Saunders answered, none but mr. Mordaunt, mr. Tirringham, and mr. Digby. Mr. Norton asked, how my lord protector came by the hearing of all things contrived against him ? and Saunders said, it was by witchcraft or familiarity with the devil. And this informant saith, that there was a thin wainscot-door betwixt the room wherein this discourse was and between the persons aforesaid and this informant, who came hither to speak with the justice about the possession of a house, for which a jury was summoned by the justices, upon some difference between one Arnold and one Shepheard, this informant's husband's brother, and the said Saunders.
And this informant further saith, that the said Saunders said, he wondered the king was not yet come; and that he was confident he was sick, or some extraordinary thing was in it; for he was expected every day last weeke, which is now a fortnight since. And she saith, that little Kitt before named is a taylor, who lives in Newport-Pagnel, called Christopher Holt, and carries messages and letters from the persons above named.
And this informant further saith, that she heard mr. Norton at the time aforesaid ask the said mr. Duncomb, what he did think they could bring this to ? To which the said Duncomb answered, if they did believe the scriptures, they must needs see what the end of it will be; for the protector's friends, as well as his enemies, if they knew their right hand from their left, knew how he came by the power he had, by rebellion and murther; and that he put the king to death for tyranny, and reigns by an army himself: for take away the army, and where is he ? and, that the longer he goes on, the greater his fall will be. And she further saith, that the said Saunders was heretofore accused by one captain Wansey, when Newport-Pagnel was a garrison, for being a spy for the king; but for this informant's sake, who was well known to major-general Skippon, being then governor, he was discharged, there being no proof brought against him. And she also saith, that there is a company of the cavalier party, that meet at Whitefrier's-gate, at a club, and hold correspondence.
Sir Thomas Bendyshe, embassador at Constantinople, to the protector.
My desire of re-establishing the Grand-Cairo * * * * (left, or rather betraied, to the monopolizing French and * * * by the errour of consul Abbot, who there * * * Porte against the English) I formerly, as good reason and duty required, acquainted your highnes with; the which (being in its aymes at the honour and publique interests of our nation, conformable to the royall standard of your owne actions) I no whitt doubted your highnes's approbation and patronage therof, when ever it should come to maturity and worth the owning; as God blessing my endeavours, it hath of late thriven well, and growne in a short tyme even to a gainefull and fruitfull employment of shipps and merchants: but now, when my hopes were almost turned into certeinties, and that I at length began to rest from my cares and travailes therein, it is (to mine owne and these factories grieses I speake it) for the present stopped, and greatly indangered of being blasted by the unexpected and foule treachery and falsseness of one (sorry I am, I must name an Englishman) William Ell, master of the Lewis, who (with goods, to the value of 75000 * * * of the bassa of Cairo about 4500 freight, to bring hither to the grand signior, to whom they properly belonged) ranne away to Legorne, where, upon false pretences, he hath obtained licence (as wee heare) to imbezell them, leaveing us in the maine while here, to the shame as well as the punishment of this his abhorred fact; for the grand signior in all likelyhcod will not suffer himselfe to be thus treated, where he wants neither power nor estate to satisfie himselfe; but will doubtlesse, when he heares thereof, seize upon what estate he can light upon, to the farre greater damage of the merchants, if speedy course be not taken for satisfaction. But as I doe not doubt the company's providence therein, so doe I not theire care, in petitioning your highnes for letters to the duke of Tuscanie, to stopp Ell's proceedings, and remand the estate towards satisfaction of the grand signior's damage, who together with his principall officers beeing gone to Adrianople, is the cause no man moves yet in this busines: when they shall, I will be in readines to alledge what in law and reason can helpe for the saving the merchants estates: if thereby I cannot prevaile, I shall delay it, by giveing them hopes from Legorne, that so I may receive the company's order before execution, allwaies assureing these people of your and our nation's high detestation of such acts and actors. The successe of which I shall, as occasion serves, not faile to informe your highnes, and what else this place will afford worth notice; praying, meane while, that God would long blesse you in the happy protection of your good people, in whose number hee humbly desires to have place, who is and shall bee,