A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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February (3 of 4)
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Les ambassadeurs a Marienborgh envoyent des points preliminaries, le temps, le lieu, &c. pour commencer le traité de paix. Le lieu seroit Marienwerder, on autre dans le Warmelant. La Swede et Brandeborg demandent aussy passeports pour Ragozky, et pour les Cosacques. Charnetsky estoit venu a Dansigk. Le roy preparoit son depart avec luy pour aller a Brest en Livonie, a parachever son traité de paix avec le Muscovite.
L' on a resolu, selon l'avis du conseil d' estat, que permettre le passage aux levées saites en Alemaigne pour le Spaigne seroit non seulement contre le placcard, mais aussy de mauvaise consequence et exemple; lequel les autres provinces voudroient aussitost suivre. Pour commander les troupes ou 400 hommes en Marienwerder, aucuns on proposé Perceval, autres Maccowitz, autres Gentilot.
Le roy de Poloigne a escrit aux estats generaux, qu'il est bien content de quiter le titre de Swede et Lyslande, mais a condition, que les Swedois quittent la Prussie, pour donner des passeports a Ragocksky ou aux Cosacques a venir a la pacification. Il ne veut pas ensendre.
Les deputes del' admirautén' ont pas encore fait rapport; mais il est certain, que leur concept soit d' equipper une slotte semblable a celle de l' annee passee; et par provision iront encore six vaisseaux vers Ruyter; et bonne partie de la slotte suivra.
Il y a deliberation touchant les retorsions contre tel recevoir du roy de Spaigne au pais de Limborck, qui aura extorqué bien 72 mille francs; et l' on propose de prendre par retorsion meme des biens, bestail, et personnes, venants aussy bien d' autres terres du roy de Spaigne, comme du pais de Limborgh.
De la besoigne des admirautes est fait rapport, qu'on doive mettre en mer 48 navires de guerre, dont douze iroient vers le sondt; le reste vers la west, aussy contre le Portugal, et par provision 6 navires desja prests a Amsterdam iroient vers Ruyter.
La place vacante de resident au Sont est proposé, quatres provinces se sont declarees pour tel le Marie. La Geldre a dit avoir quelque chose contre le Maire, qui le rendroit incapable de cette charge.
Aujourd'huy sont dimis les deputes de l' admirautes; reviendront dant 14 jours. Cependant ou parle d' envoyer des deputes en Zelande pour les induire a se conformer avec les autres touchant certain placcard de l' an. 1653.
N'a guerre on a donné un octroy pour imprimer les oeuvres de Hugo de Groot, clam et obreptitie: c'est pour quoy a l' instance du sir Vander Hoolck, cela est aujour d'huy, et retracté, non fans quelque ignominie.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Maintenant est achevé la besoigne et conserences des deputes des admirautes fur l'equipage d' une puissante flotte par mer, d'au moins guarante, et huict navires ne guerre. Elle a nom d' aller principalement contre France, et contre le Portugal; estant vray, que l' Angleterre n'y soit pas nommée: mais je vous puis asseurer, que le principal but est contre Cromwel; car je scay de tres certainé science, que 181 a parlé de Cromwel, comme d'un homme fans soy, et qui tousjours a trompé fes compaignous, pour tirer tout a soy; et que jamais fes amys ou allies auront suject a fe louer de luy ou de fa sincerité ei si en aucune facon les ess ts d'Holland pourroient supplanter le protecteur & remettre 138, qu'ils le feroient; car ny Espagne ny France Sweden, Denmarc l'empeieur ny aucun leur est tant suspect comme Cromwel, et ce seulement a cause du commerce, s'imaginants que tout commerce foit pour eux; rien pour les autres, et croyent que Cromwel pour son industrie et pour la situation du pais seul empesche les estats d'Holland de venir a la totale domination fur commerce.
Je vous puis bien asseurer, que Cromwel soit le principal but de cette puissante slotte: quoy que seuls les Francois et Portugal y soient nommes: et un des desseins est de securer les retours des Indes pour Elpagne, et pour contre carrer la trop grande puissance que Cromwel excerce fur les costes de Eipagne.
Il est vray qu'ils grimassent un peu contre 139, et ce qu'il fait tant enquerir fur les manufactures de ceux de Cromwel et de France que ceux de les estats o'Holland transportent. Mais cela ne provient que de pur envie de les estats d'Holland, qui se veuleut ainsy encore aussy enrichir par la sueur de Cromwel et de France.
Il est vray aussy, qu'on propose d' envoyer douze navires vers l'Oest. Mais encore en effect contre l' interest de Cromwel. Car je vous puis jurer de favoir tres bien, que Espagne et Dennemark vont de concert, et que ambasadur de Eipagne icy travaille de tout son pouvoir pour faire une conjunction de navies de guerre entre les earts generaux et Dennemarc. Il' est vray que ces 12 navires n' iront que simplement, sans nommer aucun dessein. Mais estant au Sundt les estats d'Holland sauront diriger l'affaire de telle facon, que ces 12 encourageront Denmarc a y adjoindre tout tant qu'il a de navires de guerre, et par ainsy accablerle Swede. En effect il saut avouer qu'il n'y a ny soy ny conscience dans les estais d'Holland. Car a quoy sert l'alliance que Sweden a sait avec aux? et je vous puis asseurer que les estats d' Holland ont un tres important dessein pour le West pour rompre la vigueur de France, satiguer le protecteu, tirer tout commerce a les estats generaux, et faire perdre a Cromwel l'envie de plus travailler le Eipagne ou de secunder le France. Car ils ne croyent pas que France oferoit parler si haut, en cas que Cromwel ne l'animast. Certes les entast d'Holland ont grand avantage. Car ils font en paix, et tirent tout commerce a eux, et ils s'imaginent que Cromwel aussy bien que France et Sweden embarassé en guerre n'osera rien resuser a les estats d'Holland, ny aucunement se meler de Sundt jusques a maintenant Cromwel a eu quelque raison d'estre spectateur: mais si Cromwel doresnavant laisse faire les Dennemarc et les estats de'Holland, ensemble, les estats d'Holland et l'empereur seront ce qu'ils veulent.
Que les estats d'Holland s'offrent de vouloir traiter ceux de 138 comme pirates, n'est qu'une grimasse nour induire le Cromwel au traitté de marine. Car les estats d'Holland se mocquent de leurs traites. Et ne laisseront de favoriser le 138 sous main tant qu'ils pourront. Je reste,
Courtin to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
That which busieth the provinces at present, is the nomination of the charge of marshall of Camp, which some provinces would bestow upon prince William of Nassau, by plurality of voices, since that Holland doth oppose it. The issue of this business is yet uncertain. The admiralties are assembled to advise about the means for the setting forth of a fleet to guard the merchant men, which sail to France, Spain, and England, to defend them against all disturbers.
The states-general have refused don John de Gamarra passage in their territories for some soldiers, which were raised in Germany for the service of the king his master; the said ambassador was surprized at it, and said, that the king of Spain should then hinder, that the garrison of Maestricht should have no communication with those, which are in the other towns under the obedience of the states-general.
Marigny to Stouppe.
Notwithstanding the reports, which have been spread here, that the duke of York was still at variance with the king of England, believe me that those businesses are very well accommodated. They write me word from Flanders, that don John was to go and view his maritime towns, and to give such necessary orders as are requisite. The lords of this country are very much incensed against France.
It is said here, that your parliament hath given some millions to the protector, to the end de faire le diable a quatre, to play the devil against Flanders. The Spaniards have received a great assistance of money, so that they hope to have a good army. Pray remember the secret of the diamonds and the emeralds, and send me word in what condition the jewels are, which you so much fear. What do you say of the re-establishment of the jesuits at Venice?
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to Ruysch.
It is yet given out here and believed by most men, that their H. and M. L. do stand ill in England with the lord protector; and when I speak against it, yet it is not received for a truth. I ask now, whether I may use the words of the letter of the lord ambassador Nieuport at London, to confound and remove this bad opinion and feigned report here as much as is possible? Not being well of late, I sent my son to a person of quality and consideration, to desire, in their H. and M. L. name, and by their order, that the king would be pleased to recall the proscription (for so I call'd it) of the goods of the subjects of the United Netherlands, published at Calais and Toulon, to the prejudice and grievance of the said subjects. He sent me this answer, that he did believe the king had exempted England, Venice, Genoa, and the Hans-towns from the rigour of the ordinance, for they have all of them renewed their alliance with the king; but the lords states, after so many years expectation, have not done it. If the lords states will renew their alliance, their subjects will be treated in the same manner as others. These are, my lord, the true words of the answer, by which you may judge of the energy of the same. Now I desire to know whether I may say and maintain,
First, That their H. and M. L. understand and declare, that the antient alliances made between the kings Henry the IVth, Louis the XIIIth, and his majesty at present, do yet subsist and are in force; wherefore they cannot lay to the charge of their H. and M. L. that they have no alliance with France.
Secondly, That the king by a solemn act of the 30th of May 1651, did cause to be delivered to me by the hands of the queen at a publick audience, and which hath since continued the maritime treaty of the year 1646, which expired in the year 1654, till that a further treaty should be made, that their H. and M. L. have begun by me to treat about the same, but the conclusion of the negotiation begun between us was not perfected, not occasioned by the side of their H. and M. L. but in regard the commissioners of the king insisted upon a condition of an alliance offensive and defensive against any potentates, princes, or states.
Thirdly, That their H. and M.L. by virtue of the said act of the 30th of May 1651, and by reason that their H. and M. L. are concluded in the treaty of good amity and neighbourly correspondence made at London, in Nov. 1655, between France and England, it may be said in effect, that they have a new treaty with France.
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to Ruysch.
Through foul weather the post of the last week could not arrive, so that I did not receive their H. and M. L. letter with their resolution and instruction of the 2d instant till the 19th currant, comprehending the reasons concerning the recalling of the act of parliament for the encrease of the trade and commerce of that nation (but yet to the great prejudice of the navigation of the United Netherlands, published in October 1657, I will (by the assistance of God) use all possible means and endeavours to effect the same with all faithfulness, and with as much speed as may, according to their H. and M. L. commands. And I hope to give their H. and M. L. a further account thereof by the next.
Embassador Dorp to Ruysch.
This morning the syndick of this city came and related to me, how that hitherto the business concerning the ratification could not be concluded, in regard two thirds of the magistrates were remaining scrupulous to do it, but he yet hoped their H. and M. L. would receive satisfaction herein. The said syndick declared also with great earnestness, that the council of this city had proceeded herein very sincerely and diligently, only that it was hindred through the jealousy of some, who do not understand the business: hereby I am necessitated to have patience for the present, and to take my journey forthwith for Marienburgh, and there expect what will be shortly resolved concerning this.
Lockhart to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your honor,
I left Paris upon fryday so betyms, as I did not receive those commands, that day's post might bring me from your honor, nor shall I meet with those may come by to morrowe till thursday or fryday next; so that I must begg pardon, if my return to them shall not be so soon dispatched.
Sir, having the opportunity of a safe conveyance of this by my brother, I shall with the greatter freedome give ane account of what is aggreed unto concerning Dunkirk; but by reason of the captain's importunity to be going, I can only mentione the most matterial poynts.
In the first place, Dunkirk and Mardyk shall be besieged once in Appryl with ane army of 26000 men, wherof 20000 French and 6000 English, at the which tyme his highness's fleet is to beseedge it by sea. Secondly, If their be no possibility of carrying Dunkirk till the army can (by being masters of Gravelinns) have communicatione with France by land, in that case, Gravelinns shall be beseedged as aforesaid, and at it's surrender shall be putt into his highness's hands, with all the forts and posts belonging too it, which he is to keep till he be possessed of Dunkirk and Mardyk.
Thirdly, To the end their may be no jealousie betwixt England and France upon the account of their treatting with Spayn, England and France are oblydged to conclude no peace with Spain (except it be by joint consent) till after the expiratione of 12 months, to be counted from the date of this treatty. This is the greatest lenth I can bring this particular too, save that the cardinall is willing in September or October next to renew our agreement for the following campagne, and so successively from year to year, so long as the two states shall be fitt to continue a joynt warr against Spayn.
Fourthly, The 3000 men to be levyed by his highness shall be employed for the defence of his garison of Dunkirk after it's surrender; and his highness is not oblydged to levy others in their roome for the French; so that he is at no more expense then the advance of the levy-money, seeing it will be impossible to keep Dunkirk and Mardyk with a lesser number of men then 3000; and if Gravelinns be first taken, he may draw out of his own 3000 men such a number, as shall be sufficient for it's garrison, without being oblydged to make up againe to the French.
Seventhly, Their is a better maintenance settled upon the officers and soldiers of the 60000 Inglish, then ever hath been given in France to any, save the French and Swiss guards. Their is a commander in chief allowed, six chaplains, six chirurgions, six secretarys, and one phisician. Every soldier hath five pence per day in money, and two pence in bread. The best comon regiments have but two pence and bread, and the most of the new raised have nothing but their bread. I have aggreed the difference I had with the officers of the finances or treasury about their dews. The cardinall would nott alter their wages, but allows half a crown by the head more, which will bear that and all the other little expences of the transmitt of the mony, and their will be a rest over, of which I shall give you an account.
This is all I can remember in the hurry I ame now in, save that an agreement to this purpose had been syned upon fryday last, if their had not fallen out a difference about the language it was to be writt in. Count Brien and mr. de Lion urged, that their king in his own court could speak no other language then his own; and therefore they offered to give me the traject de campagne they were to syn, in French. I told them, I was content to receive it, so they would tak myn in English. They would doe nothing before they consulted the cardinall; and at last my overture, that it should be in Latin, was accepted of; and to the end, that tyme may be given for it's translatione, the syning is delayed till monday come sennight.
Sir, I am ashamed to send this scribble in the disorder it's in, but I hope your wonted
goodnesse to me will prevaile for your pardon to,
May it please your honor,
your most humble and obedient servant,
The Dutch ambassadors at Marienburgh to Ruysch.
Since our last conference with the lords commissioners of the king mentioned in our last of the 23d instant, we have used our utmost endeavours for the removing and answering of the objections and difficulties raised about the list of the year 1640, as also the point of elucidation concerning the privileged societies and persons; to which end we have had another conference and audience of his majesty, and endeavoured to dispose him with all manner of reasons and motives to comply with the intention of their H. and M. L. and we hope we shall be able to prevail, in regard his majesty hath once again reiterated in very earnest and civil terms his real and singular affection to the state of their H. and M. L. and declared to be willing to contribute from time to time all that may make for the composing of a solid amity and new correspondence with the same; and now particularly will so far yield to their H. and M. L. about the said point of elucidation, as can in reason and equity be desired of him, and that it be in his power to do so, that we dare hope a good and speedy issue of our negotiation as soon as we shall have received their H. and M.L. further resolution upon our letter of the 20th instant, which we do therefore humbly desire their lordships to hasten unto us, in regard we cannot perceive, that they will yield to the abolishing of the pitch and tar company for some reasons mentioned at large in our last. In the mean time we will do all what we can to effect the other points of elucidation according to their H. and M. L. good intention, and if it be possible yet, to adjust the same before the departure of his majesty.
The prince of Transilvania to the king of Sweden.
Serenissime et potentissime rex, domine colendissime,
Secundum promissum meum literis in Decembri datis majestati vestræ testatum, ingressus sum, Deo auxiliante, Poloniæ fines, cum copiis meis in Januario, superatis vix superabilibus difficultatibus. In Stryi per aliquod tempus commorandi necessitatem mihi imposuit Cosacorum expectatio, cum quibus tandem uno ultra præmisliam milliari unitis viribus huc veni, progrediarque quantocius in interiora Poloniæ, communi nostro bono promovendo unice operam daturus. Solutam Cracoviæ ab hostili exercitu adventus mei sama (quod litteræ domini mareschalli ad illust. dominum Virtsum testantur) (obsidionem vehementer gratulor, confisus divinæ bonitatis auxilio pari successu copias Polonicas mihi oppositum iri. Cancellarius regni Hungariæ Nitriensis episcopus ab imperatore ad me solemnis expeditus legatus, nudiustertius huc venit. Mihi huc usque per Dei gratiam ad vota hæc expeditio succedit, successuramque tanto selicius, vestræ majestatis cooperante opera, nullus dubito. His majestati vestræ prosperrimam valetudinem successusque ad vota fluentes precatus favori me ejus constanti intime commendo. Datum in castris ad Jaroslaviam die 27 Feb. 1657. [N. S.]
Ragotski to the prince of Sweden.
Serenissime princeps, domine amice observandissime,
Silentium nostrum rumpendi (cujus solam temporum iniquitatem locorumque distantiam causam fuisse fidenter scribimus) ingressus noster in Poloniam ansam nobis præbuit, suasitque ut serenitati vestræ jam pridem devotum affectum nostrum faceremus testatum; quem ut alias semper, ita occasione hujusce conatus nostri, qui ad communis cause promotionem à nobis unice susceptus est, serenitati vestræ approbare parati sumus; atque his valetudinem successusque prosperrimos ex animo serenitati vestræ precati, amica ei studia addictionemque nostram lubenter offerimus. Datum in castris nostris ad Jaroslaviam die 27 Feb. anno 1657. [N. S.]
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
Being earnestly desired by the laird of Buhannan (who is one that hath bin very faithfull and serviceable to us) to write to you in his behalf, I make bold to acquaint you, that his highnesse about two yeares since was pleased to grant an order to the judges, in favour of lieutenant colonel Osborne, betweene whome and the said Buhannan there was a suite depending, whereuppon a decrete was passed against the said Buhannan, which truly I am persuaded if his highnesse had bin rightly informed, hee would not have done; for I am perswaded if it had not been for his highness's order, the businesse would have gone on Buhannan's side; and all that he now desires, is, that his highnesse will be pleased to grant an order to leave it to the judges to proceede upon the hearing of the whole according to justice and the lawes and practice of this nation: for the procuring of an order to which effect, I intreate you to stand the said Buhannan's friend to his highnesse, hee being both an honest and discreete gentleman, and one who hath carryed himself soe faithfully to the present government, that I know few deserve better, notwithstanding some hard dealing he has had from us. I remayne
Sir Tho. Bendyshe, embassador at Constantinople, to secretary Thurloe.
I have now wrote your honour rather to shew, that I am awake (as a publique minister beeing, as is well fancied, the eye to his master, should alwaies bee,) then that I have made any considerable discoveries or observations, which indeed without information whither, or instructions how his highnes interest were intermixt with that of any prince, (whose agent or allies are resident, and conversing here) how can I better doe? Uncommissioned I am no more then spectator, whereas otherwise (by sounding the depths of some which I have opportunities to doe) I might play my parte with that advantage to his highnes the busiest uppon this stage doe to theire princes.
Sir, what hath beene long in rumour is now growne to resolution, so that the grand signior's intent of a warre is now a thing of certainty, designing sodainly the setting up his
standard, the embodying of an army of 400,000, besides assistants, as 50,000 Tartars, and
the guardes of the grand signior himselfe, who will countenance his army with his person
to Adrianople, and the attendants on the bassas, which are numerous; but where or uppon
whom, is a thing as yet of guesse and conjecture. His high dislike of the Transilvanians
motion for Polonia makes some thinke hee'l vent himselfe that way; others conclude uppon the Venetians as the propper object for this army, which revenge first formed, what ere
may divert; and some thinke the emperor of Germany no whit the securer for beeing
courted by him; but where ere this hideous storme falls, 'twill make blacke weather. I
shall listen after him, when advanced, and speede the exactest journalls I can gain to your
honour, neglecting no seasons of manifesting my duty to his highnes, or service to your
honour; which shall ever be testified even to the hazard of the life of
Sir, your honour's most humble servant,
Pera di Constantinople this 18th of Feb. 1656.
The governor of Cuba to the governor of St. Domingo.
Abra mas de quatro meses que despaché a Juan Martin Ravelo con la respuesta de las Cartas que V. S. se sirviò escrivirme y hasta aora no he tenido noticia de su llegada ni el paradero que tubo la embarcazion que llevò a su cargo y aviendo ricibido diferentes ordenes y despaches de su Magd. he resuelto remitir a V. S. los que le tocan, y los de Puerto rico para que se sirva de encaminarlos.
Su Magd. que Dios le gude a sido serbido de mandar conduçir diferentes troços de infantteria de las plaças de Barlobiento a esta, para que a mi disposision se yntroduzgan en la isla Jamayca, y se procure su restauracion. Y assi mesmo en otro despacho antecedente me mandà avisar de los pertrechos de guerra que se an embiado a esse presidio para el socorro de los demas y que cada uno pidamos a V. S. los que necesiteremos en cuyo cumplimiento supliquè a V. S. se sirviesse de mandarme remitir 500 bocas de suego para armar los becinos de esta Ciudad y sus lugares, y 100 çapas, 100 palas, 100 picos, 100 marraços, cinquenta achas, y aora serà necesario que V. S. acreziente a este numero el que le paresciere. Para lo que se ubiere de obrar en Jamayca, pues lo arriva reserido lo a menester precissamente esta plaça, por estar amenaçada, y oy mas que nunca, respeto de aver desalojado el enemigo a isla de nieves, y allarse con gruesso considerable en Jamayca, y assi mesmo los 100 ynsantes que señaladamente binieron de España para esta plaça, y enqto a los demas peltrechos, y ynfantteria me remito a los despachos de su Magd. y solo digo a V. S. que en la brevedad consistirà la mayor parte del buen successo, pues segun las noticias de todas partes el enemigo bendrà sobre esta plaça en dandole lugar el tiempo, y adelantandolo nosotros con meterle la guerra dentro de su isla pueden desbanecerse los disignios con que a estas oras, està, V. S. N. tan capaz en estas materias, como çeloso en el real servicio, y no dudo que con su amparo, y promtitud tendràn buen sucesso las armas de su Magd. deviendosele al cuidado de V. S. la mayor parte, y a mi la buena voluntad, con que deseo emplearme en servicio de V. S. cuya bida gle
The Dutch embassadors in Denmark to Ruysch.
Our last was of the 25th of this month; the next day after the writing of the same the lord chancellor and the lord ryckshoffmaster went for Odenze, and through their departure the negotiation with the resident of Sweden is suspended till the assembly of the states is finished. The king departed thither within three days: and although his majesty had formerly declared that it would be agreeable unto him, that we should undertake the journey likewise for Odenze; yet since he hath signified to have no need of any foreign ministers there, in regard he doth not intend to make any long stay, and that his domestick affairs will not give him leave to treat of any others; and with this answer he put off the resident of Sweden, who would have followed him to Odenze.
A letter of intelligence from Germany.
I hope you will not blame, that I am perhaps a litle too hasting in asking you notice of the letters of landgrave of Cassel to the lord protector. The reason is, that I am impatiently desirous to see those two knit a nearer correspondency and friendship together, which I am sure will prouve to bee much profitable for the comon cause of religion and state. You did well, sir, to keep the sayd letter till your getting home, because beeing presented by your hands, and followed by your comendations, it will be more acceptable, and the sooner take its effect. I wishe with all my heart, that the Lord, who hath guided you hitherto with his angel, and blessed the worck of your hands, may also send you safely home again into your country, there to atchieve the good and pious deseins you have for his glory and the propagation of his church. This I desire you humbly to let me heare a word of you as soone as you are got to London, and how you find things there. I make noe doubt but the p a r li a m e n t 1 and the lord protector will concert soe together, that it may bee for the conservation of both of them, and their good intentions succeed. If the w ar r e against Spain bee carried on with that resolution and courage it is begun, I hope to see shortly the strength of papists broken. I am most certain, had the k i n g s of England in our latter warre endeavoured seariously to cut worke to Spain, and take away from them, as they easily could by their fleet, nervum illum belli, which they fetch from India, 3 30 21, the Palatinate, with some others, but especially the whole reformed partie might bee in a better condition then now they are; but God doeth all things in his time. I admire what will bee at last the desein of Charles Stuart and royal party: if the lord protector keeps the fleet and army in his devotion, there will bee noe feare. I should bee more afraid, if England and states united would fall out together; but should it be possible, that two formerly soe contrary elements as fire and water (vid. Spain and Holland would now agree; sed auri sacra sames, quo non mortalia pectora cogit? though I beleeve they would faile in what the aime at, beeing opposed by France and England. I heard of that pamphlet of sir Henry Vain's, which he wrote against the present gouvernment, but I should bee glad to see it.
That couzen of mine, which I comended to you, you have seen and spoke with him heere, hee visiting you with mr. Purley, that young English gentleman, which stood heere. He has the language pretty well, and been in England halfe a yeare, intending to goe thither again next summer. If then you meet with an occasion for him, you will oblige mee; and, I hope, he will give you satisfaction in that kind of employment, which he desireth.
There hath been formerly some jealousies of the new Saxon elector, as if he should incline a litle to papists; but now they conceive quite contrary of him, and give us hope, that he will behave himself well in matters of gouvernment and religion, though some say, that the Switzers of his guard are all papists, but I cannot tell it for certain. The baron of 24 2 Kuneuritz 30 1 20 is sent thither to assist at the burriall of the late Saxon elector: at his coming home we shall know some particularitys of that new state. The several brethern will deal the lands (corrupto nostrorum more) and if they should afterwards breake together, they would much weaken the strength of that party; but wee doe not hope it much, beeing spoke of their love and unanimity together. I have been told by some understanding man, and who knoweth something of that state, that neither Saxon elector, nor one of the brethren should bee soe passionate against reformed party; which would bee a great advantage to bring your godly intentions the rather to its end and effect: time will show it.
Next spring will show us what will bee the issue or succes of the ware between Sweden and
Poland, I feare the burden will bee very heavy to 3 6 Dantzick, 30 11, to keep one 24 king 11
in their citty, and the other out of it. Wee have newes that 16 Ragotzi 26 20 9 is entred in
Poland, to assist king of Sweden, which would much strengthen the party of this latter. There are some
differents between elect. and Mentz Palat. which may groe hot. You know in what termes Brandenb. is
with Neuburg. Our Laud is at the present at Callen; we know not for what intent, but you may
easily gesse, that it is to advance his papist party. Wee are yet quiet, but not wanting to
setle things in such a condition that wee may be without danger. Wee use to trye first
good correspondence, and then to goe on with zeale. Summa, there is no question but that papists have
dangerous deseins if they can bring it about. I beseech you let me know, if you received
this letter, and what way of correspondency wee shall take hereafter. This I send to 51,
who will direct it. Cha. Vulten's hath been with us heere shortly, who esteemeth much your person
and intentions. I should bee glad to heare if you meet at London with mr. Schlezer 1 20 25
16. Pray commend my service to him, and let mee know what his negotiation is in England.
Et quo successu. Soe I rest,
At 112 Feb. the last 1657. [N. S.]
Sir, if a kinde answer come from the lord protector to our landgrave of Cassel, and an invitation to neerer correspondency, it may bee my chance to be first employed as an instrument for the furthering of it; which I should the rather undertake, because it would make mee happy to see you again.
A letter of intelligence from George Pawley, dated the last Feb. 57. new-style.
My last was of the 21st currant, being a copy of mine of the 17th instant, which I sent by way of Bamfylde. Now I received another of yours of the 23d December. Whereas you say I advised of eight ships to be coming from the Indies, you are mistaken; I advised but of so many intended to be sent, or to meet with the fleet expected, and since I advised of twenty and two. And this is to let you know, that except these three or four months there will be no fleet set forth from Cadiz, so many changes there are, and before that time God knows how many more will be. This is resolved, since the ship arrived, that left the money in the Canaries, and also brings certain advice, that the fleet expected from the Indies has advice not to come till further order, which I partly believe, by means of this last resolution, or else till you give a resolution about what I writ to Bamfylde about the peace, either of these two causes of this prolonging of setting forth the fleet. I assure you that you cannot have better advice of their fleet, than I give, though you say, that you have contrary of what I advise. Mark the end, and you shall know mine to be the best; for I believe, though you may have forty others to give advice, there will be none of them, that will judge aright of these men's proceedings no better than my self. And though they had resolved for to morrow seventy ships of war, I will never believe any thing, till I see them ten leagues in sea. You may set your mind at rest these three months at least, unless some other change be, and particularly till they see if you will have a peace or no. I will assure you, that four days ago don John said, that he would not wish, that any thing should happen to the protector, when some report was that treachery was intended against him; and said further, that he doubted not, but to have a further understanding with him. It is certain, they intend a considerable fleet; but God knows when it will be ready. The nuncio is very busy about the peace with France, but nothing as yet done. I assure you, that I have good advice from Cadiz, though I will not trust to it, without going myself, as soon as you remit the pension; for I have been, and am at great charges; and unless you perform soon, I am afraid to loose my credit, and be much prejudiced, that now eight months is past, and no performance, after that you assured me the pension in yours of the 22d November; and in this last you intend no such thing as payment. If I had done as others, in giving great promises, and making news, you would perform better; but I will not, but deal really. I hope you have performed before this; if you have not, I pray give it to Bamfylde, whereby he might follow my orders. I swear I am never the better for it; for I repair not my charges. My hopes are for the future; otherwise I would not venture to write as I do. Make no use of the figures, but where of necessity you must. All the fleet they are able to make now, though they had gone to their uttermost, is what I advised in mine of the 2d and 4th October last, unless before they set forth some of the new ships, that are a building be ready. Let not their fleet trouble you as yet, I warrant you, and rest
This is but a copy of my last; since here is no alteration worth your notice. I have given over advising you, how an agent is coming hither from the Scot's king, and his name, for that you know well from friends; but I assure you, he will do nothing, if you will have a peace; for they have many old accounts to rectify with his family, so that they would rather a hundred times the protector, or his family; or any else to continue, than the Scot's king or any of his family, so that they had but a peace with the protector. What they do with the Scot's king is only, till they have a peace with you. The news we have from general Blake is, that he has thirty-seven ships upon the coast of Cadiz. This is all that offers at present.
An intercepted letter to the lord Conway.
Contrary to my intentions and indeed obligations, I am yet at Paris, being detained by force of business, against my will and design, longer by three weeks than I supposed in reason I should, which is the occasion I omitted so long to write to your lordship, being as I thought every day ready to quit the place. This place hath not been backwards in putting forth very glorious balls, but very unhappy in the prosecution of them, being hindred by the death of many of the cardinal's nearest allies, as madam Mancini his sister, since madam Marcœur, and others, which occasioned that the duke of Guise his ball, which was far more glorious and costly than the king's, was but once represented, and that at the Louvre, which was after to have been at his own palace, and is yet intended at Easter, if no new accidents happen to oppose it.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of the H. and M. L. states-general.
Was once more produced to the assembly the remonstrance of the present commissioners of the admiralties of Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Zealand, and the northquarter, wherein they leave it to the considerations of their H. and M. L. whether it ought not to be generally forbidden, that no ships shall sail from any port of this state for Eastland or Norway, before the 10th of April next, unless they be such ships as go to fetch lean oxen; whereupon being debated, it is resolved, that letters shall be writ to the admiralties of the north quarters, and of Friezland, that their H. and M. L. are yet debating upon the said point; and that they do take care in the mean time, that in prejudice of their said deliberation, no ships do sail for the said parts for the space of 12 days.
Consul Maynard to secretary Thurloe.
I HAVE writ at large by this packett-boate, who might now have been in Ingland, for the master neglected as faire winde and weather to have gone out, as could possibly have been desired, for sower days together: He sett saile from this place the 23d past, and I thought he had made noe stay, till the 26th I was informed by a boate, that came up the river, he was in the bay of Wyers; so I presently went downe to hasten him away, but nothing would prevaille to make him sett saile, being severall ships bound for Ingland, he would not goe without there company, which, I feare, hath quite overthrowne the dissigne of carringe letters; for none will write by them, seeing them so negligent in thire proceedins, and those, that have letters aboard this vessell, protest to have there money back againe: and I cannot stirr out of doores, but one or other tells me, what a great injury I have done them by not sending away their letters. All I can doe is, to promise to get more carfull men to goe in this employment for the future.
Inclosed I send your honour a copy of a letter, which came from a certain hand from Cadix. What former intelligence I gave your honour was all true, they intended to have sett out but eight ships for the India, before the late advice by way of Canaris; now they make all the hast they cann to sett out 30 ships, as your honour will see by the inclosed. The Nova Spania fleete is daily expected, and by the advices sent out it may be gathered, they will not come for the bay of Cadix: they are a rich fleete, but not strong at all: eight or ten friggotts on the cost of Galitia may doe good service. I have sent generall Blake coppies of this intelligence by fower severall conveyances, twice by two expresses by land, to Pharo and Lagos, and two by sea, by ships bound into the straites, which will not be certaine; and here is but one ship of generall Blake's fleet, the Mary flyeboate, captaine Feltsteed, whoe will not goe without an order from the generall, and I have not power to constraine him: he would be a sure conveyance, and I cannot gett another ship on any terms; however, I hope one of the sower will come to his hands. The captaine of the Mary flyeboate told me last week, he would depart in fower or five dayes; now he sayes will not goe without an express order from the generall. I shall write againe by all conveyances to the fleete by sea. The fowle weather is the cause that Mr. doth not now depart, the ships being altogether ready.
This nation begines extreamly to feare the Spaniards, who dayly is sending horse and foote
towards this kingdome, and the queen hath intelligence, that the Spaniard and French have
concluded a peace for twenty yeares; and that the Hollanders will send twenty saile of ships
to lye before this port. Which is all I have to signify to your honour. I rest
Your honour's faithfull servant,
Prince William of Nassau to the states-general.
H. and M. lords,
My lords, I have thought fit, according to my duty, to inform your H. and M. L. herewith, that I, to accomplish the good intention of your H. and M. L. and the commissioners of the states of Groningen, have used all possible endeavours to induce the differing parties by all possible means to a mutual amity; which proving fruitless, in regard each party relied upon their right, and being of an opinion they will not change their minds, much less yield to one another in the least; wherefore in pursuance of the regulation appointed by your H. and M. L. I have begun to govern my self accordingly, and will advise your H. and M. L. from time to time how I proceed therein. In the mean time praying to God, &c.
Col. Timothy Wilkes to the protector.
May it please your highnes,
I Have thought it my duty to give you this account of the condition of the cittadell at Leith. The money received by the councell's order in Scotland, is 6000 l. sterling, which is 500 l. per mensem for twelve monthes to January last, and 1000 l. by order of the said councell out of sequestrations, and by order of my lord generall Moncke 3500 l. from the citty of Edenburg, and lent to me by my lord generall's order (to mr. Will Clarke) 3000 l. for which I have given engagement to pay it, as I receive money for the said work, and my lord generall is calling out for it, and doth expecte it. I have and doe often move generall Moncke for money: he is much troubled, that he hath it not to supply our want for the speedy doing the said worke. The whole sume received is thirteen thousand and five hundred pounds, out of which is paid towards the purchase of houses and ground 1505 l. 13 s. 4 d. or thereby; and to compleat the purchase of such houses and ground aforesaid, there is about 1000 l. rests to be paid this summer, for which I have given bond.
My lord, at present the sumes above expressed are expended, besides about 400 l. debte contracted of my owne money; some of it (and of others that I have borrowed money of (and all) to keepe the wheele going) expecting that before this time some way would be found for money to carry on so absolut and necessary a worke. I shall not need to lay before your highnes how advantageous this worke if speedily finished would be to the English interest, or what damage and loss it will be, if delayed; but I shall be bould to declare, that if it doth stand as it doth, what is done must be much undone againe, for want of earth to ramper the walls, and backe them; some doe fall, and water getts into houses partly finished, and doth much hurt. When ground is digged to lay foundations, for want of money it cannot be done, the earth falls in, and raine cometh; then the clering and clensing the same costs much; and for the workmen, which were employed, masons and carpenters, they toke all worke by the great, and were promised that they should worke without intermission if the season hendred not: soe that to get the worke goe on apace they hired many men, and now for want of money is much to there undoeing. My lord, the workes about Leith are soe much decayed and gone, that it was not safe to keepe the lands on the lyne; soe that as soone as a good guardhouse was got up in the cittadell, with the consent of generall Monck I drew the said grounds into the cittadell. If any new stirs arise here, I must draw into the cittadell, where there is not yet entertainment neither for treasures or stores of provisions, &c. If I had money to carry on the worke, three companies of the tenn I now have, I humbly conceive, might be spared; and if there should be cause to draw the present force from Edenburg, I doe not doubte, but, with God's blessing, to keep the place; but as it is, it will be difficult. I conseive it will encouradge an enemy to venter hard for it.
Ther is but 500 1. a month allotted for this worke, and to pay the abovesaid debts out of it, which are 4400 1. there will be but 1600 1. to carry on the worke till December next. There is 1500 l. remaining from the the citty of Edenburg, but they say they promised to pay it at the finishing of the work. I have spoken with my lord generall Monck about it, and he doth hope to get it of them this summer. My earnest supplication to your highnes is, that you would be pleased to covere the rudness of my lynes with a mantle of love. If it shall please your highness, with consent of your councill, to order ten thousand pounds speedily for the said worke, I hope in a few months to make it tenable in faithfullnes to your highnes and this commonweale, and to answer a good conscience in discharge of that great trust it hath pleased your highnes to repose in me, a pore instrument. I have bin thuse tediouse, and I sear troublesome in regard of your most waighty affairs. My humble service I doe present unto your highness, blessing the Lord with you and for you, that the Lord doth, in despite of all wicked enemies, preserve you. The Lord draw your heart more to him, and help you amidst all the evills you daily meet with to bare up, having your eye fixed on the Lord of hoast. O the Lord helpe you to treasure up, and loke over all those blessed experiences, which God hath in a signal way given you, both as to your own soule, and the cause and interest you have and doe owne. My prayer is, and I trust shall be for you, that you may stand sast, in these sad declining appostatising dayes, and hould out to the end, that soe you may receive that crowne, which the Lord of righteous judgments give not only you, but all that love and wait for his appering: To whom be glory. Amen. I humbly take leave, and subscribe myselse,
H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
Sir Paule Davis is sent over to you in a double capacitie, principally to attend the service of his country in parliament; as likwise in the capacitie of an agent from the antient protestant inhabitants heer, to supplicate his highness for the like remittal of their quitt-rent for such time, as is remitted to the souldiery and adventurer, wherin I suppose their case may deserve reliese. And as those, who have imployed him in their more particular concernments, doe hope to reape advantage by his industrious sollicitationes therein; soe those, who have trusted him in his more publyke capacity, have no lesse expectation of his successe for them in that allsoe. And for ought I could ever observe or heare of him, since my cominge to this place, I doe not doubt but you will sinde him very serviceable both to the interest of his highness and countrey in parliament. I doe therefore desire your favour and respect towards him, as he shall have occasion to make use of it in either. I remaine
Mr Spintler's information.
As for the number of Ch. St. forces, he says the report is, they are in all about three thousand; which three thousand are divided into five regiments, one wherof is at Dam, another at Ostend, a third at Berg, a league and an half from Dunkirk, a fourth Louvein in Brabant, about five or six leagues beyond Bruxells, and the fifth at Lier in Brabant.
That in generall all these sorces are very much discouraged, as to the design against England, and that they speak no more at all of that enterprize, as being a thing of no manner of probability; but that the report is now, that they are to serve Ch. Stew. under the king of Spain, in the same manner as the troops of the prince of Conde and the duke of Lorraine. Middleton and col. Tournoy went in great hast from Bruges about two months since for Dantzick, as the report goes, to bring back from thence to Bruges about 200 Scotsmen, which they expected there for the service of Ch. Stew.
They have about 40 men of war, which will be ready within three weeks or thereabouts to go to sea. They have likewise lately pressed many soldiers as he thinks for this navy; but what is their design either as to the ships or soldiers he knows not: he says the bruit goes among the common people, that this provision is made for a war against England, and some say that they will take in Ch. Stew. sorces.
He entreats that he may have leave to depart hence to morrow for Zeland; and withall promises, that if there be any occasion considerable, he will come over back again imediately, or to send an express: or if it please his highness to command him any other service before his departure, he shall be ready to serve him.
Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.
I Am sorry to understand by your honor's letter this day received, that there's soe litle hopes of any resolution to be taken in mr. Townley's busines duringe the sittinge of parliament; but I shall presume, that by your honor's meanes it will sooner be issued. Men doe begin to conclude me utterly disowned, and stick not to speake it to my freinds heere, and to say, that mr. Townley hath more freinds at Whitehall then the resident. I shall hope better, beinge not conscious of havinge deserved soe ill, though the matter, as it referrs to mr. Townley and my selfe, may possibly require a second consideration of those longe papers on both sides, before a judgment passed, which worke I thought had beene over when the report was drawn up; yet it was heere expected by all, yea mr. Townley's owne party, that upon his arrival he would have been punished in some kind for his contempt in departinge without leave, and for soe eludinge the councill's order for his returne, which seems soe immediately to relate unto the honor of his highness and the councel, whose authoritie and command he is judged by strangers heere to have very much sleighted therein: but if it be not soe understood there, it will not become me to presse it farther; onely this, that had somethinge beene then done in it, it would have stopt the mouthes of men heere, who thincke and speake strangely of the busines. I never yet saw the declaration you mention for a day of thanksgivinge; however, it was observed heere, I seare I may say, by some, whoe had little devotion thereunto. The execution of justice will convince such as hitherto would not believe the truth of that blooddy designe.
The inclosed intelligence this weeke is more considerable then of late. The warre ripens towards action in all parts. Though the Danes speake big and arme amayne, yet I
believe that the kinge will bethinke himselfe better than to engage again st the Swedes.
I shall not further detayn you, but professe my selfe,
Your honor's very humble servant,
It is now most certainly confirmed, that the prince of Transilvania (having summoned the nobility and commons of Poland by a manisesto sent unto them to repair to the borders of that kingdom, and performing the oath of sidelity, acknowledge and submit to him as to their liege lord and sovereign, according to their former and late oblations by their several legacies) is entered into the said kingdom, and come to Samvish with a most puissant army, consisting, as its certainly affirmed, of 60000 Hungarians, 30000 Cossacks, and some thousands Wallachians, having by a strong party, sent out before him, raised the siege before Cracow, and totally deseated the Polish starost Roratirsky, who with 800 men lay three miles from Samvish, himself very narrowly escaping; which hath caused so great a perplexity amongst the Poles, as that the nobility in great numbers submit to his protection; but it's said he doth not entertain any of them in his service, but with his sase conduct commands and sends them to their several homes. The said prince hath also given one hundred thousand ducats unto the Tartars, for the preserving of themselves against the spring, to encounter the Muscovites, and to bring him the war into his own territories, in case he shall not think fit to proceed in his resolution of desending Poland, and joining himself with king Casimir against him. All the world is in expectation to know what resolution the emperor will take, and whether or no he will think sit to meddle and engage in this business. As yet he keeps himself very quiet; and tho' the last letters from Vienna affirm, that his general Hatzfield hath absolute order to oppose the prince of Transilvania, in case he should attain Poland, yet it is generally believed, that the said emperor (in regard of the present dangerous state of the house of Austria, as well for want of a Roman king, as also other threatnings and inconveniencies both in Alsatia and Italy) will hardly resolve to make the prince of Transilvania, and consequently the king of Sweden and his allies his enemies, for the incertain preservation of a kingdom no wise concerned to the Roman empire; however it is certain he hath great forces on foot at present, they say 50000 men, with an artillery of 80 pieces of whole and half cannons, and that he hath given out patents for as many thousand more to be raised, in as much as he is not so inconsiderable, but that he may make the conquest of Poland something difficult to the Transilvanians, if he shall judge it his interest to oppose their intentions, notwithstanding the above alledged considerations. The Danish king upon arrival of a Swedish plenipotentiary ambassador at Odensea hath deserred his proposition, which was to have been made to his states there assembled yesterday, the 23d, for a fortnight. It is thought the said ambassador brought certain intelligence thither of prince Ragotzi's entrance into Poland, and that, that news having made some diversion in the Danish councils, will also make them a great deal more mild and wary how to engage against the Swedes, than otherwise they would have been. In the interim, their armature is set forth with as much earnestness as success in all parts, but especially about this city, where a number of officers and soldiers want to take service under them; which causeth such a fright and perplexity amongst all the people of Holstein, that they fly with all their moveables to this city, though they can give no sundamental reason, nor any satisfactory answer to those that ask them the true cause of such their extream sear and timidity. Some are persuaded, that 8000 Swedes came down out of Poland to be quartered amongst them, and to make war upon the king of Denmark. Others believe, that the king of Denmark intends to invade Holstein, or at least to quarter his sorces there, and that he hath a design either against the Stist of Breme in this city; but being all these opinions are grounded upon nothing but conjectures, we must expect the issue of the convention of Odensea, before we can conclude upon any of these or other interpretations of the Danish enterprize. From Breme it is written, that in that dukedom an assembly hath been kept the 12th present, where it was agreed, that the two dukedoms of Breme and Verden should raise, set out, and maintain, at their own cost, six regiments, and yet notwithstanding bear the ordinary taxes and impositions. The Dantzickers, as by their last letters appears, are extremely perplexed, as well because of the Transilvanians and Cossacks entrance into Poland, as also that they hear his majesty of Sweden is now absolutely resolved, not only to stop the Weixell stream, and thereby make it innavigable, but also to cut through the works of the Dant zickers Werder, and so to set the said Werder all under water. The plague doth also increase much amongst them. The Muscovian ambassadors proposition at the elector of Brandenburg's court is not yet publick. Of king Casimir and king Czarnetsky we hear nothing further, than that they are gone for Great Poland. From Elbing it is written of the 27th present, that it is reported there, that prince Ragotzy hath taken a strong town called Lemberg, and that he is to march thence some twenty miles near Thorn, where the king of Sweden is to meet and join with him. His majesty was not then departed from Marienburgh, but that week he was to break up with some regiments of horse and dragoons, yet the greater part of the army is to remain upon the frontiers of Prussia.
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, major-general of the army in Ireland.
I Must in the first place begge your lordship's pardon for not writtinge to you by the last post. The engagements, which were upon me at that tyme, were soe many, and my health soe ill, that I was not able to performe my duty in that respect, neither indeed had I any thinge materiall to trouble your lordship with. Since that wee are fallen upon a very great debate in parlament. Yesterday there was brought into the house by sir Christopher Packe, who serves for the citty of London, an addresse or remonstrance to his highnes of very great consequence. It is to desire hym to take upon hym the crowne of these nations, and alsoe to name the persone, who shall be his next successor; as alsoe to call for the future parlaments consistinge of two houses, which they desire his highnes to doe of such persons, as have not beene of the late kinge's partye, but are men feareinge God, and of good conversation. Many other thinges concerning the libertye of the nation is asserted, and full libertye of conscience is alsoe conteyned in it. The great man and some other considerable officers are against it. The first debate was, wheither it should be read, and that was carryed upon a division of the house by 90 voices; the affirmatives were 144, the negatives but 54; and this day it is voted to be debated in parts, which alsoe was much opposed: the affirmatives were 100, the negatives 44.
I doe verily beleeve, that Lam d b e r st w i l l if it can be done, p u st the a r m y in t f o a ad i f t e m p e r. I thinke it doth much concerne your lordship to have a care of thinges in Ireland, which I trust your lordship will essectually doe. There are great bussinges about towne upon occasion of this debate; but I heare of nothinge else as yet; nor I hope will there be any thinge. The parlament hath enjoyned all the lawyers and judges, who are of the house, to staye in towne from their circuites, to attend this buissines. How the world goes beyond the seas I am not able to say, haveinge had no tyme to read my letters: but I suppose noe great matter hath fallen out of late. I heare Charles Stewart's intention of landinge forces doth somewhat coole, the Spanyard as yet failinge him in his supplyes promised. I remeyne
The Dutch embassadors in Denmark to Ruysch.
Our last to your lordship was of the 28th of the last month. Yesterday the king took his journey for Odensea, leaving here the lord admiral Lindenau to advance the sea equipage, which is already begun, by rigging and careening of several of the great ships. There was also care taken before the king went, to cause the inhabitants of this nation to provide themselves with arms. This is all we have to advise at present, in regard the departure of the king and his ministers hath occasioned a cessation in all foreign negotiations.