A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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November (2 of 5)
A letter of intelligence.
Your's of the 24th I receved the first of November, and in it a bill for 50 l. and although it wil not neare discharge the mony I have taken uppon my house, as you may very well know; for when I receved the 50 l. in February last, I had disburst before that came 39 l. 13 s. 6 d. I sent you the reckning: and then the great jorny I had through South and North Holland and Sealand for 35 dayes, the very passages to and fro cost mee above 7 pounds; soe in all it cost mee 23 l. 9 s. besides other disburstments I sent you. The reckning of that and the quarter came to 76 l. 16 s. which was out the 21st of Aprill. Now since my weekely intelligence I have had from the Hague, the most part of this fomer hath bin chargabel to me; and all this time going to Flushing, and somtims to Brug, to this tim, to which you may well know by my letters cannot be don without charges: therefore I besech you take it not il, that I give you this acount; for I know the multitud of your byesnes can not remember so smale things as these: but what ever you shal please to doe with mee, I doe asewer you, I shal not fayle to lay downe my life to doe his highnes servis. There is a God above doth know the realitie of my hart to serve him to the uttermost of my power. But if you would be pleased to speake or send to the embasador Newport, hee could prevale with the states for the company I writ to you before of Adam Esdel; and then I should be abele to serve you in any thing without any charges. I sent you a letter, dated the 16th October, by an exprese to Flushing, by reason I could not possibly come my selfe, which I hope did come safe to you; and another the next day, inclosed in mounser Payne's, home you sent into these parts. The other partie's frinds came heare to us the 6th day after his being heare; and I find the byesnes in a very good state, and like to be perfomed sooner then I did expect. They doe but onely stay for his highnes's answere, as I hope he hath informed more at large before this; for hee hath bin gon from hence ten dayes; and when he went, I did desier him, and the other partie too, to higher a fisher-ship to com over, and not to stay for the coming of a ship. I tooke him with mee, when hee was heare, to see the plase I have formerly writ of. Hee can give you an acount of it now at large from mee, and what hee knowes more conserning Meredike, and theyre preparations. They doe continew stile, and doe resolve to stay at Dunkerk all this winter, till such time they have taken it, as they make full acount of; but it wil ruin theyre army to ly there this winter, for all the Dutch souldiers they had from above, doe run away as fast as they can; and I make noe dout, the plase may very wel be mayntayned, having but forseeing ingeneres, as long as there is ground before and after, and on the flankers. Had it not bin for this byesnes, the too elder brothers would have shortly bin preparing for theyre jorney over; for theyre is a very rich man in Amsterdam, hose name is Webster, hoo hath dun them many kindnesses before, hath procured divers rich marchants with him to furnish them with mony uppon these conditions at 15 in the hundred; and that the 3 brothers and the sister shall be bound, if any of them shal com into England to govern there, then to pay them for any other damages they may have at the same rate. This I doe aswer you I have had from one of my frinds to be very sertayne, and that all things weare to be shortly in redines wheare they weare to land; but could not tel wheare. The yongger brother is gon on wensday last to live with his sister at Breda, for hee is not to com along with them. I shall youse my uttermost indeavour to serve you heare, or in any other plase you shall comaund mee.
The examination of John Cleave, lieutenant to capt. John Leinde, commander of the states ship of Holland called the Delf of Rotterdam.
This examinant faith, that the 26th of October 1657, about 30 leagues off the rock of Lisbon they met with the St. Jago, belonging to Porte a Porte, in burthen about 140 tons. She came from Fernambuck in Brazil, and hath in her about 200 chests of sugar, with some tobacco and hides, being bound for Lisbon. They seized on her, and took her as prize; and after they had taken her, they gave chace to some other ships; but soul weather approaching, as he alledgeth, hindered them in repairing on board each other; which occasioned him to come away without either brief or commission from his captain.
This examinant saith, he was boatswain to the said ship, and that they came from Fernambuck about two months and a half since, their lading being 220 chests of sugar, with tobacco and hides. On the 26th of October last, about 30 leagues off the rock of Lisbon, they met with about 12 Holland's men of war, by whom, he alledgeth, they were taken. The men of war giving chace to other ships, left them, so that they could not speak with them again.
There came out of Fernambuck 84 sail of Portugals. Their fleet was separated 8 days before they met with the Hollanders. There were 38 sail together when they were taken; and meeting with the Hollanders, every one run his way to shift for himself.
To his excellency the lord Nieuport, extraordinary embassador of the lords the states-general of the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
The subscribed commissioners of his highness have considered your excellency's paper sent unto us the 1 November/ 22 October 1657; as also reflected on the late conserences, which have been between us and your excellency upon points mentioned in the aforesaid paper; and do acknowledge, that it is much beside our expectation, to find so many differences yet remaining between us upon the marine, as are expressed in your excellency's said paper; believing, that the reasons, which had been given by us in our several conserences, had been sufficient to satisfy your excellency for admitting into this treaty the words in the sixth article, excepted to by you the form of the pass and certificates, as it was exhibited by us; and also the last of the fourteen articles: and likewise for the omitting the two secret or separate articles, which we did demonstrate to your excellency not only to be wholly new, and such as never were sound in any former treaties made betwixt this and any other state, but to be unsafe and dangerous in the very nature of them, especially to this island. And as to the aforesaid clause in the sixth article, which your excellency is pleased to say is in the opinion of your superiours, that particular being already regulated and agreed in the thirteenth article of the late treaty of peace, union and consederation, we say, that the regulation there doth only concern the matter of that treaty; but seeing, that a pass and certificate is now insisted upon, which was not in that, nor ever was before in any former treaty between these two states, there is a necessity of this saving and proviso, that this innovation do not extend to prejudice the ancient rights of this commonwealth in the British state. And we desire your excellency to observe, that the words are so penned, that they come not in by way of grant or concession, but only by way of saving what was before; which if yet your excellency be not satisfied to admit, we offer that the pass itself be omitted; professing, that we never have since, or yet do see the advantage to the people of either; and that the said treaty of union, with the additions of these other rules, will provide as we judge for what is reasonably desired by both the consederates.
And lastly, whereas your excellency is pleased to desire the omission of the last of the fourteen articles; first, because no mention had been made thereof in former conserences, we desire to remind your excellency, that some months since it was proposed by us, and a good time spent in the debate thereof at a conference with you, although we think it not very material whether it were then offered yea or no, in respect neither side is obliged during the treaty, but both are at liberty until the full conclusion thereof, to add, alter or diminish, according as the reason of things upon debates, or the change of affairs shall require.
And although this article be not sound in the treaties, which have been formerly made by this state with the crowns of France and Portugal, or with the two Northeren kings and kingdoms, we desire your excellency to consider, that there is not the same reason for all treaties made between several states at several times; one thing may be necessary to be agreed with one kingdom or commonwealth, which is not necessary in respect of another; besides, that which is of no use at one time, may be of absolute necessity at another; the season wherein things are done having always a great influence unto the things themselves: and upon these grounds it is very possible, that the reasons and arguments, which the lords embassadors extraordinary of England at the Hague, in the year 1651, alledged, and objected against such an article then propounded in the name, and on the behalf of the lords the states-general, may be very good and valid, as that time and case was; and the reasons and arguments then used by the commissioners of the lords the states, which we desire also to remind your excellency of, may be very considerable at this time, and as our case is, to justify the proposing of it now in the name of his highness; and we are ready by conference to clear this point, and further manifest the reasonableness thereof: and also to consent, that the treaties which shall be saved, be particularly expressed, and authentick copies thereof delivered to your excellency, that no doubt may remain through the generality of the expressions: or if your excellency please, we are ready to consider with you other means to accommodate matters, wherein we shall contribute our best endeavours; and in this his highness hath no other intention, than that things may be so plainly stated, that through mistakes and misconstruslions no inconveniencies may fall out; he having nothing more in his desire, than to increase the amity and friendship with the lords the states-general, and to agree on such rules for the commerce, that the people of both states may be encouraged therein, and grow up into a mutual love and good liking of each other.
Mr. Bradshaw to secretary Thurloe.
This post has brought me your honor's letter of the 9th of October, myne of the 23d ditto answeringe your's of the 2d then received. I am sorrie I find my selfe thus under further command to proceede for Musco, as a matter of great importance, without any consideration had of what I have soe often desired for my enabling thereunto. I have sufficiently made knowne my present condition to your honor. Though I should have soe little care of my self, as to adventure upon soe long a journey, and into such a countrey, through so many insected places without either minister or phisitian, yet my company (who have sufficiently experienced the want of such men in theise six monthes of our looking death in the face daily without either helpe or comfort for soule or body) are resolved not to proceede to Musco without such men.
And truely I cannot but wonder, considering your honor's professions of care of me, that notwithstandinge your promise to mr. Waynwright to order the sendinge of such men, which otherwise he had done, the company-ships came without them to Hamburgh; and that since not any of your letters so much as mention the reason of it, as if I had desired a thinge not worthy regardinge. If I had beene in England to provide for my self, I should not have troubled your honor with such an unsuteable care, but at this distance, its a hard matter, if not impossible, to prevaile with-such men to undertake such a journey, without it appeare to them to be acceptable to the state, and a service to his highnesse.
I perceive your honor layes much weight upon this negotiation, which without doubt influenceth upon the other mediations on foote to their furtherance. Lett me therefore be excused, if out of a deepe sense I have of his highnesse's honor, and my own safety, I press again for the speedie sending of a minister, a phisitian, and an interpreter, by land, tho' I be at the charge of it, which onely your honor's countenance can effect. It will be in January e're I can depart hence, and by that tyme they may be with me here, either by sea or land. The sea is all winter open from Travemonte to Memmel. What can the Muscovites think, but that either I and my company are men of noe religion, or else, that I am rather thrust out than sent out to this great duke of Muscovy, seeing me come without minister, interpreter, or phisitian.
Your envoys were never so sent out, neither did I come out without a chaplayne to Hamburgh, though I was without one there when this command came to me, because of the benefitt of mr. Gunter's ministrie, who was but then newly returned for England. There shall be nothing wantinge on my part to serve his highness in this important affaire, if I may be but enabled for it, and without that I cannot but in reason be excused. I perceive now upon what tearms mr. Townly is returned to Hamburgh. I wish I might have known it sooner: he and his saction of malignants are little troubled with a private submission for such multiplyed publick offences; neither will it be understood at Hamburgh, that he hath so submitted himself; but, that rather I was removed to give place to him, he making little accompt of submitting himself to me, who he believes must never see Hamburgh again. A paper at home he thinks hurts him not there, though it should be believed. I must consess, that to acknowledge his offence, and to submitt to the partie offended, with an engagement under his hand not to act any such thinge for the future, would have suteably repaired the honor of his highness, and fully satisfyed me, might it have been done in the place where the offences were comitted, that so such as were scandalized thereat, might have been witnesses of your justice: but I shall labour to extinguish any further thought of that business, in hopes of reparation from the senate of Hamburgh, being I understand mr. Peterson is there to smooth over the matter.
We can have no certain intelligence here, there being no posts out of Russland or Poland: what is most currant is contained in the inclosed paper. Returning your honor my humble thankes for your favourable promise to have care of me and my supplys, if I go for Musco, from whence I daily expect to hear, that I may know what to doe, I cease your further trouble, and remayne
I have not heard from mr. Jephson, or mr. Meddowes; meethinks the publique ministers of one state should not carrie it so strangely towards such as were abroad before them. I pray a copie per next of mr. Townley's submission, and the senate's letter to his highness, and that they may not be forgot.
Major-general Jephson to secretary Thurloe.
That you may not wonder to see my hand to a letter from hence, I shall first give you an account what brought me hither. I was six weekes together at Wismar, fore't (with great charge and inconvenience) to lie in a publique inne, and at length got a house, whereof I was forc't to repaire some part, and must furnish for my whole company all but three beds, and one eating-roome; soe that (wanting not only many necessaryes, which could not be had there, but money alsoe to buy them) I am forc't to come to this towne to provide my selfe of both. How the money is spent, I shall give you an account by the next, and shall desyre to stand or fall in your good opinion, as I shall bee able to justifye my good husbandry for the state (having still regard to the honor of my master) both for the time past and to come. I am sure many here are of opinion, my gists are too little; and my care and thrist in bargaining for carriadges, and all such necessaryes as I want (besydes my ordinarye expence) are greater then become mee; and I dare avow, they are not lesse then if every penny went out of myne owne estate. Before the next, I hope I shall gett some moneye, and (and according to your order to mee in England) place it upon mr. Martin Nowell by bills of exchange, to whom you will please, if it bee not allready done, to give order to accept them: for if my credit bee once blasted, I shall be ashamed to looke any man in the face any longer in this countrye. In my last of the 2d instant from Wismar, I gave you my sense of the whole state of affayres in these parts, upon the taking of Fredericksode. Since that the king of Swede hath sent his admirall with 4 or 5 of his best sayling shipps into Swede, to bring his queene to Wismar or Wolgatz, the plague being, as I heare, much in Swede. I heare, that cardinal Mazarine hath p r o m i s t Swede a considerable s u m m of money very quickly : if that be done, he will undoutedly take the f i e l d againe this w i n t e r, and then I am confident, Brand if he see him owne d by you and France, will a s s i s t him, and Ragotsi hath give n a s s u r a n c e private l y to Sweden, that he will in the s a m e time fall on Hungary. 'Tis strongly reported here, that the commander of the Cossackes (who invited them to this action against the Muscovite) beeing dead, they have againe made their peace with him, and are both joining feircely against the Pole. If that should soe fall out, it may probably for c e him to desyre a peace w i t h Sweden, who out of his desyre to d e s t r o y Denmark, may bee very likelye to a t t a c k it if Denmark do not hasten to a peace. Your's of the 30th of October I mett here; by which I perceive you had received mine of the 12th and 29th. According to my promise therein, I sent you a copy of the king of Swede's awnswer concerning the treaty with Denmark, by an expresse sent by the king (for I dare mention noe more letters of that abominable name) the 24th of October for England, and a duplicate I dispatch'd the 26th of October by the ordinary post, which I hope are come to your hands. I shall not fayle by the post to morrow to quicken mr. Meadowe for an awnswer from Denmark; for since I sent him the king of Swede's awnswer, which I heare he received safely, I have heard nothing from him. I will punctually allsoe observe your commands to morrow to the king of Swede, by acquainting him with the reasons which have h i n d e r d his highnesse from c o m mg to a resolution in this business. I know nothing in my poore opinion were more worthy his highnesse, then (at this time when hee hath ministers with all the most considerable Protestant princes and states) to propose a general meeting for the advancement of the common interest of religion, and the civil interest, and reconciling of differences; for (untill both religion and the civil interest of every state be something secured) I feare particular treatyes will not doe the work. I intend (God willing) to return the next weeke to Wismar, though truly I know nothing I have to doe there, but to expect what will be the issue of the Danish treaty, which (had I leave) I might have done as well at London, after I had received the king's awnswer, and found hee relyed wholly upon his ministers in England, as that which hee thought the quicker way. I humbly yet earnestly beseech you, that I may know his highnesse's pleasure concerning mee, and that (if I be of soe little use, as I find I am) I may be timely sent for home to serve him in parliament. I have no more trouble to give you at present, but to assure you, that I am
The king of Denmark's army refuseing to engage with the Swedish in Jutland, retreated part over the sea into Schonen, so to infest the king of Sweden's territories in Halland, the other part of Fredericksode, both for the security of the place, and to be ready to take all advantages against the enemy; in the mean tyme quitting in a manner the possession of all the country: besides, the Swedes lay streniously encamped about two English miles from that time, as if it had been for that purpose only to have blockt it up this winter, that so their army might with more freedome range up and downe the countrey, to gather in contributions. This way of proceeding, and also the strength of the Danish army, made the garrison very sure of an assault to be made on the town, they being about 5000 foot, and the enemy not above 1500, the greatest strength lying in horse. But the Swede's army being encreased in foot with the addition of two regiments, which marcht thither from Cracow; and being now about 3000 foot, field-marshall Wrangle resolved to storm the town, which he did early in the morning on the 23d, the second day after the coming of the souldiers to him. The Swedes fell on in three places. The prince of Anhault commanded one party, Grave Jacob de la Gard another, field-marshall Wrangle led on the third. Wrangle had observed one gate of the citty, near the water-side, more weakly fortifyed than the rest; the obscurity of it, and the naturall strength of it, by the sea coming up to it, had made them the more careless of it. It was desended only by a turnpike, directly the way leading to it, and fenced with a bulwark on each side. This place mr. Wrangle undertook to assault, intending to get his horse this way into the towne: which design of his succeeded. The turnpike was gained at the first onsett by the foot, and the Danes beaten thence flying into the towne, the Swedish horse entered together with them, which scowring up and down the streets, presently made themselves masters of the place. The Danes rix-marshall was here taken, and a privy-councellor of the king's. Two thousand were taken prisoners, one thousand slaine, and the rest gott away by flight, or hid themselves, and will shortly be found out. Here were fifty pieces of cannon taken; and by the takeing of this towne, the king of Swede is made master of one of the strongest and most considerable harbours in these parts.
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Heare the alarum of the cavaleers parties continues with you still. I doe nott heare of any actions of their partie in this country, butt only newes comes from beyond seas, that their party reporte they should doe something this winter; but I see little probabilitie of it in these partes as yett: but if it please God to preserve my lord protector, whensoever they begin their businesse, all that they can doe is to helpe us to some monie, which I thinke wee stand in neede of now. I have lately bin informed, that there is one William Scott, formerly quarter-master to coll. Rutherford in France, and since that hath bin about the Scotts kinge's court in Flanders, and hath furnished with cloathes and other goods, and bin in Scotland lately. Itt is thought hee may bee found in the lane next beyond S. Sytheslane, on the way to Tower-hill. If hee bee removed thence, hee hath taken an house in Coale-harbour. I thought fitt to give you notice of this man; for I beleive if there bee care taken in searching his lodging, you may finde some letters, or something of concernment; for I heare hee has been employed by Charles Steuart a pretty while. Hee staid but a while in this country; soe that I mist of him. I am sorry to heare the king of Sweden is in soe lowe a condition; but I hope the winter will give him leave to gett his forces uppe againe against the springe. I wrote formerly to his highnesse about some prisoners, that are here: I doe nott know whether his highnesse hath had his thoughtes uppon them or noe, as alsoe concerning my lord Lorne; butt truly if this party bee at work, I thinke it will bee good time to sett him att libertie. Which is all at present from
Secretary Thurloe to Lockhart, embassador in France.
This is only to let you know, that I have received your's from Rumingen, and therein the coppy of a commission given to sir John Reynolds by mareschall Turenne, for keeping Mardyke-fort; and since that sir John hath writ to H. H. and signifyed his unwillingnesse to accept of that commission: however, H. H. hath commanded mee to write to him to accept of it; which I have accordingly done, H. H. being more and more satisfyed, that he ought not to be at the charge or hazard of keeping that place this winter. I beleeve it will not bee possible to perswade sir John to stay there this winter; and that it will bee necessary to think of some other good officer. It may possibly bee convenient, that an Englishman had the command of it under France bee a good carefull officer. But I thinke such resolutions as the court of France shall take upon this subject ought to be communicated to H. H. before they be executed. Wee have had our letters this night out of Germany; and it appears, that the affayers of the king of Sweeden are in a very bad condition. Poland is all lost, and Prussia and Pomerania in a ready way to be lost. Also it would be of good use to us heere to know what the French court will doe, and what councell and advice they will give for the support of that king, whose fall will be a greate advantage to the Austrian faction, and a greate prejudice to their enemyes. The Sweede presseth much heere for a league offensive and defensive against Spayne and the house of Austria; and alsoe against Poland. What doth the court where you are thinke of such an alliance? and would they enter into it? as alsoe, what doe they intend to the Portugall? It seems the ambassador they sent thither is called hence: and is mons. de Bourdeaux in discontent? which seemes strange to us heere in such a conjuncture. I remayne
To monsieur de Thou, the French embassador in Holland.
Two resolutions were taken this week of great importance in the electoral college by the plurality of votes, which have very much mortified the Austrian party, who have been used for these many years to cause to pass in the empire all manner of resolutions according to their interests and fancies. They could not choose but be angry to see themselves disappointed of their desires at this time: The first was, that in examining the powers of each of the lords embassadors, and electoral commissioners, they would not read that of the king of Bohemia; saying, that he hath no right to assist at any other deliberation amongst them, but meerly at the act of election; it will be time to read the power, which he hath given to the prince of Lobkowitz and Volmar, when they shall be ready to lock themselves up in the conclave to elect the emperor. This without doubt will go to the quick of the court of Prague, which only expected, after this resolution, to judge by it of the disposition of the electors.
The second is, that by the plurality of votes it was also concluded, that they should treat about a peace between France and Spain before they proceeded to the election of the emperor. All the votes were unanimous, except that of Saxony, which did directly oppose it; and that of Bavaria, who was of opinion, that these two great businesses ought to be debated both together; but the other five votes carried it. We expect now with impatience that answer, which the earl of Pignerol will send in a letter, which mons. de Mayence writ to him, to invite him to come hither, to help advance the business of the peace, the king our master shewing on his side a good disposition to it; but hitherto the Spaniards seem to have no mind to it at all. It is thought, that the said Pignerol will find out some pretences to excuse his coming to treat. In a few days we shall know his answer, and what we may trust to, which we shall not fail to impart unto you.
The king being upon his return to Paris, hath given orders to put his men into winterquarters, to the number of 25000 in Champaigne, Lorraine, Luxemburgh, Alsace, and the three bishopricks, to the end they may meet in 8 days, and act and move as the motions of the court of Prague shall oblige us, to maintain the freedom of this assembly.
Capt. Roger Manley to mr. Anthony Rogers.
You have heard last week at large from mee. This will confirm all I said then. The Fredericksode prisoners are thrust under the several regiments of the army. Most of the natural Danes will be sent into Liefland and Prussia. We heare no more of Wrangel's progress: he wanted boates, or else it's probable he might have carried Fuenen too in the heat. The king is still heare, and gives out, he will shortly remove for Wolgatz. 'Tis a question, whether the Holland's ambassador will follow or no: as yet they have no resolutions from their principalls. Thursday next will put an end to their perplexitie. The English envoy went hence last week to Hamburgh, but to returne within 8 or 10 dayes. The states have declared a warr against Portugall. 'Tis taken ill at our court, and not without reason; for if the Spaniards re-unite that kingdome to their crowne, would extreamly fortifye the house of Austria, to the ruine of the good partie. Their souldiers in Poland are at daggers drawing with the natives. The nobility begin now to see, that they and their priviledges are lost, if that power grow master of Prussia. I know nothing more, unlesse you will have me to circumstantiate trisles. I am wearie of these quarters, unlesse the service of my friends require any further stay. I pray lett me heare from you without sayle by the next, My last was enclosed in the envoye's pacquet. Cura valetudinem diligenter, & vala.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of their H. and M. lords states-general of the United Netherlands.
Was heard the report of the lords Huygens and others their H. and M. L. commissioners for the affairs of Sweden, according to their resolution having examined the letters of their H. and M. L. extraordinary to the king of Sweden, writ at Wismar the 2d and the 5th of the same month, containing in effect, that the said king had found their H. and M. L. responsive declaration to be very offensive in several passages, and had in no wise found satisfaction in the same; and also, in pursuance thereof, did refuse to admit them to audience, but had re-delivered unto them the said declaration. Whereupon being debated, it is resolved, that the said lords embassadors shall be writ unto, that they may return home, unless they can tell how to procure upon handsome terms to be re-admitted to the said king's audience, and that they be restored in integrum; and if that cannot be obtained, that then they do take leave of the king, and at the same time declare unto him, that in regard their being there is look'd upon as useless, they are ordered to return, and make report to their H. and M. L. of their proceedings: but if so be the king doth refuse to let them take leave of him, they are however to return; and in a sealed letter they are to signify to him the reasons of their departure: it being also resolved, that by the lord Raet pensionary shall be writ to the lord Van Maesdam by the lord Mareignault, to the lord Huybert, and by the lord Sculenbourg to the lord Isbrants, that in the said attempt or endeavour, which the said lords embassadors are to make, they may assure the king, that the sincere intention of their H. and M. L. that if the king be pleased to re-admit and re-establish the said lords embassadors, that then the lord Appleboom, his majesty's resident, shall be re-admitted and re-established here from that time forward; and whatsoever hath hindred the audience on both sides shall cease.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Last week I gav his hyness my lord protector an account, that on receipt of his hynes letter, the great duke imediatly sequestred the ship Lewis, and the commander, William Ell, together with all the goods belonging to the Turks; which goods I have an order from the great duke, that they be delivered to me, to be sent for Constantinople or Smyrna to the ryht owners, at the charge of the said William Ell. I hav not yet receeved the said goods from the governor, because the ship, wherin I have agreed to lade them, is not yet fit to tak them in; but I hav oblieged the ship to lade and depart with them in 20 dayes. The ship Lewis, and the commander William Ell, will be kept under restraint till his hyhness further order. Cardinal Barberini stayed in this place only two dayes, and then went to Florence, and so to Rom. Som say he will visit the duke of Parma and Modena about the affaires of France.
When I was latly with the grand duke at Florence, amongst other discourse, his hyness was plesed to tel me, how much Itally sufferd by thes warrs; and particularly his countrey was now depryved of al manner of West-India commoditys, as indigo, cocheneale, and many other things. I answered the great duke, that if he would be pleased to procure a saf-conduct from the king of Spayn, I would endevour to do the lyk from his hyhnes the protector, and imediatly send hence a couple of English ships with the great duke's flag directly for Vera Cruz, and thence to retorn back to this port directly; wherby his country should be supplied with thos commodities, which he now wants. I hav a kynd of an assurance of the king of Spayn's saf-conduct; now I must address my self to your honor for the other. I would not willingly ask any thing of his hyhnes, that should be in the lest dishonorable or prejudical to our nation. Several Dutch ships are gone thither to trade in the bay of Mexico. To mak gainfull advantages upon an enemy is commendable even in the heighth of war. If the Spanyard wil give us admittance upon such an occasion at first, it may be er long we may hav that trade open and fre to our nation. Sir, my intents ar only an honest gain by trade, with this prince's approbation and assistance, wher I now live: I humbly desire your honor's help to procure his hyhnes the protector's sas-conduct for two intended ships wearing the great duke's flag, whos names you may leav in blank. If you pleas to favour me herin, I shal be most humbly oblieged unto your honor. I se many of our nations ships trade stil for Spayn: the sin wil be no greater to trade for the West-Indyes. If your honor will procure me this passe, or saf-conduct, let it be for one ship only, a ship of my own, called the Trippollin, Peter Whytinge captain, about 250 tons, that she may pas fre into any of the king of Spayn's ports in the West-Indyes, and return back untoucht or unmolested. I faithfully promis your honor she shal com into no part but this, and carry nothing but merchandize, noe arms nor warlike appurtenances. Pray, sir, lett the passe be under the protector's seal, and firm in an authentick manner, that it may fynd no rub from any of our commanders at sea, or in the West-Indyes. In procuring me this passe, or saf-conduct, for the abovsaid ship Trippollin, you wil perpetually obliege,
Extract out of the register of the secret resolutions of their H. and M. lords the states-general of the United Netherlands.
Upon what was presented to the assembly, whereby the lords commissioners of the province of Holland, upon the 11th article of the instructions of the lord Wassenaer, lord admiral, of the 8th of August last; after deliberation had, it is concluded, that a letter shall be writ to the said lord admiral, that he shall not be tied to the precise letter of the said article; that all the ships should be at home by the beginning of December next or sooner; that they may stay upon the coast of Portugal as long as it is possible, or otherwise, till further order from their H. and M. L. and that a letter shall be writ and sent to the said admiral to this effect forthwith by several addresses.
Considerations of the lord Rhynegrave to the states-general.
In pursuance of your H. and M. L. resolutions of the 10th of this month, to comprehend in short what I observed to be most considerable in regard of the troops both of horse and foot, lately sent to Groll, I will begin first with the horse, about which I do judge a good redress to be very requisite.
Most of the horsemen being raw and unexercised, who for most part of their time are at their callings, and do only know the war by hearsay, and which they follow not to advance themselves, but meerly to maintain their families so much the better; what command the officers have over such, and what service the state can expect from them, is easily considered.
The horses I find generally young; yea, if occasion should be, rather fitter to bring the cavalry into disorder, than to do service therewith; besides very ill managed as well as the riders, and both alike accoutred.
Besides, that the horsemen are generally armed with carabines, which is both superfluous and troublesome, in regard the same cannot be used in a body, being only useful for those that are foremost, and in garrisons, to ride out in parties; as hath been always prudently observed in the countries, that only some few companies under the last regiment had a carabine. I also observe a general defect both amongst the foot and horse, that a common man doth not know his chief officer or officers; which is apt to breed confusion, if need should be, it being an ancient martial rule, that every man is to know his officers in 24 hours, and afterwards no excuse of pretended ignorance is to be taken. The foot is so ill armed and disciplined, that in time of need they would not be fit to do the service as might be expected from them.
By these defects alone amongst this party of the militia, which came to the city of Groll, is easily to be appehended, that the whole body of the militia of the state is capable of redress; which would soon appear, if the same should happen to be put upon action.
Secretary Thurloe to Lockhart, embassador in France.
I Have received your excellency's of the 4/14th of November, from Paris, and was glad to understand your safe arrivall there; and wee shall now long to heare what resolutions the cardinall will take concerning the affayres of Flanders. It is certaine, that if the French army quitt Flanders this winter, Mardike and Bourbourg too will be lost; and in this consideration H. H. is more and more unwilling to take the charge of that place upon him. Sir John Reynolds hath likewise writt to H. H. that hee cannot take upon him the government of the place; however, H. H. hath writt to him to accept it till further order, especially seeing he may leave a deputy-governor in it, and by that meanes the French must necessarily be at the charge of keeping it: but wee shall have much light in these affayres, after wee understand what opinion the cardinall will bee of. The ports are forbidden to receive any soldiers, but to seize and apprehend all that shall come from France, Flanders, and Holland, without passes from sir John Reynolds. I can add no more now, but that I am
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell, commander in chief of the army in Ireland.
I Had thought thinges in reference to Ireland might have beene soe ready, that an expresse might have beene dispatched with them the last weeke; but the instructions have taken up more tyme then wee expected. The reason is, because many of them were given by the counsell in the tyme of the legislature, which cannot be given as the counsell is now constituted; and the regulatinge and dressinge them accordinge to the present occasion and condition of thinges hath proved a longe worke: but now I hope, that we are almost at an end of that worke. The most part of them are past the counsell, and the rest of them are in hand, and will be concluded this night; and then there will want nothinge but the transcribinge and sendinge them away, which shall not take up much tyme; and when this buissnes is over, I shall be eased of much care and trouble, though your lordship's is like to be encreased.
His highnes is now upon the difficult worke of nameinge another house; the Lord be with hym in it: he hath the oppinion, and deservedly, of knowinge men better then any other man. His highnes will be tryed in that perticuler now to the purpose. A mistake here will be like that of warre and mariage; it admits noe repentance. This is our comfort, that in great actions, as this is, the Lord hath always helped hym; and I trust he will now alsoe lead him in that, which he will owne hym in, and then it will not be very considerable, whether he be approved by men or not, who very probablie may be displeased. There is nothinge done in the reducement of the forces since my last; it is possible the instructions may supply that, whereof your lordship will be judge when you see them. Our affaires here at home are difficult enough, yet truly not greater then those referringe to foreine states. The Dutche warr against Portugall doth much trouble us in the warre with Spayne, and endangers the puttinge that countrye into the hands of Spayne. Some discourses have beene with the Dutch ambassador here, who seemes dease to any thinge but their owne advantages of trade; and truly their carriage in this and in that buissines of Sweden is such, that shewes noe good will to this nation, or indeed to the Protestant cause, however they professe the contrary; and without they doe provoke this state above measure, little notice will be taken of their injuries, but endeavours will be used to continue in peace with them; it being very dangerous to the whole prosession, for the Protestants to fall out amongst themselves; they are already too much imbroyled in the esterne. parts of the world, wherein the Dutch have had the greatest hand. His highnesse doth what he can to reconcile the Dane and Swede, though very few steps have been made therein: they have both accepted of his highnesse's mediation; but it's to be feared the Dane will in this peace include both the Pole and the kinge of Hungary, which will make any endeavours of peace impracticable. Since my last there hath beene noe action betweene them; but the Poles and Austrians have beseidged Thorn in Prussia, and the Poles invaded Pomerania, the hereditary countrye of the Swede; soe, that without question the Swede is in great danger, being alsoe prest upon by Denmarke, and the Dutch his backe-freind, and doth him all the hurt they can. Mardyke remeynes in the same state and condition it was in by my last. I rest
Van Reede Van Renswoude to the states-general.
H. and M. lords,
My lords, I have not yet had any audience by the king concerning the ship Pearl, and the freedom of commerce, in regard the letters, which their H. and M. L., have been pleased to write to the king in the behalf of the subjects about their business, are not yet translated into Spanish, the same being in hand. So soon as they are done, I intend to demand audience of his majesty; and then I shall extend myself in the same, particularly about such sollicitations; and then I make no doubt, but I shall be able to let their H. and M. L. know the final resolution, which his majesty will take upon the like occasion, and especially about the commerce, which is daily disturbed with many troubles and inconveniencies.
The queen's daughters and all other persons, who are used to assist her in her sickness and child-bed, have for some days past been lodged in the court, and are not suffered to stir out of it, in regard her majesty looks to be delivered every hour.
The agent of Hamburgh to the states-general.
H. and M. Lords,
By the common reports and publications made in some places it is understood, that your H. and M. L. are pleased to declare war against Portugal, and that the lord high-admiral Opdam hath a design upon the Brazil fleet, which is expected home, and amongst which the good inhabitants of the Hans-towns hath also several ships, effects, and merchandizes. Wherefore men know and trust, that your H. and M. L. will not permit, that their faithful allys and good neutral neighbours shall be wrongfully damnified: yet for a further precaution, the same is made known unto you in all humility, and your H. and M. L. are humbly entreated, that you will be pleased to give such favourable order, that the taking of the said Brazil-fleet or other ships may be without prejudice of the said Hans-towns.
The information of Edward Stampe of Oxford, taken [by secretary Thurloe] this 11th November 1657.
Saith, that about June or July was twelve months, there came to this examinant George Colt, who married one of the daughters of John Dutton of Sherborne, in the county of Glocester, esq. and advised with this examinant about the drawing of a deed, whereby the said mr. Dutton might in part settle some estate upon the wise and children of the said George Colt, which the said Colt said he would procure his father Dutton to seal at some sitting opportunity; and then said, he would procure mr. Chadwell to draw such a deed, who, he said, knew his father's mind. He further saith, that afterwards, about a month or two, as he remembers, the said George Colt came to this deponent in the country, and acquainted him, this examinant, that he thought it would be hard to procure mr. Dutton to seal and deliver any such deed as before is mentioned; and began to speak to this examinant, as if he intended something of fraud in the management of his business: and after that several meetings were between the said George Colt and this examinant; at the second or third whereof the said Colt told this examinant, that he would disclose his mind to him, if he would promise secrecy; wich this examinant did: and thereupon the said Colt told him, that he would have a deed made, and would procure good remittances to prove it to be the deed of the said mr. Dutton, so soon as the said mr. Dutton died. And having said this, he bid this examinant take heed, that he did not reveal what he the said Colt had now said to him; for if he did, he swore, that this examinant should be pistolled: but said, that if he would assist him in the management of this business, that he would give him a great reward. And this examinant doth believe he had entire confidence in him, in respect they had been long acquainted before this business. This examinant further faith, that within a short time after this examinant went to doctor Owen, then vice-chancellor of Oxford, and told him, that he heard, that there was an intention of marriage between one of the lord protector's daughters and the nephew of mr. Dutton; and thought himself obliged to let him know, that he was credibly informed, that the said mr. Dutton had settled his estate upon his said son Colt, his wise and children: and this examinant saith, that he spoke this upon some pricks of conscience he had, with this intent, that he might be discovered to his highness, and so might come to mr. Dutton's knowledge, who thereby might have an opportunity to assure his highness of the contrary; but saith, that he did not (though sometimes he had notions that way) discover the truth of things to doctor Owen. And further saith, that as he remembers, the said Colt did speak to him as well of a will to be made as of a deed about the time aforesaid; but believes, that there was neither deed nor will made before the death of the said mr. Dutton, for that this examinant never saw any before that time. He further saith, that after the death of the said mr. Dutton, who died about January last, the said Colt repaired again to this examinant, and told him, he was resolved to have a will drawn, and that he would have good witnesses to prove it. And this examinant asking him, who they were? he answered, what do you think of Watt Pye? meaning sir Walter Pye; and at several meetings after he named colonel Scroope, of Lincolnshire, mr. John Spencer, one Hopton, mr. William Wray, mr. Rowland Lacye, for his witnesses. But at the first meeting between the said Colt and this examinant, after mr. Dutton's death, it was agreed between them, that in respect it was necessary to prove not only the sealings of the will, but the writing of it, that this examinant should have delivered it to Colt, and he to his father, to have it sealed: and afterwards it was also agreed, that in respect the said mr. Dutton used to be at Kingston, that it should be supposed, that he did it there. And he saith, that accordingly a will was drawn, and brought to this examinant by the said mr. Colt; but who drew or writ that draft, he this examinant doth not know; but he says it was done by Colt's own direction, who told him, that it was as near as could be to the true will of the said mr. Dutton, which he heard read twice; and by his memory, and some notes he had from mr. Chadwel's clerks, he had framed this will. The rough draught being then brought to this examinant, he engrossed it in parchment: and the said Colt promised this examinant, for service he should doe him in this business, one thousand pounds. Afterwards, this engrossed parchment had mr. Dutton's hand set to it, and his seal affixed; which was done in this manner: Colt had the name of mr. Dutton, heretofore writ by mr. Dutton himself in a paper, which he and this examinant prickt every letter and stroke flat, and then rubbed it over with charcoale-dust, and then clapped it upon the place in the parchment, where the name was to stand: which making a fair impression of every letter, this examinant writ the letters according to the impression of every one of them; which being done and dryed, the dust being blown off, the name remained fair, and exactly like that which was written by mr. Dutton himself upon the paper; and it was sealed with a little silver-seal the said Colt had of mr. Dutton's coat: but how he came by it, this examinant knoweth not. The pretended will being thus signed and sealed, it was delivered to Colt, and left with him, never a witness being put to it; his work being then to get witnesses. About a month after, this examinant saw the aforesaid pretended will appear, and then he saw Hopton's name writ to it as a witness, which the said Colt said was written by Hopton himself; but that his other witnesses made some difficulty; and named again the aforesaid persons, whom he said he had spoke to be witnesses, and hoped to bring some of them to it; and in particular, he went into Lincolnshire to mr. Wray, and came up with him hither to London, and were here in town together about a fortnight; and told this examinant, he would warrant, that mr. Wray should be one of his witnesses: but this examinant never spoke with any of them about it. This examinant further saith, that in Easter-term, the writnig of mr. Dutton's hand not pleasing the said Colt, the char-coale dust not holding well upon the parchment, and the name not standing in a right place to his mind, he would have another written, which this examinant did also write; and being written, it was signed and sealed, as aforesaid, and left with Colt, and afterwards it was again brought to this examinant with Hopton's name to it as a witness, and then Colt desired this examinant to be one of his witnesses, and promised him a thousand pounds more besides the said other thousand pounds; but this examinant never received but one hundred pounds of him, most whereof he spent about Colt's occasions. And accordingly, this examinant did undertake to be a witness, and set his hand to the said parchment, under Hopton's name.
This examinant further saith, that upon his coming to town this term, the said Colt came to him, and desired, that he might have the said pretended will writ over again, for that he did not like the seal; and having got a label, with a fine feal to it, off from another deed sealed by mr. Dutton himself, he would affix that to the will. And accordingly this examinant writ it over again, and set mr. Dutton's name to it, as aforesaid, and put the said old seal to it in manner following; that is, Simon Williams, servant to Colt, and one of his pretended witnesses in this case, with a hot knife opened the wax in the middle, and took it from the old label, so as the impression of the old seal remained entire, and then closed it together upon a new label, that was put to the said pretended will. And some three or four days before the tryal between the said Colt and mr. William Dutton, nephew of the said mr. John Dutton, in the Upper Bench, the said Colt, Hopton, Williams, and this examinant, as also Thomas Colt, brother of the said George, met together at the house of the said Williams, in Bedford-street in Covent-garden, and there all subscribed their names as witnesses to the said pretended will. After which the said Colt shewed it to his council, which he had never done before, though the council had desired it; and mr. Fines told him, he gave ground to him to think he durst not trust his own council, he was so shy in shewing them the original will. But this examinant faith, that the cause he did it was, because he had not his witnesses ready, being still in hopes, that he should be able to procure better witnesses: and saith, that Colt was very glad, that the tryal was put off upon mr. Dutton's motion, upon the ground aforesaid, the said pretended will not being then signed or sealed, and he in hot pursuit after other witnesses, and was loth to venture it upon the credit of those he had, if he could have procured any other.
He further saith, that the first engrossed parchment was carried by Colt (as he informed this examinant) to the Prerogative-court, and there he left a copy of it, and intended to prove it there; but that he was advised by his council, not to proceed there, 'till he had his verdict at common-law.
He further saith, that Colt told this examinant, he intended to proceed again, and have another tryal; and said, that he would give five hundred pounds, that they might be indicted for forgery; for then he did not doubt, but by his favour with the under-sheriff of Middlesex, to get such a jury as would acquit them, and their credit would be recovered, and their evidence stronger than ever; and that if the worst came to the worst, his council did assure him, that he should overthrow the deeds made by mr. John Dutton, because they were not duly executed; and that sir Henry Hen would be his witness, to prove a release sealed by mr. John Dutton before the lease; or if that failed, yet a third part would descend to him, as being held in capite, the court of wards not being taken away by act of parliament.
And this examinant being asked, why Hopton did not appear at the tryal as a witness? saith, that George Colt told him, that his council advised him not to bring him now; because this being a great business, it would deserve another tryal, although he should have a verdict; and that it would be his advantage to have new evidence at his second tryall.
General Monck to Scout-master-general Downing.
You will receive from your father a letter from the councill, that was written to his highnesse about mrs. Hamilton; the first originall being lost, hee hath sent a true copy under his hand againe: and I must intreate you to bee an earnest sollicitor for her, that shee may gett something. You know her losses, and what service shee hath done, and therefore I shall nott neede to say much; butt the chief businesse is to gett an order from his highnesse and councill, that what monies shee has may be lent the lord Balcarres or the lord Duddopp's sines: but for the forty thousand pounds, it is like to come to nothing. I remayne
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Last wiek cam to my hands the great duke's letter, in answer to his hyhnes the protector's letter, which I sent to the Turkey-company, that from them his hyhnes might receive it, and they by that opportunity render his hyhnes such humble thanks, as that great favour requires; for the great duke did with al rediness comply in al things according to his hyhnes request about the ship Lewis, and the grand signor his provisions, which ar now al in order, ar to be imbarkt for Smirna as soon as the wether permits.
I must needs acquaint your honor with a very great callamity, that lyes upon that part of our nation, that trade the Mediterranean-seas, for want of a squadron of ships for protection of trade: if your honor would pleas to recommend this bisnes, or represent it un to his hyhnes, you would obliege the considerablest parts of merchants in London, or Ehgland. The Majorkins having shared theyr prey, will next month hav abroad six gallant ships, wherof 3 wil carry abov 30 guns, and 250 men each; so that no Inglish ship wil be able to escape 'em. The Tripollin men of war ar lykwys upon return out of the Turk's servis; so that our poore merchant-ships wil be envyroned with danger: al which might be prevented by sending a squadron of 5 or 6 ships into thes seas, who myht make peace with Tripolly and Tunis, and destroy the Majorkins. You wer pleas'd not long since to wryt, such a squadron was appointed; which makes me bold to put you in mynd therof.
'Tis reported here, that ther is som imbroiles in the kingdom of Naples; and that the French men of war, that brouht the cardinal hither, ar to countenance the rebellion. The French hav bin very active in the state of Millan: although they could do no good in the seige of Alexandria, yet now they force contribution in every part. They ar provideing 2000 mules in Piemont for som enterpryz, and supposed they hav a mind to tak Finall, the only port-town for the state of Millan; but this is a strong place. I am,