State Papers, 1657: November (3 of 5)

Pages 613-626

A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.

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In this section

November (3 of 5)

A letter of intelligence.

Vol. lv. p. 271.

L'on est surpris de voir, que la cour de l'admirauté à Londres a donné mandement d'arrest sur le navire le Sprouw, sorty d'icy pour aller aux Indes Orientales, à l'instance des Anglois, qui disent, que les Hollandois leur ont empesché la navigation sur Bantam.

Deux deputés de l'admirauté d'Amsterdam sont icy touchant la liquidation des 600 mille livres consentis pour l'equipage extraordinaire.

Le resident Cope a baillé un memoire touchant ce que la ville de Weesel a fait pleinté de ce, que ceux de Brandenburg ont prins des bœuss & vasches sous le canon.

Il y a eu notification les marchands Osterlins & Juifs, qu'ils participent dans la flotte de sucre; priants, qu'on en veille tenir connoissance en cas de prinse, & que ces prinses soyent sans prejudice de neutraux; ce qui est mis en mains des deputés, qui ont en mains les affaires de Portugal.

Ce qu'un voluntaire est venu avec la prinse de 600 casses de sucre rapporte, va cy-joint. Il dit, que 36 navires du roy estoient venu parmy la flotte, restants 44; mais ce voluntaire ne savoit que 5 prinses.

Le vice-admiral de Witt, chassé par la tempeste, est venu a Rotterdam, & a esté dans l'assemblée, pour savoir s'il doit retourner en mer ou point.

La Zeelande a dereches proposé, qu'il faille revictuailler la flotte de Wassenaer. La Hollande l'a overgenoomen, estant à present complete.

L'admirauté de Zeelande a sait pleinte aussy, qu'il y a tant de Biscains, bien 20 à 30 navires, qui vont à la caperie.

L'admirauté d'Amsterdam pleint, qu'il y a des navires de Hamburg, qui vont vers Lisbon mesme avec des contrebandes.

L'ambassadeur de Spaigne aura fait pleinte dece qu'on tient prisonniers des gens au païs d'Outremeuse.

Le sieur Huygens ayant visité les papiers de la compagnie d'Ost-Inde Hollandois, contre ceux d'Angleterre, est resolu de les envoyer vers l'ambassadeur Nieuport.

Les commissaires, qui ont esté en Portugal, ont representé dereches la necessité & l'utilité, qui sera dans une flotte continuelle à tenir sur les costes de Portugal, & pour trouver un sons à l'entretenir.

Le raet-pensionaire a escrit au sieur Maesdam, le sieur Mareignault au sieur de Hubert, & le sieur de Schuylenborg au sieur Isbrants, d'assurer particulierement, que la sincere & veritable intention de l'estat est, qu'on desire une reciproque re-admission des ministres; & qu'en mesme-temps cesseront & seront ostés tous empeschements, qui ont obsté de costé & d'autre à la re-habilitation des ministres, tant du roy de Swede, que de l'estat.

Des commissaires derechef iroient voir l'ambassadeur de Spaigne, sur les affaires d'Outremeuse; & en general on sçait, qu'ils s'estonnent, que les Espagnols veulent regarder si prés & tenir si firme sur un village, une bicoque, là au plustost le roy devoit obliger l'estat, & par ainsy l'engager à prendre part dans la conservation de Flandres, contre les Anglois & les François. Les desseins vont bien plus haut qu'à un village ou deux. Et cet estat seroit assez porté à tenir la bonne main à cela, si du costé de l'Espagne on ne tenoit pas si fort sur des petitesses au païs d'Outremeuse.

La non-resolution de Hollande, touchant la flotte de Wassenaer, est prinse pour une tacite revocation; car aussy-bien il n'est victuaillé, que pour ce mois de Novembre.

Il y a seurde proposition & menée, que la Hollande voudra, comme l'an 1627, offrir de la protection du Sond au roy de Dennemark; & les ministres Danois donnent à connoître, qu'ils craignent quelque irruption des Danois sous la faveur de la glace.

A Zierixee en Zeelande, par la mort du sieur Mogge, le party cy-devant prévailant est changé; si qu'a present ceux de Goes seront fort re-fortifiés, & que Middelborgh, Zierixée, Goes, & Vlissingen soyent contre Tolen & Veer; si que le partie de la princesse royale y sera prévailant sur celui de la Doüariere. Je reste

Vostre trés-humble serviteur.

Ce 23e Novembre, 1657. [N. S.]

De Thou, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.

Hague, 23d Nov. 1657. [N. S.]

Vol. lv. p. 273.

My lord,
The business of the resident of Sweden is not yet accommodated; and he behaveth himself in his business with so much prudence and modesty, that those lords here have now as much inclination for him at present, as they declared formerly their aversion against him.

The states of Holland are assembled at present. The business of Portugal is disputed with heat, and I perceive the most of them are inclinable to a peace; and although they have taken five sugar prizes from the Portugueze, yet I believe it will not much make to hinder the peace; for they perceive they must uphold Portugall, and not let it sink, for that it should unite itself again with the house of Spain. My lord Nieuport is expected hre very sudd ainly. His eminence is now well again. I received several letters from him lately, to be sent for the North.

At the Spanish embassador's here was published yesterday a report of some great tumult in England, whereof Fairfax and Lambert are said to be the chiefs; but your last letter maketh no mention of it, so that I do not believe it.

Secretary Thurloe to Lockhart, embassador in France.

In the possession of Joseph Ratcliffe of the Inner-Temple, esq.

I Have received your's of the 11/21 instant, and understand thereby, that your excellence hath had a particular conference with the cardinall about the matter of your instructions, that you had from H. H. at your last being heere, whereto hee hath as yett given only generall answere, that hee will submitt himselfe to reason. I doe thinke it very necessary, that hee give particular satisfaction as to those points, as well what wee may expect concerning the charge past, as how the fort of Mardyke shall bee kept, victualled, and otherwise defrayed for the future; for truly, the inconveniencyes wee allready finde by being putt to keepe Mardyke without Dunkirke, are soe many and greate, and the charge soe insupportable, that noe resolution which we can take here about it can bee worse then to continue under them: all which had been avoided, and the lives of many of our men saved, had Dunkirke been taken alsoe; and therefore the treaty doth well provide, that both should bee delivered together. And let their words bee never soe smooth, if wee are not really and with effect considered in this, H. H. must bee constrained to take other councells, come what will of it. It will cost 7 or 8000 l. to victuall it till January, provision to neare that value being already taken up, without which our men must have starved, as those doe which are at Bourbourg, concerning whome sir J. Reynolds hath written hither a most lamentable letter; whose condition hee protesteth is such, being in want of all things, that those of them, which doe not runne away to the enemy for releise, must of necessity perish; soe that hee expects to have none of them left by the spring. Wee heere know not what remedy to apply to these things, but to desire your excellence to use your utmost endeavours with the court, that our men may bee better provided for; the necessity whereof I need not presse your excellence. Mareshall Turen hath given us fresh allarmes of the enemye's intention to make a new attempt upon Mardyke, as alsoe endeavour to burne our shipps; and hath sent letter after letter to the ambassador heere, by expresses, desiring him to represent it to H. H. that unless an old regiment of his foote were forthwith sent to Mardyke, or at least, that they were kept aboard the shippe lying before it, it were impossible to defend the place, not considering the discouragement that they have allready putt upon the English, which have been in their service, that I thinke it allmost as possible to persuade them to leape into the sea, as to goe into Flanders in the French king's service. His H. hath lett the ambassador know, that hee cannot send any men into the fort of Mardyke, lesse will it bee possible to keep any men on shipp-board; but however hath ordered, in hopes by the next hee shall receive better satisfaction from the court of France, twoe regiments to lye upon the sea-coast, the one at Dover, and the other at Yarmouth, in case the fort should bee in distresse, to goe over to releeve them. The Dutch fleet have litt upon xi of the Portugall Brazill fleete; soe that a warre is begun betwixt those twoe states. It were necessary, that H. H. knew what are the intentions of France in this buisinesse. I remaine


Whitehall, 16/26 Nov. 1657.

Major-general Jephson to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lv. p. 242.

This being a letter touching my particular concernments (though in relation only to my imployment) I shall not mix it with any publique newes or businesse, but only give you an account of my expences, and the reasons of them. The counsell was pleased, when I made them a proposition of such necessaryes as I should want for my journey, to cut off 200 l. of my demaunds, though I am sure they were as low as might bee; but I did not dispute it, least I might seeme eyther to ayme at myne owne advantage, or to bee backward in undertaking the service his highnesse had commanded mee. But I then very well knew, that I must run in debt to sett myselfe out in such a condition, as I found was intended, as in truth I have done; allthough I doe professe I did it with all the care and thrist, that I could for my life, and lest myselfe unprovided of many things, which all, that I had the opportunitye to advise with, judged very requisite for mee. All which I shall make very evident to you and the rest of his highnesse's counsell, if it shall please God to bring mee safe home againe; and then leave it to you to judge and deale with mee as you see cause. For my ordinary expence, I have (and soe shall, God willing) conformed myselfe to the order of the counsell; but for those extraordinaryes of convoyes, charge of carriadges for removeing from place to place, and large gifts, &c. to which my imployment oblidgeth mee (which you will find here mentioned in my account) they are not possible, and, I assure myselfe, were not intended to bee comprehended therein. I have layn at Wismar 6 weekes together, at greate charge and inconvenience, in a beastly inn, before I could possibly get myselfe any accommodation in a privat house; and have at length gotten one, which I am not only forc't to furnish, but to repayre: the town of Wismar beeing not able to furnish such necessaryes as I wanted, and my money spent, and my credit streyned as farre as I durst venture, beeing absent, I was necessitated to make a journey hither, to provyd myself of both. I told you before I left London, all my money was spent; and I prosesse, I was faine to borrow money to bring mee hither; which I chose rather to doe, and to stand to the favour of H. H. and counsell, at my returne, then to seeme to be guilty of retarding the business, by comming to you for more moneyes, and soe to begin my account at my comming hither; though I hope you will in due time think it reasonable, not to suffer mee to bee a looser in your service. The account I send you is briefe, and hath some generalls in it, the particulars whereof I keepe exactly in a booke, and shall produce them whensoever it shall bee thought fit. I have, as you will see by the account, received here 540 l. which makes up 1000 l. with the 460 I formerly receyved. This 540 l. I have plac't upon mr. Martin Nowell (according to your order) by two bills of exchange, which I doubt not will bee satisfyde accordingly. The money remaining upon this account will at least bee spent here in necessaryes for my future accommodation; soe that for my journey 441 444 596, which I formerly hinted, I am undone, unlesse I can gett further creditt here. Sir, I have intertained you but too long upon this subject; I begg your pardon, and the favour of your good opinion, as I shall (at least indeavour to) approve myselfe

Your most affectionate and humble servant,
William Jephson.

Wismar, 17th Nov. 1657.

Mr. John Aldworth, consul at Marseilles, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lv. p. 319.

Right honorable,
Yesterday heare arryved a small English shipp, the master of which informes me, that 12 dayes past he mett 24 Dutch ships of warr of the Southward-cape, who had newly taken 18 of the king of Portugall's ships comming from the Brazills. The master of the said ship adviseth also, that two Dunkerke ships of warr, of 36 guns each, have taken 4 English ships laden with dry fish from the New-found-land, which was bound for this place, which we find to bee to trew, in regard wee doe want the said 4 ships. They was taken of the Southerward-cape.

From Tunis I have advice of the 15th currant, that those ships of warr have taken a ship of London, laden with currants from Zant; and that in 20 dayes 6 Corsars more would put there out. The Tripoly ships of warr hath also taken another English ship, coming from Smirna richly laden.

The 4 Spanish ships of warr, with their prizes, are still at Mardyke, where they intend to sett sail in 40 dayes 4 ships, the least whereof will carry 30 guns; so that unless some of his highnesse's frigatts come in these seas, to kerbe these pirates, it will be impossible for any English ship to trade.

The 5 ships of Thollon, that carried cardinal Antonio to Rome, are gone on the coast of Barbary, to gett slaves to man the gallys at Thollon. So I humbly take leave, and remayne,

Right honorable,
Your honor's most humble servant,
Jo. Aldworth.

Marseille, 27th Nov. 1657. [N. S.]

At the council at Whitehall.

Tuesday, 17th November 1657.

Vol. lv. p. 297.

His highness having communicated to the council, that the lord Fairfax made address to him, with some desires on behalf of the duke of Buckingham: Ordered, that the resolves and act of parliament in the case of the said duke be communicated to the lord Fairfax, as the grounds of the council's proceedings touching the said duke; and that there be withal signified to the lord Fairfax the council's civil respects to his lordship's own person. That the earl of Mulgrave, the lord deputy Fleet-wood, and the lord Strickland be desired to deliver a message from the council to the lord Fairfax, to the effect aforesaid.

Henry Scobell, clerk of the council.

A letter to the lord Fairfax.

Vol. lv. p. 295.

My lord,
Knowing the perspicuitie of your apprehension, and uprightness of your judgment, it would be folly to offer before you any thing more then the naked relating of things. In the way to London I did meete with many rumors, that there were ill resentments at Whitehall concerning the duke's marrying your daughter: the nearer London they encreased, and seemed to be more ascertained; and in towne the greatest confidence was, that the duke was banished by an order of council. The variety and contradiction of reports makes me think them to be malitious suggestions and wishes, seeing they joined them with unnaturall circumstances. Therefore searching whether it was soe, it was found, that there had been noe discourse at all at the council concerning the duke; nevertheless there was perpetuall buzzes, that such a thing would be. The improbability that it should be was conceaved from the protector's passing his word, not only that the duke should have his liberty, but if it were necessary to have any act of parliament passed for him, that himselfe would take care, that it should be effectually done, and never refused to see the duke, but appointed divers sett times wherein to receive the duke, which were disappointed only by extraordinary publick businesse, or over-usuall personal indispositions; those disappointed times being spent wholly, with many other times, in visiting the sons and daughters of his family, and received by them not as an offender begging pardon for a heynous crime, but as a noble youth, craveing or rather taking mercy for a generous error, advancing their owne worth by comparing themselves with the unsensiblenesse of him, for whom it was done; for that their entertainement of him was not only free from any incivility, but from all manner of unkindnesse (and something more); and consulting with them of what was necessary to be done for the duke's better liberty, by the advice of some lawyers of repute for learning and understanding, it was concluded, that the duke's person was obnoxious to noe law; and upon these reasons: The first, the act for the sale of the duke's estate hath noe words or expressions in it, which possiblely cann amount to an attainder, but divers expressions to the contrary. Secondly, that there are divers acts (one by the long parliament, presently after the king's death; one when the protector was made; the other by this parliament, but that names 3 years, but doth not repeal neither of the former) that doe require, that one should be convicted of treason within a yeare, or else to be quit of the fact. Now the duke was never by any way convicted, and soe is free: yet for better security it being propounded, that the duke should have a pardon under the great-seale, it was promised with this expression, If they were Christians, it should be speedily done. And further, some talking as they wished, and speaking of it as a generous act for you to marry your daughter to the duke, one of the councell promised to speak to you himself on the duke's behalf. And it was further in part undertaken, that the parliament should addresse something to you on the duke's behalf. There was only this doubt, that his appearing might be taken for a kind of imposure. In generall, none seemed to dislike, but such who pretended their opinion to be, that the duke would be a fitt match for one of the protector's daughters. Having thus much cause to beleive the contrary, I did the more wonder, that on fryday last the councell passed an order for the apprehending the duke, and carrying him in custody to the isle of Jersey. Seeing there was soe many reasons against it, I as strictly as I could examined, how and upon what ground, and to what intention such an order was made. I cannot find, that the protector did any way encourage it: and my intelligence is much mistaken, if he be not well pleased to think he hath an opportunity to serve you; which perhaps some persons of the councell perceiving, out of their officiousnesse endeavoured this order, to exalt the protector's opportunity; for I do not find, that any of the most grave persons of the councell promoted it, there being noe sober reasons given for it, but much canting, that it was a Presbyterian plott, and my lady Vere made the match, and went purposely with 4 ministers in a coach with her into Yorkshire, to perswade you to it. And when they pretended to solidity, all they said was, that the protector had all the king's priviledges of a king; and that no nobleman was to marry their children, or themselves, without the king's consent. The more thoughtfull lett it passe, to have an opportunity to serve you as well as the protector. This is the substance of all I can learne; and if anything can be beleived from themselves of the truth of their intentions, I could not satisfy myself I had done my duty to you, without acquainting you with this; which I begg pardon for.

Your most humble servant.

Mr. Richard Bradshaw to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lv. p. 323.

Right honorable,
Since my last of the 10th, I have received your several letters of the 16th and 23d of October, wherein your honor is pleased to express your sense of the length and danger of the journey I am to undertake; but I find no mention of the sendinge of such persons to me, as I requested, and as you were pleased to promiss mr. Waynewright should be sent, which I must needs acknowledge a great discouragement upon me, to find, that in all your honor's letters I am still further commanded to proceede, as a matter of great hopes and importance; and yet, whilst I truely declare my present incapable condition, noe notice is taken of that. I shall yet hope, that before I can proceede (which will be in the beginninge of Januarie at soonest, there beinge yet no answer come from the great duke's chancellor) such course will be taken for my enablinge to the journey, as I have often requested, by sendinge me at least a minister, an interpreter, and one to administer phisick; and if it be possible, I pray your honor to send capt. Compton with them, whoe was with me in Denmarke. Ships will be passinge all winter between Trauemont and Memmel, the sea never freesing in those outlets of the Baltique. I do beleeve, the great duke will order my cominge up to him. Whatever he may do upon the mediation, I shall to the utmost of my power (if I be but enabled for the journey) endeavour the effectinge of what your honor judgeth to be of such concernment; not doubtinge, but if the worke be of God, he will succeede it; and I shall be glad to be instrumentall in it, what danger soever I runn. Wee have nothing further from Russland or Riga, then what my last of the 10th imparted. The siege of Riga continues, but at such a distance, as does them little hurt. Wee heare not yet of any Muscovites joyned with the Poles against that citie, yet the most current report is, that the Muscovites and states were agreed, just as the seege was layd to the citie by the Lithuaniers. The two governors of Riga and Cakenhousen had entered upon preliminaries, if the Muscovites did not make Riga the more secure, which will shortly appeare. I shall not detayne your honor, save to professe my selfe

Your honor's verie humble servant,
Richard Bradshaw.

Groubin-castle in Courland,
14th Nov. 1657. st. vet.

Waynewright still writes, that he cannot get the 200 l. ordered in March last. I pray your honor's helpe for the payment of it.

Lockhart, embassador in France, to secretary Thurloe.

Paris, Nov. 18/28, 1657.

In the possession of the right hon. Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high-chancellor of Great Britain.

May it please your lordship,
Upon sabbath-day last the cardinall advertis'd me, that he was to goe next morning to the cuntrie, to give a visitt to the queen of Sweden; and therefore desyred to speak with me that night. I waited on him at the houre he appointed, and found him in verie great truble, at least in pretence he was so, having had ane account by the fryday's post, pretending of what had past betwixt your lordship and the French ambassador. The somm of his complaint was, that it seem'd their was that jealosie of him and the sincerity of his proceedings, as he found he had lost all that interest he had formerly flattered himself from the hops of having some share in his highnesse's good esteeme. And he said further (in a way of earnestnesse, that is not usuall to him) that except their were mutwall cenfidence betwixt persons, that purswed a joynt interest, their common undertakings wowld never have good successe: and in the close of his speech charged me as the author of that ill-understanding was lyke to be betwixt his highnesse and him; and fixed my guilt in this particular, that I told his highnesse, that the French might have taken Dunkerke, but wowld not; and by their marching from Mardik, and leave it in so ill a condition, had designd either to expose it to the enemies surpryse or insult, or otherwise to force the English to consent to the razing of it, as a place, that was not, nor cowld not be made tenible. His carriage and some expressions spoake him to be angry in good earnest; and I endeavoured all I cowld to appease him without qwitting my just cawse I had to expresse my dissatisfaction with mons. Turenne's and the armie's late proceedings. I told him, that my very waiting upon him from his highnesse with instructions, impowering me to aggree to any reasonable propositions showld be made for the effectuatting of the treatty, did sufficiently evince, that his highnesse's jealosie of his eminencie's sincerity was not so great as his eminencie seem'd to apprehend it. That for my part, I showld be alwayes readdy to acknowledg the trewth, and durst not deny, but I had told his highnesse the same things he had charged me with; but hoped when he reflected upon mons. Turenne's cariadge in the businesse of Mardick, which I againe acquainted him with at large; and consithered, that when I press'd him to the seige of Dunkerk, I offered him 5000 of my master's old foot, besyds the 2000 recruitts, that then were landed, and provisions both for man and horse, with ammunitione and artillery in what quantity he desyred; I beleeved his own reason wowld tell him, the taking of Dunkerk cowld not have been a very difficult thing, since the enemy, by mr. Turenne's own account, had not above 3000 foot to mann Dunkerk and Winoxburgh, and keep a canall of two leagwes of lenth, that went betwixt them. He replyed, as I had stated things to him, he cowld not deny, but mons. Turenne's nature had lett slipp ane advantagios opportunity: and as to his own vindication, he would send me, by his secretary mr. Rose, the minutt-booke of this summer's dispatches, which when I had perused, I would then be able to judge of his innocency. I refused to see any thing of that nature, and assured him, that I did not in the least doubt of the trewth of any thing I had his eminencie's word for. In the conclusion, the cardinall expressed in very passionatt terms the greatt desyer he had to be in his highnesse's good opinion, which he should be reddy to purchase at any rate. This being over, we fell upon the discourse of Mardick: he shew'd me mons. Turenne's letter, and ane other from the officer, that commands the French their. The last assured the place to be in very good conditione, and took notice of the extraordinary goodnesse of the palisados come from England; and that all manner of provisions at Mardick are so cheapp, as the soldiers are much pleas'd with their stay their. The cardinall shew'd me also a list of provisions sent their lately; amongst which their was 4000 deal-boards for the soldiers hutts; and desyred to know, if I had any thing to propound further for the defence of that place. I told him, that after the compleating of the two half-moones upon the downes, it wowld be necessary to make a counterscarpe withowt the ditch of the old fortifications, that is now prepared, which he hath given order for. I desyred also, that the command of the place may be continued to sir John Reynolds, and in his absence to major-generall Morgan; that there might be some of the ablest of the French officers, and best versed in the defence of places, putt in Mardick, who were to obey the generall and major-generall; which he hath lykwyse given order for. He hath sent money to the intendants Dormison and Tallon, for the subsistance of the English forces, and the compleating the works at Mardick. Mons. Turenne, when his horse can subsist no longer in the quarters he is now in, will leave the French and Swisse-gwards, with the best of the old regiments, in and about Calais and Bowlogne; so that in 24 hours tyme Mardick may be socowered with what number of foott shall be thought requisitt. I desyer'd also, that 300 horse might be lest in Mardick; which he aggreed unto, and was in so good ane humor at last, as I doe not remember to have seen him in a better.

He hath promised to have mony reddy within this fortnight or three weeks, to be sent into England for the buying up a great qwantity of hay; and will make up a magazine of oatts at Abbeville, Diepp, and St. Valluries, beleeving they will be cheapper in Normandie and Piccardie then in England. He desyers to have ane estimatt of the pryse of 16 load of hay, as it may be delyvered at Mardick; and lykwyse of the bushell of the oatts, to the end he may compare the rate of the oatts with that, for which he may have them heare. He hath also given order, to provide greatt qwantityes of meale for ammunitione-breadd at the abovesaid places; and endeavors to perswade me both by his promises and oaths, that once before the first of May the treatty shall be fully performed on his part; and so ane end shall be putt to all further cawse of jealosie betwixt his highnesse and him.

I mentioned the king of Swedden's conditione, and said, tho' it was a little bettered by the late victory obtained, yett it was still so badd, as if England and France did not lay his interests a little more to hart, they were in danger to loose one of the most considerable allies they had. I said, his highnesse was reddy to doe every thing, that was in his power, for the preservation of the Swedd; and hop'd, that France wowld not be behind on their parts, since the advantages the howse of Austria would receive from their ruining the Swedds in Germany, seem'd to threaten France more than England. I did not propose the league in downright terms, but glanc'd at something that way. My reason for doing so is, becawse the cardinall at all tyms pretends to have done more for the Swedds then any body else hath done; and I had some feare, least he might take it ill from the Swedd, that such a proposition showld have come to him by the mediatione of his highnesse. In his reply to me he took no notice of any thing relaiting to a league; but towld me at lenth all he had done for the Swedd, who in his last letters did regraitt, that he had not as well made use of his counsell, as of the mony and other supplys he had received from him. He told me lykwyse, that the qween of Poland's last letters bare her acknowledging, that their was trewth in what he had formerly told her towching the howse of Austria; which was, that their frendshipp was more to be fear'd then the Swedds enmity, They were since the taking of Cracovia become so insolent, as their yoak was no longer supportable: so that she beseech'd him to mediatt for a peace betwixt the two crowns of Poland and Swedden; and promised, that his majestie of Poland showld be reddy to yeeld to all that was reasonable. He hath laid hold of this opportunity, when both seeme to be so inclynable to peace; and hops once this winter their differences shall be broght to a happy conclusion. He keeps up his frendshipp with the Brandenburgher, and hops to make instrumentall in that peace. In the mean tyme he sayth the Swedds do retyre to a little fertile island, which he cowld not name, where he may make up a good body of foot; and sends his cavallrie to Pomerania to oppose the enemy their. During this discowrse his eminencie was twice sent for to their majesties, who wowld not supp till he came; so that when I mentioned the affairs of Portugall, he putt them off till next meeting.

If your lordshipp think it fitt, that I should presse the league above-mentioned, I shall endeavor to recover any tyme I have lost abowt it; but I have hitherto by your lordship's orders studdied to perswade the French, that our ingadging against the howse of Austria is upon their account; and before this I have had cawse to beleeve, that the cardinall wowld have given something extraordinary for the ingadging his highnesse in a league ofsensive and defensive against the emperor, whose invasione of Alsatia he doth yett feare.

Mons. Bourdeaux father hath been twyce to enqwyer for a packet, which his sone makes him beleeve your lordship hath sent to me. I have received as yett nothing concerning sir George Cartright, who maks a greatt noyse heare. I received yesternight a letter from mons. Turenne in favor of mons. Mompellione, which I have taken the boldnesse to inclose in one I have address'd to his highnesse, to be delivered by the said marqwis. The cardinall hath intelligence, that the enemie intends to assault Mardick about the change of the moone, when the nights are darke. Tho' I apprehend little from it, yett I have advertised sir John Reinolds of it, and have directed my letter to major-generall Morgan, in case of his absence. I beseech your lordshipp to remember, that I shall be almost ruined if my bill of 800 l. be not payed at the day; and pardon the troble your lordship received last post in that particular from,

May it please your lordship,
Your most humble, faithfull and obedient servant,
Will. Lockhart.

My poor wyf hath been ill this four or fyve days by past, but is not yett broght to bed.

Secretary Thurloe to Lockhart, embassador in France.

In the possession of Joseph Radcliffe, of the Inner Temple, esq.

What your's of the 14/24 conteynes, is not very different from what wee have heere; although it cannot bee well imagined how they can gett them over: if the port they intend to goe from, and the place designed for their landing were knowne, it were of great use. It cannot bee well imagined, that such a body should venture, unless they have some fort to land in: I cannot finde any certainty heere of that. Your lordship's inquiry into it is earnestly desired; the secrecy you command shall be observed, and this civility of the cardinall is to be acknowledged to him in his highness's name. I writt to your excellencie at large upon monday night about Mardike, and that H. H. had two regiments to quarter upon the sea-coast, in order to that businesse: but if the quarters of the French army bee not continued in Flanders this winter, all other meanes of keeping that place will bee ineffectuall. I writt how burthensome that place was to us; and therefore all manner of instances must bee used for money, all that is layd out being upon the French account, and for the preservation of their garrison: but having writt so largely to your excellencie abut these things, and alsoe of the necessityes of our English in France and Flanders, I shall avoyde repetition, it being unnecessary to presse things of this kinde to your excellencie. I perceive the Dutch are very much troubled at our being in Flanders, and at the probabilitys there are of prosecuting the warre in Flanders next yeare, and are studying all meanes to divert us; and one way they pitch upon is to endeavour to stir up jealousies between the protector and France, and to bring them into misunderstandings. This I have from rare hands, and that it will bee a thing much laboured, and all imaginable artifices used therein. I hope both sides will be aware of such kinde of impressions; and the best way to rendre all attempts of this kinde vaine and empty, is for both sides to be very honest and punctuall in performing treatyes and contracts. It is written from Frankfort, that the ambassadors of the electors there have resolved twoe things, which are very extraordinary: 1st, That they will not suffer the powers of the ambassador of the king of Bohemia to be read; saying, that when they come to the election it selfe, it will be time enough to send his powers, hee haveing nothing to do in any other businesse there. 2dly, That they will treat of a peace betweene France and Spayne before they proceede to the election of an emperor. It's further sayd, that Saxony and Bavaria did oppose these resolutions; but the rest were unanimous therein: and some observe, that these things have an ill aspect upon the house of Austria: but whether they have or not, or whether they signifye something or nothing, I cannot say.

I have herewith sent the information against sir G. Cartwrite, which will be made good upon oath; and is of soe high a nature, that I hope the cardinall will cause him to bee delivered to bee proceeded against. If such things bee suffered, it will bee unsafe for any of our shipps to come into the ports of France.

I suppose that you heare, that the Dutch fleete is returned home with 14 prizes. I doe not heare they are at all considerable, unlesse it be one shipp, which hath in her about 600 chests of sugar.

The Dutch ambassador is still upon this coast, the wind being contrary. I could not perceive, that he went away with any discontent, unlesse it be towards his masters, whoe turned him from extraordinary ambassador to ordinary, and reduced his allowance to one halfe lesse; which I am sure he took ill, and resolved thereupon to returne home, before hee would accept the charge of ordinary ambassador.

I am exceeding sorry, that there hath fallen out soe greate a mistake about your money. I protest to your lordship, that I could have expected nothing lesse than to heare, that your bills should not have been answered. My directions were as particular as I could for 100 l. per weeke.

I have spoake with mr. Noell this afternoon, who assures mee, that hee never intended to have your bills returned, nor are (as they say); but because soe much was in my bill, they thought it best to write to your excellencie about it. However, I have given him orders to answer the bill, and to see for the future, that 100 l. per weeke bee duly payd. He speaks of returning it to you by lesser and more often payment, which he sayth will best agree with his receipt: but I referr it to your direction; and the bill for the present will bee payd, soe I hope your creditt shall not suffer. I am sorry to heare, that my lady is sick; I pray for her recovery, and assure you I am

Yours, &c.

19/29 Novemb. 1657.

Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states-general.

Vol. lv. p. 339.

H. and M. lords,
My lords, the king returned hither again last week from his visit, which his majesty hath given at Fontainbleau to queen Christina of Sweden; and upon tuesday last the cardinal went from hence for Petrebourg, between which place and Fontainbleau the queen was to meet his eminence; and yesterday the lord cardinal came hither back again. Whether the said queen will now come to Paris, or depart for Avignon to stay there for some time, is uncertain. The palace of the duke of Lorrain is ordered to lodge her, if she come to this city.

Here is hardly now any other discourse held, but of the rupture of their H. and M. L. with the crown of Portugal; and also of the good and great offices, which mons. de Cominges, the French embassador now at Lisbon, hath used to accommodate both parties, or at least to refer their differences to the mediation or arbitration of his king, whom his lordship hath offered thereunto, and employed many inductive reasons on both sides to perswade them to it.

I do not omit to represent the business with Portugal, as I am instructed, with all good reason of equity and justice.

I have given notice, according to your H. and M. L. commands, to all those of the Netherlands, sailing or trading to any port or place in this kingdom, of the said rupture, that so as much as is possible they may avoid the damages, which may happen to them thereby.

The winter-quarters upon the sea-coasts of the Netherlands begin to fall very chargeable and dangerous, through many sicknesses and mortalities, whereof neither side are free or exempt. The English troops are supplied daily from England with all manner of necessaries, and with good sums of money.

This court now is very sollicitous to know, since they hear, that the lords states of Flanders are assembled at Ipres, what they will propose and resolve for a subsidy for carrying on of the heavy burthen of the war, which is threatened against them the next year, 1653. Many, that think they know something of these designs, dare give out, that the next year will be an extraordinary year, if so be no great alteration happen to interrupt the designes on foot.

The earl of Fuensaldagna is to leave the government of Milan, and the earl of Ognate is to succeed him in his place, who is a very gallant man, and one, that hath given sufficient experiencies of his great conduct in many extraordinary conjunctures of affairs of government and state. And it is verily believed here, that he would never have accepted of the said government, unless they would promise to give him an extraordinary assistance of men and money.

This court, together with that of Savoy and the duke of Modena, will timely consider of what is to be for the advancement of their affairs in Italy the next campaign.

By the withdrawing of so considerable Spanish troops from the frontiers of the Portugueze, the Spaniards have well prevented a great deal of damage from being done them in Catalonia; but in the absence of the said troops the Portugueze have retaken in the mean time from the Castillians the castle of Mouraon before that the said troops, being countermanded out of Catalonia, could come time enough to relieve them.

It is said, that the regiments both of horse and foot of his majesty, and the regiments of the lord cardinal, are to have their winter-quarters in Normandy.

The states of Languedoe have already presented to the king as a free gift of 1,400,000 guilders; and it is thought, they will at last come to 1,700,000 guilders; not being able to exceed that sum, by reason of the great imposts and taxes, which lie very heavy upon that province.

The mareschal of Turenne hath gotten leave of the court to leave his troops, and to come to Paris, where he is hourly expected, leaving such places as have been conquered by him in good order and defence.

W. Boreell.

Paris, 30 Novemb. 1657. [N. S.]

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

Vol. lv. p. 341.

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Je vous rens grands tres humble de l'agreable votre du 23[?] courant. Le sieur Nieuport n'est pas encore icy arrivé, mais il escrit aussy d'avoir prius son congé. Il est fort croiable, qu'il ne sera guere content d'avoir failly a achever le traitté de la marine; neant moins je me imagine, que la Hollande à present ne seroit pas sort marry de ne l'avoir pas achevé pour ne se pas oster la liberté de visirer des mêmes en cette guerre contre Portugal. L'on m'a voulu dire en confiance, que Amsterdam se picque fort en cette guerre, & seroit plus animé ou autant qu'un autre, & neantmoins je ne voy pas, quel profit ils en tireront: même la butin, qu'ils en ont pris, nuira le marchands d'icy, & des amis, & les embarassera en proces. Amsterdam s'imagine, que Cromwel cache le loup, & en veut a les estats d'Hollande & Amsterdam &c. pourtant qu'il vaille mieux, que les estats d'Holland & Amsterdam commencent le premier; & croyent, que supprimant les amis de Cromwel en méme temps, ils suppriment le protecteur même relevant par ce moyen le Espagne, lequel ils n'osent pas ayder ouvertement comme de même ils n'osent pas nuire directement le protecteur; mais en nuisant & incommodant les amis de Cromwel, ils croyant d'incommoder le protectcur de même, & sans l'offenser; car ils appellant cela encore sincerité, candeur, & amitie, &c. Et cependant certe l'on voit, que Cromwel procede avec toute sorte de civilité envers les estats d'Hollande & les estates-generaux la, ou au contraire si le protecteur vouloit envoyer ses Navires, certe Cromwel & Sweden ensemble a present se rendroient maistres du milleur de Denmare; au moins du Sondt; & cela seroit à Cromwel un grand avantage. Mais Cromwell est si bon d'offrir a Denmarc grand bien, ce qu'il refuse; demonstrant qu'il a la conscience mauvais, craignant que Cromwel est contre luy, comme luy a esté contre Cromwel. Je reste

Votre très-humble serviteur.

Ce 30 Nov. 1657. [N. S.]

Lord Broghill to general Montague.

In the possession of the right hon. John earl of Orrery.

Dear Sir,
This post I have received the great honour and favour of a letter from you, in which you have one expression of your intention for some time to retire to your private concernments; by which I conclude, the game our masters is to manage is either very desperate, that you give it over, or very certain, since you think it needs not your help. I confess, retirement is so much my desire, that I can hardly bring (with a good will) any inducement against it: 'tis a happiness I am so fond of, that really had I not promised his highness to pay him my services at London this winter, nothing else should have drawn me from the satisfaction I enjoy here out of the streame.

But these reasons and motives, which are pregnant enough with me as to my self, cannot be so with you, or to your self. I find I do more oblige my poor family at home, than I can serve the publick abroad; and I am certain you cannot so much as think of your self at that rate: if you could, I will bring as many witnesses to undeceive you as there are men, which have the honour to know you. They are all highly obliged to you for setling my lord Harry amongst us; he has long (in all our opinions) deserved this office before he possessed it, and I know is a great friend to you, and a great desirer of your friendship for him. That touche you give of the condition things are still in at London, makes Ireland seem a very happy place; though where my lord Harry doth govern, that country needs no soil to set it of. I am now preparing next week to return for England, wind and weather serving: but it will be a sad disappointment to me to miss of you at London; your company being that which will make me more relish that place than any thing can, if you are out of it. I never read the close of your letters with satisfaction till now (they are so full of entertainment); and in the end of your last you are pleased to give me such high assurances of your friendship, that I should be the unworthiest of men, if ever I were other, while I lived, than

Dear sir, yours, &c.


Youghall, 20th Novemb. 1657.

Colonel Thomas Cooper to doctor Gorge, secretary to H. Cromwell, lord-deputy of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon the earl of Shelburn.

I Will not challeng you to be in my debt, because I doe not know how longe I may live before I become your creditor, beinge so far indebted to you for your service of love to mee; but I have writt twice to you, since I heard from you, but you wear then travellinge, and so veary excuseable. There is, it seemes, some wicked designe discovered in England against his highness, and the peace of these nations; and many persons discovered to have a hand in it. I onely beg soe far a knowledge of it, as to persons and things, as it is fit for you to discover; for I have had onely generall hints of it from England, and not more from my lord. I am sorry ther is yet noe settlement of the councell for Ireland, by which meanes this intollerable mischief in monney is continued, besides many other weighty matters retarded. I have not more, but to remaine,

Sir, your affectionate friend and servant,
Tho. Cooper.

Carricksergus, 21st Nov. 1657.

The inclosed I pray you present to my lord, with the tenders of my humble service.

Colonel Thomas Cooper to H. Cromwell, lord-deputy of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

May it please your lordship,
I Have receaved yours of the 17th instant, with the inclosed from mr. secretary; by both I do perceave the common enemy is at worke to bring us into bloud againe. My thinks from their eivill and wicked perseverance in their wicked cause, those, that feare the Lord, might learn a good lesson, that might help them in the midst of all straits. Wee see they can agree as one man to do wickedly; and though often broken by the hand of God more then men, yet are not weary of soe bad a cause; and therefor how might good men strengthen themselves in the Lord, and not be weary of his cause, that hath been owned soe often, and soe eminently in their hands, and agree togeather to cleave unto it againste all opposition of Sathan and his instruments, and to cleave one to another, that soe they may strengthen the hearts and hands of each other, and not fall out by the way for trifles. Mythinks the often owneing of his highness in soe many deliverances in his person, is a good token from the Lord, that hee will yet doe more for his name amongst us. Heer are many petisions put up to God for him, which I hope will not retourne empty. I am sorry there is not yet a settlement of the councell heer, that soe this poore nation might be put into some better state then it is at present. Theere is almost a comon losse in these parts by the collectors of assessment; the collectors haveing imbessell'd veary much of the counterys money, some say two hundred, some say a hundred pound a peece, that now is discovered, and the countery much discontented about it. The inclosed is the viccar-generall's comission: he is soe weak, as not sit to travel yet. I did acquaint your lordship with some artickles exhibited against a captain of myne, capt. Reading; I sent what was laid to his chardg, and shall desire to know what your lordship's pleasure is about it; and have not more, but to commend you to the grace of Christe Jesus, in whom I am, and ever shall bee,

My lord,
Your lordship's veary faithfull servant,
Tho. Cooper.

Carricksergus, 21 Nov. 1657.

Resident Le Maire to the states-general.

Vol. lv. p. 365.

H. and M. lords,
My lords, since my last of the 24th November, here hath not happened any thing considerable, there having past through this place no ships from Dantzick, nor Stockholme, nor any place situated on the East-sea, by reason of the present winterseason.

The king of Sweden hath sent a great ship laden with ammunition for Riga, to their assistance; which is long since arrived there through the good wind, which hath blown since she set sayle.

In case the lord Beuningen do depart from Copenhagen, it will be requisite, that I should reside there the most part of the time, being too remote from the court and affairs where I now am, that so I may the better serve your high and mighty lordships with advice of all that passeth, as also assist the skippers of your high and mighty lordships state, who oftentimes are prejudiced by the private men of war of this kingdom.

J. le Maire.

Elseneur, the 1st of Dec. 1657. [N. S.]

P. S. Just now is a ship arrived from Lysland, which bringeth news, that Riga was hourly expected to be surrendred to the Poles; that the Muscovite, for the furthering of the design of the Pole, had not only sent him great store of ammunition and guns, but had freely delivered up to him the two places, Dunenborch and Kaeckenhuysen; that the sort of Wolmar was taken by storme by the Poles, and Parouw besieged; that the earl Magnus de la Garde was fled into Haspell, and was getting some vessells to retreat into Sweden, leaving Lysland to the Poles without resistance.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

Vol. lv. p. 369.

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Les deliberations pour la ratification du traitté d'Elbinge sont maintenant icy en crise. La relation du sieur Slingerlant, aussy-bien que la lettre des ambassadeurs, donne tout un autre impression du dit traitté, que la Hollande ou Am erdom ne s'estoit imaginé, quoyque cette imagination sortoit plustost du siege de Riga, & de la conqueste de la Livonie, (ce que Amsterdam croyoit trop fermement) que d'aucun raisonable fundament. Maintenant on verra bientost, à quoy la Hollande pense; & de là suivront les autres.

Ceux de Amsterdam ont produit pleintes, que les navires de guerre de Cromwel tiennent comme blocqué la havre de Zalée, empescheant le commerce & navigation à ceux de les estates de Hollande vers là. Je scay, que l'on delibere de donner charge à Ruyter (qui s'en ira avec un bon escadre vers la mer Mediterranée) pour battre ceux de Cromwell, en cas qu'ils continuassent à empescher aux Hollandois la navigation vers là. Quant à Danwick, elle trouve icy peu d'apparence de l'argent pour elle: les estats de Hollande croyent avoir beaucoup fait, d'y avoir envoyé navire de guerre. Ce qui toutes fois n'a esté ny servy que de spectacle, sans aucun effect; car quand ces navires de guerre y viendront, le peril estoit desja cessé. Et cependant il y a eu assez de promesse, que les estats generaux vouloient assister les Dantzick de l'argent; & c'est sur cette promesse, que Dantzick a fait alliance avec les navires de guerre, du 10e Juillet, & sur quoy les Dantzick ont donné occasion à ceux de Cromwel de sortir de Dantzick, & a donné à ceux de l'estate d'Hollande plus d'avantage, ce qu'ils n'auroient pas fait sans la promesse de l'argent, les estates d'H. desirent bien que Danzick suive leurs interests, soyent contraires à Sweden, supportent tant de mal, & la privation du commerce; mais tout cela ne doit estre que pour le seul bien de estate d'Hollande. Il est vray, il y a un armee de Poland près & pour Dantzick, mais Poland a manquement de amunision, argent, & de tout, si que cela ne releve pas les Dantzick; ains cela les incommode tant plus.

Je suis

Vostre très-humble serviteur.

Ce 1 Dec. [1657.]

Lockhart, embassador in France, to secretary Thurloe.

Paris, Dec. 1. new style, 1657.

In the possession of the right honourable Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high-chancellor of Great Britain.

May it please your lordship,
Since my last I have had no awdience, the cardinal having imployed the greatest part of this weeke in treatting the qween of Swedden, who, it's said, hath at last obtained permissione to come to Paris for some tyme. She lodgeth in the pallace Mazirini, and is entertained their at the cardinal's expense. I am affrayed, I shall be oblydged to give her a visitt, since I ame informed all other publick ministers heare have resolved to pay her that respect.

Yesterday the cardinal sent mons. de Bosc to tell me, that the king intended to send some of his musketaires to Mardick, and himself sendeth along with them some of his guards, who are to stay there this winter. Its a greatt complement; but I cowld have wishd they had spared it; for all of them are persons of conditione, and will expect greatter accomodatione in point of lodging, then that place can affoord. Their is also 120 reformed officers sent their; and the cardinall bidd him assure me, if that place shall be besiegd this winter, he will goe the lenth of Calais in order to its releife; and if it be needfull, the king will doe the same; but withall he desyres some more deale-boards and palisadoes may be sent from England to Mardick, they having already sent from Calais all that cowld be found their. Mons. de Bosc cowld tell me nothing of the number desyered, and theirfore I have writt to gen. Reinolds, to lett your lordshipp know what need their is of them, and what number will be requisitt.

I have sent your lordshipp two papers; the one concernes abbey Montague, and was sent to me from the cardinall by the hands of sir Kennelm Digby. The cardinall spoke to me abowt it himself, and made it his very humble sute to his highness, that the abbey and his brother the earle of Manchester might receive some favor in it upon his account. The qween also sent to me to the same purpose. The other was given me by count Brienne, who complains of the ill usage the duke of Vandosm's gentleman of horse hath mett with in England. One John Millner, a Scotch-man, hath seased upon some horses he had boght for the duke of Orleans, and his master, upon pretence of a debt dew to him by ane other servant of the duke of Vandosm's, who dyed severall years ago, as they report it here. Millner's caryage hath been very insolent: his being imprisoned for some tyme would give to the aforesaid princes (who look upon themselves as affronted) greatt satisfaction. The duke of Vandosm, who is admirall of France, hath severall of our merchants businesse before him, and hath many occasions to oblyge or disoblyge us. I shall be necessitated to waite upon him ere it be long, and cowld be gladd to have occasione to complement him upon the account of the right done him in England, and the respect that is had their to all his interests. Their is one don Lewis, a Neapolitan, hath been with me; he pretends to be able to putt that kingdome turned into a republicke, under the protection of any prince he shall aggree with, and offers it to his highness. He seems to be a vaine frothy man. He desyers to professe the Protestant religion, and to come into England. He tells me, he serv'd at Rome six or seven years secretary the chamber de propaganda side, and offers to discover all the pope's emissarys in England. Some of the principall he knoweth, as having seen and treatted with them at Rome. He knoweth all their ways of their conveying intelligence; and can by a watter, and some other secret he hath, discover what is interlyned in their letters, that seeme to meddle with nothing but matters of trafficke. He hath a great desyer to come into England, but will expect some money to transport him. He seems to have so little soliditie in him, as I dare say nothing to encourage your lordshipp to that expense.

The gentleman, who broght him to me, is a very zealous Protestant, and is of the opinion he will be able to make good all he promises. I know, I cowld have a trew caracter of him from the cardinall, who made use of him in his design against Naples; but I am resolved to have nothing further to doe with him, unlesse your lordshipp's commands oblyge ane alteration of this resolutione in,

May it please your lordshipp,
Your most humble, faithfull and obedient servant,
Will. Lockhart.

Mr. P. Meadowe, envoy in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. iv. p. 267.

Right honorable,
In my last to your honor of November 15, I mentioned the merchants buisines, about which his highnes wrote to his majestie of Denmark, to be in a fair way of dispatch; but since, before I could deliver his highnes letter, his majestie caused the ships and goods to be discharged, and for those goods, that were sold, satisfaction to be given the interested upon my certificate, that the said ships and goods belonged to the subjects of England; so that the letter I kept by me, and the newes your honor may please to communicate to the merchants.

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The 20th of November I received one from you of October 23d, which came in monsieur Petkum's pacquett; and yesterday another of the 30th instant. 'Tis now no secrett, that his majestie of Denmark has oblidged himself not to make peace with Sweden, without including the Pole; for the answer of November 3d, which your honor has received ere this, openly maintained it. For my own part, as occasion offered, I have taken the boldnes to insinuate my dislike to the contents of that paper, as unsatisfactory and il advised. The truth is, they are divided about it; some are willing to begin a treaty sepa rately; others are for a generall peace or none. The Dutch amb. s t e e r s this la t t e r c o u r s e, with w h o m e I have now a very good correspondence, notwithstanding our former strangnes.

But as I aprehend, the very knot of the difficulty is this; should the Dane desert the Pole, and make offer to the king of Sweden to treat with him apart from the other, his feare is, that the king of Sweden will make use of this advantage against him, to conclude a peace under-hand with the Pole; which the Pole will be easily induced to, receiving this disobligation from the Dane: and then the warr wil ly heavy on Denmark; for neither of these princes divided is able to maintaine the warr against Sweden. If therefore they seperate their interests, then happy he, that prevents the other, by making his peace first; at leastwise the king of Sweden having thus disunited them, wil at the same time begin a publique treaty with Denmark, and a private one with Poland, and force Denmark into dishonorable conditions, by the jealousie of a peace to be made with Poland; and so vice versa: and at last, where he sees not advantagious conditions offered, clap up a peace there, and prosecute the warr against the other. Divide & impera.

Indeed, were the Dane assured, that upon his giving the Pole this disgust by commencing a treaty separate from him, his highnes would interpose to bring him of upon equall and honorable termes with the Swede, something then might be done; but they heer can neither believe, that his majestie of Sweden will easily quit to eminent an advantage, or that his highnes of England really means them such a kindnes, they having done England too many injuries, to expect reasonably from thence so great a benefitt.

When his majestie of Sweden shal return an answer to that of his majestie of Denmark of November 3d, some further resolution may be taken; but till then I have little hope to obtain, that they should further declare themselves. In the mean time I am labouring continually to dispose them to a seperate treaty.

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Two dayes ago I should have had a private c o n f e r r e n ce with Denmark, upon his owne in c t i o n, which none of his councel should have been p r i v y with; but it is deserred til some time this w e e k e.

Nothing of action lately; the fleet is expected home every day. Funen is ful of souldiers, horse and foot, severall troopes being fetcht out of Sconen, and sent thither. I am,

Your honor's most humble and most faithful servant,
Phil. Meadowe.

Copenhagen, Nov. 22d 1657.

Secretary Thurloe to Lockhart, embassador in France.

In the possession of Joseph Radcliffe of the Inner-Temple, esq.

The French post is not yet arrived, nor have I any thing to trouble your lordship with, but what I have often mentioned in my former letters; that is the buisinesse of Mardike. There is not a weeke, but wee have letters of their wants and necessityes; and the charge wee have been at allready is incredible; that if France doe not furnish us very speedily with a considerable sume of money, I doe not see how our men there will be preserved without perishing. They dye 10 or 12 every day; which will soone consume the whole number. And I heare it is worse with those of Bourbourg, they being in want of all things. If the cardinall doe not give some effectuall order for supplying their wants, that they may live, I doe not see what other course can bee taken but to call our men home; which is much better then to have them all dye, or at last run away to the enimy. H. H. doth very much desire to have his certain resolution heerein, without delay; in default whereof hee will bee necessitated to take such as becomes him in honour and justice to his poor countrymen. I will not trouble your excellence with any thing about my lord Fauconbridge his affayers, supposing hee gives you a particular account thereof. I am


22/2 Novemb./Decemb. 1657.