A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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November (5 of 5)
Secretary Thurloe to Lockhart, embassador in France.
In the possession of Joseph Radcliffe, of the Inner-Temple esq.
Your excellencie hath soe fully debated the businesse of Mardike with the cardinall, that I doe not see what is further to be sayd therein, save to send unto you a particular account of the expences H. H. hath been at both in the fortifying and providing it with victualls; and then I beleeve hee will finde cause to admitt, that the burden of it ought not to lye upon H. H. and although the two answeres, which hee gave to your lordship's demands, seem plausible at the first view, viz. that the money layd out about the fortifications is for the security of the place, and will save us the money, which wee must necessaryly expend there, when it shall with Dunkerke bee putt into our hands; and, 2dly, that the soldiers are payd in money, and that they ought not to have their victualls provided for them alsoe; yett if these things bee weighed, the reason and justice will bee on the other hand; for if Dunkerke had been delivered with Mardike, the army had stopt untill the workes had been repayred, which they ought to have done both by the treaty, and the undertaking of marshall Turenne, a tenth part of the charge wee have been at would have made it as now it is; for insteed of taking the outward works, they are forced to line them with deale-boards, which takes up infinite quantityes. I thinke wee have sent thither above 40,000 deale-boards, besides very great quantityes of sparrs, baulkes, pallisadoes, and the like. Then if this greate extraordinary charge hath been occasioned by their miscarryages, the burthen of it ought not to be putt upon H. H. And as for the provisions, it's true, its unreasonable the soldiers should have both pay and provisions too. But if it be considered, what confusions things were left in through the proceedings aforesaid, the great discouragements, which were putt upon the men, by being left without any conveniencyes, the smalnes and uncertainty of their pay, with many other things, which might be enumerated, if great quantetyes of provisions had not been bought for them with ready-money, the men had been starved, and the place long since abandoned. For the future, better order may be taken; but it will bee necessary, that a stock and magazin of victualls for 3 monthes at least be provided and layd up in the fort, which may bee delivered out by measure to the soldiers for their pay; which as it comes, is to bee employed for supplying the magazin from time to time in such manner, that there may be always 3 monthes victualls to lye as a dead stock; and certainly this stock is to be provided by the French, whose garrison now it is; and when wee enter upon it, wee may take it from them, and soe wee may pay for the fortifications alsoe at the same time: and this way seemes to be most just and equall. I will not mention, amongst the rest of our inconveniencyes, the losse of soe many of our men, occasioned meerely by the disorders all things were left in, when the French camp drew off from Mardike.
Wee have had a very strong allarme from sir John Reynolds, that he was to bee attempted by the enimy's army on fryday night last; and demanded thereupon 500 fresh men: thereupon orders were given for shipping the number; and if the allarme holds, they shall be putt into the fort, and H. H. doubts not but the French horse will draw together, and march for their releise.
H. H. thinkes, that the cardinall takes a very right measure of the affayres of Portugall and Sweeden; and mr. Downing is goeing this weeke from hence to the Hague, instructed to the same purpose; and hee is to communicate therein to the French ambassador there. H. H. desires, that the French ambassador may have orders to do the like with H. H. minister. I should wish, that the peace betwixt Sweede and Poland were soe probable as you mention upon those termes.
H. H. does very much rejoyce to heare, that your lady is in a way of recovery, and soe doth generall Desborough, and truly none more then
Whitehall, Novemb. 28 th 1657.
Lockhart, embassador in France, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. lv. p. 389.
May it please your lordship,
Since my receipt of yours of the 16th, which came not to my hands till yesterday at night, I have pressed an audience as earnestly as I could. I sent yesterday to the court, which was at Bois de Vincent, and upon my receipt of yours of the 19th yesternight, I sent again this morninge, and told the cardinall, he might assure himself some im portant affairs occasioned my importuning him, since he knew my wyse's condition was such, as nothing of common concernment could tempt me to come abroad. He promised me an audience this evening at the Louvre, where the court arrived at six a clock; but betwixt seven and eight sent me word, that though he was no lesse desirous to speake with me, then I could be to see him, yet he was necessitated to deferre my audience till to morrow in the evining; soe that till the next post I can make no return to your lordship's two last, save this general, that at my last audience the cardinall did fully aggree the French should keep Mardyke at their charge, 'till the taking of Dunkirk or Graveling.
It hath pleased God rather to increase then diminish my assiction since my last; for my poore wyf's seaver continueth, and hath broght her to the very gates of death. The king and the cardinall have the kyndnesse to send theyr phisitians once a day at least; but the issues of lyfe and death are in the Lord's hands. She hath been lett blood in the foot this night about 9 a clock, and is now fallen into a sleep, which givs me opportunity to steale this moment from her attendance, to the end I may assure your lordship of my being,
May it please your lordship,
Your most humble and obedient servant,
Decemb. 8th 1657. [N. S.]
Fly to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Calais, 8 Decemb. 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. lv. p. 383.
I Send you the answer of sir J. Reynolds, which he sends to the lord Thurloe, secretary of state. He writes me word, that the fortifications of the low fort are in a very good condition. Monsieur Talon writes me the same thing, and that they expect some assistance from England of what they stand in need of. We send to them from hence all that they write for to us; for the king is sending 80 of his musqueteers to them, and his eminence 40 of his guard; and all the officers of the ten companies of the guard, who are in garrison in this city, are to go to relieve Mardyke, if need be. The court doth seem to declare on their side, that they will not neglect any thing, which may serve to preserve that place, which our enemies do still threaten, as well here as out of Flanders. Monsieur de Turenne is still at Montreuil, where he expects an answer to his letter I sent by the express.
Your most humble servant,
D'ormesson to monsieur de Bordeaux.
Calais, 8 Decemb. 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. lv. p. 391.
In regard the resolution of monsieur de Turenne, to have me to go to Montreuil, there to receive the orders for the winter-quarters, was so sudden, that he gave me no time to put on my boots, I could not write to you before I went away.
I did not long stay at Montreuil, but came back in hast, to execute many things, which his eminence had writ to me about for the preservation of Mardyke and Bourburgh, which he considereth as very important to the state.
The king hath chosen 100 men out of his musqueteers and the guard of his eminence, and hath writ to me about to put them into Mardyke: they came here yesterday with several volunteers, who will take share in the honour to be had in the defence of that place, if the enemy should assault it.
One only thing troubleth and disquieteth his eminence, which is the want of pallisades, which are absolutely necessary, speedily to perfect and finish the two bastions, with the two half-moons, which are making upon the downes on that side of Dunkirk and Gravelin; because it is only on that side, that the enemy can assault that place.
His eminence writ me word, that he had writ to you to sollicit his highness the lord protector, to send with all speed such quantity as is necessary: he desired me also to write to you about, and to press you to dispatch them away. In effect, the preservation of the place is indubitable, if these two last works are pallisaded.
The said pallisades must be had of the lord protector, in regard it is impossible to find any here, and it will spend much time.
It is also necessary, that two small frigats be kept always upon the coast here, to conduct the provisions, that go from hence daily. There be two small shallops of the enemy, that keep in the channel of Gravelin, which do annoy us. The captains of the two frigats must have order to address themselves to me, and to observe my orders, in regard the earl of Charost is gone to Paris.
Your most humble servant,
A letter of Intelligence.
28th Nov. 1657.
Vol. lv. p. 349.
Father Reyly on thursday last assured me, that before Christmas next there will be an armey out of Spaine in this nation, if not hindred by bad weather, of which the most parte wil be Irish: and that he is assured, they wil be within a mounth after land ing an invincible army, for that the most parte of the Irish in this nation wil come to their assistance; for which these that come had arms and amonition abondance. This he findes by one Connor O Cahone, a Jesuit, who came lately from the county of Antrim, where he was present att a meeteing with 5 or 6 of the prymest persons of the North had with one Tieg O-Riorck, an eminent person of the clergie, who lately came into Ireland to imparte the same to certayne persons, and with comissions to others for the raiseing of men. This meeteing was the 15th of this month.
The gentry, and the most parte of those who have any stock or abilitie, doe generally keepe loose persons, and such as were formerly in armes, within their townes and houses, and doe inlist them as contributors, by nameing a small parcell of their owne stock to each of these loose persons, that thereby they may be taken notice of as peaceable persons, and contributors to the commonwealth, and to be in readiness against any designe they may have.
The king of France to the states-general.
Receptum den 2 January.
Vol. lv. p. 387.
Tres chers grands amis, alliez et confederez,
Vous avez reconnu en tant de rencontres la vraye & sincere & parfaite amitié, que nous vous portons, & que vos interests ne nous sont pas moins chers que les nôtres; que vous auriez suject de demeurer surpris, si en une occasion aussy importante qu'est telle de prevenir les maux, que la guerre, que vous avez declaré à la couronne de Portugal, pourroit causer & à vous & à ce roy, nous n'essayons d'en empescher la suite par les conseils, que nous avons à départir à l'un & à l'autre; & comme en la faisant nous continuons ce que nous avons commencé, & que nous imitons non-seulement la conduite des roys nos predecesseurs, lesquels ont interposé leurs offices pour empescher l'effusion du sang Chrestien, mais que nous satisfaisons au devoir d'un veritable allié, donnant de plus à connoistre, que le bien & le repos des subjects des roys & potentats, avec lesquels nous aurons en amitié, nous est fort au cœur. C'est avec justice que nous demeurons persuadez, que vous & luy receviez agréablement nos avis, & les embrasserez d'autant plus volontiers, que c'est une chose constante, que la Chrestienté en general, & le Portugal & vostre republique en particuliere, souffriroyent beaucoup de la durée de cette guerre. C'est pourquoy nous ne devons point cesser de vous remonstrer les maux, qui s'ensuivroyent, afin de gagner sur vos esprits, que vous préfertiez un juste accommodement à la continuation de la guerre; & puis que le but, qu'on se propose en cela, n'est autre que de parvenir à cette fin, il semble qu'on se doive parler à la rechercher. Mais comme difficilement on y pourroit atteindre, si pendant que la paix se negociera on ne faisoit cesser toutes actes d'hostilité, desquels les évenements souvent font changer de sentiments, soit qu'ils ayent esté favorables ou dommageables, l'ouverture qu'on fait aux parties de consentir à cette cessation doit estre agréablement reçû par elles, & d'autant que nous avons ordonné au sieur comte de Comminges, nostre ambassadeur extraordinaire en Portugal, de la faire à la reine regente, mere du roy don Alphonso, à present regnant, que la disposition, qu'elle à fait paroistre de s'accommoder avec vous, fait croire, qu'elle y persistera; & que nous ne tarderons pas d'en estre derechef assurez, nous avons jugés, que le semblable devoit estre proposé de nostre part par nostre amé & feal conseiller en nostre conseil d'estat, president en la premiere Chambre des Enquests de nostre cour de parlement de Paris, & nostre ambassadeur auprès de vous, le sieur de Thou comte de Melay, lequel en vous rendant cette lettre, selon les ordres qu'il en a de nous, s'estendra d'avantage sur le fruit, qui vous reviendra, & les maux, que par ce moyen vous évitez: car outre que vos subjects jouiront d'un commerce, que vous avez tousjours desirez, & que les ports de Portugal serviront de retraite à leurs navires, ce sera un moyen de vous faire considerer par ceux, qui ne peuvent souffrir, que les peuples, qu'ils avoient assujettis contre droit & raison, reprennent la liberté, & tesmoignent assez combien il leur desplaist de voir celle de quelque autre affermie d'ailleurs en demeurant en paix avec les roya & potentats Chrestiens; vous asseurez celle que vous avez conclue avec eux; & comme c'est un conseil d'un veritable amy & allié, que nous vous donnons, nous avons sujet d'esperer, que vous le recevrez de bonne part, & donnerez creance aux choses, qui vous seront dites sur ce sujet par ledit sieur de Thou, ainsy que nous vous en conjurons. Sur ce nous prions Dieu, qu'il vous ait, trés-chers grands amis, alliez, & confederez, en sa sainte & digne garde. Escrit à Paris, le viiij jour de Decembre 1657.
Vostre bon amy & confederé,
Subsigné De l'Omenie.
A letter of the king of Sweden to mr. Bradshaw.
Carolus Gustavus, Dei gratiâ Suecorum, Gothorum, Vandalorumque rex, &c.
Vol. lv. p. 335.
Illustris nobis sincere dilecte, literas, quas ad nos Grobino 13 Octobris & 6/16 hujus misisti, rectè accepimus, & ex iisdem vel eo nomine studium tuum percepimus in curando pacis negotio, quod jam accepto à serenissimo & celsissimo domino protectore Angliæ, Scotiæ, & Hiberniæ, amico & fœderato nostro charissimo procuratorio five diplomate innovato, ac titulis pro voto magni ducis referto, omnem operam intendere instituas, quo pacifica nostra proposita in communis rei salutem desideratum consequantur essectum. Perquam nobis foret acceptum, si secundùm mentem nostram prius tibi declaratam, tam salutare opus promovere posses. Etenim cum nihil antiquiùs habeamus securâ & honestâ pace cum omnibus hostibus & vicinis nostris, tum in eo proposito nec animum nec consilium mutavimus unquam, sed votorum nostrorum omnium primum foret, si absque longioribus ambagibus res in iis locis complanari & transigi possit. Nec est, quod ullâ in re commovearis, quod altè memoratus dominus protector susceperit in se mediationis inter nos & regem Daniæ munus. Utrinque nobis desiderata pax eveneret; ac cùm ex domino tuo clementissimo, quod ceremonias & curialia spectat, absque dubio nactus sis, nos etiam locumtenenti ibidem nostro comiti Magno Gabrieli de la Gardie commisimus, ut tibi rem ipsam & essentialia impertiret. Spem certam concipimus nulli te, nec industriæ, nec fidei, nec diligentiæ parciturum, quo ab eâ parte effusione sanguinis Christiani modus aliquando ponatur, ac vicina confidentia redintegretur. Sicut igitur in eo rem feceris nobis ipsis & multorum ibi habitantium votis expectendam, ac à nobis clementer recognoscendam; ita foré existimamus, ut confecto benè isto negotio communi nostræ rei quietique publicæ haud exiguum inde accedat emolumentum. Quibus te Deo commendamus, fælicia quævis & successum prosperum tibi apprecantes. Dedimus Wismariæ, die 29 Novembris, anno 1657.
Mr. P. Meadowe to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. lv. p. 331.
Thursday last I had a conference with his majestie in private, not in the palace, but in another place, which he had appointed twice; and yet his coming thither was not so private, but that it was presently known in the city. I find what I mentioned in my former letter to your honor to be the very knot of the busines; viz. the jealousie here is, that should his majestie of Denmark condescend to a treaty with Sweden seperate from the king of Poland, the Swede would make use of this to disunite Poland from Denmark, and then clap up a peace under-hand with the Pole, to prosecute the war against the Dane. And I remember his majestie replied upon me the very words in my letter, Divide & impera.
The day following monsieur Keetz came to me from his majestie, and yesterday again; which puts people here in great expectation of somthing to be done. I am still hinting to them, that good prudential rule, Il faut caler la voile, quand la tempeste est trop forte. It would be too tedious to recount particulars; but in brief, I find the temper of affairs is this: they are very willing I should doe something for them. They are very loath to tell me what. They would have me ghesse at their meaning; but I would have them explain it, for fear of mistaking them. The truth is, they are willing to a peace, but they would have it upon honorable terms; and their design is to obtain, that the king of Sweden would insinuate those termes to collonel Jephson, to be communicated to me. And if heer they find them to be such as they can reasonably comply with, as a foundation for a just settlement, their intentions are instantly to make up the busines, and the peace shal be sooner effected then reported.
I conceive the indifferent medium betwixt both crowns will be hereabouts, an amnestie of what is past, restitution on both sides; Jempterland and Bremerford on this; Holstein and Jutland on the other; the former treaty renewed; a way opened for redressing the gravamina, more especially those relating to the trade of the Baltique. But should his majestie of Sweden fly higher; and make demands of satisfaction, he must get it by his sword; he will never get it by treatie.
As for the inclusion of Poland, in case his majestie of Sweden will not comply therewith, will he but deal frankly with them, and propound them equal conditions, I dare be the ensurer, that shall never be the obstruction; for, that he told me already, how that the Pole as to performing of covenants hath failed in tribus essentialibus. And if the king of Sweden shal make any difficultie to admit the states-general as mediators, I doubt not but they must be content at this time to stand asyde.
I have not yet received from collonel Jephson any answer to the paper of November 3d. I am thinking to send an express to him; for the ordinary conveyance is insufferably tedious. The Hamborough post not being come in, I cannot give you an accompt of the receipt of any letters from England. The plague is lately broke out in this citie, which if it disperses, wil necessitate the removal of the court. I am,
Your honor's most humble and faithful servant,
Copenhagen, Nov. 29, 1657.
A letter of intelligence from col. Bamfylde.
Vol. lvi. p. 296.
It is now near 2 months, since your date of your laste letter, within which tyme (as near as I can remember) I have written 9 or ten, besides what you will receive by this ordinary. If this silence proceeds from any change in your late determinations, (which I am not free from the apprehension of, by what I have lately received from mr. Cockin, and by some expressions mr. Upton has used to those, whoe delivered to him some of my letters) I should much wonder, finding noe cause for it in myselfe, or my proceedings: but that such sudayne and unexpected changes in my condition arive soe frequently, that I shall not thinke any thing strange of that kind for the future. And leaste I shoulde give you more cause for what I suspect you either are newly resolved on, or at leaste inclined to, by entertayning you with complaints, I shall give you the newes of theise parts, which I suppose will be more agreeable to your humor. For the present, here is little done in this place, either as to the redressing of the greivances complayned of, by the French and Swedish ambassadours, or concerning the election. The firste 828 says will be more properly debated, determined, and comprehended in the treaty for the generall peace, which they say will likewise be the best foundation for the later, considering, that noe emperor can bee chosen, whilst the 2 kings are unreconciled, but must offend the one; and that this interregnum brings theyr affayres into a more equall balance, and consequently fits them better for an accorde, then they can bee, if the election were allready made; which, if in the house of Austria, would too much heighten the demands of the Spaniard; and if in any other family, produce the same effect with the French. From which considerations at this juncture moste of the electors and princes of the empire (especially those of the church) are resolved to interest themselves vigorously in the prosecution of the peace betwixt theise two great monarchs: in order to which the Spanish ambassador will certaynly be here about the middle or the end of January, haveing allready agreed for lodgins in this citty at the rate of 1000 crownes a month, which are preparing for him with all expedition; soe as you may certaynly relye upon it, that he will bee here about the time I have mentioned, and that the treaty will begin immediately upon his arrivall, though moste thinke it will net produce the effect, that is seemingly aymed at; but that the ministers of both will rather employ all theyr designes and arte to six the odium of the aversion to the peace upon each other, then to put a period to the warr: though without all peradventure it will passionately bee laboured in by the pope, and (as I have sayd allready) by moste here, even by the king of Hungary, whose chiefe minister and favourite, together with all the nobility of Germany, whoe are dependent upon him, are strongely inclined hereunto, and the more, from their being alarmed by the Turcke's drawing off considerable forces towards the frontiers of Hungary, as the letters of this laste poste from Prague intimate: from whence likewise they write, that the grande seigneur has caused prince Ragotsey to be deposed, for engaging in the Poland-warr without his leave; and has made his subjects choose another in his place. But the letters from Prussia advise quite contrary hereunto; that he has made his peace with the Turke, has entered into a new league with the Cossacks and Tartars, for the invasion of Poland. But whether this bee true, and that the apprehension of it, or of the Moscovite's agreeing with the king of Swede, and makeing warr upon the Pole, be the cause of it, I know not; but I have it here from one of the most considerable persons in this place, and the lykelyest to be well informed, that the king and queen of Poland are very strongly enclined to a peace with the king of Swede; and that the duke of Brandenburgh and the French ambassador mediate therein. Though I am informed of this as a certayne matter of fact, and may rely upon the party from whence I have it, yet there are many other reasons to confirme my beleise herein; as, that there is here a Polauder of quality, whoe pretends noe publique business, but has been 4 howers together private with 547, and the count de Slipingbach has been very well received by the elector of Brandenburgh, at whose court he nowe is. The king of Hungary, instead of manifesting any inclinations to the satisfying the French demands, which I have herewith sent you in print, declares openly and freely, that he will neither recall his troopes out of Italy nor Flanders, nor decline the sending of recruits to both as he sees occasion; and that he neither can nor will divide himselfe from the king of Spayne's interest and concernments; but that at the treaty for the general peace, all those things will be moste naturally and seasonably debated, and easilyest accorded. If it succeeds not, what course some of the electors and princes of Germany pretend to steer for the conservation of the peace of the empire, you will perceave better and more fully, by reading the elector of Mayence his speech, which I sent you above 3 weekes since, written with my owne hand; another coppy of which you will (I hope) now have, written by my servant, (whoe has not been soe exact in the transcribing thereof as I could wish) then by any other account I can at the present give you. The king of Hungary sayes, that he has not in the least degree violated any of the artickles of the peace of Munster by any of his proceedings with the Pole; it being full as lawfull for him to defend that king, being his allye, and comprehended in the treaty of Munster, as it was for the king of Swede to invade and drive him out of his dominions. That in tyme and place it would be seen, that he had conferred a benefit upon the king of Poland, and not received one: for albeit the succession of the crowne of Poland was offered him, it could not bee proved that he had accepted of it. For the king of Denmark's proceedings, if they had violated the generall peace, the empire might bee a little concerned in it, but the house of Austria not at all. By the next poste I shall send you a coppy of the French ambassador's plenipotentiary-commission, and acquaint you with some other particulars of importance. The king of Hungary has promised to the count of Pignioranda the assistance of 7000 men, for the next campagne in Flanders. Wee have newes here, that my lord Fayrfax and Lambert have declared against the protector, possessed Hull, and drawne a great part of the army to joyne the king's party. Wee alsoe have letters from the English court in Flanders, which say, that the lord protector sent lately for the French ambassadour at London, and told him, that he was informed from good hands, that the king of France treated with the king of Spayne; and that a peace with him was contrary to the agreement lately made between France and England. To which the ambassadour answered, that there was not yet any treaty; and that when there should be one, a peace was not a necessary consequent thereof; and that his highness might assure himselfe, that the king of France would not doe any thing, that could invalidate the late accord with England. This report here may doe some kind of prejudice to the French affayres. Pray let mee know what letters you have received of mine since the 7th of October, and direct your letters to mee always hereafter under cover thus, A monsieur monsieur Pierre de Neusville, marchand à Franckfort; under which, A monsieur monsieur Jean Nownan and be pleased to send them directly by the poste of Flanders, and none more by the way of France, nor addressed to monsr. Ochs, whoe will take noe further care of them. You will have another pacquett, 159 749 637 22 12 45 19 20 23 17 350. Mr. 40 125 68 86 26 14 36 62 44 61 87 5. Pray be pleased to enquire for it. I shall trouble you noe further at the present, being
Your moste humble and moste faithfull servant,
November the 29th 1657
December the 9th 1657.
Since my writing the above, the newes is come from Prague, that the siege of Thorne is raysed; that the count of Bouchaine is dead. Pigniorando is very sick of a violent seaver; which may retard, if not frustrate, his journey hither. We hear likewise, that the prince of Condé is dead; the truth of which I doubt, by reason the newes comes from Amsterdam; but the Flanders letters mention it not. If it bee true, it will occasion a great change.
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. lvi. p. 215.
Most honoured Sir,
I Am glad to heare, that our men defended themselves well att Mardyke; and I hope itt will disencourage the enemy from attemptinge any thinge there againe this winter-time, and bee a meanes to make our men more carefull: soe I hope there will bee no danger of that place this winter. There came a gentleman of qualitie lately from beyond the seas, that spoke with some malignants there, who are in great hopes and expectations of some great matters in England, and in these partes this winter; but what their hopes tend to, I knowe nott: unlesse the Dutch play the knave, I cannot expect their hopes otherwise to bee built upon any probable ground to doe any thinge; and I hope if they should, God would blesse us, that wee should bee able to make the Dutch repent it, and Charles Stewart's party heare too. Our forces heare doe always lye in a ready posture for service, soe as to keep the country from riseing; and upon any occasion we can draw them into a body. The same course was always taken, since I came hither, and shall bee as longe as I continue. I remayne.
Your very affectionate servant,
Edenb. 3° Nov. 1657.
Major-general Jephson to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. lv. p. 359.
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I Have receyved none from you, since my last of the 24th instant from Hamburgh; the day following I sett forward from thence with my goods, and on saturday, I blesse God, I arrived here in safety: since which time I acquainted his majesty with his highness's commands; who with greate shew of respect and kindnesse received the congratulation for his late victory. When I came to discourse the reason why our fri gats were not this year sent in to the Balt. sea, hee was pleased to say, that he wisht, that eyther that had been done, or that soe much occasion had not been given to expect it. To which I answer'd, that in complyance to a former desire of his, intimated to mee by his secretary, in order to the disposyng of his affayres, that I would clearly acquaint him with what I thought he might expect in that businesse. I had formerly given him the particular words, which I had received from you in severall letters relating to that affayre; in which as I found nothing, which might give him cause to ex pect the protector would imediately join with him against the k. Denm. was very sure, that I had never in any discourse exceeded the commission you had given mee. He aunswered mee againe, that it was not from mee but from his minis ters in England, that hee had received that intelligence, which gave him that hope. This I thought it my duty to acquaint you withall, that you make use of it as you shall judg convenient. In this discourse hee tooke occasion to tell me likewise, that if his highnesse had as much cause to know the k. Denm. and the rest of the Protestant princes of Germany as hee himselfe hath had, (who, he sayeth, for the most part doe very little care for the obli gation of a promise, but still submit to the greate r power,) he would have thought it the likelyest way to have brought the k Denm. to a peace, by mak ing him affraid. The truth is, I doe not find him unapt to make peace with him k. Pol. or Moic. or all of them, that hee might bend himselfe wholly against ho of Austria: for if my observation deceyve mee not very much, his great design is the same as his unkle 's was on the empir e, which hee might have put very fayre for, had hee not beene diverted by k. of Denm. and does not yet despair of, at least, as I believe, if hee can make peace with all or some of his neighbours, and be favoured by England and France. As to the businesse of elector of Brandenb. I have not yet receyved any awnswer to the letter, which I formerly told you I had sent him; but I heare there is an agent of this prince in town; so that I doubt not but I shall give you a better account of it by the next. I understand in generall, that he hath very much engaged him self to k. Poland, though not so farr as to open treaty with k. Sweden. Hee hath (as I am imformed) a handsome army of abouteight thousand, and ready to join with whom he pleaseth. I cannot particularly tell you how farr'tis advaunc't; but I find clearly there is a treaty closely driv enon by him, to unite his own, Sweden Poland's and Poland's interest, if they can gett him off from the house of Austria; which they seeme not to despayre of. I acquainted the king of Swede with what you commaunded me concerning mr. Bradshaw: he seems very desirous, that, if possible, he may proceed; and therefore desyred any order for his returne might be suspended, untill the great duke's awnswer might be receyved to his second addresse, after the mistakes in his second title were rectisyed; which I expect to heare very speedily, having receyved intimation from mr. Bradshaw in a letter of the 10th instant, that he lookt for it every day. I spake nothing to the king, which might seeme to aggravate any mistake betwixt him and states-gen. who now seeme to be in a faire way of being reconciled, as I hinted to you in my last. The newes of the queen of Swedes arrival at Wolgast is dayly expected here, and two of the privy-counsell are sent to receyve her. I cannot certainly tell whether the king will goe himself and fetch her thence, or whether they are to come forward, and hee only to meet her on the way: but the generall opinion is, that this is likely to be the place of his aboade this winter. I have but a peece of a day to dispatch my businesse this post, and therefore (though perhaps I have more reason to make an apoligye to you, both for the qualitye and quantitye of this letter) I shall begg your pardon, if I only conclude it abruptly, and assure you, that I am
Your intyrely oblidged and most faythfull humble servant,
Wismar, 30th Nov. 1657.
Capt. Roger Manley to mr. Antony Rogers.
Vol. lv. p. 401.
We are still here at present, save, that we have bien a shipping 6 or 700 horse, they say for Sweden; and it is probable enough, seeing the Danes master us there in cavalrie. If they should chance to endeavour a descent into any of the isles by the way, we shall shortly know. 'Tis now given out at court, that our queen (if she be not sett out before an expresse arrives) is countermanded. It may be it is but a rumour to amuse the Danes, that they should not watch her. I rather beleive it all, considering the season, her sex, and the hazards by the way. However, count Tott and count Gabriel Oxensterne are sent to Wolgast to receive and bring her hither, in case she should come. Every stone is moved to bring the Brandenburger about againe. Here is a gentleman of his come with letters; he gives out we shall continue friends still, at least, that his master will not act against us. Count Shlippenbach came from that court 4 days ago, and will be gone again very suddenly. We have it from very good hands, that the elector's next campaigne will be at least 18000 fighters. The Poles are to have a dyett at Warsovia, which is to begin on the 6th of January next. I hardly beleive they will agree, that the Austrians shall succeed, I know the humor of the people so well; and yet I doe not see how they will be able to drive them out. 'Tis feared, that count Magnus is worsted in Liesland: 'tis certain, he hath been forced to go from Revell by water; and he is blamed for haveing peirced so deep into Muscovie with his army. We hear of no action considerable out of Holstein, only are full of the approach of the Nether-Saxon troopes, who are on their way for the reduction of Bremerforde, and driveing of the Danes out of the bishoprick. The duke of Lunenburg, the king of Denmark's brother-in-law, is to command. 'Tis hard; yet our king urged the guarantie of the empire (with threats) according to the treaties of Munster and Osnaburg. We shall see whether they will likewise oblidge the Swedes to quitt Holstein: I hardly believe it; for we had not come there, unless we had been forced to it. The English envoy arrived here from Hambourg on saturday, and had audience yesterday. 'Twere to be wished, that other publick ministers were as cordiall in their mediations. 'Tis thought the king would willingly decline theirs of Holland. However, his majesty will hardly be brought to a generall treaty, though the Poles, Austrians, Danes, and Brandenburgers urge it hard. We have it from Dantzick, that some regiments of Poles and Austrians are to come quarter in all the places thereabouts, under pretext of blocking the Swedes in their holds. The soldiers there are, many of the horse especially to be reduced for want of moneys. The magistrates and citizens are at daggers drawn, and all of them apprehend the neighbourhood, and the Austrians so terribly, that they begin to wish the Swedes again for their deliverers. The Holland ambassadors have had twice audience; the commissioners are appointed to treat with them, but business goes so slowly on, there is nothing done betwixt them. When we are assured of Applebome's reception, the business may then go on more vigorous. I would gladly know whether mine came safe, especially one I sent in the English envoy's pacquet. Farewell, and love
Warsaw, 10th Decemb. 1657. [N. S.]
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states-general.
Paris, 10 Decemb. 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. lv. p. 399.
H. and M. Lords,
My lords, in regard, that the court here, through the long absence of the king, hath many affairs at present in hand so, and can those affairs, which were long since promised me, not come to receive a dispatch, whereof the arrest of the council of the king is one for a declaration of your H. and M. L. inhabitants of the United Netherlands are in effect, and shall always be exempted from tax-estranger, whereunto (as I am now told) the resolution is not yet taken in the council; yet, however in the mean time, I hear of no more complaints from any part of this kingdom, that any body is troubled about it.
But the further publication of the declaration of the king, how by form of interim the inhabitants of the United Netherlands shall enjoy the marine treaty, and its articles, as the same is concluded between the Hans-towns and this king, and that without limitation of months, but for always, 'till it be otherwise concluded between both parties; I am told round out, that the said further publication is unnecessary, for reasons, which the court alledgeth, that they be here ready to treat about the renewing of the ancient alliance between France and the United Netherlands. Your H. and M. Lordships will best know whether this alledged reason be not a meer delay of this business.
I was formerly made to hope, that the business of the ship called the Red Hare, with her lading, would be restored without all doubt to its own proprietors; but the commander Paul, interested in the prize, came from Provence hither expresly about it, and hath suggested so many contrary pretences, reasons and ways, that the earl of Brienne yesterday sent me word, that the commissioners of his majesty had declared the same lawful prize, and confiscated the same to the takers. For comfort I was informed, that the processes and books of this cause of both sides should be sent to the Hague, to the hands of the ambassador of France there, who is to shew, demonstrate and insist to your H. and M. L. the justice of the sentence and confiscation, wherewith that business doth now seem to cease, or at least rest for a time.
For the re-establishing of that, their H. and M. L. appointed consul Louis Magettto reside at St. Malo. I have made several instances for the effecting thereof; but this business proceedeth but slowly: First, they had this excuse, that they would not admit of one of the reformed religion into St. Malo; but that sell to the ground, in regard Louis Maget is an ancient citizen, and for many years an inhabitant of St. Malo. Now they tell me, to delay this business, that this request is not seasonable enough, that I must have a little longer patience.
The sugar prize taken by some of your H. and M. L. ships upon the coast of Portugal from those of that nation, and driven into Port Louis in Bretagne by stress of weather, and there detained by the governor, is ordered by the king to be forthwith released, and left at liberty to go when and where they please.
Two days since arrived an express here from Spain, with Letters from that king to this queen, wherein he adviseth her of the birth of a young prince of Spain.
The province of Bretagne will give to the king for a free gift, 700,000 crowns; and it is thought, that the province of Normandy will give a greater sum for the redemption of the winter-quarters, so that the revenue of his majesty is encreased on all sides.
A letter of Intelligence from Blank-Marshall.
10th Decemb. 1657. [N. S.]
Vol. lvi. p. 80.
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Ch. St. is still here, and gives it out very confident that hee will beein England beefore Easter. I see noa per bee fari the ere look to act it athome sir C isil Howard, C olomar lloulub be snerruer marlieis not return 22 16 so H sa owar disat London our forcee sheee arnot king ye since ease Don John is expected 16 nere 2 tuis night, and nextto Dunkirk. D. York is st ill there. All the discourse hereis of the regainingot Mardyke; the a pee rant for that work I see not yet; busines horsfy meyou shall know the effect of Don John his progress in the severall garrision s but the comon reportis, that hee hasco m pounded 20 with the contree for sums fmony to this sarmie. The contrie people speak es verie ill of Ch. Stuart Don John, D. York, and Condec. If Ch. Stuart would permit the contrie people to put themselves in a rmes 77 31 71 21 97 74 2 94 76 32 18 96 would take in Mardy ke. The contrie has agre at hat red toth e Spaniard Middleton is not toretur nein hast D. Gloucester is with his sister in Bre d a. Ch. Stuart haste nt for Gerard Langcale, and to bring Jo ringgrinsi ild 44 out of prison. The report is just now com, that Condé is dead. I am forced to leave of, so I humbly beg pardon to rest,
Sir, your most devoted and humble servant,