A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 6, January 1657 - March 1658. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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February (4 of 4)
The Spanish embassador to the states-general.
Messieurs les estats generaux sont priés & requis de se souvenir des instances, qui ont esté faites cy-devant à L. L. S. S. en trois differents memoires, qui leur ont esté de la part du soussigné ambassadeur d'Espaigne les 8e. de Juillet, 11e. de Septembre, & 4e. d'Octobre derniers, touchant la forme du fort & le choix d'un super-arbitre pour les procés, ou il seroit necessaire de recourrir au fort en la chambre mypartie, & de prendre prompte resolution sur ce sujet, qui retarde la decision de differents causes de particuliers (lesquelles y sont par instruittes) au grand dommage & préjudice des parties, faisant sçavoir leurs intentions aux juges d'icelle, ainsy que son altesse le serenissime prince don Jean d'Austriche l'a sait dès le 16me. de Decembre, selon que L. L. S. S. en ont esté adverties de la part de la susdite chambre, dont les juges demeurent plusieurs sois sans occupation, à faute de cette declaration de L. L. S. S. Fait à la Haye, ce 6e. de Mars, 1657. Signé
A letter of intelligence to resident Bradshaw.
Right honourable sir,
Since my last of the 26th past, the affaires continue still in the same posture as before. Great preparations are made from the Swedes for to meete Ragotzy, who is not yet come into Poland, as I wrot in my former letter, but onely upon the bordes. A great many are of an opinion, that his army is not of so great consideration as it hath been reported: nay more, divers are of an opinion, that because Ragotzy stayes so long upon the way, that his resolution may easily be hindred, and the passage disputed from the Tartars, who threaten the Cossacks to fall into their countrey, called Ukraine, and to murder all their wises and children, if they joyne with Ragotzy. The Muscoviter is stirring againe with his armie in Livonie, for to make a diversion to the Swede; but it is sayd he will finde resistance enough. The Swedish general, the lord Magnus, is upon the bordes of Livonie with an army strong 8000 men, all stout soldiers; and from the duke of Brandenburg, some of his trupps are exspected there for to joyne with the Swedes against the Muscoviter. The duke of Brandenburg hath all this warr done no hostility to him; but it now seemes, upon the earnest desire of the Swedes, he will declare himself also enemy to the Muscoviter; for he hath given a displeasing answer to the Muscovien embassador, being at present at Coningsberg, from whence he is dispatched, but not according to his defire; for his proposition was, to withdraw the duke from the Swedish partie; but he could not obtaine it.
The king of Sweden is not gone yet from Marienburg, because all things are not readie yet for to march such a long journey into Poland; but next weeke he intends to be gone. Yesterday, some truppes of this garrison are commanded to pull downe a peece of wall at the river Weissel, for to sett in water and drowne the subjects the lands of the citty of Dantzig: it will do great harme to Dantzig, worth many millions, and spoile their chiefest magazin. The Dutch embassadors doe not follow the king into Poland, but retire to Elbing for a while. Radtziewsky is put into a closer prison then before, because he is found guiltie of another treason, having corrupted the king's pages, waiting upon him in the former prison, which are apprehended with a Swedish captain, who had then the watch of the prisoner. It is sayd, that the king of Sweden intends to send Radtziewsky prisonner in Sweden ad dies vitæ. This being all at present, I remaine
If I dare be so bold for to putt your honour into minde the kinde promise to send me Lillyes almanack, I crave your pardon, and shall bee much beholding to your honour for it. I wish also to heare againe, if your honour be satisfied with my intelligence or not.
Commissioner Pells to the states-general.
H. and M. Lords,
Since my last of of the 3d instant, this is to advise your lordships, that the bishop of Ermelant is expected here again; and it is hoped he will bring some overture for an accommodation between the duke of Brandenburgh and the king of Poland. Here are left for that end four Polish commissaries.
Here arrived lately general Middleton, with letters from the king of England to the king of Poland, condoling him about the troubles, in which Poland is imbarked, against all right and equity; and wisheth he were able to assist him; desiring that the Scots, brought into this country by the Swedes, and who daily run away, may be retained, and sent away for his service by the said general.
Council of State of the United Provinces to the states-general.
H. and M. Lords,
We have read the inclosed resolution, and the letter of the lord of Maesdam, one of their H. and M. L. ambassadors extraordinary at Dantzick, writ on the 21st February last; upon which your H. and M. L. may be pleased to understand for information, that we, according to your H. and M. L. former resolution, did give order and authorisation to the said lord of Maesdam, namely to draw so much money at Dantzick, as will serve to pay the forces of this state there till the 20th of May next, new-stile; but we must needs say the provinces are very backward in furnishing their shares, though we have often writ unto them about it; yet we have caused the receiver general Doublet to accept of the bills of exchange, and to pay them, to save the honour and credit of the state, desiring that your H. and M. L. will be pleased to second our endeavours with the provinces, that so we may not fall into inconveniencies. And in regard it doth appear, how necessary it is for a commander in chief to be sent thither, to command in the place of the deceased Perceval, we do judge (under correction) the lieutenant-colonel Hawes to be a sit person for the same. By the order of the council of state of the United Netherlands.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of the H. and M. L. states-general of the United Netherlands.
Was read in the assembly a certain memorandum of the lord ambassador of Spain, desiring that their H. and M. L. will, on their side, compleat the number of the counsellors in the chambre mypartie, and consequently supply another in the place of Simon van Hoorn; as also take order, that the heer Jacob Bouritius do appear in the said chamber, to the end they may proceed to the reading of the process concerning the country of Overmaese; and that being done, to endeavour the way of an agreement. Whereupon being debated, it is resolved, that the said memorandum shall be referred to the lords Huygens, and others their H. and M. L. made commissaries for the affair of the said chambre mypartie, to examine the retroacta made upon this, and to make report afterwards.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
En Overyssel, les membres s'entendent assez bien en tous points, hormis que ceux de Deventer veulent, que juges soyent delegués sur les excés ou accusations (comme ils parlent) du Drossard Haersolte; & que le proces soit envoyé à un université d'Allemaigne. A quoy les villes de Campen & Zwoll ne veulent pas entendre, ne voulant pas abandonner ledit sieur Haersolte; & ainsy tout le reste demeure embroüillé.
Ceux de Hollande auront advis, que déja le roi de Dennemarck auroit rompu contre la Swede; & que son mareschal de camp seroit entré en terre & jurisdiction de Swede. Tant y a que des principaux de Hollande déja tiennent le roi de Dennemarck Nats Voets, qui est le même terme, dont le seu sieur Keyser, deputé en Dennemarck, se servit, quand ledit roy avoit arresté les 22 Kennipscheepen des Anglois.
De Frise sont venu & produites les resolutions provinciales, tant touchant le traité d'Elbing, que touchant la charge de mareschal de camp; & ladite province aura aussy rescript une responsive à la lettre de Hollande, du 22me Janvier, escrite touchant la susdite charge; de quoy les provinces ont pris copie.
II y a eu lettres de deux ordinaires venues à la sois, de Prussie, avec quantité de lettres, & une longue de l'ambassadeur Hubert, contenant, que le roi de Swede pretend, qu'on est obligé de ratisier premierement le traité d'Elbing, sans qu'il puisse se declarer sur les elucidations, comme estant une negotiation nouvelle; à quoy toute fois il se declarera bien, apres qu'on aura ratisié le traité. Aussy a esté sur le tapis l'affaire des Doleancier des Omlandes: les estats de la province ont escrit, que ces choses sont provinciales, & que lesdits estats ne sçavent rien de desordre; & s'il y a des mutins ou inquiets, qu'ils y mettront bon ordre.
La lettre de l'ambassadeur Dorp, parlant de la milice à Dansigk estant sans commandeur depuis la mort de Perceval, mise ès mains du sieur Huygens, il en sait rapport; & sur ce l'affaire est tout mise ès mains du conseil d'estat. La Zeelande & Frise a fait annoter, qu'elles ne s'en meslent point, comme n'ayant jamais consenty en cet envoy, ou employ de la milice.
II y a en dereches des lettres des estats de Groning Omlanden, fort contrariants les Doleanciers, desirant que l'estat ne veuille pas se mester dans les affaires de laditte province. Ce non obstant il y a apparence, que la ville & les Omlandes se separeront dereches; & en ce cas, on y envoyera des deputés.
Les deputés ayant esté à Bois-le-duc, ont ensin sait rapport; & sont nommés des nouveaux deputés, qui examineront tout, & ce en presence des deputés, qui ont esté à Boisle-duc; de telle forte, qu'ils y auront une voix informative, point decisive.
Les lettres de Dansigk ensin, à present, sont du bruit de Ragozky. L'apparence de paix s'evanoüit fort. L'on discourt, que le roy de Poloigne accordera avec Ragozky, pour luy laisser la couronne après sa mort; & que conjointement ils chasseront les Swedois, qui à present marchent aussy vers la Poloigne. Non-obstant la non-acceptation des illucidations, je voy que la Hollande continuera à s'y tenir entre deux, & ny faire tout ce que le Dennemarck voudra, ny saire ce que la Swede desire. Ainsy, ostentando & terrisicando, faire ce qu'ils pourront.
Des Omlandes sont revenus les sieurs Tamminga & Conders, deputés des Doleanciers, rapportants, que de leur costé (voyant que les autres ne vouloient pas ceder) ils avoient aussy constitué un syndique, & un secretaire, & fait faire un sceau, & qu'ils se comportoient pour les vrais estats des Omlandes; demandants d'estre maintenus, ou bien qu'on veuille envoyer des deputés vers Groningue, pour accommoder ces differents; predisants, qu'autrement il y a apparence de grand mal & essusion de sang. Sur cela n'est encore rien fait. Ainsy on attend que le prince Guiliaume en escrive quelque mot; mais l'on dit, & remarque, qu'il tient avec le partie prevalant.
Le conseil d'estat propose les sieurs Erntrieter lieutenant colonel, le sieur Haersolte lieutenant colonel, & le sieur de Sterreborgh, capitaine, pour commander les troupes à Dansigk. Il y a eu conference sur le super-arbitrage, dans la chambre mypartie.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of the high and mighty lords states-general of the United Netherlands.
Was once more produced to the assembly the letter of the lord Nieuport, their H. and M. L. ambassador extraordinary in England, writ at Westminster on the 23d of Feb. last, and received on the 1st instant, containing advertisement, and amongst the rest, that on the wednesday before, there were letters come from the Barbadoes of the 1st of December last, advising that two Netherland ships upon the coast of Guinea, near the cape of Lopes Gonsalves, had taken at several times four English ships, namely, the Fortune, coming from New-Calabar, having in her 192 negroes; the Providence of London, captain Timothy Craven commander, having in her 160 pound of gold, some negroes, and other merchandizes wherewith she was laden to trade in the East-Indies; the third, called the Sarah, Arthur Perkins commander, in which were 160 negroes and some eliphants teeth, and other merchandizes designed for Virginia; as also was the fourth, belonging to London, laden with some negroes and other merchandizes: that the ship which should have taken the said English ships, is called in the said letter the Mary of Amsterdam, of 36 guns, commanded by captain Schaell; the other ship, called the Unicorn of Middleburgh, of 18 guns, commanded by Henry de Pontus; there being also added, that both the said ships were mann'd with Netherland soldiers till they came to Cadiz in Spain; and that they were brought thither, and there hired and provided with a Spanish commission; and that they were there also manned with some Spaniards and men of other nations to fail for Aden upon the coast of Bennire; and having taken in some negroes there, to transport them for Carthagena. Likewise, that he the said lord ambassador was told, that some of the said ships company were already arrived at London, and amongst the rest also, a young man of Middleburgh, the son, as he was informed, of Marvelt, who was factor of the cargo of the said ship the Providence of Lon. don; and that he had declared he had known the commander of the said ship the Unicorn at Middleburgh: having also received a second letter of the lord ambassador Nieuport, writ in the said place of the 2d instant, and directed to the grissier Ruysch, containing amongst the rest, that he having been to speak with the lord secretary Thurloe about the maritime treaty, he had found him very much troubled about the taking of the said four English ships upon the coast of Guinea: whereupon being debated, it is thought sit and understood, that a letter shall be writ to the colleges of the admiralties at Amsterdam and at Middleburgh, that they do respectively inform themselves about the abovementioned, and as soon as is possible, to advise their H. and M. L. how they find the matter of fact there with the provinces of Holland and Zealand, are also desired, that they will also respectively inform themselves by the lords burgomasters and governors of the said cities of Amsterdam and Middleburgh, concerning the said business, and advice their H. and M. L. in due time thereof, that so they having received, and seen the one and the other, they may take such further resolution about, as they shall find to be requisite.
Extract out of the register of the resolutions of the high and mighty lords states-general of the United Netherlands.
Received a letter from the lord ambassador Nieuport, their H. and M. L. ambassador extraordinary in England, writ at Westminster on the 2d instant, and there inclosed two papers, containing in effect, that sir Charles Wolsley, one of the commissioners for the marine treaty, had told him the day before, at a certain conference, that the commissioners of the admiralty and fleets there had complained to the lord protector, that here in Holland a certain quantity of hemp and tar, which was bought and shipt by their order at Amsterdam, in two shipslying sail ready in the Texel, were stayed, namely, in the ship the Star, schipper Claes Schooll, 182 bundles of hemp, and 25 last of tar; and in the ship the Hope, Cornelius Hendricks schipper, 125 bundles of hemp, and 30 last of tar; and that the said lord protector earnestly desired that their H. and M. L. would be pleased to release the said merchandizes with the first, and suffer them to be transported for the service of that state. Whereupon being debated, and the said request of the said lord protector being by them well considered, it is thought sit and understood, that copies of the said letter and inclosed papers shall be sent to the said college of the admiralty residing at Amsterdam, with this request and desire, that they forthwith suffer the said ships with their ladings to further their voyage for England, the same being bought for the service as asoresaid, without detaining them any longer, unless there were such want of hemp and tar in this country, whereby the said city would happen to suffer some prejudice, if so be they should unfurnish themselves, and all this notwithstanding the prohibition against the exporting of hemp and tar made provisionally, according to their H. and M. L. resolution in order thereunto.
General Monk to the protector.
May it please your highnesse,
I thought sitt to accompanie this inclosed letter with some lines of mine to your highnesse, that if you could conveniently spare 5,0001. towards the carrying on of this worke of the cittadel at Leith, I thinke itt would be much for the advantage of the service, which I conceive may bee a meanes to make the worke defensible this summer, and a great deale of benefitt to your highnesse, besides the securitie of the place and the advantage wee may have by laying the fewer men there, if any troubles should bee. And if your highnesse please to advance this sume towards itt, the 5001. a month out of the assembly heere will come the sooner in for the service of your highnesse, and soe there will bee no losse to the state butt only the advance of the monie, which if your highnesse please to take into consideration, and can finde conveniently a way for doing of itt, I am consident with this sume the worke will bee very desensible, if itt be paid within a month or two to us, though there will nott bee many houses built besides store-houses, which wee may doe at leasure. It will bee impossible for us to raise this sume out of any monies payable heere, unlesse your highnesse please to order itt out of the 40,000 1. for forseited lands, if itt bee not otherwise ordered already. And I hope your highnesse will sinde, that this worke will be more advantageous to you then all the rest in Scotland, when itt is once finished, being itt will keepe in awe the chief citty of this nation, and will be so convenient, in case you should have occasion to send any forces, that you may have a place for provisions for them, which as itt was before could not be kept under 3000 men, and that nott with safety neither, if any considerable enemy should come before itt. I thought it my duty to represent this unto your highnesse for the expediting of the worke, being I know nott what trouble we may chance to meet withall; the sooner it is secured, I conceive it much the better, whatsoever may happen. Col. Wilkes having at large acquainted your highnesse with the full state of the cittadel as now itt is, which was begun in June last, there hath bin much worke done, that I shall not need to say any more concerning that, but leave the rest to his letter. For newes here we have little, only I had from an intelligencer abroad, that Charles Stewart hath employed one to hire some shipps for him in Zealand; but itt is thought, that unlesse the Dutch trust him, he will hardlie have monie enough to doe it; and the Zealanders have promised to helpe him to shipping, paying for itt (as I heare). I thought sitt likewise to acquaint your highnesse, that I doe more feare Newcastle then any towne you have, that may bee surprized, if hee hath a designe to any towne in England. I doubt that towne more than any towne in the nor thern parte, being there is noe garrison in itt, and many people disaffected. I thought it my duty to acquaint you with my thoughts concerning itt, and leave itt to your highnesse to doe therein as you shall thinke sitt. I hope by the blessing of God, if he comes into those parts, wee shall give your highnesse a good account of them in a short time. I have nothing att present further to trouble your highnesse with, but the presentation of my faithfullest service: soe I humbly take leave, and remayne
The state of the case of the persons engag'd for the public debts in Scotland.
By reason of the late differences between the people of Scotland and the late king in the year 38, 39, and 40, many persons gave their particular bonds for considerable sums, which were employed for furnishing arms and other publick uses; whereof such as were so engaged, were to be relieved in the manner prescribed in the 34th act of the first session of the second parliament of the late king, in the year 1640; which though it contains some things, that do not relate to that matter, yet it hath been judged sit to send the whole act hereunto annexed, marked in those places that relate to this business; and by a subsequent act of the 20th of the last session of the same parliament, also intitled, An act for relief of those, who have given bond for the use of the publick, a copy whereof is also hereunto annexed: upon which acts many of the creditors inrolled their bonds amongst the publick debts, never pursuing any particular person, subscriber of the same, until the year 1652: at which time, upon the erection of the court of justice, they commenced suits, and obtained sentences against the subscribers of the bonds, their heirs, and successors; whereupon they obtained execution both real and personal, and comprized the estates of some of the debtors.
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
Being desired by the bearer sir James Campbell, laird of Lawers, to write to you in his behalf, I could doe noe lesse, seeing hee has deserved soe well from us. Hee was a chief man in engaging some of the highlanders to take Middleton, by which meanes hee was saine to quitt the hills, and has alwayes bin very faithfull to us: and hee having some businesse to present to his highnesse concerning some meale, which was taken uppe by his father for the Scotch army, that went into Ireland upon the first rebellion, his father giving bond for about one thousand pounds worth of meale, which was taken up from several persons for the publique service; and now his son is like to pay it uppon those bonds, although there be precept and acts of parliament uppon the country for giving him satisfaction; but his father's being killed in the warres of Montrosse at Invernesse, obstructed the business, soe hee could not gett itt done; and sir James being a young man at that time, was nott able to follow the businesse; and the alteration of government happening soone after, soe that the poore gentleman is like to bee undone, unless his highnesse and councill bee pleased to order that part of the country to give him satisfaction, as all others that were engaged for meale for the said service. I intreate you to pardon my giving you this trouble, and remayne
General Monck to the protector.
May it please your highnesse,
The occasion of my troubling your highnesse at this time is, to acquaint your highnesse with an ill accident, the escape of two prisoners, the earle of Kinoule, and major-general Robert Montgomery, out of the castle of Edenburgh this morning. I have nott as yett had time to appoint any officers to examine where the fault lies; butt by the governor of the castle I understand, that when the marshall open'd their doores, they lying together, and one of their servants bringing in some coales and necessaries, the marshall left a centinell with them (as the custome was) to see what they were doeing; the centinell (as hee sayes) bolts the doore, and stayes without; butt I believe itt will prove, that hee was corrupted, or else itt was impossible they could goe away. They by putting on some other habitt escap't out of the castle gate as servants belonging to the prisoners. I shall appoint two officers of the field to examine their businesse, and then I shall give your highnesse an account of itt. I heare lately Charles Stuart hath sent some men to this country: what their businesse is I know nott, but I shall in a week's time give your highnesse an account of itt. I could wish, if your highnesse thought fitt, wee might have another regiment of foot in the place of colonel Salmon's, that was drawn away; for truly I believe we may have some trouble in this country this summer; and in case itt should be soe, wee cannot tell how to carry on your businesse soe well, and so securely, as if wee had another regiment of foote here; soe that if they can be conveniently spared, I desire your highnesse to spare one; for, truly, I find the temper of this nation to bee such, that I think, upon every little invitation, they will bee ready to goe in armes; butt I hope, if your highnesse please to grant mee that regiment of foote, I shall give your highnesse a good account of any that shall bee soe minded. If your highnesse thought soe fitt, I thinke itt were good, that the considerable prisoners in Scotland, such as the lord Dudop, lord Lorne, lord Forrester, Glengary, and the earle Seafort, might bee sent to some other place; which I offer to your highnesse's consideration, and remayne
Dalkeith 28 Feb. 1656/7.
A letter of intelligence from consul Maynard.
Here are sixteen sail of good ships ready to set sail, and four more are almost fitted to go forth, and in the month of April are expected eleven sail of gallies from the Levant, to join with our fleet; and it is reported, that the great duke of Tuscany's gallies, and forty sail of Hollanders are coming to our assistance. We are now out of hope, that the treaty with the French will take any effect; but if the league, which is now on foot between the emperor, the king of Spain, the king of Denmark, and the states of Holland be concluded, of which we have great hopes, we need not care what the French and English can do to us. We are grown miserable for want of trade, and now the king requires the fifth part of every man's estate; and, to prevent insurrections, the king comes in person to Andaluzia. There are six frigatts taking out of the plate of the gallion which was lost last year, in the channel de Bahama; and there is hopes, that none of that plate will be lost. The report is, that we are invited into Portugal. God knows what will be the issue of these great preparations. Which is all the news these parts afford.
Courtin to Bourdeaux, the French embassador in England.
The states general have resolved to make a publick fast, to the end it may please God to preserve the union amongst the provinces; to illuminate those that are in the government, and to favour their designs. The day of this ceremony is not yet agreed on. The assembly of the states is called, to resolve upon these following points:
An intercepted letter.
I AM very glad, that you are satisfied with my cares, and that you are persuaded, that I will never fail you in every thing wherein you are concerned; but the proofs which I have given you hitherto are too weak, in comparison of those, which I would make appear unto you, that if you do not assure me, that you believe very really, that there is not any thing that I would not do for you; and that I am without doubt the only man, that is most your servant, and over whom you have the sole command, you do not do me that justice which you ought to do.
I will now answer what you desire to know of me: The Hollanders are not willing to break with France, nor with England; but on the other side, they will not engage themselves in the treaties nor the leagues against the house of Austria: they will maintain themselves in the peace which they enjoy, and will put themselves in a posture to resist all such, as shall molest their trade, of what nation soever they be. For that end, they will send a powerful fleet to the Mediterranean sea, and upon the coasts of Portugal; they will also have a fleet in the channel, to convoy their merchant-men; and they will put themselves into such a posture, that they shall not need to fear the insultings and threatnings, wherewith some endeavour to engage them.
Embassador Nieuport to Ruysch.
The merchants and owners of this nation interested in the four ships taken upon the coast of Guinea do address themselves with extraordinary violence, not only to the protector and council, but also to the judges of the admiralty, who upon the complaint of the said interessed (complaining that their ships and goods since the peace made between this common-wealth and their H. and M. L. are taken by the subjects of the United Netherlands, in certain ships, called the Mary of Amsterdam, John Schraell master, and the Unicorn of Middleburgh, and that they are kept and detained by them) according to law (as they say) they had granted mandatum, or, as they call it here, a process, to be fixed upon the Exchange, to summon in the said John Schraell, and the owners, and freighters of the said ships, the Mary of Amsterdam, and the Unicorn of Middleburgh, and all others whom it may concern, to appear upon the 25th of Feb. old-stile, which was on Wednesday last, in Doctors-Commons, which is the court of admiralty, to see the allegations given in there, and the truth witnessed, concerning the same: and that they further, at the request of the interessed, did signify to me the above-mentioned, that I, if so be I thought fit, might appear to it; or otherwise, as I should think to be inconvenient. I presently informed myself concerning this, what the said interessed intended to effect by such unhandsome proceeding; and having discovered, that upon the said allegations and testimonies they believed to get a judgment for their damage sustained, from the said judges; and when they have the same, then to desire letters of the lord protector to their H. and M. L. to the end they would give order for the satisfying of them, according to the said pretended sentence; or otherwise, that he would grant them letters of reprisal against the inhabitants of the United Netherlands. Whereupon I gave a memorandum to the lord protector concerning the same, and annexed to it the letter of the said judges, demonstrating, by several reasons and arguments, that such proceedings were contrary to all right and reason, as also against the practice and laws of nations; and therefore desired very earnestly, that the said lord protector would be pleased to give such order, that the said mandamenta or processes might be recalled, and that all the proceedings, which should follow upon the same, might be made void and of no effect, especially in regard by the 16 and 24 articles of the treaty of peace it was agreed what in such a case was to be done, and plainly and fully exprest therein, that in the place where the accused live, justice shall be required and desired, according to the ordinary laws or course of justice; and in regard the secretary of state had sent to desire of me by two several persons, that I would not take it amiss, that neither himself, nor the commissioners for the marine treaty, being very busy with domestick affairs, had not been with me, I sent to him yesterday the said memorandum and letter with this serious recommendation, that his honour would take care, that speedy order might be taken about what I desired. I insisted the more earnestly upon it, in regard I was informed, that one Maurice Thomson, and others interested, were labouring at Whitehall with the council, that they might take letters of reprizals of the king of Portugal, to repair their losses upon the inhabitants of the United Provinces: but I am assured, there is nothing resolved upon it; and the lord secretary hath sent me word, that he will take care that my memorandum shall be read to the lord protector and the council, and that I might rely upon it. Last night I received their H. and M. L. letter, written by the lord embassador Boreell, wherein, I observe, he asketh to know, whether he might use the contents and words of my letter, to contradict the feigned report, and to confound and remove the ill opinion there as much as is possible. And I believe, they will not take it amiss here, that the same be done in that wise, in regard the lord secretary of state did not hold it a business of secrecy, and that he at all times was ready further to declare the truth of what he had declared to me upon that subject. Furthermore, I humbly thank their H. and M. L. for their communication of the said letter for my information.
Boreel, the Dutch embassador in France, to the states-general.
H. and M. lords,
My lords, upon the 8th instant I had audience at last of the cardinal, who appointed me a time to speak with him about some affairs given me in charge long since by your H. and M. L. My first point was a proposition, that your H. and M. L. subjects should be also publickly expressed in the act of the council of the 30th of October last, as allies, and exempted from the rigor of the 59 and 60 articles in the ordinance of Henry the IIId, which I strongly urged for several reasons, but I could not obtain it; but only a declaration, that when their H. and M. L. shall have renewed their alliance with this crown, as the rest named in the act had done, then they might be also put and named amongst the allies; and that the king did very much desire to have the alliance renewed; and that it did as much concern their H. and M. L. as his majesty, for the doing thereof. Withall, I understand by some cursory discourse which I had, speaking of the said arrest, that the same was only made for the private men of war, to prey upon the subjects of your H. and M. L.; and that I had heard, that the cardinal had a share of all that was taken by them. Whereupon his lordship assured me, that there was no such danger, that the men of war should misuse the said arrest beyond the intention of the king, to the prejudice of the commerce and navigation of their H. and M. L. subjects; for that his lordship being a sharer therein, he could always prevent the same: but his lordship assured and desired me, that I should assure your H. and M. L. in his name, that all the sea-preparations were not intended to attempt any against the subjects of their H. and M. L. more than formerly; which last words did occasion again much discourse. His lordship maintained, that always for the first year a provincial marinetreaty being made anno 1646 for years, the 59 and 60 articles of ordinance of Henry III. was always observed and used; that the said provincial treaty, being expired anno 1650, was no more limited therein. I on the other hand maintained the contrary, that before Henry the IVth, whilst France was in war with Spain, he neither had used those ordinances, nor that rigour against your H. and M. L. subjects navigation and commerce, nor since the war ended with Spain, anno 1598; yea likewise not till at last in the war with Spain, 1635, the practice then first began against the ordinance itself of Henry III. as upon an interpretation of the king's proctor, Fouquet, father of this present; whereupon all the prejudices and damages were unjustly done to your H. and M. L. subjects. At last, not being able to agree about it, I said, that although the provisional treaties for the years 1646 and 1650 be all expired, yet the king, by the hands of her majesty the queen-regent, had delivered to me, in a publick audience upon the 30th of May, 1651, a declaration, by which in clear words that ordinance of Henry III. was suspended, and the provisional treaty of the year 1646 confirmed. His lordship then said, that that declaration was given, when he was out of the kingdom; he had never seen it, and did admire that no body should acquaint him with it. I promised him, if so be the earl of Brienne could not furnish him with a copy of it, I would procure him one. By the next post I will advise your H. and M. L. what more I have dispatched with the lord cardinal.
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to the states-general.
H. and M. Lords,
My lords, since my last, here are letters come from the fleet under general Penn, advising, that the same was in very great danger, through a violent tempest, wherewith they were almost driven upon the shore, it being very misty weather, so that they could not see whereabouts they were; and if so be, that one of the foremost of the fleet, a small vessel, had not perceived a high clift, by a sudden flash of light, which presently turned and gave notice to all the rest, they had been all stranded and lost. Yesterday I was told, that there were yet other letters come from the said general, wherein he adviseth, that his fleet hath suffered very great damage in their cables, anchors and sails, desiring that order may be given to supply them speedily with new ones: also, that they had taken four or five prizes, but of no considerable value; and that a gunner, mate of one of the frigots in the said fleet, had designed to blow up the frigot in which he served; and to that end he had laid some powder, and had lighted his match, which was come something near, but was timely discovered; and he, having acknowledged the fact, was hanged up. I am informed, that there be commissioners appointed to go to view all the ships that lie here in the river, which are fit to serve the states, they having resolved to set forth thirty ships more, wheresoever they can get them, for the service of the state. I am told, that on Monday last, by sir Christopher Pack, who was lord mayor of London, in the year 1655, and at present their commissioner in parliament, was brought a long writing into the said parliament, in the form of a remonstrance, demonstrating several inconveniencies which this nation is subject unto under this present government, as it is now constituted, highly exclaiming against the major-generals, and the decimations brought in by them, and afterwards proposing a new model, upon which the government might be established henceforward by the authority of this parliament, to the further content of the three nations. Upon which writing (as I am informed) the question being asked, and the verbal proposition of the said late lord mayor Pack being much opposed by some of the lords, 146 or 147 of the present members voted, that the said writing ought to be received, and read; and that there were but 58, who maintained, that it ought not to be read, but flung out of the house; so that after many debates, which lasted till night, it was at last voted, that it should be read: and the next day, I am told, it was read accordingly in parliament, and after the reading thereof, there happened many debates, with great earnestness and animosities; and on the Wednesday morning the house resuming the same debate, those, who would gladly have it take effect, maintained, that in the parliament itself there ought to be voted apart, distinctly, upon each article of the said writing; and those that opposed it brought many reasons, to have the same first examined in a grand committee, where they may speak and reply more than once; but it was voted by plurality of voices, that it should be distinctly and particularly debated in the parliament, and that first upon this day a private fast should be held in the parliament, and that the parliament should not assemble yesterday, to the end each member should the better prepare himself for the fast; and the whole business is so managed, that the protector is left out of it; and yet it is believed, that the present parliament is so constituted, that there will be nothing concluded against his mind.
The conde de Mira to the protector.
Doloris magnitudo ob excessum serenissimi regis, heu nuper nostri, at nunc inter beatos, adeo vehementer afflixit animum meum, ut calamum è manu excusserit hactenus, celsum vestræ infaustum nuncium referre properantem. Unicum nobis in gravissima jactura solatium superest, nempe regimen ac tutela serenissimæ reginæ, cujus præstantissimis virtutibus, non votum modo securitas publica, sed ipsius voti robur assumpsit. Quas inter dotes singularis elucet affectus ac studium germanam pacem ac societatem sarctam tectamque servandi inter Anglicam nostramque nationem, in quo illa nihil consiliis amissi conjugis inferior est; immo dabit operam, ut in dies amicitia novis utrinque commodis & beneficiis provehatur. Quare à celsitudine vestra peto, eâ veneratione & amore, quem præ me fero, certum hominem hic designare velit, qui à Philippo Meadowe leviter delibata sedulo transigat ex usu vestræ nostræque reipublicæ, quo maturius & armorumque utrorumque gloria, & hostium clades innotescat. Christophorus Vuayren, harum lator, qui pacis inter utramque rempublicam primordio interpres fuit, affatim suggeret quidquid hic adjungere poteram, ut eadem pax, ac societas æternum perennet. Interim Deum rogo, ut celsitudo vestra, Magnæ Britanniæ columen, incolumis diu sit.
Private instructions for mr. Thomas Woodroue, deputy post-master of Leeds.
Whereas I have received good testimony of your fidelity and good affection to his highness the lord protector, and this present government, and am well satisfied of your care and discretion; I have appointed and constituted you to be deputy post-master for the stage of Leeds; and do hereby require you, to perform your duty in general, as may best tend to the service of his highness, and the discharge of your trust; and particularly, that you do faithfully observe and execute these following instructions, besides those general and publick rules and orders, which by the duty of the place you are to observe.
2. That for the better discharge of this trust, you shall constantly attend this service in person, unless upon urgent occasions you are necessitated to be from home; in which case you shall employ some discreet person, for whom you will be answerable, who in your absence may be able and ready to assist and supply for you, that his highness service be not at any time delay'd or prejudic'd, whilst it is remitted to your negligent and ignorant servants.
3. Forasmuch as divers ill-affected persons may make use of this common convenience of postage, to convey their letters or themselves more secretly and securely, you are to take special care, that your bacquet boy, or rider, be well known to you, and for whom you will be responsible. And you are strictly to inform yourself what pacquets, letters, or papers are put into their hands to be convey'd by them, and not in the common mail; and in case you shall find any such, you shall then privately transmit the same to myself, or deputies.
4. And to the end that no dangerous letters may be secretly convey'd by the post-boys who carry the pacquet, you shall take a strict account of the post-boy, who brings the mail to you, what letters he receiv'd by the way, from whom he had them, and what directions was given him for the conveying of them; and in case you find any thing suspicious by the superscriptions upon the letters, or otherwise, you shall send up the letters to me or my deputies, with such information as you can give in reference thereunto; and the same course you shall take, if any dangerous letters come to your own hands.
6. If any private letters shall be brought to you, or the post-boy upon the road, to be send away, you shall order them to be put into the mail, at the next place where it is to be open'd; and you shall also certify the number of such letters to the office in London; and you are to do this by the next return of the post.
7. Whereas by reason of this trust and imployment many opportunities are offerd you to enquire into, and make discovery of combinations, designs, and plots of discontented and suspicious persons, you are hereby required to be very vigilant therein; and in case you shall make any discovery of any design against his highness, or for disturbing of the peace of the common-wealth; or shall observe or have notice of any meetings of disaffected persons, you shall immediately give notice of it unto such of his highness's forces commanders, or garrisons as are next unto you; and shall also with all speed give intelligence hereof unto me.
8. You are also to take care, that you do not permit any to ride post from the city of London forward, but such as shall have warrant from his highness the lord protector, his highness's council, the generals of the fleet, commissioners of the admiralty and navy, or my self.
9. That if any other person shall come to you to ride post, at any other stages than from London, not having such warrants, you shall first cause him to be examined before the mayor, justice of the peace, or chief magistrate of the port, town, or place; and upon satisfaction given to him, and a subscription under his hand of his name, place of aboad, and nature of his business, you may allow him horses, and a certificate under your hand, which shall be sufficient authority to the other post-masters, to permit him to ride post. Your certificate to be to this effect: Whereas A.B. in the county of D. is well known unto me, and hath given satisfaction under his hand, according to the directions given me in that behalf; that he is to go for L. upon necessary affairs of his own, or his highness's, or else, &c. and that he is not employ'd in the prejudice of the publique: you may therefore permit and suffer him to have post-horses to proceed in his journey. Given under my hand and seal at this day of &c. And such certificates as you shall give of this kind, you shall send copies thereof up to me, or my deputies; which said examination and certificate shall not be necessary, where you shall be satisfied, that the persons desiring post-horses, are either officers or ministers of state, or officers of the army, or are sent to his highness and council from any parts of the nation.
11. You shall make the best inquiry you can concerning all persons whatsoever, who ride post, whether they have post-warrants or not; and in case you shall have ground to believe, that they are persons disaffected to his highness, and are employ'd and engag'd in any thing prejudicial to the government, or the peace of the nation, you are to make stay of all such persons, and keep them in safe custody until you shall give notice thereof unto me.
12. You shall also use your best diligence, to take notice what travellers lodge in any of the inns or other houses in the town of Leeds, where you are post-master; and in case you shall understand, that any such travellers are disaffected persons, and engaged in any design against his highness and this common-wealth, or being of the late king's party, and are come from the parts beyond seas without licence, you shall use your best endeavours to apprehend and keep them in safe custody until you give notice thereof unto me: or in case you shall not be able of your self, with the assistance of civil officers, to do it, (who are hereby requir'd to assist you as in the execution of all other of these instructions) you shall desire the help and aid of the officers and forces which are next unto you.
13. You shall have an eye upon any disaffected persons that live near you, and observe their meetings, and conversations, and give notice thereof unto me what you shall observe concerning them, relating to the publick affairs.
14. You shall not communicate these instructions to any person whatsoever, but as you have occasion to make use of them for justifying your actions thereby; nor of any others of them, than you shall have occasion to make use of. Given under my hand at WhiteHall, the . . . of Febr. Anno 1656/7.
Lockhart to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your honor,
I HAVE found the conduct of women and children a businesse of so much troble, as my measures for retorning to Paris have neither answered my own expectatione nor my promises to your honor.
It was wednesday morning before I gott that lenth; immediattly after my arrivall I had a meeting with count Brienne and mr. de Lion, with whom I spent so much tym, as I lost the opportunity of wryting by that day's post. When the papers relaiting to the businesse of Dunkirk (which were translated into Latin) were compared with the French copies, I perceived severall differences betwixt them, some wherof, I beleeve, were accidentall, and others intentionall; the last fort were stuck upon, and after much debate, their decisione was referr'd to his eminence, who at my audience upon thursday determined the most materiall things, and was so just, as to keep to what had been formerly condescended on.
The syning is deferr'd till after my publick reception, which I hope shall be on tuesday next; and tho' the little queen, and the nuntio, have made a greatt deale of stirr about it, yett it is to be with all the ceremony and respect I can desyer.
The Hollanders ill inclinations towards England continue; they have undertaken the transport of the Spanish mony from the Canaryes. The account given by 467 concerning the injurios papers given to the states-general by the Spanish ambassador was very trew; he was ordered to acquaint his highnes with it, as intelligence of his own from thence.
The Hollands ambassador had a long audience upon thursday morning last, and for ought I could learn, the cardinall and he pretend parted with no great satisfactione on either syde. The Danes preparations for warr doth allarm this court, and they beleeve it proceeds from the Hollanders instigatione, which doth not a little pick them. Mr. de Tou doth part next week for Holland, as its once more said; but having been assured of the same from week to week, I know not what faith to give to it.
Ch. Stuart's designe to land in England goeth yett on: their hath been much rejoycing by his party heare and elsewhere, upon the reconciliation betwixt him and his brother. I am told he intends to land in that part of England, that looks towards Irland; and there is a place upon that coast to be surrendred to him: the name of it cannot be learned. It seems to me very improbable, he should venture upon soe long a voyage, subject to so many casualtys and hazards; and yett I am assured with all the confidence imaginable, that it is most certaine, this is their resolutione, and your beleef of it is begg'd.
There is by it a hansome opportunity given to France to take the fi el de once in Ap ry l. I am promised it shall be made use of to the best advantadge; and am perswaded, if it be, they cannot saile either to ta ke Dunkirk or Gr a ve linge; and to the end the cesigne may goe on the better, I am much pressed to solicit your have ing your ship s and men 100 re a dy by the 10th or 12th of Ap ry l, in which I humbly beg their desyers may be gratifyed; and indeed it will concern you to prevent all occasions of giving them any discouradgment upon that hand.
The nuncio maks most of his addresses to the king and queen, and hath had the confidence to calumniate the cardinall with invectives against him, for abuse of the trust he hath. I ame informed he hath been formerly in England, and hath good correspondence with severall catholiks their. Having no other considerable news, I presume to renew the humble assurances of my being,
To the Venetian agent.
Some masters of Camp and others with the prince of Conde are marched towards St. Gillain, to hinder a convoy, which monsieur de Turenne is endeavouring to put into it; and if they do not victual it very suddenly, the place will be forced to yield within few days, there being great want of provisions in it. King Charles is at Brussels.