A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 7, March 1658 - May 1660. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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June (2 of 6)
Mr. Downing, resident in Holland, to secretary Thurloe.
By my last, I gave you a true and particular accompt of the severall wayes now on foote in theis countryes, for the ra i f in g of mo ny for the K. Spain in F la n d er s. TheFr.amb. and my s e l f did agree to speake roundly to Dr. Witt about it, which accordingly we have done; as also to ld. Bevern. they both plead ignorance, but that they will look into it yet. De w i t did seeme to imply in his discourse, as if the giveing of mo ny for an a u c t ro y, as if that part of the busines were not to be looked upon as under any other notion, than as a meere t ra f si q u e. It's most certaine, that a greate part of the mo ni es, which they have had for the service of this companyne at Bruxells, hath come theis wayes; and the s ee r e ta ry of the K.Spain's am ba s sad o u r is to have for his paines in promoting the busines of the a u c t ro y, five thousand gilders. A friend of mine hath s e e n the art ic le s, but the party, that had them, was under an oath of secrecy; so that he could not get a copy as yet. I finde no man mo r e an Amsterdamer than Nieuport, even in all things whatsoever; though he pretends much in discourse to be against K. Spain, and a friend to ld. Protector. I need not tell you, that wee are heere most extreamely surprised with the late newes out of Flanders: the consequences whereof wee doe imagin will be extraordinary greate, not onely in Flanders, but also at Franckford, and elsewhere. De Witt and the ld. Beverning doe protest, that they will not in the least engage with the K. Spain; 468 545; but continue well with England and France 207. Count William 70 202 expresses greate joy at this newes. By my last I acquainted you, that I had given an accompt to vice-admiral Goodsonn, that several vessels of this country, loaden with ammunition and provisions, would endeavour to slip into Dunkirk; and upon tuesday last there arrived at Rotterdam a vessell, which had the last weeke gott into Dunkirk, with all sorts of provision; and upon saturday last, having unladen all, adventured out againe, and is come safe to Rotterdam; to which place she belongs: and the master said to some at Rotterdam, that he accompted it a very easy thing to gett in or out at Amsterdam. They talk very hi g h, as if that in ca s e Dunk. s ho l d be take n, the y w o l d j o y n with the K. Spain; and I believe it is really their de s i r e: but they will have very much to doe, to dispose other places and provinces thereunto; and I thinke it is my duty in this conjuncture of time and affaires to give the m the best w or d s that may be. We heare yet nothing of the Portugal ambassador; I wonder that you have no more letter s out of F la n d er s. He that should have w ri t t to you, a Monsieur Lu ca s Lu cy, will now address his letters to Mr. T ho m as J o h n s on, and Mr. Gu i l li am For d; and for more s pe ed, he will continue to give notice to Go od s on by the way of Zeeland, of all such things as may be necessary for him to have knowledge of. I have e m p lo y ed co lo ne l P al m er, and he will di r ec t his letter s to you, to Mr. Ga b ri e l T ho m s on, &c. He informes me that S i r J o h n Mi n ce is sent to O s t end, to lay up all those ships 140, which should have carry ed men for England; and that it is resolved at Michaelmus to go on with the same de s i g ne; and colonel Trafford is ordered away with all speed to Muscovy, and colonel Gill for Florence, to the great duke to borrow mony. The princess Royal hath been sick ever since the newes out of Flanders; yet yesterday morning early she went out of this towne; and, as it said, to meet Charles Stuart: who, also it's said, is speedily for F ra n c for t; and one is gone thither express, to see if he may have leave. It is said, that El.Brand. hath very lately ratifyed the treaty with K. Poland. It is certaine that hee changes 107 55 287 very much with all even t s: his Resident 336 43 107 148 was this weeke with me; and I found him at very great uncertaintyes, expressing much discontent, that Quaker was not yet come over-sea; 286 142 43 16; and that thereby his master was yet wholly and absolutely at uncertaintyes; in which condition, he said he could not long subsist; and withall, declaring that his master saw very little inclination in the K.Sweden to a peace with K. Poland; which must necessarily beget great troubles. The resident of Poland giving me a visite this weeke declared, that he saw very little appearance of the king of Sweeden's inclination to peace with his master. I told him, I believed he took his measures out of Monsieur Buninguen's letters to this state. He asked me, if his highnes did not continue his resolution of putting to his helping hand for the advancing of that busines. I answered that his highnes would be willing to do any good offices; but that the late difficultyes, which had been made in the court of Poland, about the admission of the mediation of France, did beget in him no small umbrages. Monsieur Appleboom tells me, that he had received an answer from my lord George Fleetwood, of what he had spoken to his highnes and yourself, concerning passages written hither to this state by ambassador Beunnigen, of things spoken to him by Sir Phillip Meadowes. However, I have this post sent you a copy of that letter, feareing least it was forgott to be sent you before; though Monsieur Appleboom tells me, he sent a coppy of it.
Beverning hath spoken to me againe about the picture of his highnes. The Danish resident saith, that there they will know not what to do; yet that an ambassadour shall goe for England from his master. I have not yet received any word from my lord Lockhart, nor viceadmiral Goodsonn, since the defeat given to the Spaniards, neither by any of your ships, nor by any Dutch vessel; whereof many are gone from Mardike since the defeat; which truly I think a little prejudice to your affaires, not only heer, wher I should forthwith have printed what had come to me, as I alwayes do such neweses as may be for his highnes advantage; but thereby I am not in condition to give such an account so speedily as I might to M. G. Jephson and Sir Phil. Meadows; which truly is not so well for your affayres. I only write this as that you would please to give a line, that for the future I may have accounts, as I never fayle to give to you, yea (as before) ordered one to write out of Flanders to them for more speed, as to what might be there of importance.
The princess Royal is certainly gone to meet Ch. St. who afterwards goes away for Franckfort 74 305 145. I have communicated to my lord Neiuport what you gave me in commission, in relation to the lady Stanhop's pass; he said, that her husband had the states pass; and desired me to send you a copy thereof, which I have accordingly done. If he 50 324 should obteyne a pass by any other hand 468 135 319 109 38, that would weaken me here 350 108 379 324 134. Here is a report come from Amsterdam, as if young Trump, after a long fight, should have bin taken in the streights by the Turks; but the states have noe letters thereof. I have sent you in a boyer of Rotterdam, whereof one Jean Wauterson is skipper, fo w r do z e n of bo t t le s of S p a w wa t er, in a hamper; directed, to Monsieur Lucas Luce: 217 370 252: they were put up with all possible care, and but onely one person 135 143 412 know es any thing, whom also for more sec r e s y and s u r e ne s s e, I sent to see it put on board; and it was shipped upon wedenesday last at night, and the vessel stays onely for a winde; so that I hope it will at London e'er the arrival of this letter: the bottles 146 287 were all sealed at the Spaw. 279 219 468 140 124 15 161. If you desire any more, I pray let me have your commands, who in all things am perfectly,
This day my lord Newpoort came to me on the behalf of the States Generall, to thank me for the greate civility and ready assistance, which De Ruyther found lately in the Downes, when he was driven back by the storme. A copy of the resolution of the States Generall I have also inclosed heere to you. prince Royal. Ch. St. will, I beleive, meete in some part of the united provinces; but I am not certayn whether the place under them, or on the borders.
Mistress Philips 145 132 287 120 325 82 362 122 14 is now come to this towne. I shall endeavour to give you next post account of her. 286. One lieutenant colonel Mackworth 416 150 63 goes for England by this shipping from Rotterdam, which wayts only a wind: the shipping goes all for London; so its like he will land at Gravesend. He's about 50 yeares of age, vastly tall, a leane man, brownish hayre; hee is to go for the North 468 395 136 156 62 afterwards, and to Shropshire. 443 122 143 325 136 32.
I have also just now certayne notice, that the States here 466 138 324 137 have yesterday by the poste to Bruxels given notice to Don John to putt more men in the Fort Isabella; 150 70 140 178 44 85 355; saying that there was a designe upon the place, which is neer Antwerp; 160 286 426: this is most certayne.
I have heerin inclosed to you such accounts, as I have received out of Flanders, concerning the late greate successe neer Dunkirk; tho' I know there can hardly be any particul ar you will not have received long e'er this can come to your hands.
Mr. Sa. Disbrowe, one of the council of Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
His highnes haveing with the advise of his councill in England, mortified twelve hundred pounds sterling yearely of certaine rents and duetyes belonging to Chaplainries, Deaneries, &c. for the maintenance of ministers and schooles of learning in the Highlands; but in transcribing of the grant, the words [yearly] and [for ever] being omitted, and the thing being intended and ordered in perpetuity for this good worke, as you knowe, who promoted it; the said councill here have caused the said grant to be written of new without any alteration or addition but of those words [yearly] and [for ever] to be presented to you. And they request your favour for obreyning it sign'd by his highnes, the former grant being with that draught sent to Doctor Clarges, the councills agent, that when the new one shall be signed, the former may be given upp. All which, by appointment of his highnes councill heere is signified unto you by
Col. Lockhart to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your Lordship,
I Come from visitting all the approaches, the French and ours, on the other syde, and that which is carried on joyntly betwixt us at the fort Leon. I both passed and returned upon the sands before the mouth of the harbor, the sea being out; and, I thank God for it, neither I nor any in my company had any harme. I mett Mr. Turenne at the advanc'd point of the French approach, which was upon a half moon, which the French guards carried this morning. I told Mr. Turenne, that I had left the batteries upon the fort Leon in a conditione to flanck both the key and the mercat-place, and after some discourse touching the conditione of the besieged, he resolved to summond the town, which he did. The governor was upon the bastoine before us, and a Spanish officer told the drummer, he should have his answer speedily, which was the discharge of a volley of small shott. This bravado doth not speake their affairs to be in the better posture. I am rather apt to think, their sense of the ill posture of their affairs hath putt them in passione, which will quickly be over, and then the spirits they loose in these hott fitts will help to make them more tame and sober then men of an equall temper use to be. I know the events of all things are in the Lord's hands; but, as to probabilitie, our work is now so neare ane end, as I looke upon it as my businesse, rather to entertaine your lordshipp with what may be the fittest means of keeping Dunkirke, then of what rests to be done for taking of it.
Your lordship's last takes notice, that it's conceaved the sending of more men will be necessary for the better maintaining Dunkirke, the Fort-royall, and Mardick, and that more men might be had, provyded those that raise them have the command of them. My lord, I shall, in as few words as I can, give you the trouble of my poore thoghts upon the whole: after the taking of this place, his highness will have 3 regiments of the 6 at his own dispose, which, with either coll. Samonds or coll. Gibbons his regiment, provyded either of them be made compleatt, and consist of 10 companies, will be a sufficient garisone of foot for the foresaid places, and may be disposed these 2500 at Dunkirke, 1000 at Mardick, and 500 at Fort-royal. He that commands Dunkirke must be reddy to furnish Mardick, or the Fort-royal with secours from his body, in case the enemy shall attacke either of them: and because the 4 regiments will not be short of a 1000 men a piece, coll. Salmonds or coll. Gibbons companies, that will be over the number of the foresaid 4 regiments, must be kept till 5 or 600 recruitts can be conveniently sent over, and your lordshipp will find theise recruitts easy to be gott . . . . at Dunkirke.
Their will be need of 5 or 6 good troopes of horse, I mean strong, at least 70 in a troop; and it's no matter, whether they be single troopes, or in a regiment, for the commander in chief of the whole forces will often have use for them in parties, but seldome in a body. You must have a discreet able man to be town-major; he must be one, of whose integrity there can be no scruple; and if such a one could be had, it were requisitt he spoake French and Dutch, especially Dutch. Their must also be a person of great worth and fidelity nominatt to be deputy-governor, who, in case of the absence or death of the governor, must command the field officers of all regiments, that their may be no interferring nor disputting of command, which has often occasioned greatt misfortunes. Their must also be some small frigats, and some other flat-bottom'd vessels fitt for burthenn, that may attend upon the port, and be under the governor's command. But, my lord, when I have told you what I would have of men, and how commanded, I have told you little, for simul et simul their must be sent a great quantity of all manner of provisions for mouth and warr, and their is one part of the generall of amunitione, that I must speake particularly too, and that is hand-granados. I know they have not been much used in our English warr; but I can assure your lordshipp, and my former opinion is confirmed by my present experience, that nothing can be more essentiall either as to attaque or defence; and if you have not any considerable number of theise shells in store, 2 or 3000 may be boght in Holland, till you can provyde more at your iron-workes. A soldier, with half a score granados in his scripp, looks like a David, before whom a Goliah, although armed, cannot stand. When provisions for mowth and amunitione of warr is so plentifully provyded, that their will be enuff for present use, and for the forces or magazines in the 3 formentioned places, it will signify little, except they be accompanied with all manner of tooles for working and fortifying; and I can reckon nothing upon this head so matteriall as pallisadoes: it's one of the best magazines can be in a garrisone; and he that hath men and store of them, may dispose of every inch of ground he hath under the command of his cannon, and the spirit (which must moove and informe this confused and greatt body, composed of a greatt many more individuals then I can at present muster up) must be mony; which, as Solomon sayeth (under the protectione and blessing of God) will answere all things. My lord, I am sure in all I have said in this I have offered nothing, save what will be much better told yow by yowr lordshipp's own reason; but, indeed, when I begunn to wrytt, I was more fitt for my bed then my penn; and if I have raved to much, I know yowr lordshipp can distinguish between the weaknesse and zeale of one, who is with a perfytt submissione and respect,
I have cawsed to hang a serjant, that had deserted this body last yeare, and was found in arms under the pretended duke of York's command. The said duke sent me a high message by his trumpet about it, who is every day at Mr. Turennes camp. I sent him an answer, that did not please him I think very well, and refused his lyfe to a great many French officers, that would have begged him; but I have ventured to doe this without a commissione; and tho' his highness letter to me impowers me to govern his forces according to the discipline of warr, yet I am sometyms puzzled in my own spirit, as being sometyms necessitated to proceed too far upon so slender a power as I have.
General Montagu to secretary Thurloe.
On wedensday at night the wind blowinge fresh at fouth-west, and the full sea being at midnight, a small vessel of about 8 tonns from Gravelinge came out to venter into Dunquerque; and though wee had an alarme of her taken by every one of our shipps, when she was a league off the port, and the captaine of the watch with eight boats manned, and the small frigats, and captaine Plumley commandinge the watch, as able a sea-man and stout a man as any in the fleete, yet they could not by any meanes stopp her (she havinge so fresh way before the wind) but fired into her all alonge as she went; and when she came nere the point of the shoare, where our forces have a batterrie and musqueteers within pistoll-shott, neither of both lent her any shott. In the morninge by 5 a-clocke, I called a councell of warr, to examine the carriage of our guard (which was not much found to be blamed) and to consult what was possible to be done more to hinder any vessel for goinge in; and wee resolved to make a batterye of our own ashoare against the pierre-head, with 8 demy culveringe, and man them with seamen from our shipps, and to take our spare top-masts, and make them fast with iron staples together, and lay them with greate ancors crosse the passage, which may help to stopp the way of a vessel, and give our boates opportunitye to board her, if the tyde will let them stand, as wee intend. I have also written to the governor of Calais to buy mee 2 or 3 brigandines, and I will pay for them; that soe havinge boates of the same make and draught of water, as the enemyes are, wee may doe as much as they can, and the better prevent them. Whatever I, or any about me, can advise, that may promote our businesse, shall be done; and what then falls out in event I cannot helpe. The difficultyes the sea gives us is not well understood, without a greate deale of experience. I was yesterday ashoare to waite upon mareschall Tureine and my lord Lockhart, and was almost round the camp with them. Monsieur Tureine had sent to mee aboard (before I went of) to desire mee to moove his highnesse, that more men might be sent to his forces here. I acquainted my lord Lockhart with it, and he told mee, how matters stood betweene you, and seemed not very desirous of them, and soe he expressed himselfe to monsieur Tureine, who discourst with us both about it. Monsieur Tureine said, that the enemye was drawinge together about Bergen, and those out of Gravelin were to meete them, and that they would be as stronge as before; and if the armye was well conducted, they might make the siedge to be raised. The kinge of France is expected in the camp to-day. Mr. Tureine desires the enclosed may be delivered to the embassador. I have noe more, but remaine,
Lady Eliz. Claypole to the lady of H. Cromwell.
I Must beg your pardon, that I do not right to you so oft ase I would doe; but in earnist, I have bin so extreme sickly of late, that it has made mee unfit for any thing, thoye thare is nothing that can plese me more, then wherein I maye exspres my tru lose and respekt to you; which I am suer non has more resen then my self, both for your former sasers, aud the cens you have of any thing, which arises to me of happnes. I will aisuer you, nothing of that can bee to mee, wherein I have not a power to exspres how really I lose and honner you. Truly the Lord has bin very gratius to us, in doeing for us abose whot we could exspekt; and now has shod himself more extraordinary in delevering my father out of the hands of his enymise, which wee have all reson to be sensible of in a very pertikeller manner; for sertingly not ondly his famely would have bin ruined, but in all probabillyti the hol nation would have bin invold in blod. The Lord grant it maye never be forgot by us, but that it may case us to depend upon him, from hom wee have reserved all good, and that it maye cose us to se the muttablenes of thise things, and to yuse them acordingly, I am suer wee have nede to bag that sperrit from God. Hary is vary well, I hope you will se him this sommer. Truly, thare is nothing I desier more, then to injoy you with us. I wis you may laye your grat bely here. I bag my tru afficktion to your letel wons.
General Montagu to secretary Thurloe.
Yours of the 10 and 11th instant I have received, and one of the 11th also to the commander in chiese in the Downes, which mentions a greatte miscarriage of some vessel, which I shall enquire into, and examine the matter by a councell of warr, when I learne out the vessel. Your intimation concerninge a seaman of this shipp, I shall take care of to returne him home (havinge enough supernumerarye on board mee.) Your intelligence out of Holland will make mee remand a shipp to ride in the Downes, whereas I had called all away hither (only keepinge catches going too and againe to carry and bringe pacquetts) upon our jealousie of them; for though theire fleete be past through the channel, wee (not knowinge whether theire might be any additionall strength prepared in Holland to meete them) conjectured, that if they meant evill to us, they might not improbably be gone into the bay to conduct the reliese prepared in Spaine for these parts, and then returninge take their opportunitye upon us. I suppose, before this comes, you have my letter, that mentioned the gettinge in of a shallopp into Durkirke, notwithstandinge all wee could doe to prevent her. On fridaye in the eveninge Marshall Turein sent two messengers, within an hour one of another, to assure mee, that there were vessels preparinge and gone out of Newport to runn in her; whereupon I caused our guards to be strengthened, and went all night my selfe upon the watch in the Hart-pinke, to see things the better, carried; but none came, and I have been beene studdienge what best course I can take to make the matter more sure, that none may gett in, the seidge being come almost (as I hope) to an upshott; and greate blame will be layd upon us, if it should faile by that meanes, whether wee be blame-worthy or not; and I have thought to sinke a vessel in the mouth of the harbour by the peere-head, which will helpe much, what with her hull and chaines, or booms or hausers tied from her to either side of the shore, soe longe as wee can defend her from the enemies burninge her, or breakinge her up; and I have advised with the commanders about it, who have, by theire votes, resolved mee to goe on with it, and I have appraised and taken up a ffly-boate, that lies neere me emptye, and sent officers on board her, to prepare all things in a readinesse to synke her to-morrow in the evening tyde; and if the worke be rightly performed, I doubt not, but to give a good account of any thing that swimms and attempts to goe in here. The other wayes, in my judgment, are imposible to take a certaine effect; for with a fresh gale of wind and tyde, and men resolved, a vessel cannot be stayed. I here not much from shore; only marshall Turein's gentleman (one of them that came to me on Friday) said the towne would be taken in 2 or 3 days. Our men have had hott worke of the siedge and often repulses. I here majorgenerall Drummond was shott this night in the approaches; how it is with him I know not. The kinge is expected to-night in the camp. Not more at present from
Since I wrote this letter, the towne beate a parlye, and I have sent my boate to bringe
mee news, who just now returnes and bringes me word from the surintendant monsieur
Talon, that the towne is for his highness my master, and that all things are agreed, only they are now gone to Mardyke to the king, who is now there, to have the articles confirmed. There is some little strise about the exchange of some prisoners of qualitye.
Major general Jephson to secretary Thurloe.
I Receyved by the last post a letter from Mr. Morland, of the 4th instant, by which I perceyve you had not then any thing, which you thought necessarye to add to my instructions. I shall now make it my most humble sute, that you will bee pleased to intercede for mee to his highnesse, that somthing may be diminisht of those which I have formerly receyed; I meane in relatione only to the command, of attending indefinitlye, untill I can take my leave of the king of Sueden. Sir, his occasions have already detained him in his owne country, above 3 monthes longer then it was thought hee could possibly bee absent from his armye, which now begins every where to move, and the kings businesse may possibly force him to meete them farre hence by sea. If this should soe fall out, I thinke it would bee noe way reasonable, that you should long continue the charge of two publique ministers abroad to the same purpose. I speake this only to this end, that you would bee pleased to sett down a time, after which I should no longer awayte the king's returne; and to direct how farre you think it fitt I should follow him, in case he should land eastward in Pomerania, or Prussia. If this bee thought fit, I doubt not, but I shall soe order the matter, (though I doe not see the king of Sueden) that his highnesse's affairs shall not suffer thereby, which I shall doe by giving Sir Philip Meadowe all your commands punctually in writing, which I was to put in execution at my coming awaye; and by informing him fully, how affayres stand at present betwixt England and Sueden. There hath been a false alarme of the king of Suede's landing in Holstein; but I can not receyve any sure intelligence eyther of that, or the day hee parted from Gottenburgh. I shall be forc't very shortly to place another bill upon Mr. Nowell, as you may conjecture by my former accounts. I have nothing of newes at present considerable to entertaine you withall; but I hope I shall by the next receyve a confirmatione from you of the good newes I heard by the last out of Holland, of the successe of ours, and the French armyes against the Spaniards, which attempted upon the leaguer before Dunkerke. I shall only begg the countenance of your favour, that I may bee still esteemed, as I shall endeavour to shew myselfe,
Col. Lockhart to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your Lordship,
I Received this morning your lordshipp's by Mr. Hory, and had returned him before now, had I not been desyrous to see the conclusione of the capittulatione; and so in conditione to assure your lordshipp, that to-morrow before fyve of the clock at night, his highnes sorces under my command will be possessed of Dunkirk; but the Lord knoweth what I shall doe, what I come their for; I have neither mony nor provisions for the forces I imploy their; and I carry them to a place, where little or nothing is left. That which troubles me most is, I am forced to buy the very pallisados of the Fort-royall; otherwayes the French, not withstanding of any order the king and cardinall can give, would pull them out; and not only burn them, but pull down the earthen works in taking them out. I must also presently imploy our soldiers in repairing the breaches, and in taking up the bridges of communicatione, and putt them upon a hundred severall kynds of work, which can not be done without mony. I must also pay the cannonniers of the army, for the bills of the towne; which is their indisputable dew at all renditione of places. I have a greatt many disputtes with the cardinal, about severall things. I have agreed he shall have all the canon in the towne, that have the armes of France upon them; but some other things, concerning shipping in the harbor, and the quartering of the French guards, and lodging the chiefe officers of the army, is yett in controversie; neverthelesse I must say, I find him willing to hear reason: and tho' the generallity of court and armes are even mad to see themselves part with that they call un si bon morceau, or so delicatt a bill, yett he is still constant to his promises, and seems to be as glad in the generall (notwithstanding our differences in little particulars) to give this place to his highnes, as I can be to receive it. The king is also exceeding oblydging and civill, and hath more trew worth in him, then I could have imagined. My desyn to dispatch this messenger with this good newes makes me end abruptly. I am,
My lord, in desyring to make too great haste, I have forgott half my businesse: I beseech his highness to hasten over all manner of provisions, amunitione, and mony; as also some two or three troops of horse to beginn, a small body of cavallry, and as many palisados as can be had uppon the suddaine. The cardinal intends to-morrow to resolve upon what shall be next undertaken. I am to be at the counsell, and I hope to carry it either for Graveling or Berg; either of theise two sieges will give his highnes tyme enuff to putt Dunkerke in a good posture of defence. I have borrowed two thowsand lewises or pistolls from the cardinal. I give Mr. Le Tellier a bill at sight upon Mr. Wildegoes, merchant at Paris, for them; and have ordered him to pay them out of that mony he hath in his hands, upon Cesi's account: it was the reddyest shift I could make at present, for I could not goe into Dunkerke without mony; and though it may be thought a greatt summ, it will not last very long. I shall be faithfull to his highnes in my debursements of it, and shall give him an exact account; only I must begg, that either Mr. Wildegoes may be reimbursed of that mony; or, that I may, by ane order from his highnes and the counsell, be impowered and requyred to take up so much of it; otherwyse I and my children must be lyable to the interresses of Cesi for the mony: but when I say I have borrowed this mony, I mean I have propounded to borrow it; and the cardinal gave me hope, he would lend it on my bill upon sight, but could not assure me of it, till he spoke with Mr. Tellier.
Poor colonel Drummond was mortally wounded, on Sabbath-day morning he wowld not leave me, though he had been up the night before. I took leave this day of lieutenant colonel Fennick and him: all I had to promise them was, that I should bury them in Dunkirke. I thank God for it, as to myself, I had more signall preservations and deliverances in the last day of the siege, than I had almost during the whole tyme of it. I take notice of it, not by the way of boasting, but in a way of most humble acknowledgments of the wonderfull providence of my God: and tho' I be incompassed with sorrows, on account of my losse of so many friends, yet when I consider what God had done, and how much this day of small things may contribute to the carrying on of a blessed and glorious work, which may extend itself to all the corners of Europe, I consesse I can but rejoyce in the midst of my private aflictions; and must owne, that the lyves of all the unworthy instruments, that were employed, is not to be valewed in the purchase of so rich a mercy. Pardon this running from one subject to another in one, who in the middst of all his confusions, doth constantly remember the obligations he hath to be,
Poor Mr. Swift is very sick; he should have carryed this; and when it pleaseth God to recover him, will expect from his highnes bounty that reward, which usually is bestowed upon a messenger, that bringeth good news. The relation of the fight sent by your lordshipp is true in the maine; only it doth us great wrong, when it sayeth we gave no quarter. The major generall kept the regiments in a body, and would not suffer them to straggle neither for pillage, nor prisoners; and did them service by it, that merritted a better caracter than that of cruelty.
Col. Lockhart to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your Lordshipp,
I Have been with his eminence this morning, and have adjusted most things in the best manner I can. I have parted with all the cannon in Dunkerke, that belongs to the French, and some other things in the store and harbour, that are of no great importance. The cardinal hath lent me the 2000 pistolls I mentioned yesternight, and I have given a bill for them upon Mr. Wildegoes; and theirefore must againe begg, that either Mr. Wildegoes may reimburse it, or that his highness and counsell may give me ane order to make use of so much of the mony in his hands, belonging to the interesses of Mr. de Cesi. The coppy of the articles I cannot yett send, they being large, and are the same, that Dunkerke had, when it was taken by the prince of Conde, excepting the first; which was, that no officer nor soldier should be imployed by the king of France in the garrisone of Dunkerke, save such who were Roman Catholick. I told Mr. Le Tellier, secretary of state, that the article was to be inverted, and said in it, if the king had given the liberty of conscience to Protestants their he did in other places of his dominions, it was possible he might have conserved his interest in it longer than he did; howsoever the goodnesse of God is to be admired in this, that those, who expressed so greatt an animositie against Protestants, are now at their mercy. The Lord enable us to use the power over them with that meeknesse and christian providence, as our conversatione amongst them may not scandalise, but rather adorn that profession we walk under; and if it be possible, I shall make it my endeavour to put things in that order, as not only the mouths of our enemies shall be stopped, but that all of them, that are morally just, may be gained by our good example.
Mr. Le Tillier hath been with me, since I lest his eminence: he desyers, that at my receptione at the place, I may sign an act, by which I promise, in my master's name, that the article concerning religion, which is repeated in this act, shall be inviolably kept: it's just I should do so; and therefore I have not scrupled it. It was as good as resolved at counsell this morning, that Wynoxberg shall be besieged; in order to which, the French desyer, that they may keep Mardick till that be over, by reason all their magazines are there. I have promised to acquaint his highness with it, and to receive his commands in it. I doe not see, that it will proove prejudicial to his highness affaires, that the French keep Mardick two or three weeks longer; and to encourage the taking of Bergh, I have given way, that five of the regiments march with the army, take eighteen old companies, and my owne regiment, being a garrisone sufficient for Dunkerke, and the Fort-royall, which will be exceedingly secured, by being in the French hands, at the delivery of Mardick. I must withdraw ane other regiment from the army at least, and if recruits come not over, I think I must take of two; so that their will be then no more lest in the French but three, tho' I know, if fowr could be continued, it would be greatt satisfactione to his highnesse, and would shame his enemies, who give it out, that after his deliverie of Dunkerke, the French shall have no more kyndnesse showen to them from his highness and England. I am going to draw out the forces, with which I intend to take possessione of Dunkerke, and shall importune your lordshipp no further at present, save to give your lordshipp the faithfull assurances of my being,
I hope some share of the provisions and amunitione I have formerly mentioned, will be upon their way before this comes to your hands. Poor lieutenant-colonel Fennick died yesternight. There is yet a possibility colonel Drummond may live, but no probability. I expect the young gentleman your lordshipp promised to send over, and have a collers for him.
Col. Lockhart to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your Lordshipp,
I Cann add nothing at present to what I said in the morning, save that by the goodness of God, yowr servant is now master of Dunkerke; and indeed it is a much better place then I could have imagined: blessed be God for this great mercy, and the Lord continue his protectione to his highness, and his countenance to all his other undertakings; and lett his lyse be pretious in his eyes, and his family prosper. So prayeth,
Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell lord deputy of Ireland.
My last gave you an account of a battle fought there betweene the two armies, with the success thereof. The inclosed papers will lett your excellency see what proceedings have been there since. I have not received a list of the prisoners taken in the last fight; there were about 3000 of them, amongst whom was generall Caracene, the most considerable man amongst them, a native Spanyard; but did afterwards get of by a composition with the French men, who tooke him.
I doubt Mr. Standish brought you cold comfort, but 'twas the best could be sent from hence, untill it please God to put affaires into another state and condition; which remeyne as they did by my former letters, if they doe not declyne. It's true the Lord is pleased to doe wonderfully for his highnes, and to blesse hym in his affaires beyond expression; which surely keepes thinges from rolling unto disorder. I wish we may answer hym in his dispensation, and see and make use of the opportunities, which he puts into our hands for settlinge of this nation.
I shall present to his highnes your excellencye's desire of haveinge Sir John Kinge to be muster-master general of Ireland, and give you an account of his highnes answere; as alsoe signifie what he will please to say of makeinge Sir Charles Coot a viscount: I suppose there will be no difficulty therein. I rest
General Fleetwood to H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.
I am so indisposed, that I cannot inlarge. Since my last we have had farther considerations of what is necessary as previous to the parliament, but are com to no resolution; which will a little longer, I doubt, retard the calling of the parliament; but that will, I presume, be in September, and sooner it canot well be, by reason of the yeare: most in the countryes will be busy about their own occasions, and not well at leisure to com up, till then. We have lately received good incouragement from my lord Lockhart, that we may expect the possession of Dunkirke befor the ende of this weeke. The place is very considerable, and must be kept much by the bodyes of men, it being not so naturally stronge, as by art; and notwithstanding is very approachable. The Spaniards are endeavouring to rallye agayne, but we hope not able, though the French are strangly carlesse in their letting prisoners goe; amongst which, the cheise next to Don John, the marquise of Caracene, was let goe upon some bribe to the souldiers, who tooke him, which it seems is a very usuall thing with them. One would wonder, (but that there is an over-ruling providence) how that warre, considering the friendshippe each enimy have to the other, should continue upon the termes it doth. But the Lord surely hath an higher hand in it then is visible; and I doe hope the Lord wil cary on that worke to a further progresse and successe, in order to that generall cause we have bine thus long contending for; which that we may still have our hearts upon, is the desire of
General Montagu to secretary Thurloe.
Be pleased to accept this two or three words, which is only to give you notice of my lord embassador's beinge in possession of Dunkerke yesterday. This morninge I am goinge to him to conferr together, and intend about night to dispatch unto you matters more at large. I am,
H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland, to the lord Fauconberg.
I Hope your lordship will excuse me, that I did not send any letters in pilgrimage after your lordship; not having the least account, either of the way of your journey, or of the place, or time of your continuance in France. My affection leads me in the first place to congratulate your safe return, though I should prefer the publick before my private relation. Your kind reception, I hope, speaks much good to these dominions; and the circumstances went certainly beyond a French compliment. Your personal appearance in this negotiation did, without doubt, make it succeed the better. I am glad his highness made so happy choice; I hope it is a good omen: and I hope good things will always attend your lordship like the French victory, which it seems trod upon your heels. I have been under some indisposition, and am altogether unfitt to give your lordshipp any further diversion. I remain, &c.
General Montagu to secretary Thurloe.
This bearer, my good freind, goinge for England, I have desired him to waite upon you, who can give you an account of passages here. I referr myselfe for other matters to the account, which my next letter shall present you withall. I waite here expectinge my lord embassador's returne from the court at Mardyke, to resolve about my owne businesse, hopinge to returne speedily into the Downes, leavinge such vessels here as shall be found necessarye for your service. I am,
H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
The continuance of the reputation, which it hath pleased God to give our countreymen on t'other side the water, is surely great matter of comfort to every Englishman; and especially to such as have an eye to the welfare and interest of the people of God; and more particularly to you, whose hearts were drawn forth at that very juncture of time, to seek the Lord on their behalfe. I hope as this in reference to things abroad, so your late justice upon Slingsby and Huet may have its influence upon things at home.
Your packet came in but even now, so that I have not much time to make a returne; and indeed I have been this week under some indisposition, to both which you owe the exemption of being further troubled. I remain, &c.
Col. Lockhart to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your Lordshipp,
The taking possessione of a garrison of this importance, and the putting things into some order, which are in confusione beyond what can be believed by any that is not a witnesse to it, is a worke of so excessive fatigue, as I am not able to doe what every minutt requyres from me, and to give your lordshipp ane account of it; and therefore I must beseech your lordshipp to assure his highnes, that if my account of the state of things here be not so full as it ought to be, it is because I am endeavouring by all the care and vigilance I am capable of, to put affaires in such a conditione, as I may be able to give ane account of them. I send your lordshipp a coppy of the act I syned at the reception of this place. I had disputes with Mr. Tellier concerning the preference of place betwixt my master and the king, which occasioned some heatt; but the cardinall had the goodnesse to decyde the question in my favor, as your lordship will perceive by the running of the actThis towne hath suffered no damage, either by the French or English: the French had it not above 4 hours in their possessione, during which tyme I had almost all the king's and cardinal's guards devyded into the severall streets to prevent pillaging; and when his highnes forces marched in, I drew up my own regiment in the market-place, and sent off guards to so many quarters of the towne, as all disorders were prevented. I have much adoe to keep our soldiers owt of the churches, and from committing some little abuses; but the trouble of that will be at an end in a few days; the noveltie of the thing will be over, and their curiositie sattisfied.
I hope Mr. Swift will be in a condition to bring over the articles in a few dayes, I have not yett gott ane authentick coppy of them. The ecclesiasticks here doe find so little of that ill triattment from us, which the Spanyards thereattned them with, as they pretend they are well satisfied with us; and say wee use them better then either the Spanish or French did, which probably is true. But all that's done for them is lyke washing of the Black-moore, for their hearts cannot be gained; and what is done for them, is rather done to satisfy others, then out of any hopes to doe good upon them. The citizens wowld make us beleeve, that they have long wished to be under his highness government, provyded the liberty of their religione might have been secured. I make it my interest to perswade them I beleeve all their faire professions, and my businesse to watch over them as enemies in our bosome. I have propounded to them a deputatione to his highnes, which they have resolved to doe so soone as things heare are a little settled. I think it will be both for his highness honor and interest at home and abroad, that the deputatione be made in as sollemn a manner as may; and if your lordshipp approove of my oppinione, I shall goe about the executing it with all care, and shall give it as much advantage and lustre as is possible. The cardinal tells me, that his affaires goe well at Francfort, and that in spite of all the oppositione made by the Austrians and pope, he hath carryed it, that it shall not be lawfull for the emperor to give any assistance to whatsoever prince, against France, or any of the allies of France. He sayeth he strugled hard to gett England excepted, but that he carryed it on the contraire, and was forced to buy the casting vote at a very dear rate. Bergh and Linck will be invested this night and to-morrow: that seege will give me good opportunitie to putt this place in defence. I have already propounded it to his eminence, that when Bergh is taken, their must be course taken, how contributione may be raised for the subsistance of this garrisone; and that a passage must be allowed us either at Bergh or Linck, for sending owr parties to collect it. It's a harsh pill, and he was loath to enter upon any debate upon it; but I doubt not to carry it; for if they block us up heare at land, his highness can block them up by sea; and it's so materiall a part of the treaty, as it must be stuck too. I take it for a great mercy, that his highness will have opportunity to discuss this point of the treatty, before he is ingadged to beseege Graveling by sea, or any other sea-port. I have been forced to draw in ane other regiment, and made them cast lotts for it, which gave generall satisfactione: the lott fell upon colonel Alsopp's regiment, so that with colonel Gibbon's and colonel Salmond's regiments, and the two odd companies belongingg to captain Eaton and captaine Harrisone, we will have foure regiments in the towne, and foure in the field. His eminence was a little ill pleased, that I drew off this last regiment from the army without acquainting him, having promised syve to the seege of Bergh; but I find in things of that nature, that when they are done, they are easilier excused, then they can he gott aggreed too before they be done. I hope his highness will not think (if any thing be represented to him about it) that it's my own way to desyer greatter numbers of men for any businesse, then the necessitie of the work will requyre. Yowr lordshipp by Mr. Garing had in it a coppy of Mr. Turen's letter. I can assure yowr lordshipp, he did himselfe wrong, when he informed, that the English were rebutted. I thank God for it, our enemies will not give us so badd a testimony; and when the town cappitulatt, I had the good fortune to show my lord Montagu the point of the French attaque, and that of ours; and if he will say, (notwithstanding all the advantages they had) that owr point was one inch behind theirs, I shall submitt to all the punishments can be inflicted upon ane offender. Their are no other companies arryved here besydes those of colonel Salmond's and Gibbon's regiments, save the two companies above-mentioned. Yowr lordshipp by captain Guy mentions his highnes care of sending provisions to us: it will come very seasonably, for at present their is not much of that in this place. I have been forced to make the soldiers breadd of some old rye I found heare, and ame about to buy as much wheatt to mix with it, the soldiers not being able to eatt the rye bread without a mixture of wheatt in it. I have between 6 and 700 wounded and sick comming in, whereof at least 300 wounded. I putt all the wounded in some howses neare a nunnerie, and have bargained with the nunns to waite upon them and furnish them. I pay them 1 styver by the day for each wounded soldier, for which they putt a nunn to every 8 wounded men, and give them warm broth, meatt, breadd, and beere, and keep them clean in linning. I shall also allow the sick money for their present subsistance, and shall be as good a husband as I can; butt I find my 22000 livers will not hold out long. I shall so soon as is possible settle custome and excyse upon all commodities that come into the port, and upon the beere that's sold in the towne; but till wee gett some quantity of beere and other provisions in, I dare not putt too greatt discouragement upon any that brings provisions. I intend by proclamatione to order, that English and French mony passe in this place, at the rates they doe in England and France, which will free the soldiers of a greatt deale of troble they are putt to by changing their money, after the rates it goes at heare, when they buy any thing. I shall have of canon heare, when the French have taken away their 16th, and the enemie their two, which they had by capitulatione, about a 130 peece of canon, whereof 63 brass and 67 iron; but most of them are small gunns. I have a great quantity of match, but almost no powther, nor lead, not a 1000 weight of lead in this towne; so that I take from my lord Montagu double proportione of lead, and no match. It will not be necessary, that your lordshipp send any shovells, spades, and pickaxes, because I gather together all I can about the works; and I have ordered the burgers to bring in what they have gathered in the tyme the town was under capitulatione: they have already swelled to a great bulk, and I beleeve, when all is gott in, will amount to six or seven thowsand, which is a good stock, if well managed. I desyer that no greatt shott be sent, till I see what can be gott together of them also. The French have left a many in their quarters scattered; and I give the soldiers for every ball of 29 lb. weight they bring in, six-pence; and of 12 lb. or thereabout, a groatt. Their are severall other things, which I cannot now enumeratt, butt e'er it be long, shall putt all in ane inventarie, and shall be as carefull to gather every thing together, and to preserve it when gott, as if the advantage of it were to redound to my own purse. My lord, there is an old frigatt in the harbor; she hath neither roape nor yeard; particular persons clame her, and the French clame her, and I clame her upon my lord protector's account; she is of a considerable bulk: if his highnes will allow me his part, I will treat with the other pretenders. I am sure of the French; but if his highness have not freedom to give his interest, or that I be beholden to the French for theirs, I will not meddle with it further then faithfully to preserve his highness interest for his owne use; and if I can recover her, shall give her to whom he appoint. I shall wrytt to-morrow by captain Guy. I am