A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 7, March 1658 - May 1660. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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June (4 of 6)
Lockhart to the protector.
May it please your most serene Highnesse,
I dare not give Mr. Fennick leave to returne to your highnesse service without prostrating myself at your highnesse feet, and making my humble acknowledgments of my owne unworthynesse of the dayly favors I receve from your highnesse. If I could serve your highnesse with as active a spiritt, as I doe with a zealous one, yowr highnesse affaires heare wowld be in a better posture then as yett they are, tho', I thank God for it, things beginn to fall into better order then I durst promise at first, and every day some progresse is made towards such a setttlement as I hope. When I shall be able to give your highnesse ane account of the whole, I shall not need to be much ashamed of it.
The lieutenant-collonell's place of my regiment is vacant; and tho' I have taken the boldnesse to dispose of companies, because the interest of your service wowld not admit of any delayes, yet it's just, that I receive your high commands in this and all other vacancys, when their filling up may be delayed, till your highnesse pleasure concerning them be knowne. I shall presume to offer lieutenant-collonell Fleetwood to your highnesse consideratione, both upon the account of his family, and his own meritt; butt shall cheerfully submit to whatsoever your highnesse shall command; and in that, and all things else shall studdy nothing so much as how to sute my obedience to that dewty I owe your highnesse, as,
May it please your Highnese,
As I was closing this, cownt de Morrett came to me from the cardinal, to tell me, that the king hath had a little sever last night, and is going to Calais in greatt haste. The cardinal commands me also to let your highness know, that he is exceedingly sensible of the greatt favours de Crecqui and his nephew hath received at your highnesse cowrt. There is hopes the king's indisposition will be quickly over.
General Fleetwood to Henry Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.
I am somewhat indisposed in health, and have little to trouble you with. Indeed the Lord hath given in a very great pledg of mercy, in this surrender of Dunkirk; and it is very observable, how the hearts of people are opened to the worke of Flanders, in hopes that the Lord is preparing a way for the farther carrying on of the great worke against that antichristian power. We hope the Lord will inlarge hearts therein: and surly, hade we a purse suitable to the presant occation and providence, we have as large an opportunity put into our hands to doe what is considerable to that service, as ever we hade; and nothing but wants of money obstruct what is upon our hearts to doe. And if the Lord please throughly to ingage the king of Sweeden in Germany, which I feare (by reason of our not being able to helpe him) will not be in a condition to answer that business; which if he showld, ther would be an advantage for the carying on of that great cause of the Protestant interest against the common enemy, which cryes aloud for helpe. There is many a prayer upon that account on the file, which will in due time be answered, and that will prosper; and the day of recompence for all the blood of saints will be render'd. The most considerable articles at Dunkirk are the liberty of their conscience, the administration of justice between mann and mann as formerly; and that they have the liberty of ther real estates. I have one word, which was hinted by a friend and relation of yours, that sayes, you have a steward coming out of Wales, whose name is Dutton, of whom himselfe and wife he gave a very evill caracter: I know not the person, but I was much desired to give this hint, which I conceive duty and affection obliges me unto. With my wife's very affectionate and humble services to yourselfe and deare lady, I am
De Lombres to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Your lordship will have heard of the queen of Poland's going to Berlin, under pretence to see the elector of Brandenburgh; but on purpose, as 'tis beleived, to make him sure to the Polish interest, which he hath chosen. She is expected here in 5 or 6 days; from whence she goeth to Warsaw, whither the king is gone, to be there some days before the overture of the dyet, which is to be held the 10th instant. The queen hath desired me to accompany her hither. In the last audience, which the ministers of the king of Hungary had, they declared that their master doth not pretend to the crown of Poland, and that he doth consent, that the great duke of Muskow should be named his successor. It is very probable, that the chiefest cause, which moved the said king to this nomination, is that he beleiveth thereby to engage the king of Sweden in a long war with the king of Poland and the Muscovite, in regard this last promiseth, if so be he be chosen, not only to help retake all such places as the Swede hath taken in Prussia, but also to conquer Livonia at his own charge, and to reunite it to Poland; under whose obedience he also undertaketh to bringe the Cossacks.
The Swedes endeavour to make a chanel from the Hausst to the sea, and to make some forts to desend it. If they can finish what they be about, it would very much prejudice both Royal-Prussia and Prussia-Ducalis.
Vice-admiral Goodsonn to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your Lordship,
The last first day and night the king of France having had a fit of the feaver, the court removed yesterday (with a great hurry) about twelve for Calais; but it is said, if his majesty bee againe well, he will returne within two or three daies to the army. Yesterday about two of the clock I was with my lord ambassador Lockhart at his quarters in Dunkerke, at which time came in a major from the leagure before Bergin, who gave an account, that before his departure thence the army being fitted for storme, and the same being perceived by the enemy, they beat a parly; and there were burgers came out to treate; but in that time of treaty the English souldiers and the enemy had a smart bout for a quarter of an houre; upon which the burgers returned into the towne againe with some shew of discontent: but the said major saith, before he was out of view, he saw mareshall Turrein, with a body of horse, ride up towards, and, as he supposeth, into the towne; and some, that followed hard after him, said, that the towne was surrendered; which was further confirmed mee by many more before my coming from the shoar, the military part being all taken prisoners of warr. This morning my lord Montagu, weighing from the Flemish road, came into Mardike pitts, and from thence he intends to-morrow for the Downes; but I forthwith received orders there from his lordshipp to saile for Woolwich with this shipp, being very soule, in order to resitting, or otherwise, as the commissioners of the admiralty should thinke fitt; and am at present anchored here, waiting for a day-tide and a pilott, which is all the trouble of
Lockhart to secretary Thurloc.
May it please your Lordshipp,
The marshall de Turenne hath written a letter to his highnes, and hath earnestly desired me to wayte upon it with a word or two from myself; as also to recommed unto your honour the marquiss de Montpouillan his nephew, in whose behalf the said letter is written. I could not handsomely refuse to comply with the marshall's request in this particular; wherein I humbly beg your lordshipp's favour and concurrence, as far as his desires do not clash with reason and justice. I humbly beg your pardon for this presumption; and rest,
Secretary Thurloe, to H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.
May it please your Excellency,
Dunkirke hath beene in the possession of the English ever since this day senight. The kinge of France hymselfe delivered the keyes of the towne unto Sir William Lockhart, who for the present commands it, and the forces therein, which are all English. The towne is very considerable for bignes, and all other wayes. The French army, with four regiments of the English, are set downe before Bergen, 3 miles from Dunkirk, (and is an inland place) and hope to have it in a very few dayes. This successe for the present hath a beauty in it even in the eyes of our enemyes, who seeme much out of countenance to see all their matters thus turne upon them, and every thinge, which they hoped would have beene for their goode, to be for their undoeinge. I wish they see the hande of God in it; and also that freinds doe not mistake the minde of God about it. The honour of these victoryes certeynely belonges to the English nation, and not to any partye therein; and God favours therein the whole land, and would have men doe soe too. I knowe he hath a people of his owne, which he esteemes more then all mankinde besides: he loves the tents of Judah better then he doth all the dwellings of Jacob; and wee must follow him therein: but then wee must not narrow that interest, and fix it either upon men only of my oppinion, or of our particular way, but make it comprehensive of all the saints; yea, doe good, justice, and right to all; and when things come to be manadged with this spirit. I shall looke for settlement, and a blessinge with it, and not before; least of all, whilst wrath and discontent steeres affaires, which I am sure never yet wrought the righteousnes of God, nor never will; but I begge your excellency's pardon for this digression. There are 9 in number, who dayly meet for consideringe of what is fitt to be done in the next parliament. The first head debated was, how wee should be secured against the cavalier partye: one way propounded is an oath of abjuration of the pretended kinge, his title and family; and swearinge allegiance to his highnes, &c. upon payne of forseiting 2 thirds of their estates, in case of refusall: this was thought a good way to distinguishe them, who are implacable, from those, who are willinge to submit and come in, supposinge also a good standinge armye besides. This oath was propounded to be put upon, their children as well as themselves. But this way is disliked; because it is thought probable they will all take it, and none of them keepe it; and soe it is offerred, that a burden may be layed up upon them all promiscuously, for menteyneinge a force to keepe them downe, and a moity of their estates is spoke of; but this I suppose will not downe with all the nine, and least of all will it be swallowed by the parliament, who will not be perswaded to punish both nocent and innocent without distinction. Truly I foresee there will be noe great agreement upon this point; nor I beleeve upon the next, which is, how wee shall be secured against a commonwealth; but that not beinge come into debate, I will deferre the account of it untill the next. The 9 are, lord Fiennes, lord Fleetwood, lord Desbrow, lord Chamberlayne, lord Whalley, Mr. comptroller, lord Gosse, lord Cooper, and
Lord Fauconberg, to H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.
My deare Lord,
I have beene trouanting all this last weeke from the respects I ought to have payed your lordshipp. The giving entertainment to some ministers sent from the French king to this court with complements so whol lytooke up my time, even nights as well as dayes, that 'twas impossible to doe ought else. The chiefest of those that came were the duke de Crequi, the cardinal's nephew, Monsieur Mancini, and chevallier Grammont. They had their first audience on wedensday, and their last for takeing leave on saturday; but were treated from the time of their arrivall till going, which was yesterday, with all magnificence possible, at his highness's charge. During their stay came another envoye from France, to acquaint his highness with the delivery of Dunkirk into the English hands; but withall, that the French were sat downe before Winingsberge, which I am confident is done on purpose to block us up, and by straightening the quarters of Dunkirke, to hinder boath contributions, and our future makeing farther progresse into the country. Whither I hitt right or no in their scope, 'tis most fure they have done the thing.
My lord, I now receive your lordshipp's telling me of an indisposition you are under; which really gives me apprehensions for you unexpressible. The attendance I have been forced to give the Monsieurs has brought me into no little disorder; not only stopping a journey my lady and I intended this day northward, but shutting me up in my bedd, where I write all this to your lordshipp in so much paine, that it compells me to begg your pardon, and leave to tell you, that I am
Dr. Thomas Clarges to H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.
May it please your Excellency,
The last two posts brought us litle newes from Germany, and the entertainments wee had from Flanders so took us up, that wee were well enough contented. But by the last wee are acquainted, that the election of the emperour is very near. The citty of Franckford have lately put out of their gates all idle suspected persons, and by the behaviour of marshall Grammond, the French ambassidor, it is beleived all parties are agreed; for he lately made a great feast for all the princes electors, and seemed not ill satisfyed with the present posture of affaires.
The forty-eight præliminary articles are allmost accorded. The 11th and 36th (wherein was most difficulty) are accommodated. In the one the emperour is obleiged not to raise any men, to be sent out of Germany, without consent of the electors; and in the other, the vicarship is (as to the chief points) reconciled. It is sayd, what hath bin allready done by both the elector Palatin and the duke of Bavaria is to be confirmed; and to be alternatively for the future. The princes electors have sent four ambassadors to the king of Sweden, to desire, that no part of his army (without permission first obtained) may march into or through any part of the empire, and earnestly to recommend to him a peace with Poland, to which they have been invited by the Polish ambassidor, who hath much complained at Franckford of the king's breach of the treaty at Munster, as to that country. At this present the Sweedes are very numerous in armes, and their designes rather guess'd at then knowne; but many suppose he aimes at some part of the Hollanders territories. The elector of Brandenburgh has lately denied the Swedish army passage through part of his dominion, and is prepared with a good body of soldiers to oppose them, if they attempt to force their way. The king of Denmarke, all this while, watches for a turne in the king of Sweden's fortunes, being lately much discontented at his seizeing upon Scarlet-island, (which commands the Sound) upon pretence, that it is an appendix of Schoneland. The best agreement could be made in this conjuncture was, that the proffits should be payd to the queene of Denmark, to whome they formerly belonged. Major-generall Drummond, three dayes before the rendition of Dunkirk, commanded a party to storme a work, that commanded much of the towne, and took it; but received a dangerous shott in his belly, of which the last letters say he is not dead; but there is litle hope of recovery. His losse will be much lamented; but he has the honour to see so good an effect of his service, that from that action of his the place was brought to termes, and is since render'd, and in our hands. Five hundred horse, and recruits of foot, are suddainly to be sent over; but whoe commands the horse, I cannot heare, or whither they will be new raised, or ten out of a troop. The calling of a parliament is now in agitation, and will be (as I think from no small grounds); but how members can be elected from Ireland to sitt at Westminster, by the petition and advice, I understand not. I have heard of late by Mr. Monck, that your excellency is not displeased with the succession of troubles in this kind, that I have continued to you, which is a great inlargement of the ambition of,
Mr. H. Mallory to secretary Thurloe.
Not to shew myselfe ingratefull to his highnes for his mercy to mee in prolonging my life, being in his power next to my maker, to have cut of before this tyme, and not longer to abuse your patyence, I shall and doe declare my knowledge, which is, that the party at her last comming to me at my lodgeing in Black-fryers, I guessed her to bee of Mr. Mordant's family: I confesse I asked her very few questions, but the mayne was about my goeing into Holland, which shee told mee would bee very speedily; but I found myselfe abused, and was endeavouring to get myselfe a passage; but was prevented by my taking. What I was to have in this my said undertaking, as I shall answer before God at his tribunall, was but this fistie pound, and soe much annually for my life, which was but equivalent with what I had of my owne in England, with my father's mayntenance: this is the whole bribe, as I now live, and the whole matter.
Mr. Timothy Langley to secretary Thurloe.
I have not presented your honour with any lines of late time, in regard I have not beene very well in health, nor my family, this bad spring-time; beside, I had something concerned mee at the relieving of Lochaber alias Inverlochy garrison, which is now over; and I am now at your servis, if any thing offer: for present all that I descerne is, that the Quakers are altogether retrograde, though now som of them pretend mericles. The Anabaptists seem for the major partie here, to bee neither pro nor con; they neither rejoice with those that rejoice, nor morne with those that morne, as to the present: but they still looke like a commonweale of there owne; they are like a sick siner, then the same, when not the same outwardly. I may take notice, that the towne of Berwick is very much contrary, and every day worse and worse; they perfectly hate all soldiers upon the account of . . . . . because they are the lock and chaine; in a word you will sinde them dangerose, if ever able. The cittie of London is strangely disaffected, did you know the inward parts of it: this I know by some intimate friends of mine, lately there, not soldiers; but such as deale, and did converse, with aldermen, and some of the chiefe of them; but I learne it, because 'tis like you know it, being so neere it. Mr. Short the draper of London is now gone hence; he had a prittie takeing way to discourse of all thinges at a distance, which together with a litle good fellowship gott him many friends in a short time. Simile non est idem, is our best construction. Hee seemed here to speak sometimes to som intimate against Bilton, and said, hee would have him be honest, and doe fear things; but if hee would not, hee could not help it: however hee said, hee was perswaded, that the state heatherto had mist the right man, that had the money; and that hee was confident hee knew him, that had it, but could neither prove it, nor sware it positively, but had a strong presumptione, that assured him, that it must bee soe. I write this, because that I judge it possible with good handling, thatyou may gett that out of him by fare meanes, that could not bee don otherwise. It was easy to perceive, that hee did believe Bilton had mony, though not in his hand, as hee did possess. Mr. Bilton lately desired several officers to give him a meeting, and promised hee would be very ingenyose and free, and then should only desire their advice. Whereupon the officers repared to general Monck, and desired his liberty to come to them at a taverne in the Canygate, which was granted, hoping some good thing would grow out of it, but in vain; for when Mr. B. was com to them, hee only desired to see what commission they had to treat with him, as hee called it; and without they had commission, hee had nothing to say to them. They tould him hee was a foole, or worse, to invite them for soe simple a purpose; soe ended that meeting. But I shall trouble your lordshipp noe further at present, but am,
Sir, if you shall neede any quantitie of biskitt for Flanders this year, I can make it heere, and believe it will be cheaper then you will gett it out of England; alsoe I can make you gallant quiltes made with Scotch ticking, and good wooll, well stock-carded and well quilted, which will be bedds for the soldiers, much better than stock-bedds, and will last their life-time, as we have had experience here. I ordered the first to be made, and now we use no other in garrisons; alsoe good plading blankets, that serve for sheets; and all other things you may have here.
General Montagu to secretary Thurloe.
I have little occasion now to trouble you, but that I would not slipp any opportunitye of presenting my service to you. The messenger can tell you all the news from shore of the takinge Bergen, and designinge to give battaille to the Spaniard, whose armye is drawne together about Furne (very considerable). The shipps with mee beinge gone to the posts I gave you an account of, severall days since, ther being in my company only the vice-admirall, and the Maidstone and Lampat, this morninge, the wind beinge easterly, we weighed out of Dunkerke road. The vice-admirall is gone for the river to Wolwidge. The Maidstone I have sent to Hamborough, to convoy major-general Jephson, accordinge to his highnesse commands I received for that purpose; and myselfe am come to an anchor betweene Mardyke and Gravelin, intendinge (God willinge) to sayle for the Downes too-morrow morninge, if the wind serve. This is all at present from,
Sacræ regiæ majestatis Sueciæ deputatorum ad serenissimi domini electoris Brandenburgici legatos propositio.
Quemadmodum per gentium jus moresque admissio legatorum non semper eadem est, sed pro mittentium qualitate et meritis, causarumque et negotiorum diversitate variat, sic, quod in eo communis libertatis regiique arbitrii est, sacra regia majestas propositione quadam per deputatos suos facienda præmittere noluit necessaria, vel ideo quod domini legati electorales venirent ab eo, qui hactenus non nisi hostem se esse velle ostendit. Etsi enim inter deliberationes de bello Polonico sua electoralis societatem ejus ambiit et desideravit, ipsamet arma contra Polonos cohortans, post tractatus etiam varios iniit juncto sœdere perpetuo et indissolubili promissis auxiliis et constantia; constat tamen actorum publica nunc conscientia, quomodo nulla necessitate (si quod decebat et expeditum erat facere aut admittere voluisset) coacta, cum præterea per insignem benevolentiam neutralitatis aliqua conventione, sine præjudicio tamen sacræ regiæ majestatis sibi indulgere promitteretur, a sœdere plane discessit, et non saltem amicitiam cum hoste, sed etiam adversus sacram regiam majestatem sœdus velut contra communem hostem pepegit, favorem et auxilium non in Borussia modo, sed et in imperio promittens invicem, velut in præmium deserti amici stipulata, quæ sacra regia majestas possidebat, et adhuc possidet, ipsamet sua ope tueri sancte promiserat, prout ejus sœderis rationes et conditiones primum Velaviæ compositæ, postea Brombergæ exasperatæ et conjuratæ sunt, ut ex istorum tenore amplius liquet.
Porro et cum Daniæ rege sub serventi adversus sacram regiam majestatem hostilitate post collusiones tractatus communis belli initi sunt, illum ad arma pertinaciter retinenda, pacemque respuendam non excitando saltem, sed auxiliis ostentatis, et proclivi ad invadendas terras, quas sacræ regiæ majestatis exercitus tenebat, eumque divertendum cupiditate, hostilia quævis comminando, sicut de eo pactum Haffniæ, et quidem ab eodem legato, qui pro componenda Sueco-Danica amicitia intercesserat, inchoatum, postea ab alio tractatum, et Cooniæ ad Spream conclusum fuit, et quo firmius hæc procederent cum serenissimo Hungariæ rege sœdera, primo defensivum, postea offensivum tentatum, hoc tandem conclusum, et ita quidem, ut vocaverint sacram suam majestatem communem hostem, nec quicquam omiserint, quod adversus infensissimum hostem constitui solet, adeo ut non saltem in Polonia, sed et in imperio Romano-Germanico regias proprietates et possessiones invadant, imo istas velut prædam dividendi pactorum conditio reperiatur; nec saltem ea chartis inserta, sed et in hostiles actus erupere, cum e Polonia regius exercitus ad retundendam Danicam vim transiisset; prædatoribus Polonicis ad rapinas, incendia, et devastationes Pomeraniæ, transitu et commeatu concesso, suo milite in Germaniam; ubi eo opus non erat, deducto, et juxta fines Pomeraniæ magna ex parte locato, impedita innoxia collectione militum per imperii terras, omnibus alias permissa, et ad ejus ditiones defendendas usurpanda, avocatis per publica edicta contra assertæ legibus publicis Germanicæ libertatis a servitio regio subditis, arrestato contra pacta jusque gentium in Pillauw pulvere tormentario, et quod aliud in subsidium desensionis locorum regiorum appulerat, objectis, cum invaderetur Bremensis ducatus a Dano quarantiæ debito in conventu ordinum circuli inferioris Saxoniæ obstaculis; excitis ubique velut contra hostem, cum non modo nihil mali fieret, sed et inter sæpius declarata, si amicitia retineretur, benevolæ, imo et beneficæ mentis argumenta, querelis, inde demonstrato odio atque invidia; nec ignota sunt alia molimina inimica perspicuis documentis demonstranda, promissa Danis auxilia, incitata Austriacorum armorum conjunctio, exercitus fœderatorum iteratæ in Germania conglomerationes, ubi hostis nullus, nihilque metuendum erat, requisita velut contra hostem auxilia, excitata effictis obtrectationibus odia, eruptura dudum in bellum apertum, nisi Deus, justitia et fortuna sacræ regiæ majestatis actionibus pace belloque favissent. Ex quibus ut sama ubique hostem dixit dominum electorem, ita nemo aliter censere potuit. Inter quæ tamen sacra regia majestas non deposuit, plane inclinatis ad meliora, quam quæ talia minabantur et merebantur, animis, significationem suæ electorali serenitati Gothebergo editam intentamque, si ita placeret, pro abolendis talibus, atque redintegranda amicitia tractatus admittere, deputatis et sufficienti mandato instructis ministris suis, expectata propensæ benevolentiæ vicissitudine, unde sperandum fuisset, et alia consilia, præsertim quæ non hostilitati servirent, prævalitura et subsecutura esse. Tantum vero cum id abesset, ut et post ista accepta, et discessum e Berlino dominorum legatorum, non attentis tantis propensionis a micæ documentis, Stetini sua electoralis serenitas fœdus cum serenissimo Hungariæ rege contra sacram regiam majestatem, velut contra communem hostem initum, hostilibus repletum conditionibus, ratum haberet, denuo pulverem tormentarium, et quæ alias in munimentum bellorum destinata in Pillauw detinerer, Frawenburgum, in quod ipsi nullum jus, postquam ab Austriaco milite derelictum ad jura regia ex pacto cum electore, et bello cum Polonis pertinens occuparet, ab ejus arce regius miles prohiberetur, officiales militares regios persequi, et querelis contra sacram regiam majestatem sine jure et ratione omnes conventus et aulas complere, auxilia velut contra hostem poscere non omitteret, qui potuit existimari quidquam amicæ et ad pacem propensæ mentis talia facienti inesse, adeoque cum illo ut amico principe agi? Quapropter cum multum interesset, an cum amici principis, an cum hostis legatis res esset, et sacram regiam majestatem dominum electorem per ea, quæ processerunt, non nisi hostem, qualem se verbis et actu indicavit, reputare deberet, non potuit non sub adventu dominorum legatorum propositione talium per deputatos facienda mentem mittentis, rationem legationis, et potestarem dominorum ablegatorum pro more inter reges populosque sueto sciscitari, antequam inter tot tantaque dubia de admissione quidquam statueretur. Hæc cum legatis præliminarie agi solita minime inde exclusa putari poterunt, quod sacra regia majestas dominis legatis huc venire permisit, quo fine, nec quæ necessaria ab ipsis explorare, nec quæ congrua ordinare et tractare licuit, cum quo ad istum legationis processum cuncta dirigere oportuit, non defutura in posterum legatis tribuenda audentia, si prius ex iis, quæ præcedere decet, constitisset e dignitate regia, atque rerum statui conveniens esset, et cum celsissimorum dominorum ducum Brunsvico-Lunenburgicorum et Hassiæ legati pro concilianda amicitia officia nomine dominorum ablegantium obtulissent, pro solidioribus tractatuum auspiciise re visum est adhibere, perspecturos quam juste sincereque et fide agatur; quod cur excusaverint domini legati electorales, etsi non appareat, et allegata causa, quod e dignitate, et quod sine exemplo sit, non mereatur ideo a rationabili proposito desisti, cum nihil in eo quidquam sit aut a consuetudine in his, quæ cum aliorum officiis tractari solent, aut ab æquitate, aut a dignitate electorali, dum nihil in eo, nisi quod et sacra regia majestas sibi conveniens duxit, desideratum est alienum, de negotio vero præsenti aliorum rem suspectam reddere videatur, quando tamen prædicti domini legati ipsimet rogarunt sibi remitti, quod libenter non voluerunt admitti, ne prætextum remoræ præbere viderentur, ipsis sacra regia majestas hoc indulsit.
Ea autem hujus propositionis ratio, est quod sacra regia majestas id præprimis scire necessarium putat, ideo explorare commisit, quæ suæ electoralis serenitatis mens sit, utrum ab hostibus regiis semel separare, & amicitiæ pacisq; reparationem tractare velit, quæque dominorum legatorum sunt id ad mandata ubi sacra regia majestas intellexerit, cum animum illum tum pro negotii conditione sufficientia mandata adesse tractatum sine mora suscipi curabit: quod si fortè hoc ad istum desit, idonea potestas relinquit integrum, an domini legati in hoc loco subsistere eandem sibi propediem parare, et ejus adeptionem expectare a sua electorali dignitate in loco nemini partium addicto Chiloviæ, Slesvici, aut Hamburgi, quæ huc spertant, tractari velit. De quo ubi sacram regiam majestatem certiorem secerint de nominatura est commissarios, cum quibus ista peragentur; et quæ porro ex re erunt, constituet. Idque dominus legatis exponere debuimus, ad quævis benevolentiæ genera, quaternus officii devotissimi ratio non repugnat, paratissimi.
Lockhart to the protector.
May it please your most serene Highnesse,
My brother hath brought me the honor of your highnesse commands, and least some things I find in your highnesse letter may give you a just trouble, becawse yowr highnesse businesse here is not mannaged either to your highnesse own satisfaction, or that of your good subjects, who I know have zealus desires for the advancement of truth, and the discountenancing of error; I have sent him back, and shall delay his dispatch from hence no longer then I needs must, in wrytting that poore return, I am able to give to the particulars mentioned in your highnesse's. I shall repeatt nothing that is mentioned in any of my former to my lord Thurloe. The act I syned was forgott to be putt up in the first, packett, but was sent in the next; and I hope will have been under your highnesse view before this: all I say in it as to religione, is the words of the treatty repeatted verbatim, and at that tyme it was not safe to dispute the repetitione of that article. It hath a clause in it (dummodo nihil adversos regimen cui in posterum submissi erunt moliantur) and this clause will give yowr highnes advantage enuss against them; for I am confident many weeks will not go over their heads, before they give to whosoever shall serve your highnesse heare just occasione to turne owt a greatt many of them. But as Roome was not built in one day, so it will not be pulled downe; and for any thing else contained in that act I told the cardinal truly, and he is satisfied with it, that I understood yowr highnesse interest in Dunkerke to be founded upon the treatty betwixt England and France; and at that tyme I syned that act, their was no treatty showen me, save one which hath only one article in it, namely the 9th, which relaitts to the bourgoise, and the other articles pretended were not syned by Mr. Turenne, till two or three dayes after the renditione of the toune, but the French are ashamed to insist upon them; and therefore I shall give your highnesse no further trouble concerning them, but shall returne to the matters of the church. Their is but one parish in this towne; and as things stand, the towne not being furnished with any thing fitt for its defence, and two Roman catholick armies neare, I leave it to yowr highnesse to judge, whether it be a seasonable tyme to turne the inhabitants owt of their parish church. I heard a sermon upon the last lords-day at the towne house, which is as publick a place as the church, and till a church can be built, shall make use of that place (and by the way, must begg yowr highnesse pleasure concerning the building of a church.) And as to the rebuking of soldiers for having their hatts on, the businesse was thus; the morning after wee entred the towne, their were some industrios to putt the soldiers in very ill humors; and it was oppenly discoursed amongst them, that it was fitt to pillage the place, and especially the churches, where their was much riches: and their insolence went to that hight, that one of them lighted his pype of tobacco at one of the wax lights of the altar, where a priest was saying masse, which occasioned my being sent for in haste; and when I came amongst them, I commanded them to their arms, where they ought to have been, for they were not as then lodged; and told them it was ill done to come into the Romish churches, and if they needs would satisfy their curiosity, it was fitt to come so as they showld not give disturbance to others in that, which they imagined to be their devotione. I am sure I am accused sufficiently at cowrt for the contrair; but so I can satisfy my conscience in that, I honestly act what I to the best of my knowledge judge fitt for your highnesse service; I have qwyett inwardly, and hopes your highnesse will putt (out of your accustomed goodnesse for me) charitable constructions upon all my failings through weaknesse. As to what is reported concerning the first place, and the priority that the Romish religione seems to have of the protestant, the giver of tolleratione must be much greatter then that which is tollerated; and their is no provisione made for the protestant religion at Dunkerke, in the treatty betwixt England and France, because a free and plenary prosessione and exercyse of it was never questioned. Their was on Mr. Maire of Calais with me, concerning the Protestants of Piccardie, and I shall referre myself to the account he will give of my answere to him; but that businesse is raw, and I prayed them before their resolutions to leave their habitations became publick, that they wowld putt their persons and estates in some security; and in all things of this nature your highnesse will find, that I am rather apt to faile upon the right hand then the left; and for the greatt goodnesse yowr highnesse is pleased to expresse dayly to myself, my poore wyfe and family, I beseech yowr highnesse to beleeve, that I have nothing that I shall account too deare to be sacrifyced for yowr highnesse and family's service.
I have disposed the magistrates of the towne for their oath of alledgiance to yowr highneses, and must begg that yowr highnesse will order a draght of one to be sent me, which will be agreeable to yowr highness pleasure. I know oaths are not bynding save with conscientius men; and yett it's fitt to have that obligation upon them, if it were but to make their punishment, when they are offenders, the more justifiable. So soone as the cardinall returns, I shall urge the treatty for contributione, and I hope close it: but before I doe conclude, shall make knowen the conditions of it to your highnesse, and receive your commands concerning them. I find no present inclinations in the French to treatt for the carrying on a warr jointly. I think yowr highness will be no looser by it; for once by the middle of August at furthest, they will be in such wants, both as to men, and all other things fitt for carrying on a warr, as a conjunctione with them will not in my opinione be very advantagius; but if your highnesse shall think fitt to send me instructions abowt any further treaty, I shall prosecute them with all the zeale and industry I can.
I have not hindred the departure of any bourgoise from this place: I have upon the contrair given them leave to transport their goods to Newport as peaceably as if they had removed from one street in London to another. I have also cawsed to prepare me a list of all the inhabitants that are heare at present, and the names also of such as have removed, and shall answere it to your highness severest justice, if I permitt any of them to returne. I shall lykewise send a coppy of the names of such as have absented themselves, to the end, if I faile in this, it may beare witnesse against me. If any English familys will transport themselves heare, provyded they bring with them a lyne from my lord Thurloe, mentioning their fidelity and affectione to your highnesse government, I shall see them settled, and and serve them faithfully. I shall cause disarme the bowrgois, and search for all manner of armes and amunitione, so soone as their shall arryve 150 horse.
I know I ought not to importune yowr highness with so rude a letter, butt I have rather choosed to appeare before you in any dresse then to delay a minutts tyme the giving your highness an account of your affaires; and tho' by it your highness will see how farre I have come short of performing what might have been done, had yowr highness imploy'd another; yett I may say in much sincerity, that I have endeavoured to lay owt my poor talent faithfully, and never have more joy then when I think the Lord gives me the least opportunity of doing any thing that may be acceptable to your highness, or expresse the truth of my being,
H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland, to secretary Thurloc.
My lord chancellor desiring an hour's private conference with me, saturday last was appointed for that purpose. His lordship then told me, that about a fortnight before he he had enclosed a letter to my brother Fleetwood for his highness, wherein he desired liberty to retire. That his chief end in it was, that he might the better take care for his soul's concernment. Yet he said he must confess, he did not like the tendency of things, though he should satisfy himself with a government by a single person, at least while his highness was that person. He also said, that there was a people here, whom he favoured; and that he was accounted their head, and he feared lest they should suffer; and that by his management of things in order to their protection, himself might fall under some jealousy.
He complained of all the judges here, and said they did upon occasions give their opinions in points of law, not according to their conscience, but to please. Upon former occasions of conference with him, I sound that he designed to ensnare me by his mis-recital of what I had said in private, by wresting the sense, and adding to it what might serve his purpose. This hath ever since made me wary; and I now chose rather to hear him than speak much; yet I interposed what I thought necessary, and especially to find out the ground of his fears for that party, whereof he called himself the head; desired him to deal freely, whether I had denyed them any favour or countenance. He did very much vindicate me, both in this and all other things, with greater compliments than I am willing to repeat: neither did he instance (though I gave him fair opportunity for it) in any particular, but the opinion of the judges concerning commissions for uniting and dividing parishes. It is not my business to justify that opinion, nor much to disparage it for his dissent.
I think I have heard from you, that my lord chancellor at his coming over made large professions, how officious and serviceable he would be to me. I suppose he meant, not as a subject, but as a tutor or guardian to a minor; for at his first coming he appointed severall private meetings with me (which I diligently observed,) and then he read lectures to me of affairs and maxims of state, taught me how to carry myself at the councill, gave me rules how things should be managed at the board, how abroad; and lest I should forget my lesson, gave me three or four sheets in writing of those rules he thought of most importance. I listned to him with a great deal of attention, supposing, that if I got nothing else, I should get his measure. He then began to tell me of dissatifactions amongst the Anabaptists, Independents, and others professing godlinesse; offerred his help and assurance to unite and compose, and to that end he would bring the most considerable of the discontented of all parties to sett meetings. You know, I have had my share of trouble by the Anabaptists. And now things were reduced to that calm state, that I have not since that time heard the least stirr or complaint from them, but at that time many professions of abundant satisfaction from the chief amongst them. The Independent was then above measure pleased, and the fresh joy of being newly delivered from the reign of the Anabaptists gave him not leisure to think of setting up for himself (which nevertheless all parties will attempt in their turn) so that I had too much cause to suspect, that my lord chancellor's design was, first to raise, and then (it may be) to allay commotions, thereby to draw dependencies upon himself. Therefore by such occasions as I thought most plausible, I discontinued this private intercourse, and lest him to act in his proper orb. Ever since which time by a secret correspondency by cypher into England (from whence he hath had constant encouragement) and by private meetings here, he hath endeavoured to make the Independents think themselves neglected; and having mounted the stage, failed in nothing but making me his jackpudding, by my opposition to call the people about him. Indeed all his actions have tended to make that good, which was boasted by his nearest relations even before his coming over, That he was to rule the roast here; but finding things not according to his expectation, he was very active during the vacancy of government, by correspondencies in England and consultations here, to make the new constitution suitable to his purpose, which hath not been altogether useless to him. Indeed he hath so carried all things, that every man sees his aim. I have not seemed to take any notice of it, neither had I mentioned it to you now, had not the saturday's discourse given occasion for it. I thank God, things are here in a quiet posture, whatever may be suggested to the contrary. 'Tis true in this town there are divers practices, and I make some question, whether the letter to his highness must be delivered, till something is prepared here to second it.
Sir M. Tomlinson is used as the instrument, and is now hard at work He hath had several private meetings with some that are soonest enflamed. But they cool so fast, especially if they leave the air of this town, that I know not whether he can make a flame; and if he do, unless fuell be sent from England, it will soon dye. I remain &c.
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
Not opening the two packetts you were pleased to send us by the messenger untill the councill mett, wee did nott know well what was in them, butt uppon the opening of them wee found onely his highness instructions together with the commission for administring the oath of privie councellers; butt there is yet wanting the commission for the sitting of the councill, without which wee can doe nothing; soe that as wee have troubled you for the other, wee shall desire your lordshipp that that may bee sent us, by doing which you will doe us a very great favour. I am desired by some of Sir James Mac Dowall's friend's heere to putt you in minde of him concerning the place of the admiraltie heere, which they tell mee will bee as well done in one man's hands, (and with lesse charge to the state) as itt is now in more, which they tell mee they have made appeare to your lordshipp; and if it bee soe, I thinke the gentleman will deserve that favour, having bin always faithfull to his highnesse. Soe desiring your Lordshipp to excuse my giving you this trouble, I remayne
Major general Morgan to secretary Thurloe.
Yesterday Marescall Thureine, with severall squadrons of horse, and a partie of foote, marched towards Fearne, one of the enemies guarrisons within 4 leagues of Dunkirk. Upon his approach they surrendered the towne, few of the enemie being therein, the most of them being fled. This towne is considerable, in reguard it conduceth much to the safeguard of Dunkirke; but as yet it is not known, whether marescall Turein will guarrisson it or demollish it. Hee did acquaint mee, that eyther this day or to morrowe, some part of the armie shall fall upon Fort Lincke. It is a place, which is very stronge, in reguard it is invyroned with a waterish moorish ground. It is thought we shall gett our morter pieces nigh enoughe, which is conceived the only way for reduceing that fort. I finde the 4 regiments with mee and la Ferté, viz, my owne, collonel Lillingeston's, Sir Brice Cochron's and collonel Clarcke's, are much weakened by the losse of those wee have had killed and wounded, both at the battaille, and seidges before Dunkerke and Bergin; though I will assure you, that nothinge is wantinge in mee to preserve them, yet our last recruites fell sicke verie fast. There is a rumour, that there hath beene a scuffle betwixt the enemie and marescall la Ferté howe true it is, or anye thinge of particulers, I knowe not, but shall fully acquainte you (God willinge) in my next. Monsieur Shomberge is governor of Bergin. I shall add no more, but that I am,
Intelligence sent from Holland by resident Downing.
The liberty, which the Muscovites have at length given to the ambassador of Sweden, whom they have long time kept in prison, and who will be here to morrow, and consequently wholly out of their hands, gives all reason to believe, that they are in good earnest to make peace with the Swede, and that they are affrighted with the Swedes progress in Denmark, and of the encrease of their forces. These two parties have made a truce three months ago, which is well enough observed, and which must continue to the perfecting of the treaty of peace, which was to begin the 22d of last month. The sickness of the senator Gustave Bielk, one of the ambassadors in prison, and chief in the negotiation for the king of Sweden, being not able to make great journeys, they were forced to attend his arrival. The plenipotentiaries of Muscovy, who are four of the principal of their state, follow a day after: the place of meeting is not yet agreed on; only it is said, it shall be on the frontiers of Ingermanland, whereof this place is the capital and the frontier, much more commodious for the Muscovite than the Swede, who have their principal forces at Riga 240 mile off; and the other have an army within 45 mile consisting of above 50000 men with a prodigious quantity of artillery and ammunition. The baron of Benthorne governor of Revel and de Silvestern who are joined with de Bielk have thought fit, that I should be with them, that so if the Kzar accepts the mediation of France, I may draw the overtures on both sides, which their formalities and circumspections render very difficult in the beginning of the negotiation, chiefly on the Muscovites side, who are very distrustful and dissicult. Beside their army 45 mile off, there is another gathering on the coast of Lithuania, which will be above 70000 men: we shortly shall see their designs, because according to their custom they begin their wars and sieges in August. They assure the Swede, that they will war with the Polanders, and these with the others. That which is like to be well for the former, is the liberty of their ambassador; and that they publish in Poland, that they have put them in irons, when they treat them gently. This peace is very important to the King of Sweden; also he would make peace if he could, and employ all his forces for himself and friends. Marshall Douglas shall command the Swedes army in this country, and the count Magnus de la Garde, who should have gone into Prussia for the treaty of Poland, goes to the king of Sweden. I have made known to the Kzar my arrival and my orders; if he will favour me, I may have my dispatch in two months: he made an envoy of England stay seven months, and at last having spent more than 1500 l. sterling, having above 20 men of his train, he returned without his answer: his majesty hath endeavoured, that the same envoy should returne; for being come to Dantzick he received the safe conduct of the Kzar, and his said majesty would have been glad, that France and England would have appeared in the treaty of peace, wherein the Muscovites are in a condition to give law of their formidable preparations for war, and if they knew how to make use of their forces, they would make strange progress.
Lockhart to the protector.
May it please your most serene Highness,
The bearer hereof, captain Flower, hath been recommended to me by such hands, and given such large testimonies of his courage, good conduct, affectione to your highnesses interest, and love to his countrey, upon several occasions in the late siege and battle, that I was resolved to have bestowed a company upon him: which when I came to do, I found the lieutenant of the said company had behaved himself with so much worth and gallantry, that it had been pitty and injustice to deprive him of his pretenses, Having therefore no opportunity at present to accommodate captain Flower in any proportion to his desert, I have made bold to beseech your highness in his behalf, that since there is some horse designed for this place, your highness would be pleased to give him the command of the troop intended for me, he haveing heretofore been captaine of horse, and discharged himself very laudably therein, as I am informed. If your highnes will bestow 20 or 30 horse upon him, he will be able to raise the rest of the troop himself; or rather then not serve the publick, he would strain hard to do it all upon his owne account. I leave him to your highnesses generous consideration, and rest,
Lockhart to secretary Thurloe.
This bearer captain Flower was sent over into theise parts with the recommendation of a worthy and gallant man, which character he hath abundantly made good by severall actions in this service. I intended him a company, as a small recompence of his great desert; but the lieutenant of the said company hath by his singular good carriage laid so just a claim to that command, that I could by no means consent to do him so great an injury: and indeed I find my self pressed in that particular by most of the inferior officers, they have all behaved themselves so well. For this gentleman I humbly desire your lordshipp's assistance, that he may be employed in the command of the horse, which is intended for this place, he having formerly led a troop himself with great commendation. And I am so satisfied with him, that I could wish he might command that troop, which will be designed for me. He tells me, he thinks he shall be able to raise a good part of it himself; but if your lordship would take order that he might be furnisht with 20 or 30 horse for a beginning, I make no doubt but he would accomplish the rest. I have another request to your lordshipp, that you would be pleased to send me a good trumpeter or two; and I desire they may be (for that kind) gentle and intelligent men, because I shall have frequent occasion to send them upon some considerable messages. I take leave, and rest,
Capt. Stoakes to secretary Thurloe.
Your honour's of the 31st past sound mee ready to sayle with the Farfax, Yarmouth, and Jersey, victualled for six weekes, which indeed, I intended to have spent about Leghorne, and if possebly to have come uppon the prince of Mounte Firci, who hath bought, and armed out a couple of ships from that port, and is in treaty for more. Uppon perusuall of the instructions, I did immediately dispatch captain Whetston to admirall Pol, at Tholon, to know in what readines the fleet is: having received his answer, I shall accordingly order the frigatts out of these I have here, or otherwise wait the comeing together of all the party. Att the instant of captain Whitston's departure, I had the wellcome newes of the arrival of the Torrington, Taunton, Dover, and Sarah, which I have sent for hither, to avoyd the inconveniences, that may happen betwixt our men and the great rable of French marriners, that are now at Tholon. If the French affaires will admitt the stay of ten or twelve days, then I shall, with these with mee, forthwith depart for Leghorn, that being the only station, wherein at present I can be serviceable: from thence shall dispatch the three frigatts the commissioners have ordered me to send home. Were it thought fitt to change this whole party by three and three, it would much add to the carrying on of the worke, and content the men, most of which have bin out above eighteene months. My shipp cannot be serviceable for much longer, unless at a vast expence of tyme and money uppon her. If his highness pleasure be to continue me out longer, then the expence of these victualls, which will soone run out, I hope your honour, will be a meanes, that tymely supplys may come together with a convenient shipp for mee, that I may be able to people the sea, and not forced into harbour to cleane at extraordinary expence, with great prejudice to the execution of his highness's commands. Your honour's orders, I shall now expect by way of Leghorn, as well as this place; retourning you my most humble thanks, for the care taken in reference to my creditt. This night, or to-morrow morning I expect an answer from the French admirall, and is all at present worth your honour's notice. I remayne,
Lyme, in the Bay of Marseilles the 25th June 1658.
Secretary Thurloe to Mr. Downing, resident in Holland.
I Received by this post two pacquetts from you of the 28th instant, and thanke you for the care and paynes you tooke about procureinge and sending the 4 dozen bottles of water, they are not yet arrived, but wee looke for them every day now that the wind is easterlye. I writt to you by the last for 100 bottles more, which I entreat you do me the favour to hasten over with all the speed that may be.
I thinke you did very well to putt de Witt to it about their correspondence with Spayne. I doe beleeve those two which my former mentioned were of Amsterdam, which is the place I doe beleeve, where all that busines is managed; and it is very possible that they might also speake about the octroy for trade in the West Indies, but its as certeyne that other matters are alsoe transacted, and they will get nothinge of Spayne, but for service they are to doe against England. And as for the trouble, that they have for his highnesse progresse in Flanders, and that they could wish his armes were employed further of, I hope that wee prove as good neighbours as the Spanyards; and it will be very necessary that you endeavour to remove any jealousie that they may have of this kind, and presse them as farre as may be to speake particularly to the grounds of their dislike, that wee may be the better able to remove what may sticke with them. There is no state, that H. H. would more willingly conferre and advise with concerninge his forraigne designes and the common good, then with the lords the states; and this you may assure them. And his highness takes it very kindly, that they require the duke of Yorke to go out of their dominions, and prohibited the coming of Charles Stuart into them, which wee heare they did; and if it be soe, it is fitt for you to take notice thereof to them.
I should be glad to heare what instructions Opdam shall have for the command of the 24 shipps, which they say are now goinge forth. And as you observe yourself, it is necessary above all things, that you informe yourself of any thing, which shall be done either by the States General or Holland, or more privatly about these affaires.
For Sir John Marlow, the question is, whether we must trust him, or he us. I thinke the first more reasonable. If he will first make this discovery, he shall have a 100 l. or more, and a passe if it deserve it; and otherwise then this I cannot treate with him.
I received one letter this week from our, who subscribes his name Jeronemus Van Absbach, and directs his letters to Foard: he, I suppose, is one of your men, and truly he writes materially, and is to be encouraged. The rest I suppose direct their letters wronge, which I know not how to rectify, otherwise then by desiringe you to let me knowe by what name they write, if they doe not use those names I sent, or these; viz. To Mr. John Alsop, merchant at London; Mr. Adrian Peters, at the Bell and Tun in Southwarke; Mr. Joseph Miller, at the Suger-loase in Tems-street.
I have written to my lord ambassador Lockhart about correspondinge with you, and have received answere from him, that he will not sayle to do it, prosessinge his paynes were soe great both in the seige, and since in putting the towne into some order, that he could not spare tyme even to give us that account here, which was necessary. He commands in chiefe, and hath with him 6 regiments of foote; and Bergen beinge since taken, the French are like to make a very considerable progresse in Flanders this campaine.
H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland, to the protector.
May it please &c.
The bearer, major Stapley of col. Cooper's regiment, is a good officer, a very sober well affected person, and of good interest in his countrey; and to signify that I have a respect, and am desirous to countenance and encourage those, who have a dutifull respect towards your highness, I give him the honour to present such addresses to your highness from several parts of this nation, as were come to my hand at his going for England. He will give your highness an account of the particulars. I remain &c.
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Received your lordshipp's of the 18th instant, together with his highnesse instructions, and commission for the councill here by the bearer Thomas Baker, upon the 22d instant about two in the afternoone: by the speedy dispatch whereof your lordshipp has obliged both myself and the councill; and not only us, but the rest of the country: for affaires heere would have suffered very much for want of them, if they should not have come in time. I remayne