A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 7, March 1658 - May 1660. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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August (3 of 4)
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Am sorrie to heere his highness hath bin so ill lately; but I hope the worst of his sickness is past. My prayers shall be to God to preserve his health; for truely if he should chance to bee called away, before it pleased God he had settled the government, I doubt wee should bee in a very sad condition. For newse heere wee have none, onely our three hundred soldiers for Dunkirke are to bee shipt to-morrow; which is all at present from
Dalkeith, 17. August, 1658.
Captain Langley to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your Honor,
Although I have extrem need to crave your honor's excuse for my last broken lines, which was soe hastiely writ, that I had noe time to revew them, and the generall haveing occasion to keepe me late that night concerning the dispatch of a vessell, and all acommodations for the transeporting of the 300 men for Flanders, which is ready to goe out of this harbour to-morrow; yet I should not have troubled your honour so sudainely with lines, but only to lett you understand, that wee have advice from Barwick, that 8 shipes are lately taken betweene Burlington-bay and the place called Listerkirkes. The Oustenderds that tooke them are two frigatts, one of 16 gunns, and a smaller. Collonel Atkins his good ship I formerly mentioned, is carried into the Texel. The man of warre sent out here maned with soldiers, stayed not long out; but as soone as come in, the sloop, who hath but fower murderers, came before Dunbar againe, and continues thereabout, which will spoyle the fishing. Smale frigatts of little charge would help all this. They are very ferefull here, that some of the 8 ships taken are of the London fleete belonging to these parts. If soe, will it make sad worke here. A Dutchman lately come out of Holland, tells mee, that besides the frigotts newly sett forth, there is 24 greater frigotts puting upon the stockes, such as they never had yet; they must bee every one 121 foote in the keile; and did avow, that he saw the contracts signed betweene the states and the carpenders. The Scotes whisper a warre againe with the Dutch. I thought fitt to lett your honour knowe these things, because nothing may pass without your notis. My lord Disborow is gone west to the wells for his health. This day the controuler was burryed. I hope my lord Disborow will writ to you about that in my last of the 14th past.
General Fleetwood to H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.
The solemnising of the funeralls of the deare lady Elisabeth occationed my silence the last weeke. The Lord teach us by that sore stroake, since which his highnes hath bine very much indisposed, troubled with paynes in his bowells and backe, and could not sleepe; but the Lord hath bine pleased to give a return to the prayers of his poore people, and he is now both eased of his paynes, and his sleepe returned to him. This dispensation with the former allso hath bine very awakening in itselfe, if we may have hearts to learn therby. Our publicke affayres have bine much at a stande since his highnes illnes, which may easily be beleived, when we consider how great a concernment ther was therin. Oh! that we might in soime proportion have sutable effects from such a dispensation! It showld be much upon our hearts to be earnest with the Lord, that we might be as well instructed, as we have bine corrected. Heare is very litle newes stirring. It is expected we showld suddenly heare of some action 'twixt the French and Spanyard, the later labouring much to releive Gravlin, which is of great importance to their affayres; but probably will not be able to hold out much longer. The king of Sweeden is supposed to be gon upon some considerable designe, but not known what it is, unlesse an attempt for the taking in of the Pillow. The Brandenburgers joyning with Poland and emperor will much distract the king of Sweeden's affayres, and I doubt of ill effect to the Protestant party. The Lord can turn all for good, which that we se in this, is the hopes of
August 17. [1658.]
From Mr. Kingstonn.
I Have yours of the 22d, and in it the sad story of my lord Taaff's killing Sir William Kith. It was an unhappy accident, which the meannesse of the occasion renders reproveable, even among duellers. The tempter, who is always at our elboe, never forbears to fling such mischiefs in our way; but when his implacable desire to doe us harme is restrained by grace, and without we follow that course of life, which God himself came upon earth to teach us, wee cannot rightly implore, nor have we reason to confide in that assistance. But from this subject of sorrow, and this combate of three parts, I must lead yow to a battayle, in which no worse men then the parlement of Paris, by their archirs and gards, were ingag'd against the Augustin friers of the great convent, at the end of Pontneuff. The conflict was so memorable, as you cannot but expect I should give you the occasion of it.
The ancestors of president de Mesme had founded two burses in this monestary, where the battayle was fought; that is, they had given pensions to maintaine two of the order, untill they did putt an end to their studies, the places to be supplyed successively with new commers of the nomination of the heir of the house. Upon a late vacancy, president de Mesme, to whome it belong'd, notwithstanding the vehement importunity of others, and the very bad offices donn by some of their owne fellows to two young men, whom he had design'd for bursiers, advanc'd them sone after their admission. The chapter was convened for the election of a new priour; and so it chanc'd, that those new men stood earnestly in oposition of him, that carryed it by the major vote, who being now chosen, made it his study, (though his rule might have furnished him with much better imployment) how he might remove those opposits of his from under his roofe; and about four months since (so farr of am I forc'd to deduce the originall of my story) he inform'd against them to the court, that they were persons dangerous to the state, such as bare a parte in the intrigues of cardinal de Retz, and held correspondenc with him. The primier minister, who is not deaff of that eare, caused them instantly to be ceased on, and to be made prisoners in the consergery, a place in the power of the parlament. Upon search of their papers, two coppies of some manifesto, made upon dellivery of Mardick to the English, whereof cardinal de Retz is said at court to be the author, and a letter written by the said cardinal, approving their nomination as archbishop of Paris, which was essential to their admission, was so and in their study. The president de Mesme, who was concerned in his bursiers, finding them upon examination innocent, dismiss'd them free out of the prison within the verge of the parlement; but as soone as they came from the convent, they were by new orders from court committed to the Bastile; from whenc, after much search, and no matter found against them, they were directed to have been released, a few dayes before the battayle; but as their good luck was, they stoutly refus'd to accept of their liberty without they were juridically acquitt of the crims objected to them; and said, that as to the copies of those manifestoes, they were reddy to produce witnesses of their having been cast into their studies, of purpose to be the ground of an accusation against them. Thus farr goes on the civill process, and now wee enter the confinns of the martiall part. The stout priour, who could well distinguish those of the prisoners faction, did in the mean time vexe them shrewdly, by long and irregular confinements, and other expressions of his vindicative spirit, and want of charity; whereof the parlement taking notice, sent to him to appear before them, and to sett the friers at liberty he had unjustly consin'd. He return'd for answer, that they were not his judges; and thereupon, both parties taking a resolution to fight, the priour made provision of muscetowns, of caribins, of powder and bullet, and gives those arms into the hands of his best men. The rest, that had as much courage, but not so good weapons, tooke stones out of their magazine, and disposed them in the places, where they were to be most usefull.
The parlement deputed two counselors in their scarlet roabs, accompanied with a gard of archers, to demand entrance at first very civilly into the monastery; but the couragious friers, like buffolo's, were enrag'd at the sight of the redd gowns, and had as little reverence for them, as they had apprehension of the archers, that begann with their pick-axes to digg under the wall. Stones flew about from the battlement, and the windowes of the chambers. The noise was hideous, the croude so thicke, that a valiant cut-purs might have made his fortune in an hour's time. Among them the multitude of hands had soone made a breach; and then the undaunted friers, who had reserved their fire-arms for such an exigent, advanc'd their janisaries, who lett flye among them; and it was the fortune of two honest fellows, who had noe other intrest in the quarrell, but that they were caryed in the croude, with an itch of seeing novelties, to be kil'd on the place, and some others to be wounded; at sight whereof, the archers power'd a volee of shott into the breach, kil'd one of the friers, and wounded three, whereof one is since dead. The defendants then grew thinner, and the unruly souldiers prest hard upon them. While matters were at this pass, a neighbor, whose house join'd to the monestery, from which their lay an obscure passage into the friars cellar, foreseeing the black-coats were like to have the worst of the day, discover'd the blind entry to the souldiers, and deprived the friers of their sole hope of a retreat, in case the convent should be surprised. Wherefore, having fought it out manfully, while there was any hope to make good the place, they at length layd downe their arms, and acknowledg'd the parlement party was the stronger. The priour and twenty of his associats were carryed to prison; and it is beleaved, that he and three of them will suffer, and the rest be condemn'd to the gallies. And thus ended that sedg, which continued three long houres. The throng was dissolv'd, and all above-ground was quiet. There now remain'd no noise but what was made in the cellar, where every man drank in the free cost, and prais'd the justice of the parlement. Now, Sir, it might be well thought, that a romanc of this length might be sufficient at a time; yet I must cupple another to it, sinc both of them happened last weeke.
At an act in the colledg of Bauvois, the rector of the university, who thinks himself no
mean man, taking it ill, that the coadjutor of Narbonne, monsieur Fouquet's brother,
and the bishop of Colances, had placed themselves in the prime seats, removed his chaire,
so as it stood just before them. Whereat the coadjutor in a great sume asked, What meant
that pedant ? The rector, that meant not to put up such an affront in the face of so many of
his subjects, stil'd them ignorant, and said in a very audible voice, that they were better
to obey the decree of parlement, and goe to their dioceses, then contend with the rector
of the university of Paris for that which was his right; and thereupon commanded both
the disputant and the professor to leave the chaire, and not to proceede further that day,
and so left the roame; and the bishops without hope to hear any argument, unless themselves would dispute one against the other. And to conclude with somewhat that lokes
like a romance to me, Rely the primate, Tom Talbot the fryer, and Bodkin the merchand, are all gonn into England. What use can be of them there, is more than I can
imagin, other then that the age and the clymat, as England is now handel'd, may savour
a bold witt, and a conscienc that is not scrupulous. Now, Sir, I beleave it be time to
give over, and to assure you, that I am
Paris, this 28. of August, 1658. [N. S.]
King of Sweden to the protector.
Most serene Lord Protector, &c.
Your highness may doubtless wonder, what should force us to enter with our armie again into Denmarck, since it may seeme, that by interposition of your highness, wee not long agoe obtained an honorable peace from thence; and therefore wee thought it good, according to that amity and friendship, which is between your highness and us, to send our commissary, John Barckmann, back to your highness, that he being fully informed of affaires now in hand, your highness might bee better acquainted with the justness of our designe; that wee have not undertaken a new warr, but are forced, as it were, by necessitie to continue the former, being taken up with so many other enemies, that wee could willingly have spared this present trouble. For a warr cannot bee said to bee ended, except the conditions, whereupon peace was to bee restored, bee accomplished; and had the Danes with as much alacrity executed what they had agreed on, as they would seeme to have promised with much sincerity and candor, there had been no need of a new expedition in these parts. But wee have had experience, that all their former treaties were intended to no other end, but meerly to retard the then course of our armes, and by giving us the sweetest words, to gaine time, and afterwards refusing to doe execution, with their delayes and contradictions to deprive us of that safetie in our kingdome, which wee onely aimed at by the late warr and former treaties. For so it was, that when our armie was readie to march out of Sealand, the evacuation of the strong places in Schonen was made doubtfull, and our garrisons, that were to take possession of the same, had not found entrance, if wee had not then been in such a condition, that our armes might have forced them to it. They did likewise refuse to deliver those soldiers up to us, which they ought to have done before wee quitted Sealand; and after wee had transported all our forces from thence, then did they, under a pretence of making an alliance with us to secure the liberty of trading, undertake either wholly to subvert or undermine all the strength of articles and covenants, and brought the whole business to such a slippery pass, that there was allmost nothing left, whereupon wee might build our hopes of security, which was so much desired by us. By all these counter-actings of theirs, have wee bin necessitated with earnestness to urge the execution of what hath been agreed on; for liberty of commerce and navigation hath been no less molested and troubled after the peace was concluded, then before it was by our armes asserted and restored; custom was exacted from our subjects, (a thing that oftentimes hath caused great troubles between the two northern kingdomes) which seemed to have been totally abolished by the late treatie; the island Wenen was cut off from Schonen, and the mannor of Rumsdahl from the jurisdiction of Drunthem: they did refuse to joyne their fleet with ours, by virtue of the treatie, to keep off all violence, that might be attempted upon the Baltick sea; they did hinder to resigne over to us such royalties and jurisdictions as were expressly granted us by the treatie, according as they formerly belonged to Denmark and Norway: such ships and goods as were taken from us before the warr was denounced, either by open violence of the Danes, or by pretended private men of war, and should have been restored by vertue of the peace, were partly delayed, and are partly as yet detained; the forces that should have been presently delivered, were kept back a great while, albeit they intertained forrain souldiers enough in Denmarck: there was no reparation made of the damages done to the African company by their robberies at sea, though it was agreed on, that restitution should be made: and a number of the like grievances more, which would be too tedious to recount in a letter, about the deciding whereof our commissioners were allmost tired. And each of these things are of that nature, that if they be not brought to an issue, wee may not expect any safetie by this peace, which yet to obtaine wee have been very moderate in giving such conditions as were reasonable; whereas wee thought ourselves not much obliged to condescend to any. Besides it is thus with our kingdome, that if wee should not bee secured here, wee should not be able to pursue our warrs abroad; especially being destitute of assistance and supplies from our friends: For it is sufficiently knowne, not only by precedents of former times, but particularly of late it was manifested, how our successes could by nothing more bee sooner overthrowne, then by a diversion of the Danes; from whence it is alwayes an easie matter to invade the very heart of our kingdome, and the annexed provinces, as well by their owne, as others strength, which wee had experience of, notwithout evident danger, and excessive charges, when wee were inforced last year to come out of Poland into these countries. Wee had indeed hoped, that allthough wee sound the Danes so loath to bring the business to a conclusion, they yet should have had a better care of their own estate, and have closed with us in a nearer alliance, (our forces being drawne out of their countries, if the execution of their articles had succeeded) which they so instantly and so often desired at the treaty at Roskild, with so many contestations, but proved afterwards their words to be of little faith; and did not onely neglect such conditions of peace, but insisted also on their old and accustomed counsells, whereby they might procure us continual mischief, and preferred the friendship of those, which longe since have used to kindle a flame of division, where they see others at peace and unity; whereby Denmarck itself in a manner hath been forely shaken. Hence it was, that nothing could bee obtained from them but against their wills; and that some time or other (if they should find an opportunitie to breake) they might not want a pretence as being forced thereunto; and from thence might wee easily discerne the greatest danger, that was like to befall us, that if wee should leave things in such a condition, and draw off our armies, wee should indanger ourselves against the same rock, and run the like hazard as formerly wee had done. For since our enemies had begunn to make a head elsewhere, now it seemed time for us to goe and oppose them: all the indeavors of our commissioners for making an end of, and subscribing the treaty, have been to no purpose, our own admonitions and letters all in vaine; because the Danes supposed, that there lay an unvoidable necessitie upon us (and that against our will) to goe from hence without doing any thing; and this did they most of all then declare, when we commanded our troopes either to march, or wee ourselves with the main of our armie hastened towards the frontiers of the countrie; for the more haste wee made to bee gone, expecting they should put a period to the business, the less inclination did they shew to performe articles; yea putt off to this very day the setting downe in writing that which was once debated, or presumed to revoke the same. They did in the mean while hold frequent counsells with the ministers of our enemies at Copenhagen and elsewhere, continued to entertaine forrain soldiers upon vast expences, and reinforced the militia with new recruits; which certainly could not have been done in vain. But most of all did the Danes then appeare to delay and bee backward, when they heard, that the king of Hungarie was raised to the imperiall dignitie; even then, to protract time, did they send their messengers to perswade us to march away from them, re plane infecta; that in the mean while our ambassadors (being desirous to finish their work) might doe nothing, and time bee prolonged, that elsewhere something might happen in favour of the Danes. When therefore things stood thus slippery, mens minds were wavering, no certainty of any treaty, and delayes used, (which caused us no little damage by our other enemies) when they were thus backward, and colluded underhand with the ministers of our enemies, then wee thought all this to bee sufficient warning to provide for our owne safetie and welfare, that being ingaged farr of with others, wee might not chance to bee againe insnared by the wonted deceitfullness of the Danes. And truly wee can protest, that before these late few weekes wee never had any thoughts of this expedition; and if wee should speake according to the truth of the matter, wee might very well say, that wee never ingaged in any thing with greater unwillingnesse, then in this. But when no certainty could bee had in writing, nor the matter brought to an issue, wee leave it to your highness's judgment, whether wee ought not to look after our owne safetie by armes, which could not bee otherwise obtained, because the same ought to have been confirmed according to the articles of the treatie. And being reduced to this necessitie, wee are persuaded, that when your highness shall bee informed of every particular by our deputies and the above-mentioned commissary, (whom wee desire your highness would please to give admittance and hearing) that then your highness will not bee unwilling to favour us, and stand up in our behalf, according to our mutuall friendship and common interest, for which wee shall never cease (together with our highness) to imploy our best indevors upon any occasion whatsoever. To which purpose wee also have given instructions to our ministers, which will bee able to make our intentions more at large known to your highness, whom wee herewith recommend to the protection of the Most High.
Col. Gibbon to secretary Thurloe.
I This day coming from Canterbury, one the rode within three miles of Sittingburne, I mett with three or four men; and finding one of them to shunne me, I thereupon suspected the sayed person, and rode up to hem, exsamened hem, what he was. At the last I came to be ashured, that it was the ducke of Buckingham. Knowing hem to be a person serched for, I have secured hem, soe as to bring hem with me to my house near Rochester, wheare I shall detayne hem, till I receive from you his highness pleaser conserning hem. He tells me, he was goeing to Sir George Sandes, to the countes of Penbrock, about the buisenes of reconsileing of her to her lord. I humbelly desyer, that I may as soone as possibely know his highness pleaser concerning hem. As yett it is not knowne, whoe he is, that I have secured. I am,
Rochester, Aug. 18. 1658.
Col. Howard to secretary Thurloe.
The grand jurors of this countey perceiving, that those of some other counteys have made a congratulatory addresse to his highness, thought it their duty to doe somewhat of the like nature, as you may perceave by the inclosed, which they desired me to convey; and I knew not how to doe it better then through your handes. It will be a great favour to me and the gentlemen subscribers to heare from you what acceptance itt getts, and obleidge,
Naward, this 18th Aug. 1658.
Mr. Downing, the English Resident in Holland, to secretary Thurloe.
Upon sunday last arrived here an express from one of the ambassadours of this state from Hamburgh, by which it gives the states general to understand, that the king of Sweden, with the forces wherewith he had imbarked at Kiel, was landed in Zeeland, marcht directly for Copenhagen, the particularities whereof are in the inclosed; and by the ordinary post, which is since arrived, the truth thereof is confirmed, and that the king of Sweden's forces in Holstein had about the same time in the night not only cut off the Danish regiment quartered about Luckstadt, but also attempted Luckstadt, and Krempen, and three other places belonging to the king of Denmark thereabouts; but had failed of his end in them all. Monsieur Applebom hath received nothing as yet from his king, nor is there any manifesto as yet published, that we know of; so that all men are in amazement at this action beyond imagination; and it may well be supposed, that the enemies of the king of Sweden are not sparing in their language against him upon such occasion as this, which hath soe ugly an aspect, the king of Denmark having rendred all places, which by the treaty he was obliged to render; and after that having also rendered the island of Ween; and in relation to the ship taken at Guyne, having proffered one third part in ready money, and to secure the payment of the other two thirds by his own obligation and the obligation of all his rix rade; and on the other side, the king of Sweden having neither quitted Funen, Jutland, nor Holstein, nor indeede any thinge but Zeeland itselfe, and now returned thither again; which makes the king of Sweden's enemies say, that the king of Sweden made only a treaty with the king of Denmark to gaine what he could not get by his sword; and that his resolution now is absolutely to ruin the king of Denmark, and render himself master of the Baltique sea, to the terror of all Europe, but especially those that are considerable in shiping. Those, that desire to defend the actions of the king of Sweden, say, that undoubtedly he hath found out some understand treaty, which the king of Denmark was making against him; yet on the other hand, that is thought hardly probable, considering the present condition that the king of Denmark was in; though on the other hand, it would seem as improbable, that the king of Sweden should doe what he hath done without something of that kinde, and which may be made out to be more than a jealousy. There are others, that have an imagination, that this is done by the invitation of the king of Denmark to sett him free from his rix rade; but this seemes very improbable, and especially considering the way of the king of Sweden's acting in Holstein. Monsieur Appleboom shewed me the last letter, which he had received from the king of Sweden, which was not onely signed, but a good part of it written with the king's own hand, wherein he commends him for his having very well done in dealing so roundly as he had done with the states, in his memoriall of the 5th instant (a copy whereof you have already received from me); and that it was true, that he had once promised to ratify the treaty of Elbing with its elucidation; but that that was upon consideration, that the states should assist him against Denmark; but that they having not done it, that he was now resolved never to ratify the said elucidations. And he further adds in the same letter, that he did not much care, whether the states did agree with him or not; and that he was now going upon a designe, which he very well knew the states would be desirous with their uttermost to hinder him in the execution of; but that he did not doubt to doe it with that speed, as that they should have no time to hinder him; and that by the doing thereof he should gaine such a firme sooting, as that they would well consider, before they took any resolution against him. And there is a man come to Amsterdam, who takes himself to be a kind of prophet, who went on purpose to the king of Sweden to dehort him from makeing warre with the elector of Brandenburg, or any other protestant prince, and to turne his forces against the Papists; to whom the king of Sweden made answer, that he believed he had offended God in makeing peace with a protestant prince, naming the Dane; whom (said he) alludeing to that in the prophet, God would have destroyed: and that if he should have to do with him againe, he would deale in another kinde of manner with him. The man is come back againe, and gave this accompt of what passed betweene the king of Sweden and himself about ten dayes agoe; and considering what is fallen out, I thought it might not be amiss to mention it. Monsieur Trelon, whose hand is also to the peace between Sweden and Denmark, is gone with the king of Sweden in this voyage; but as he writes to the French ambassador heere, knew not whether they were goeing. I perceive that the Polish envoye is extreamely rejoyced at this newes, and so is also Friquet the emperor's envoye, who is also now in this towne, but incognito, not having as yet notifyed his arrivall to the states. He is a cunning man, and is yet sounding to finde how matters are like to goe; and unlesse he finds hopes of doeing good, will I believe not make himself known at all: for since the constitution of this republick, the emperor hath as yet never quitted his claime over them, as being an appendix of the empire; and when formerly he sent a minister hither, the stile which he gave to the states was, fideliter delecti, which is the same he gives to the princes and states of the empire; and upon this accompt, his ministers were as yet never received, and he will not quit it, unless he sees some good hopes of gaining something thereby. I had upon saturday last so managed De Witt, as that he was resolved upon monday following to goe himself to Amsterdam, to labour with the bourgemasters of that place, to dispose them to faire termes towards the king of Sweden, and to be content with some such kinde of expedient as I hinted to you formerly. And indeede as this state is hitherto unengaged from any treaty with any prince or state against the king of Sweden, so having received your orders to endeavour to accommodate matters betweene them and the said king, I had in that little time brought things to that pass, as that Monsieur Apleboom did confess, that I had done more then he did imagine could have bin done; and that he was fully convinced, that De Witt did wholly desire a true and reall agreement between this state and his master: but the truth is, the king of Sweden doth not desire it, nor 139 63 132 40 70 148 395 133 169 yet with the elect. Brand. nor to quitt 477 127 154 71 149 Prussia 447 141 72 17: but to make some kinde of propositions to one while he 475 412 142 477 413 161 325 358 deals with the other. When he was 468 133 492 324 488 low and weak, then the endeavours 282 40 14 154 112 of the 136 were welcome; 160 41 132 43 162 45 87 255; but now the time is changed, and he looks 114 75 upon himself as able to subsist 46 217 179 477 142 153 20 of himself, 148 408 326 144 45 87 52; and peradventure in particular hee may be jealous of the lord protector 534 as to his present designe against the K. of Denm, and indeede his ministers speak very 149 286 144 142 426 198 152 39 441 high, which made me thinke myselfe the more oblidged to take notice of the passage I 468 425 15 311 70 gave you an accompt of the last week; and by all I can perceive from from all hands the K. of Swe. desires all occasions to gain upon the coasts 254 of the Baltic-sea. 408 468 227 82 475 26 350 140 41 14. There was a gentleman, that was on board with the king of Sweden at Keil, that writes to Monsieur Aplebom, that the king was then sending him some wither, and Mr. Apleboom doth conjecture, that it was for England to give his highness an accompt of this business.
The French ambas. did much complain to me the other day, that the K. of Sweden did loose very much in the court of France; for that he did not acquaint them with his designes. Upon the receipt of this Swedish newes, the states general and council of state did both forthwith assemble, and order all their ships of warre forthwith to a randezvous; and the states of Holland were forthwith summoned, who did yesterday meete, and have ordered, that all military officers doe forthwith repeair to their charges; but before they doe take any finall resolution upon this busines, doe waite the comeing of the deputies of some of the townes, who are not here; and also a full accompt of the grownds, upon which the king of Sweden hath done what he hath done; before the coming whereof its probable, the king of Sweden will have done his busines, either by an agreement with the king of Denmark, or by driveing him out of Zeeland, or taking him prisoner; a suddaine unexpected and most considerable revolution, of which I dare make noe judgement, till I see farther, whether it be the minde of the king of Sweden to make some further agreement with the king of Denmark, or wholly to drive him out, which seems the more probable. And indeede this busines, and that of the elector of Brandenburg, may cause great imbroilements and unexpected ones; and I cannot but now take notice of what the ministers of the elector of Brandenburg have often sayd to me; to wit, that the design of the king of Sweden was not to have any thorow peace with their master, but to gain the Pillow from him, and for that end to render him suspect to those, with whom he was in friendship; but that always when it came to the point of the king of Sweden's giving him assurance on his side, that the king of Sweden did always boggle at that, but would first have him quitt the allyances he had with the Austrians, and that then he would treat with him: but I cannot beleeve the former part of this story.
Sir John Marlow 113 62 106 371 134 369 is, I hope, ere this with you, for that he went from the Brill upon the Lord's-day was a seaven night towards Flushing, there to take shipping in one of his highnesse's frigatts, which was then at that place; and his family are now at the Brill, and will, I suppose, take the oportunity of this passage. I am confident he can give you an accompt of what ever hath passed theis very many yeares betweene Charles Stuart and any in Newcastle, and the countyes of Durham and Northumberland; and by a letter, which I have received this morning from Antwerp, I finde, that this busines makes a very greate noise there. It makes them all jealous each of other; and no doubt must needs have some such like influence in England also, and by little and little, treating him kindely, you may draw much out of him. There is one George Lidle, 311 362 33 358, sonn to Sir Francis 137 47 437 Lidle, 252 139 362 32 358 of the county of Durham, that is come with his lady out of Flanders, and intends forthwith for London. The knight before his going away gave me notice of this person, and that he would come with his lady, and so for London; and understanding by his sonn, that he was come to Dort, I sent for him, and he tells me, that Ch. Stuart, upon suspicion that the old knight was gone for England, sent for him, and talked with him privately about two houres, and asking whether he had noe notice thereof, which he said he denyed. This gentleman confesseth to me, that about christmas last, he carryed a 441 279 16 letter from the old knight to one W e e s y Ma t f in, that keepes the corner shop on the Sandhill in Newcastle, on the left hand as you turn to go from of the Sandhill up the side, and that he did deliver the said letter to him, and brought an answer from him to the old knight, and that he went as a seaman, and landed at Hull, and that he went on foote from Hull to Newcastle beging all the way, as one that had been taken by a Flanders man of warre, and robed of all. This he confesses, supposing, as I could perceive by him, that the old knight had before acquainted me therewith; yet withall I think fitt to let you know, that in all his discourses he would not acknowledge, that he had spoken with any of the gentry of those countryes, and that none of them would take any notice of the letter, that the old knight had sent; which yet seems hardly imaginable, considering the friends and relations, that this person hath there among the gentry; nor indeede can I at all credit him heerein, but that considering, that if he should accuse any, he could not escape his own kindred, upon this accompt he would excuse them all. And I am more then half of opinion, that Ch. Stuart hath put this story into his mouth, and bid him goe over with it according to what he had fore agreed with the old knight, on purpose to weaken, as much as could be, any thing that the old knight should discover against the gentry. But for Matsin, that he confesseth absolutely; so that as to him you may have enough to deal with him, and an example in those countryes may not be amiss, where none has bin made of a long time, and particularly it may be of consequence in that so populous and considerable towne. I have given him a passe, and a little money, to bring him to you; yet desiring that this might meete him, and he proffers 50 to do you any service; 270 510 206 138 286 153 71 251; and he saith, that he doubts not but to be able to returne 289 155 134 with such a tale as to take away 14 463 358 217 477 all suspicion, 199 143 524 429 475 412, and possibly it may not be amiss to try him.
Tom. Howard brother to the 32 21 443 468 131 477 468 earl of Suffolk, 358 408 139 154 48 304 84 350, had a w ho or in this country, with which he trusted 279 all his secrets and papers: 289 140 207 123 15 426 135 142: theis two afterwards falling out, a person 56 418 14 426 134 141 in this town got all the 160 390 314 149 199 468 122 14 papers from her: 144 306 64 286: whereupon Tom Howard 483 133 34 began a suit in law against the said party to the value of 10000 l. and did plead in open court, that the reason why he began the said suite, and upon pretence of so high damages, was, because he did not know, but that he might fall to be heir to the earl his brother; 39 13 133 358 327 22 443 468 136; and that there were among the said papers 14 426 135 140 some, which, if discovered, 267 144 254 153 286 279, would be his ruin 339. This he pleaded in the court, and having notice thereof, have so farr prevailed 134 41 153 14 170 85 279, as that the originall letter and papers are now in my hands; copyes whereof I have herein inclosed to you; but I am engaged not to part with the originalls, untill, in the first place, I shall, give assurance to the party, from whom I have them, to indemnify him, for that he is affraid every day of being cast in the suite; and if so, he must either slye the countrey, which he cannot doe, or he shal be put to his oath, whether those which he delivers be all, and he can less forswear himself. After he had given me a sight of them, he was most vehemently earnest to have them back againe; but I told him, that being papers of that nature, I durst not, upon any terms, part with them, whatever the issue thereof should be: whereupon we came to this conclusion, that he was contented to leave them with me, upon my engagement to him, that I should not part with them out of my hands till he were indemnifyed. Howard 483 131 32 hath offered him 500 l. sterling for them, and rather than sayle, if money would doe it, would give thrice the money; but I have gott them, and shall endeavour to keep them, God willing, in attendance of your farther orders. It is the same Tom Howard that was in the 467 488 339 468 town; 159 286; and Ch. Stuart's letter to him refers to that his journey into England. 547. I beleeve by some inclings which I have, that he is desirous to go againe into England: 547: what if you should let him have a passe 425 (if he shall desire it) as about his private affaires, 514 466 192 298 170 134 287, and then seize him; 71 174 42 326; or other wise that you think fitt, to let the busines lye by a time, as to the making use of it against him. 148 14 310 326. But if it should be known, 390, that I have given you this account, 184 258, he would endeavour to have me killed 84 35.
I have given De Witt two or three times most particular and certaine accompts o major Whitford's lodging first in this towne, and then at Rotterdam, and then at Amsterdam, which Whitford was he that clove Dorislaus's head; but its still 24 houres ere an order can be got out, every towne hath such a daile of privileges, and he never lyes but a night in a place. His busines hither, with some others, was to have served me as they did Dorislaus, and so to have gone for Muscovy, with armes thither from Amsterdam. De Witt asked me the other day, how I thought his highnesse would take this busines of the king of Sweden's makeing a new warr against the king of Denmark? I told him, it was impossible for me to conjecture, not knowing so much as the reasons wherefore the king of Sweden had done it. This country is certainly most extreamly nettled, and it is scattered up and downe by the Spanish party, that this action of the king of Sweden against the king of Denmark is done by joynt consent of the lord protector and king of France, thereby to render them all alike odious; yet there are of the wiser fort here, that are of another opinion, and who doe say, that they doe beleeve his highnesse will make a difference betweene this and the former warr betweene the said two kings; and if the country can understand, that his highnesse will not interest himself, it will goe a greater way in their councills. Surely by this next post there will come some manifesto, whereby mens eyes may be a little opened; and I cannot be out of hope, that the king of Sweden hath already given his highnesse an accompt of this action, and when he shall be pressed, then 287 the lord protector's endeavours for him may be more welcome; 136 143 305 326 377 231 384 132 40 160 42 83 255; but yet I doe think, that my lord protector is interested upon his own accompt, and upon the account of trade, 141 437 263, to have a hand in the treaty between 148 the king of Sweden and the king of Poland; but its oftentimes 17 a bad 35 thing to be too kind. 112 351 106 34.
Mr. Claypoole is undoubtedly long ere this with you. I doe not know any thing farther concerning the ship of 16 guns, which was brought into the Texel. I have at last
prevailed, that a ship of Yarmouth, which was brought into Edam by a Flanders man of
warr, is restored to the owner, upon the accompt that the man of warr was begining to
unlade her; and for the doeing thereof, I was faine to get an order of the states general, and
of the states of Holland, and of the burgemasters of Edam. Yet noe sooner was the ship
released, but forthwith a new arrest was clapt upon her, out of the court of Holland,
whereby all was dasht, and the poor man cast into a labrinth, out of which there would
have bin no getting, but by representing seriously the matter and consequences of it. I
have obteyned out of the said court a countermande to take of the said arrest; and the poor
merchant is gone himself to Edam with it. And I now hope, that the busines is past all
danger, and I am endeavouring the same as to several other ships, which they were beginning to unlade. For the busines of the East-Indye ships, though the order is not as I
could wish, yet I beleeve it is more than ever was done in the like kinde, and at which
the East-Indy company here are sufficiently troubled, as thinking it too much; and I
sent you a whole bundle of papers concerning the whole proceedings in the East-Indyes
against the said ships, which were given me by De Witt, and which I sent you in a pacquet
of 17 instant, which I sent by the Drake frigat; in which frigat went also the old knight.
I have herein inclosed to you a particular accompt concerning Jeremi Van Collen, which
is from very good hands, and wherein you will have an account, I think, of the bottome
of his busines. I herein inclosed send to you also a copy of the last paper given me by
the Portugal ambassador; and I shall, in pursuance of your orders in your letter, which
I received by the post this day, demeane my self in that busines as hitherto I have done;
but this new action of the K. of Sweden is like extreamly to advance that treaty. I blesse
God with all my heart, that his highnesse is on the mending hand, and I hope both he and
you will thinke of his children; I mean England, Scotland, and Ireland, what they shall
do, if it shold please God to take him away: to leave them in civil warres after his death
would be very sad; and more sad, seeing in an ordinary way it may be prevented; and
indeed all the other councills are but little ones to this. Pardon me, I did intend on
Lord's-day last, and ever since, to have sent an expresse to you, but the winds have been
quite contrary; but this friggatt called the Fame, whereof capt. Wright is commander,
I have thought it my duty to write, and to presse him to make all hast, least the king
of Sweden shold not have given you notice of what is passed, and probably this may
something influence the deportment towards my lord Nieuport, and stoppe some answers,
which might otherwise be given him. At this instant, it is strongly reported, that 20
English men of warre are gone towards the Sound, and said to joyn with the king of Sweden
in this businesse; and but I have thought it my duty to say, that when the last post came
away, his highness knew nothing of this busines, I adde only, that I am,
Hague, Aug. 29, 58. [N. S.]
Mr. Downing to secretary Thurloe.
YEsterday I wrote to you by captain Wright, commander of the Fame frigott, and desired him to make all possible haste, and hope that the same will be with you before this; and although it is possible that Monsieur Meadows, or the king of Sweden himself, may have given his highness an accompt of so important an action; yet I thought it my duty for more sureness to send as soone as I could. We have as yet noe farther accompt of that business, nor any manifesto of the king of Sweden's; and its verily beleeved, that he is e're this wholly master of Zeeland; and the queene and prince of Denmark either fled into Norway, or prisoners, or some new agreement made between the said two kings, such as the king of Sweden will please to demand; although most men here are of opinion, that he will drive his business to the utmost, which seemes very strange, and you may be sure doth sufficiently open all mens mouths against him, who are not very tenderly affected towards him. I suppose that by this post you will have fresher newes from Amsterdam than any I can give you; for that wee receive not our Hamburg letters, till the English post be gone from hence; but they come to Amsterdam before the English post goes away from them. I saw a letter yesterday out of Germany, which sayd, that the treaty between the French ambassadors and the ambassadors of their confederates, for making the treaty of Munster and Norenburg, was signed; but I doe not finde, that any other letters make mention of it; so that the certainty thereof must be attended till the next. I have herein inclosed to you an accompt, which came lately to the French ambassador heere from their ambassador, which is endeavouring a peace betweene the great duke of Muscovy and the king of Sweden; and for what further I referr you to the above-mentioned expresse; onely give me leave to add, that all men are extreamly inquisitive here, how his highness will relish this attempt of the king of Sweden, and am,
Hague, Aug. 30. 1658. [N. S.]
The Polish envoye was yesterday in conference with the deputyes of the states, about makeing a treaty of allyance, and about borrowing of money. The states of Holland have sent a Galliot to their ambassador Beuningen at Copenhagen, to understand how matters are there.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Ceux de Hollande se monstrent surpris de la descente des Suedois en Zeelande, mais ils sçavent bien, quel suject ils ont continuellement donné a Sweden, car on a veu clair, que Hollande auroient recommencé le meme jeu avec Denmark, sitost que Sweden en auroit esté de hors: pour cette sin sont icy ceux de Denm. l'emp. Brand. Poland, et l'on sçait les meneés, que le ambass. est. gen. a tramé continuellement en Denmark; enaigrissant tousjours les affaires. Espagne n'auroit pas esté capable de faire un pas contre tant et de si puissants enemis, si il n'estoit pas asseuré par derniere. En effect les est. de Holl. ne se soucient point de la ratification du traitté a Elbing; ayant l'opinion de Sweden, qu'il ne leur gardera pas parole, mesurant le cœur d'autruy par leur, et neantmoins ils out depuis quelque tempe commencé a cajoler fort le resident de Sweden, luy proposants, qu'ils vouloient restaurer la conference et bonne correspondence avec Sweden; confessants, que l'amitie depuis dix ans n'avoit rien valu entre Sweden et Holl. mais qu'a present Hollande vouloit effectivement restabler la vieille bonne amitie, consiance, et correspondence; pour quelle sin? pour induire par ce moyen le Sweden a quitter le Denmark, et son advantage, et par apres luy donner le coup par derriere, comme deja ils ont fait un sois. Et meme pour parvenir tant mieux a cela, ils ont extrement cajolé le resid. de Cromwel. Le Raet pensionaire tache a luy donner continuellement des impressions, que maintenant Hollande sont fort sincerement intentionnes pour le bien de Cromwell comme si Cromwell auroit perdu la memoire, comment des l'an 1652 ils ont conspiré avec Dennemark a la ruine de Cromwell. Toute la haine principale de Hollande contre Sweden n'estant, que par ce que Sweden demeuroit amy de Cromwell, comme si Cromwell auroit oublié comment les est. de Holl. voulent engloutir tout commerce au prejudice de Cromwell les estats generaux scavent trop bien les discours, que le raed pensionaire Beverning, Nieuport ont tenu et tiennent tant de Cromwell que des siens. Et si les estats de Hollande se pouvoient sier, que les autres estats generaux les suivroient, desja ils auroient resolu alliance contre Cromwell France pour Espagne; mais ils savent bien; que d'ordinaire, il y en a des estats generaux, qui leur sont contraires, et en si hauts affairs, ce que l'un veut, l'autre ne veut pas. Pour revenir a Sweden, il faut que chacun sache ses affaires, et prenne ses mesures. Et l'interest de Cromwell est d'approuver ce que ses envieux desapprouvent; et specialment les estats de Hollande cui non notus Hylas? et Cromwell tirera du dessein de Sweden s'il reussit, des tres notables fruits; mais Sweden ne fauroit estre capable de rien faire fans s'asseurer par derriere. Je suis,
Ce 30 Aug. 1658. [N. S.]
De Witt to Nieuport, the Dutch ambassador in England.
Your letter of the 23d instant is come safe to hand; you will undoubtedly admire to hear of the descent of the king of Sweden in Zealand, and the enterprize upon Gluckstadt, &c. whereof the continuation with the ordinary post from Hamburgh is come, as you will perceive by the inclosed copies. The lord states of Holland and West Friesland did meet upon this extraordinary advertisement, and their noble great lordships commissioners have consulted upon the said advertisement, and have unanimously resolved and judged, that this state is obliged by virtue of the alliance powerfully to assist the king of Denmark in his distress: what will be resolved by their noble great lordships upon this said advice, I will inform you in my next.
In the mean time I will not doubt, but that the said design of the king of Sweden will have been undertaken, without the knowledge and communication of the lord protector, as the resident Downing did seriously assure me; and that consequently his highnesse may be easily induced together with their high and mighty lordships to take the business to heart. There is nothing yet resolved upon the lord ambassador of Portugal his further memorandum. The envoy of the emperor is here; but yet he holds himself incognito, his followers not being in order.
The English resident to the states general.
The under-written resident of England being certainly informed, that about the 24th of June last past, an English vessel, called the Love and Friendship of Burlington, whereof the master was one William Jarrett, and coming from Norway with her lading of planks, was taken by one Peter Thysen of Ostend, against whom he had formerly made complaint, and carried to Delsryl, in the province of Groninguen, where by order of the said Thysen, the said loading was sold, and delivered to the buyers; and that notwithstanding the order of the magistrates of the said place to the contrary.
And being further informed, that about the 29th of July last past, an English ship, called Alexander, whereof the master was one George Oomer, laden with flax and other merchandizes at Middlebourg in Zealand, and sailing from thence towards London, was taken by one Scot of Ostend, and carried by him to Flushing, where he hath taken out and disposed a great deal of the lading and tackling of the said ship: all which being contrary to the neutrality of their harbours, and to the amity of peace between his master and the United Provinces, the said resident doth most earnestly desire, that it would please their lordships to give such orders to the admiralties of Middleburgh and Harlinguen respectively, as that the said vessels with their lading and tackling may be forthwith restored to their proprietors; and the said resident finding no end of complaints of this nature, cannot but at last (though with much regret) make known, that the subjects of his master have upon this only account suffered more in their shipping in, and merchandises by the havens, and subjects of the United Provinces, since the peace made between his master and them, while in open war with them, yea and that the havens of the United Netherlands are from day to day more prejudicious and injurious to them, then the havens of the Spanish Netherlands.
And although that it is true, that it hath pleased their lordships to return fair and promising answers to the many memorials which have been presented to them by the said resident of this kind, yet that it is as true, that the subjects of his master (except in one only case) have not found any real affection, reparation, or redress thereby; yea that instead thereof, some of the said pirates, for he can call them no otherwise, who sell and dispose ships and goods before or without some sentence obtained in some court of admiralty, have not only threatned, but been able farther to trouble and vex such of the subjects of his master, as in pursuance of the resolutions of their lordships have endeavoured to obtain their just rights.
High and Mighty Lords,
The under-written ministers of his majesty of Denmark and Norway, &c. do not doubt, but their lordships have understood as well by their memorial 25 August past, as by the letters and advice which are arrived since, that the king of Sweden, notwithstanding the peace lately made with his majesty, by the mediation of the king of France, and protector of the common-wealth of England, &c. hath without any cause, and at unawares, invaded with his army the island of Zealand (not speaking of the hostilities committed in Holstein) to attack Copenhagen, and surprize the said citty with the Sound, so that it will not be necessary to inform your lordship by a more large recital of the unheard-of excesses so much detested by all Christian princes; but that they judge it sit effectually to pray their lordships to be pleased in their great prudence to consider the attempts and enterprises of the Swedes, and what the consequence thereof will be to the absolute ruin of the trade of the United Provinces, yea of the states also; therefore requiring your lordships, according to orders which they have received, not only to take a forcible resolution in conformity to the treaties of alliance of the year 1649 and 1657, made for the assurance of commerce, but for their own interest to assist the king of Denmark for the timely prevention of so dangerous and prejudicial attempts against the crown of Denmark, and to the subjects of this province; and (the fleet being absent) to cause to be most speedily equipped all such ships as are capable, and providing as soon as possible with souldiers and musquets, which may be speedily drawn from the companies to do the more service in such pressing occasions, whereunto we attend a most speedy and favourable answer.