A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 7, March 1658 - May 1660. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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September (3 of 4)
Intelligence sent by resident Downing.
There hath been read in the assembly a certain memorial of the resident Downing, whereby he communicateth to their high mightinesses, that the lord Richard, eldest son of the late lord protector, hath been unanimously proclaimed protector in the place of the lord his father. Whereupon, after deliberation, it hath been found good hereby to require the deputies Huygens and others of their high mightinesses, that they would charge two of their company to go (in this extraordinary occasion of condoling and congratulating, as also in consideration that the said resident goes not yet abroad) to his house to condole with him about the decease of the lord protector; and then to congratulate about the succession and reception of the present lord protector, in the place of the lord his father, all with such compliments as befit such an occasion.
There hath been again produced in the assembly the memorial presented to their high mightinesses the 28th of last August, by the embassador of Portugal, with two papers with it; being in effect an answer to the resolution of their high mightinesses of the 13th of the same month, touching the satisfaction which is pretended to be given to this state by the king and crown of Portugal. Whereupon, after deliberation, their high mightinesses have declared, as they do now declare by these presents, that they cannot accept the offer made in the memorial aforesaid, or thence receive any satisfaction or content; but to insist upon the demand heretofore made to the said king and crown, in the name of this state. Wherefore the said embassador is required, that he would make overtures of offers, that are more satisfactory. and such as may be accepted.
There hath been read the report of the deputies Huygens and others of their high mightinesses, for the affairs of the sea, according to their resolution of the 14th instant, having seen and examined the letter of the college of the admiralty of Rotterdam, dated the 18th of the same, with some papers, amongst others a report in writing of John Snaets, provost of the arches, touching Cornelius Bomler, ayant commission de Flandres, and his English prize, which (as it hath been represented by the resident Downing) is entered into Gorée. Whereupon, after deliberation, it hath been found good, that a letter shall be written to the said college, that they would proceed, and cause to proceed, in the business of Cornelius Bomler, according to the placarts of this country; and the extract of this resolution of their high mightinesses shall be given into the hands of the resident Downing, to serve him for information.
There hath been read in the assembly a certain memorial of the resident Downing, containing complaints, that an English ship, called the Rebecca of Ipswich, whereof the master was George Berkenham, was taken the 4th instant by Peter Derwelly of Ostend, and brought to Tervere in Zeland, and there taken out of her the best tackling and other goods to the value of 500 l. and exposed to sale; whereupon, after deliberation, it hath been found good, that a copy of the said memorial shall be sent to the college of the admiralty in Zeland, with request and command, that they would inform themselves of this business, and then proceed according to the placart of the 9th of August last, set forth for the like subject; as also, to advertise their high mightinesses of what they should have done therein. And an extract of this resolution of their high mightinesses shall be sent to the said resident, to serve him for information.
After deliberation, it hath been resolved, that letters be written to the king of Denmark, that the fleet under lieutenant-admiral Wassenaer, or Opdam, together with the troops destined for the succours of his majesty, is ready to go to sea; and that their high mightinesses believe verily, that it set sail yesterday, or at the farthest will this day, it the wind be good, in such order, as their high mightinesses hope, that it may deliver his majesty and his states from the oppression it now lies under; and the said letter shall be given to the college of the admiralty of Amsterdam, to send it by a galliot, and two copies sent to the resident Romer at Hamburgh, with order to send it safe as may be; and two more copies shall for the same purpose be given to the two ministers of his said majesty here.
There hath been read a memorial of resident Copes's, whereby he gave notice, that the elector of Brandenburg would depart the 17th instant from Berlin, to follow his army, and enter into Holstein, having first joined with the imperial troops, and there to deliver the king of Denmark; and that his electoral highness hopes, that their high mightinesses will not sail to make appear the same vigour by water as the elector will by land; and since the ravagings, that the Swedes have done in Holstein, shall cause that the armies of the allies will there find but little provision, the said resident proposeth to consideration, whether it will not be expedient to encourage the subjects of these provinces, that with their ships they carry provision to the river Elbe, to sell it there to their profit. Whereupon, after deliberation, it hath been resolved, that letters shall be writ to embassador Isbrants, now with the said elector; that he shall assure his electoral highness, that their high mightinesses have done their endeavour to make their fleet on lieutenant-admiral Opdam to set fail; that it consists of 20 great ships of war, provided for 38 companies of foot, besides mariners, which are all to be employed for the service of the king of Denmark; and that according to the letter of the deputies of their high mightinesses, dated the 25th at the Vlie, the said fleet was ready to go to sea; and that by the grace of God, the wind favourable, there is no doubt but that it is gone forth, and that the said fleet shall be every day augmented by ships, which are still equipping. But as for the two parts of the said memorial, for provision to be sent to the river Elbe, the states of Holland and Friseland have promised to recommend it to the sea towns of their provinces; and a copy of this resolution shall be given to the said resident, to serve him for an information.
There was read a letter from the deputies of their high mightinesses, from the Vlie, 26th instant, containing amongst other things the endeavours, that they continue to set forth the fleet under lieutenant-admiral de Wassenaer Opdam, which hath been ready since the 25th; but that, according to the attestation of pilots, it hath been impossible to get out by ill weather and contrary winds; and that they would do their utmost to effect the intention of their high mightinesses. Whereupon, after deliberation, it hath been resolved, that answer shall be sent to the said deputies, that their high mightinesses are pleased with their endeavours, and desire that they continue the same without any delay; and it shall be proposed to them to consider, that whilst there was war with England, it was found by experience, that the ships of war, though the wind was not good, got forth in the night by help of some barks placed near the buoys, and making fires; and that their high mightinesses judge it expedient, that the like way be made use of in this occasion, as they recommend the same to them, in case that before the receipt hereof the wind shall not be good to go forth by day; and the extract of this resolution shall be sent to the college of the admiralty of Rotterdam and Zeland; that they endeavour to set to sea all the ships under them, that they still equip, and to send them to the said fleet; and that they shall advertise their high mightinesses from time to time of what they shall effect; and these dispatches shall be sent away without delay.
The underwritten resident of England, &c. being certainly informed, that an English ship, called the Rachel of London, loaden with Scotch coals, whereof one Lewis Bowlden was master, was taken by one Jacob Zacharias of Ostend, and brought into Medemblic, and there hath been sold, and taken out of her, a considerable part of her lading of coals, besides eight great guns, and some sails, and tackling, wherewith the magistrates of the said town having been made acquainted, have secured the said ship with the afore-mentioned goods, the said resident doth desire, that it will please their lordships (in like manner as in their resolution of the 5th of August last past) to give speedy and effectual orders for the restitution of the said ship and goods to the proprietors thereof. Given at the Hague, the . . . . . October, 1658.
The underwritten resident Copes had orders from the elector of Brandenburg his master to salute your high mightinesses, and to give them notice, that he was ready to enter with his army into Holstein, together with the forces of the emperor and Poland, to deliver the king of Denmark from the hands of the king of Sweden, now besieging Copenhagen, contrary to the treaty of peace made by the mediation of France and England; and his electoral highness hopes, that your high mightinesses will manifest the same zeal in so good a work by water, which his highness shall essay by land, to force so dangerous an enemy to a reasonable peace; and that tho' the castle be surrendered, yet that it will not hinder the good intention of your high mightinesses, but rather render you the more vigorous and speedy, that so whilst there is time, the business may be put in such a way, that this enemy may not be able to trouble the public quiet, and render the damage irreparable, as the great hans towns, Lubeck and Hamburg, and the countries about, already feel the cruelty of the Swedes, who burn and plunder, sparing none, but shewing a tyranny and barbarousness unheard of, to make appear, that they have a greater desire to continue the war, than to make peace; these examples of tyranny being without example, never heard of in the former wars of Christendom. And because this will cause, that the armies of the allies will find there little provision, it is put to the consideration of their high mightinesses, if it will not be expedient to encourage the subjects of this state to carry provision to the Elbe, and sell it to their advantage; whereby his electoral highness may deliver those parts from so cruel an enemy, and save so many widows and orphans, who are by the high-ways dying for hunger and other misery, cry for vengeance to God, that their tears may be wiped away by the blood of these inhuman people.
The countess of Ranelagh to the lord Broghill.
My dear dear brother,
I must owne not to have received the news of his highness's death unmovedly; though, when I consider, I find it's no more than a repetition of that lesson, that I have often binn taught, of the vanety of man in his best and highest estate. And sure he, that shall think, that that very person, who a few days before shooke all Europe by his same and forces, should not be able to keepe an ague from shakeing him, nor to keepe himselfe from being shaken into his grave by a few fits thereoff, even in the midest of victorys and succeses, that had raised both great feares and great expectations of him in both his enemys and allyes, can't but see, how wise a council that is, which bid us, Cease from man, whose breath is in his nostrils; for wherein is be to be accompted of? And how mortefying a consideration may it justly be to all the greatnes in this world, to think, that he, who kept such a bustle in the world, should not now be able to keepe himselfe from crumbleing into dust; nor after he had commanded soe many vast armys and fleetes, have power to list a finger to remove those wormes, that his designeing braines corupt into ? Certainely he may justly be esteemed improvident, that after such a warneing, shal make noe better provision for himselfe, than the greatest stock of such vanishing greatness comes too, of which we have had express manifestations, both of his coming into and goeing out of his governement. And if the common charety allowed to dead men be exersised towards him, in burying his faults in his grave with himselfe, and keepeing alive the memory of his vertues and great aymes and actions, he wil be allowed to have his place amongst the worthyest of men; and that's but a poore place neither; for though same be not to ayreie for opinnion to live in, it's too little substantial for an immortal soule in the exersise of it's rational faculties to find satisfaction in. I doubt his loss wil be a growing affliction upon these nations, and that we shal learne to value him more by missing him, than we did when we injoyed him; a perversenes of our nature, that teaches us in every condition, wherein we are, therewith to be discontent, by undervaluing what we have, and overvaluing what we have lost. I confes his performances reached not the makeing good of his professions; but I doubt his performances may goe beyond the professions of those, who may come after him. Al this I say, not as grumbleing at that wise and good hand, that has taken him away, but as laying before you, why I think we should not receive soe smart a blow from that hand, without haveing such a sence thereoff, as may really humble us under it, and cause us soe to sett upon mending our ways by this judgment, that we may prevent the worse that are yet to come, if this produce not that effect upon particular persons and these nations in generall.
And now at the foote of this great accoumpt of loss upon publick score, I must come
in with the penny halfe-penny of my owne particular, who can thorough the goodnes of
God say truely, I did even, when I sought his assistance, consider what has now happened, and many other accidents, that might have happened, as very possible to intervene
betweene my seekeing and obtaineing of it. Yet I thought it rational to seek it as farr as I
did, and knew that whatever accident either should or might happen, was stil under the
ordering of God, to whom I desiered to comit my cause. For I have binn taught by experience and the mercy of God, to look upon probabilities in human affayres as upon a fayre
gale of wind, when one is to cross the seas: it's solly not to sett out with them, and no less
folly not to looke upon them as changeable. They ought not to be the principles of our actings,
but may be the opertuneties of them; and if the former be pious and honest, and the
latter rationally taken, whatever comes betweene us and the events we looked for, we
may still be satisfied, and leave those to the disposeing of him, who alone is the Lord of
them. Therefore his death neither makes me condemne myself for having made applycation to him, nor repine at God for takeing him away, before I had received the fruits of
that applycation; but it makes me judg myself obliged to consider seriously, what I am
called to doe upon the change, that this great turne has brought upon my smale affayres:
and haveing endeavoured in some measure to doe soe, I easely perceive, that his death
makes that letter of his, that you brought with you over, and have now sent me, of noe
use to the end, for which it was desiered, and soe takes away what engagement lay upon
me to stay in this country, in expectation of what effects it's delivery would produce.
In the next place it's as evident, that by the same accident I am put to an end of the expectations I might have had of some returne about the adress I made to his highnese, in
poynt of the lease or inheritance of those lands, that I told you of, which was another
expectation, that I then thought it convenient for me to wayte upon here; and now also his
highness is dead, wheather there will be any parliament sudainely called, or in case there
should, wheather you would think yourselfe obliged to goe to it or no, I know not,
and soe am taken off all the ground, upon which in relation to my owne affayres I suspended my journey into England, which I now thinke myselfe obliged to take up the
thoughts of againe upon these reasons. There is noething to be donn here in my affayres
one way or other, friends haveing first donn their best therein in vaine; and my lord
deputy either has donn his best, or had noe mind to doe soe. Next, his now highness
seemes not to me soe proper a person to summon my lord, or deale with him in such an
affayre, as his father did, from whose authorety and severety against such practices, as my
lord's are, I thought the uttmost would be donn, that either persuasions or advice would
have effected upon my lord, who, if he should be brought before one not fitted to deale
with him at that rate, would be but confirmed in, instead of constrained out of, his owne
way; soe as there being little hopes left of bringing him to reason either here or there, I
thinke my present worke is to seeke a maintenance for me and my children without him;
and that by persueing the petition I drew up to preferr to his father, which I think wil be
but coldly done, unless I persue it myselfe, since you are now here, and can but recommend it by letter; and of what force those are from an absent partty, I have binn too
much taught by experience to be to learne now. It askes noething in present, nor for a
long time, from his now highness, that he is like to get himselfe, if he give it not mee:
he has yet the same council his father had, amongst which I have some frends; and he is
likelyest to be most obliging himselfe at first, espetially in doeing favours without expence
to himselfe. If I get it, I shal need no more as to poynt of maintenance; and since it's
probable I may get it, if it be vigorously persued, and more probable that I may get it
now than hereafter, and certaine, that in seekeing it I do but what al good laws make my
duty, use honest endeavors in order to provideing for myselfe and famelly, so as to keepe
us from feeling extreametys, or from being kept from them by being burdensome to
friends; I cannot see a ground of satisfaction in siting stil without useing such endeavours,
espetially since I beleeve scarce any person, that does but rationally reflect upon the
condition of these nations, does not see, that by his highness's death, God has given a
warneing-peece of great confusions and disorders aproaching upon these nations, against
which every wise man wil surely take this opertunety of present peace, (which is now soe
visibly like to be short-lived amongst us) to provide himselfe, and those who God makes
it his duty to take care off: and one rational way of that provision (as to outward things)
must easely be discerned to be an abridging of unnecessary expences; and those I am sure I
have already put my friends to long enough to make it very uneasy to myselfe, and with
as great a crossness to my humor, as it has binn to the aymes, with which I at first consented to retyre amongst them from my lord's opressions; and that uneasynes would by
reason of these circumstances be soe much increased upon me now, that it would make my
life a burden to me. And besides, though I can remove lightly, and need bestowe but few
thoughts or cares in gathering my wealth together, or considering how to dispose of it, I
have some provision to make against this riseing storme in geting a greater stabilety of
thoughts, and preparednes of mind, than can be descomposed by the shakeing of the world;
and to the makeing of that provision retyrednes is absolutely necessary, and therefore into
that I desier to hasten, which not being to be got in this country by me, because of the
unkindnes of my friends, and the unreasonablenes of my lord, I shal seeke it, and I hope
speedely get into it, in England, wheather the very season of the yeere cals me to get as
fast as I can, and where, if I find noe other provision, I shall have a much experienced
providence to depend upon, which was all the meanes I had for the greatest part of the
time I lived there, and which is the surest and richest provision in the world to those,
whom God enables willingly to roule themselves upon it. And to that, I hope, I shal gladly
betake myselfe; yet would not execute these thoughts, til I had acquainted both my brother Corke and you with them, who haveing noething to opose against them, but your
unreasonable kindnes to me, I shal have resolution enough to resist that with as greate and
greater resentments of gratitude for it, than I can express by yeelding to stay longer here,
where I am altogether unserviceable, and yet very chargeable to my friends, and where,
as I told you before, my children are neither like to be prefered in marryage, nor prepared
for the narrow condition their father's obstinacy condemnes them to live in. And for proosse,
that I goe not as declineing being obliged to you, (a thing to much consented to by me
already to be now declined) but chuse to be soe in a way, wherein your favours may assist
my owne endeavours towards geting a subsistance, and rather than in one, whereby you
might keepe me from those necessary and honest endeavours, I shall beg your letters to
such of your friends at Whitehal, as you think they wil ingage to be assistant to me in
getting his now highness's speedy answer to my petition; for by that I shall either speedely
be put to order that grant soe as to get a subsistance out of it, or by being taken of off
the thoughts thereoff, be set free to seek it in some other way, wherein my owne honest
endeavours may contribute towards it, and hold forth to the world, as wel as more cleerely
evidence to my owne conscience, that I left not my lord upon humor, but necessety; and
that in soe doing I sought privacy, and submitted to scarsety, rather then persued a croud,
or designed aboundance to myselfe, which, in the way I have hetherto binn amongst my
friends, may have binn suspected; and none has more reason to suspect my owne hart, than
I have; and only upon tryal shal I find, wheather I be mistaken in suspecting it or noe;
and since God thus seemes to cal me to put it to that, it is in my purpose to doe soe, who
shal be, where-ere I am, unsaynedly and affectionately yours,
The 17. September, 1658.
When your leasure permits you, I beg you would remember to write to my lady Francis Courtenay to the purpose I told you the morning you went hence; and that, if you can, you would afford me some guilt paper, my stocke being gonn, and noe supply to be got at Youghall.
My brother Corke has been ill, since he was with you; and my sister has kept him company in being soe. Also the deare 'squire, in one by this post, desiers me to inquire of you, what you have done with captain Courtrope, about 2 morgages of his, of which he desiers a speedy accoumpt. If you can send me any by this bearer, I shal send it him by the post.
My affectionate service, I beseech you, to my deare sister and the children. I did last week let you know, that I was on the behalfe of a friend of myne to pay in 50 l. to honest Standish, that he had directed me to pay it to any knowne officer of horse in this country, takeing from them such a receipt as is here inclosed, that the money lyes ready here, and I loath to pay it to any other, til I had inquired, wheather you would receive it, and signe the receipt, that I may send it, if by the post, to honest Standish. I beg your answer about it now, and shall immediatly send the mony, if you signe the receipt. Standish presents his service to you very humblely; and desires you should know, that the buisseness that seemed to have binn donn for him, is vanished into a just nothing.
Intelligence sent by Mr. Downing.
The duke of York and Gloucester parted from Antwerp, and came to Sevenbergen, and lay there all night; and the next day being sunday, they came about 10 at night to the Hague, and the duke of York came up into the princess royal's chamber, when she was almost in bed, and only her nurse and maid with her. There he staid with her all night, and betimes the next morning went away. The princess royal followed him, and lay at Sevenbergen that night, where were the two dukes with her, and there they staid together four nights, and then the dukes went to Flanders, and the princess to the Hague.
The day before the dukes came from Antwerp, they were in council there with the king, and chancellor, and lord Ormond, concerning the affairs of England. And the result was, that they should send over to all their concerned friends in England, to know in what condition their business was since the death of the protector; and upon understanding their condition, he would give further instructions. So in the mean time all things rest, and Charles Stuart is gone to Brussels, and there doth nothing but take his pleasure. The lord Gerard is ordered to France to the queen, and only attends his pass from the French court. Massey, alderman Bunce, Mr. Wood, and captain Titus, are gone from Antwerp to Amsterdam, to Middleton; and their business is to stickle among the presbyterians and clergy; and Massey places much of his hopes upon the dissatisfaction of the fifth-monarchymen. There is lately come from England old Colte the great gamester; he was in this country about 3 months since. There is one Williams with him, who lives next door to the pump in Covent-Garden, who was formerly accused for concealing several persons in the last plot, which he consesseth he did. There is also with them one Hearne, a Huntingdonshire man, who goes by the name of Williams: he consesseth he was the man, who bought up all the arms in London, to send into the several countries for the last plot, and there were warrants out for him, and 1000 l. was to be given to him that could take him. These are all gone to Charles Stuart, and will return again within 5 or 6 days. Sir Marmaduke Longdale is at Brussels. Charles Stuart and all the court are dejected, and very dull, finding things so well settled in England. Colonel Stephens, and Phillips, and his wise, are still at Brussels. Little Ma. Strahan is ordered by Middleton to stay at Rotterdam, because there will be some occasion for him; for he must be the messenger into Scotland. He lies at Mrs. Moreton's, the Scotish house in Rotterdam upon the Shedam dike. Middleton is maintained at Amsterdam upon the charge of some merchants, who in the time of war between Holland and England had designed to send him to fall into Scotland with some ships and men. The abovewritten account I have from colonel Palmer; and the following letter is from one Thomas Elliot of Charles Stuart's bed-chamber, to a confident friend of his in the Hague, 361 346 306 413 477 90 217 40 82 362 112 146 147 408 572 231 33 26 319 89 20 286 477 14 254 107 302 263 106 147 48 441 282 408 326 339 468 319 318 40, and much to be credited. 279 68 146 279.
When I first heard of Cromwell's death, I was of that opinion, that our great man had provided for that great accident, that it could never have happened; but that we should have made a present advantage by it; but I find our great men are of opinion, that he dyed two months too soon, their designs not being yet ripe for so good a fortune. All I can learne is, that we are not provided to do any thing, and that we must expect from their divisions a rise to make our fortunes; and to be of another opinion differing from this, is to be an heretic here. The Spaniards are all unsatisfied with us, and, what will be next, I dare not think. The dukes are not yet returned, but we expect him here in two or three letters; he is to leave this country, but who will come in his place, I know not.
Lord Broghill to secretary Thurloe.
Tho' I did on munday last trouble you with a letter, yet haveinge now also received the honnor of another from you of the 7th instant, I could not but pay you my humble and harty acknowledgments for it, and that in such a deepe affliction as that you are under, and that loade of business you support, you can yet oblidge with your letters a person soe unworthy of them, and soe insignificant, as I am. Your last is so express a picture of sorrow, that none could draw it soe well, that did not feele it. I know our late loss wounds deepely both the publike and yourselfe, and yourselfe more upon the publike accounte then your owne. But I thinke sorow for frinds is more tollerable, while they are a dyinge, then after they are deade. David's servants reasoned as ill, as he himselfe did well; they concluded, if his griese were such, when the child was but in danger of death, what would it be, when he knew 'twas ded ? He tooke and consider'd the thinge another way; whilst ther was life, that is, whilst the will of God was not declared, he thought it a duty to endeavor to moove the mercy of God by his prayers and sorrow; but when God's pleasure was declared, he knew 'twas a duty cheerfully to yeeld unto it. I know, in the cause of griefe now before us, I am the unfittest of any to offer comfort, which I neede as much as any; and I know'tis as unfitt to offer to present it you, who, as you neede it most of any, soe you are ablest to afford it others above any: however, this one consideration of David's actings I could not but lay before you, it having proved an effectuall consolation to me in the death of one I but too much loved. But I hope your sorrow for what is past does not drowne your care for what is to com; nay, I am confident of it; for you, that can in your sorrow and business minde me, makes me know your griefe hinders us not from injoyinge the accustomed effects of your care to the publike; and while what we pay the dead does not obstruct what we owe the livinge, such sorrow is a debt, and not a fault.
In this nation his highness has bin proclaymed in most of the considerable places alreddy, and in others he is dayly a proclayminge, and indeede with signall demonstrations of love to his person, and of hope of happyness under his government.
I hartily joyne in all the good you say of him, and hope with you he wil be happy, if his friends stick to him: amongst all thos I know you will, and I know all promises with me are not kept, if you are not reckoned by him in the first ranke; of which I have presumed to minde him in a letter I tooke the confidence to write unto him this weeke.
But I feare, while I thus trouble you, I give the honnor of your letters a very disproportionat returne; and therfore I will only now subscribe myself, what I am from the
bottom of my heart,
Your most humble, most faithfull, and most oblidged affectionate servant,
H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
I told you in my last, how it pleased God to strenthen and enable mee for the discharge of that parte of my duty, which was incumbent upon me at that time; but as soon as that was over, my grief recoiled upon me, so that I have not been able to apply myselfe to any business, but what was absolutely necessary. I can onely give you this account, that things continue quiett, and promise faire for the future. To bemoan my loss to you, who, I beleive, have to great a share in it, were but to refresh your trouble. I pray God, that the eyes of all men may bee opened by it to their true and through humiliation and repentance; and if wee can doe soe sincerely, who knowes but that God, who hath wrought so wonderful deliverance of late by the hand of his precious instrument, now atrest, may yet save us by his power and wisedome, even by the hands of weak instruments ? You consider my distraction, and therefore will pardon my brevity. I am
Your very affectionate and humble servant, H. Cromwell.
H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland, to the protector Richard.
May it please your Highness,
I Received a letter from your highness by Mr. Underwood, who, according to your comands, hath given me a particular account of the sickness and death of his late highness my dear father, which was such an amazing stroke, that it did deeply affect the heart of every man; much more may it doe those of a nearer relation. And indeed, for my own part, I am so astonish'd at it, that I know not what to say or write upon this so sad and grievous occasion. I know it is our duties upon all accounts to give submission to the will of God, and to be awakened by this mighty noise from the Lord to look into our own hearts and wayes, and to put our mouths in the dust, acknowledging our own vileness and sinfulness before him, that so, if possible, we may thereby yet obtain mercy from him for ourselves and these poor nations. As this stroke was very stupendous, so the happy news of his late highness leaving us so hopefull a foundation for our future peace, in appointing your highness his successor, coming along with it to us, did not a little allay the other. For my part, I can truly say, I was relieved by it, not only upon the public consideration, but even upon the account of the goodness of God to our poor family, who hath preserved us from the contempt of our enemy. I gave a late account to Mr. secretary Thurloe of what passed about the proclaiming your highness here, which, I may say without vanity, was with as great joy and generall satisfaction, as (I believe ) in the best affected places in England. I doubt not but to give your highness as good an account of the rest of the places in Ireland, so soon as the proclamations are returned. I did also give some account of the speedy compliance of the army, whose obedience your highness may justly require at my hands. Now, that the God and father of your late father and mine, and your highness's predecessor, would support you, and by pouring down a double portion of the same spiritt, which was so eminently upon him, would enable you to walk in his steps, and to do worthily for his name, cause and people, and continually preserve you in so doing, is and shall be the servent and dayly prayer of
Another letter of the same date, [viz. September 18. 1658.] sent at the same time, enclosed to Dr. Petty, to be delivered with his own hand.
May it please, &c.
I sent a letter to secretary Thurloe, dated the 11th instant, to be communicated to your highness, judging it not very seasonable in so great and fresh a grief to address myself to your highness, without leaving it to the discretion of somebody upon the place, to chuse the fittest opportunity. And in confidence of your highness's privity to that, to which I referr, I proceed further humbly to acquaint your highness, that on monday morning I caused an address (a copy whereof is enclosed) to be sent throughout the whole army, which is already signed by divers feild officers; and when it is perfected, I intend to send it, to remain in your highness's hands, as a witness against the treachery and falshood of any officer of this army, that may hereafter in the least manner warp from his due obedience; so that I may and do assure your highness of the faithfull and active subjection of this army to your highness's government, and shall be content to answer it with my life, if you find it otherwise. By my abovesaid letter and this your highness may perceive, that I lost no time, and also that I used what diligence and industry I could, according to my bounden duty, to make your highness's entrance easy, and your government established. Since this I received an express from your highness by Mr. Underwood, in which your highness is graciously pleased to do me the great honor as to offer me the charge, which I underwent in his late highness my late father's life-time, for which I return my most humble and hearty thanks; but must humbly beg, that I may deal faithfully, plainly, and freely with your highness, touching this particular. Since his late highness was pleased to place me in this station, I have met with nothing but toil and disquiet of body and mind, and have thereby so exceedingly impaired my health, that it is not possible for me to undergoe the like any longer. His late highness was indeed pleased to favour me, and bear me out as much as he well could; but was besett with so many, who made it their business to encrease my burthen, that he was wrought upon to put Mr. Goodwin disgracefully out of the councill, only for being faithfull to me; I say, only for that, because I wrote many letters to know the cause, but could hear none. They prevailed with him to modell the councill, so that the major part were men of a professed spirit of contradiction to whatsoever I would have, and took counsell together, how to lay wait for me without a cause. They so far prevailed, that if any officer could revile and clamour against me, he was received and preferred there; and they undertook to reduce the army by such rules, as would render me odious, and were preposterous and absurd here, though proper for an army in England; and were so farr from asking my opinion, (tho' I was a little concerned) that when I obtruded it; I could get no reply of reasons, but magisteriall rules, which I must obey. Why should I enumerate, when I consider how little time your highnes hath to spare. In short, my life was made a burthen; and had I not owed a natural and filiall obedience, as well as a full subjection to his late highnes, I could not willingly have undergone it. I humbly beg your highnesse's pardon for what I am about to say: I may not, unlesse your highnes commands me against my will, and condemns me to my grave, any longer undergoe the charge I did in your father's life time. I am not able to live always in the fire; the great God, in whose presence I speak this, he knows my heart. I doe not this out of any froward humour, neither am I so vain as to design being courted; I am willing, nay desirous to spend my small talent, whatsoever it is, in your highness's service, so my task may be no more than I am able to perform. But I can hardly submitt to a combination of pragmatical men, who as they will endeavour to impose on your highness, as they did upon his late highness, so I may justly fear they will think it the nearest way to their ends, to misrepresent me to your highness, whose good esteem and affection I value above any thing in this world, and which I will not hazard at any rate. Tis hard to express my mind by writing, unless I should swell a letter to a volume; and besides I have much to say, which is not fitt to be written. I know noe expedient in the case, but this (which I doe not offerr without due consideration of the safety of the army in my absence) that your highness would give me leave to attend you in person for some short time, where I doubt not but by conference I shall give your highness abundant testimony of my dutifull obedience to your highness, and of my readiness and hearty desire to serve you, and of the ways and means, which might capacitate me thereunto. For to say truth, it were a treasonable folly for me to undertake a service, which I beforehand knew I have not strength either of body or understanding to manage to your highness advantage. Besides I desire to be instructed from your highness own mouth, by what principles I should steer, left I should ignorantly doe any thing, which might justly displease; and indeed I doe not dissemble, if I say change of air and some recess is necessary for my health, which is the more dear to me, because I seldom enjoy it 24 hours together. Thus I do faithfully spread my cause at your highness's feet: if your highness think not fitt to hearken unto my petition, I shall keep the army in due obedience, and deliver it to whomsoever your highness shall committ the charge thereof, and be truly thankfull for that protection, which you allow to the meanest of your highness's subjects, and publickly profess entire love and tender affection to you, as my brother, allegiance and perfect subjection and obedience to your highness, as my rightfull and undoubted supreme magistrate, and continually pray to God for your long life, and prosperous and happy reign, &c.
Dr. Edward Worth to secretary Thurloe.
Those many favours and respects, for which I stand obleiged to you, encourage the confidence of this addresse; and the sense of your suffering in our publique loss adds the necessity of duty to that encouragement. Oh! Sir, by how much any persons doe neerer relate to the cheife authority, by soe much is it more needfull, that they exercise faith, and by soe much more is their faith lyable to assaults. I beseech you therefore take heed of fixing your mind on the darke side of this cloud; labour to see God's wisedome and goodnes on the other side. Alas! we are like foolish children, that cry for those knives, wherewith they would cut their owne fingers. God is our loving father; he knowes what is better for us: let us choose him, and leave it to him to choose the rest for us. If magistrates be made more than Gods, or leaned on, or less than God's instruments and despised, it is just for the Lord to remove them. Surely our nations were guilty of both these extremes, and in this sharpe reproose God hath set both in order before us. But who is like our God? How remembers he mercie in the midst of judgment, vouchsasing a peaceable entrance to his present highnes! Sir, Moses brought Israel out of Egypt, and led them through the wildernes 40 years (because of their murmuring) but he only saw Canaan; a Joshuah must bring them into its possession. Surely we have been a murmuring people. God led us by the hand of Moses, who carried us as it were in his bosome, till he saw a setlement. The Lord make his present highnes like Joshuah, to complete this conduct. Thus David also fought the Lord's battells, but Solomon must build God an house. Truly hitherto the Lord hath dwelt among us but as in a tabernacle. The good God make his present highnes like Solomon, building up the house of the Lord, which, alas! lyeth wast. Sir, I have found my faith acting on these instances, and therefore present them to your faith alsoe. Certainly death cannot arrest any without God's hand be to the warrant; and that God, who made the Jews banishment in Caldea to be for their good, can produce a soveraigne antidote out of our present loss. Besides we have many valleys of Achir, [many former experiences] as doores of hope; and, that which is more than all this, Christ Jesus his interest is imbarqued in the same vessell with us; and if he commands the winds and the seas, they will obey him. I write this to you with my humble prayer unto God, that his spirit would apply it to your heart, as it comes from the heart of
Your most really affectionate and devoted servant,
Captain Wray, governor of Beumaris-castle, to secretary Thurloe.
Coming for Conway to waite on the lord Frances Russel, I met with the enclosed letter, which I humbly transmitt to your lordshippe; and uppon enquirie and diligent search theire, att last I found the said Hinckes, that had divulged such notorious untruthes, which I caused to be secured for that night; but as the souldiers were going with him to the place where he was to be confined, the deputy sheriffe, one Mr. William Morris, one whose disaffection to the present government and his former delinquency is well known to the well affected in these parts, itt being the sessions-weeke, did rescue him from the souldiers; so that I was forced to goe to the judges, where I found he had repaired with the prisoner. Their lordships caused the prisoner to be delivered to my souldiers betimes in the next morning; he was brought before my lord Russell, and uppon examination before his lordshippe it appeared, that he was employed by one collonel John Bodvell to the said William Morris, deputy sheriffe, with some papers; and that he did on tuesday the 14th instant, deliver those papers; and it was on thursday the 16 instant, before I could meet with him, he having related those notorious untruths to the said deputy sheriffe, yet he did endeavour his rescue. When my lord, together with the judges, were examining the prisoner, one Lewis Powell came to his lordshipp's chamber, and did very uncivilly carry himselfe towards his lordshippe, and did endeavour as much as lay in him to justifye the said prisoner; whereupon his lordshipp commanded me to secure them both, which I have obeyed; and have them in my custody at Bewmares castle. Your honour would much admire how these untruths did heighten the speritts of the old enemie, and much direct the honest and godly party, being so considently averred. My lord Russell commanded me to put his examinations in writing, which I send your honour inclosed, humbly desireing your honour's pleasure, what shall be done with the prisoners, and your commands how I shall proceed against the deputy sheriffe, for I am fearfull, least he might in these junctures of times receive any papers, that might be prejudiciall to his highnes and government, the said Hinckes comeing from so known a delinquent. Till I heare from your honour I shall have an eye upon him, that he may be forth-coming to receave your * * I have no more to trouble your honour, but humbly to begg his highness commands and pleasure with them from your honour to
Very humble and faithfull servant,
Inclosed in the preceeding.
As I came towards Conway on tuesday last in the evening, I crossed the ferry, in company with one Hinckes (as he named himself) who tould mee without much enquiry, that the new protector was dangerously sicke; that he was informed for certain on thursday last in London, my lord Harry Cromwell died there the night before. That my lord major had proclaimed the now protector, and with the citysons did over-power the army, who durst not oppose against itt, in regard the cittizens were far more numerous then they. This (if true) I conceaved to be very bad news; if false, no lesse dangerous; so that I thought it very fitt to be timeously imparted to your knowledge for the prevention of any disturbance, that might happily accrue to our country by the spreading of this intelligence amongst malignant spiritts. Use your own discretion for further discoveries herein, but permitt me the honour and happinesse to subscribe myselfe,
Your faithful servant,
William Morris sayth, that upon tuesday last one Samuel Hinckes comeing to this towne of Conway, having brought with him writing and other papers, concerning a triall, that was expected to be this sessions, wherein one Joseph Herne, and Henry Wynne, Esqrs, were plaintiffs, and Thomas Lloyd and others defendants; and being asked what newes from London, replyed, that all things were well, save that he heard at his coming from town, that the lord Richard, our new lord protector, was not well disposed in health; and that he heard likewise, that the lord Henry Cromwell was dead, being come privately to London, as was conceived, to visitt his highness the late lord protector. In witnesse my hand this 23d day of September, 1658.
The examination and confession of Samuel Hinckes, gent. the servant of Mr. Andrew Badley, a sollicitor, living at the Flying-horse court in Fleet-street, over-against the Inner-Temple, in Mr. Dancy's house, a barber.
Samuel Hinkes, aged about 19 years, or thereabouts, confesseth, that he was imploy'd and sent by collonel John Bodwell, from London to Conway, to the now deputy sheriff, Mr. William Morris, with some papers; and he repairing to Mr. Morris on tuesday the 14th inst. to return to the said papers, Mr. Morris enquired of him, what news from London. This examinant reply'd, that the news in London was, when he came out of town, which was on thursday the next instant, that his highness the lord Richard, the protector, was very sick, and that my lord Henry Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland, died in in London, wednesday at night, being the 8th instant, before he came out of town; and that the train-bands of the city were up in arms; and being demanded, who in London told him the news, he confesseth, that one Edward Price, the servant of Mr. Hancocke, an attorney of the Inner-temple, told him the aforesaid news on thursday, the very day that he came out of town, in the presence of his master Mr. Badley, and at his master's chamber.
Captain Langley to secretary Thurloe.
May it please your Honour,
Since my last, here is litle of importance to present you with, only the Quakers, that formerly seem to be becalmed for a season, are now congregated againe, and seeme to take fresh resolutions as to there converting, or rather overturning all things. They cry out soe loude in their preachings, that they astonish the heereers, and spend themselves extreemly. Sarah Knowles, wise to captain Knowles of this regiment, is gone one her foott as it ware one pilgrimage to one Margritt Fell, who lives about Lancheshire, who, they say, is judg Fell's wife; and that she is one that is past the cloud, and hath liberty to were satins, and silver and gold lase, and is a great galant. This day Mr. William Welch tould mee, that his wife, Sarah Welch, who is one of the cheese of them, tould him, that shee had received a letter from some freind in London, which did intimate, that they had beene with my lord protector, and that hee had promised to doe nothing but just things, soe that now they were resolved to sitt quietely for present. &c. The Anabaptists are still all in a mousing posture. Al things are very quiete at present here. In a word, those that were satisfied before are the same, and the contrary are the same; but the Scots hope seemes to have a smale reserrection boath in minesters and people, and it chiefly consists in this, that there will arise som notable deference amonst ourselves, &c. Here is lately an Holland man of war com to give notis to all there shipes to repaire hom with all expedition. The harvist here is now * * * with constant grat raines, which makes sad times and sights to in the feilds. But I shall stay you no longer with these things. I am,
Your Honour's devoted servant,
Mr. Downing, the English resident in Holland, to secretary Thurloe.
I Am certaynly informed, that the duke of York did open the first packett, which came by the post after the death of his late highnesse, and there found the letter to me, with the commission you had sent me, and took them, and sent them to the Don John: also he found a letter of yours to my lord Lockhart, in which they say was expressions to this purpose, that he shold keep his troopes of horse together, for that possibly you might have occasion for them at home. The said duke of York came to this town upon sunday last in the morning, with onely one Charles Barkley and one Brunkett: the princesse royall would not suffer him to make any stay heer, but he went forthwith hence, with only the said Barkley, to Deltshaven, whether also the said princesse followed, with onely one gentlewoman, to be the more private; and ordered her yaught to be there made ready, and whether they went together I know not; and whether his design be for England or back for Flanders, I cannot say; but thought it my duty to let you know thus much, and shall do my utmost to informe myselfe farther. They, who gave me the information, do believe he returns back for Flanders, but were not sure.
Yesterday the president of the states general and another of them came to visite me by
order of the states general, to condole and congratulate the death of his late highnesse, and
the installment of his highnesse that now is. Obdam is yet with his fleete at the Flye, and
the winds are now contrary; but notwithstanding all the letters which have been affirming the
the rendition of Croningsberg-castle to the king of Sweden, yet the deputyes of the states,
which were yesterday with me, affirm, that they have later letters, which say it yet defends
itselfe. I am,
Your most faithfull humble servant, G. Downing.
General Monck to secretary Thurloe.
I Received your lordshippe's letter dated the 11th of September: I had answered itt before now, butt upon the receipt of itt I sent to see what news I could heare in the country before I wrote to you; butt I finde, that Charles Stuart has not yett sent a letter to any gentleman of this country that I heare of; and I am confident of my intelligencers, that I have abroad, which are active men. To-morrow I am too meet here with some of the officers for the drawing up of an addresse to his highnesse, to expresse our faithfulnesse and obedience to him, which I doubt nott butt will bee done with a great deale of chearfuluesse; which is all at present from
Very humble servant,