A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 7, March 1658 - May 1660. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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To the right honourable the council of state of the commonwealth of England.
The subscribed embassador of the lords the states general of the United Netherlandish Provinces, having seen the council's order of monday the thirtieth of May last past, concerning the management of the important affairs in the Sound, and not knowing what further resolutions in pursuance thereof have been taken by the parliament, or the council of state, on consideration of the joint and mutual interest of both states and nations therein, beseecheth, that it may please the council of state, that he may wait on the right honourable committee, to whom he hath communicated his last papers.
In Chanon-row, Westminster, the 2d of June, 1659. stylo Angliæ.
Nieupoort, the Dutch embassador, to the admiral of the Dutch fleet in theSound.
I Have had several conferences with some considerable members of the council of state, since I have delivered new letters of credence to the parliament of the commonwealth of England, concerning the present occurrences of the Sound, and especially on the treaty concluded at the Hague the 11/21. instant, betwixt the lord embassador of France, the resident of England, and the commissioners of the United Provinces: it hath pleased the council of state to send to me the three propositions; a translated copy whereof is hereunto annexed.
The council of state have, on consideration thereof, promised me, that they would dispatch an express to their general, or commander in chief of the fleet of this commonwealth in the Sound, with the instructions contained in the paper herewith sent your excellency; and I have answered their lordships, that I was so well informed of the sincere intentions of the lords my superiors, that I would be ready and willing to write to your excellency, and seriously recommend it to your excellency, and to the extraordinary commissioners of the United Provinces, that on consideration of the said propositions, and that the parliament hath resolved to send, with all possible expedition, persons of honour and quality, as their plenipotentiaries, to establish a good and firm peace between the Northern kings and kingdoms, your excellency, and the said extraordinary commissioners, would agree with the general or commander in chief of the fleet of the commonwealth of England, that the three weeks mentioned in the third articles, of the said treaty be continued and prolonged three other weeks, immediately following the expiration of the said former three weeks; and that in pursuance of the said three articles, they will take care, that none of the ships of war of the United Provinces, as well of the fleet, which is lately gone to sea, as of the other, which was sent to succour the king of Denmark, under your excellency's command, do act or attempt any thing contrary to the said third article, not only for the three weeks mentioned in the said treaty, but also for other three weeks immediately following the expiration of the former three weeks. I have also assured the right honourable council of state, that your excellency, and the before-mentioned extraordinary commissioners of the United Provinces, will not be wanting to co-operate with the commanders in chief of the English fleet, and other the public ministers of England and France, in soliciting the said two Northern kings, during all the time of the three last weeks aforementioned, to abstain from all acts of hostility one against another by sea; and that the king of Sweden do abstain, during that time, from acts of hostility against any of the ships belonging to the fleet of the United Provinces, or their merchants ships. I have communicated the premises to the lords the states general, to the end, that they may ratify the same, and send their orders accordingly; and herewith remaining, &c.
In Westminster, the 3/13. of June, 1659.
By the commissioners for the admiralty and navy.
3d June, 1659.
In pursuance of two several orders of the council of state of the twenty-third and thirtieth of May last, copies whereof are hereunto annexed, whereby a memorial of the Swedish commissioners, signifying the detention of several captains in the king of Sweden's service, and some native Swedes, with their prizes, in several parts of England:
As also a paper of the lord embassador of the United Provinces, touching four ships now detained with their men at Queenborough, and their goods embezzled, are referred to the said commissioners, to examine the matter of fact, and to certify for what cause the said ships and men are so detained.
The said commissioners, upon consideration thereof had, finding the grievances respectively complained of in the said papers to concern two nations in amity with this commonwealth, do humbly offer, that the same may be referred to the admiraltycourt, where all such causes are properly cognizable, to be determined according to law; and in case any orders have been issued forth by the state, touching the said persons or prizes, that they may be recalled.
All which, nevertheless, is humbly submitted to the consideration of the council.
Exr. Ro. Blackborne, secretary.
(fn. 1) An act constituting Charles Fleetwood esquire lieutenant-general and commander in cheise of the forces raised, and to be raised, by authority of parliament, within England and Scotland.
In the possession of the editor.
The parliament of the commonwealth of England doe enact, and be it enacted by this present parliament, and the authoritie thereof, that Charles Fleetwood esquire be, and he is heereby constituted and appointed lieutenant-general and commander in cheife, under the parliament, of the armies and forces raised and to be raised by authoritie of parliament within England and Scotland, during the continuance of this parliament, or until the parliament take further order, giveing and granting to the said Charles Fleetwood full power and authoritie, to rule, governe, command, dispose, and imploy the said armies and forces, and every part thereof, and all officers and others whatsoever, imployed in or concerning the same, in, for, or about all defences, offences, invasions, executions, and other military and hostile acts and services, as lieutenant-general and commander in cheife, to be subject to, and pursue such orders and directions as he hath receaved, or at any time shall receave, from the parliament or council of state, appointed by authoritie of parliament; and further giveing and granting to the said Charles Fleetwood full power and authoritie to conduct and lead the said armies and forces, and every part thereof, against all enemies, rebells, traytors, and other like offenders against this commonwealth, and every of theire adherents, and with them to fight, and them to invade, resist, depresse, subdue, pursue, slay, kill, and putt to execution of death, by all waies and meanes, and to fullfill and execute all and singular other things for the governing of the said armies and forces, and to assigne and appoint one or more provost-martiall or marshalls for the execution of his commands, according to the tenor hereof, and to command all the forces in all garrisons, forts, castles, and townes in England and Scotland already fortified, or to be fortified; as likewise by himselfe, or others deputed and authorized by him, to take up and use such carriages, draught, horses, boates, and other vessells, as (in his discretion, and as often as he shall thinke meete) shall bee needfull for the conveying and conducting of the said armies and forces, or any part thereof, or for bringing or carrying ammunition, ordinance, artillery, victuals, or any provisions necessary or requisite for the said armies and forces, or any part thereof, to and from any place or places, according to the tenor heereof, and to give rules, instructions, and directions for the governing, leading, and conducting of the said armies and forces, and every part thereof, and to execute, or cause to be executed, martiall law for the punishment of all mutinies, tumults, rapines, murthers, and other crimes and misdemeanours in any persons whatsoever, in and of the said armies and forces, or any part thereof, and according to the lawes and ordinances of warr, that are or shall be allowed by parliament, and the said lawes and ordinances of warr shall cause to be proclaymed and executed, streightly charging and requiring all the officers and souldiers of the said armies, and every part thereof, to be obedient to him the said lieutenant-generall; likewise all sherriffes, officers of the ordinance, justices of the peace, mayors, bayliffes, and other officers and persons whatsoever, in theire respective counties and places, to be ayding and assisting to him in the execution of the said office of lieutenant-generall and commander in chiefe of the said armies and forces, for the ends and purposes, and in manner aforesaid.
To general Montagu.
After consideration of the treaty at the Hague the 11/21. of May instant, and after conference with the lord embassador of the United Provinces upon some proposals herewith sent, and upon assurance, that he will send the like directions to the commanders in chief of the Dutch fleet, and advertisement to the public ministers of the United Provinces sent to the Sound upon that treaty, and procure from his superiors, that they shall also ratify and send the same, with all possible speed, from the Hague; the council have promised to the embassador, and do accordingly send these following instructions:
I. That in pursuance of the third article of the treaty at the Hague, you forbear to join the fleet under your command to the navy of either of the kings of Sweden or Denmark, or to give any aid to either of them, or to use any act of hostility against either of them, not only for the three weeks mentioned in the said treaty, as immediately subsequent to the notification of the treaty at the Hague to you; but also for other three weeks immediately following the expiration of the former three weeks.
II. That you co-operate with the commander in chief of the fleet, and other the public ministers of France, in soliciting the two Northern kings, during all the time of the three last weeks aforementioned, to abstain from all acts of hostility one against another by sea; and if that cannot be obtained, yet you shall endeavour, that the king of Sweden abstain, during that time, from all acts of hostility against any of the ships belonging to the fleet of the United Provinces, or their merchant-ships.
III. In case the instructions herein mentioned to be agreed to be sent from the embassador of the United Provinces to the commander in chief of the fleet, and other the public ministers of the United Provinces, (a copy whereof are herewith sent you) shall not be by them fully ratified, observed, and fulfilled, then you are left at full liberty to observe and prosecute such other instructions, as you have already received in that behalf, or shall receive from the parliament, or this council.
To general Montagu.
We have thought fit to give you notice of the resolution taken in the parliament, with all speed to send plenipotentiary commissioners to the Sound, for the endeavouring of such a settlement in that business as may be honourable and just, and to prevent any prejudice to the interest of this commonwealth.
It pleases God to continue a great quiet in affairs here, since the sitting down of the parliament; and for your better information of passages amongst us, you are referred to the inclosed papers. You may rest assured, there shall be nothing wanting in the care of the council, for the encouragement of yourself, and the fleet under your command, in the faithful discharge of their duty in the service of this commonwealth.
Signed in the name and by order of the council of state, appointed by authority of parliament.
Arch. Johnstone, president.
Whitehall, 4. June, 1659.
The state of the lord Lockhart's accompt, by way of charge and discharge, for all sums due to and received by him since the first of Jan. 1656. till the first of December inclusive, 1658.
December the first, 1658.
Copy of Mr. Noel's letter or certificate.
Upon examination of the within-written account, I find the charge to be right, as also the receipt of all moneys paid by myself to the lord Lockhart and orders, since the date abovesaid.
There is in the abstract from Mr. Frost's office, 600 l. over-and-above that 1600 l. mentioned in the article of account, which 600 l. is affirmed by Sir William Lockhart to have been paid to him as due upon the account of the first voyage unto France, which was preceding the first January, 1656 (at which day this account commenceth): yet the money was not received till April following, although the precept be dated the second of January, 1656.
[N. B. To complete the accounts of my allowance is envoy, the said 600 l. was ordered, but paid between two other sums, (each relating to my after-allowance as embassador) which might occasion some error, if not heeded. W. L.]
All I can say to the articles of 12000 livres is, that my lord Lockhart did write to me, that he had made use of the said sum, which he did estimate at 900 l. deducing the said 600 l. the balance (viz. 2100 l.) remains due to my lord Lockhart. This is humbly offered to your lordship by
Your Lordship's most humble servant,
|Item, from the said first of December, 1658. exclusive, till the thirteenth of April, 1659. inclusive, being nineteen weeks, at 100 l. per week, there is due.||1900||0||0|
|Sum of all due, preceding the said thirteenth of April, is||4000||0||0|
Besides two equipages, and house-furnitures of mourning at Paris, viz. the first in October, 1658, for condoling with that court the letters in March, 1659. in order to a treaty with Don Antonio Pimentel, who was then in Paris.
April 13. 1659.
Besides the two equipages of mourning.
May 7. 1659.
From the seventh of May till the twelfth of June, 1659, both inclusive, is five weeks.
A paper of Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England.
The lords the states general of the United Netherlandish Provinces, having perused the three propositions delivered unto the subscribed embassador, on the twenty-sixth of May last past, stylo Angliæ, do trust, according to the last part of the first proposition, that two distinct acts of ratification of the late treaty, agreed and concluded at the Hague on the 11/21. of May last past, the one for the lord embassador of France, and the other for the lords the states general, have been sent over, or are in a readiness to be delivered there, the like acts of ratification being ready to be delivered at the Hague aforesaid to England and France.
The said lords the states general have, on the 19/29th of May aforesaid, authorized their extraordinary commissioners, that in case the treaty of peace betwixt the two Northern kings should not be concluded within the three weeks mentioned in the third article of the said late treaty at the Hague, they might agree with the English and French public ministers in loco, a prolongation of some few days more. They have further given such orders and instructions to their before-mentioned commissioners, sent to the kings of Sweden and Denmark, that in case the public ministers of England and France have the like, that in all probability such a peace will be obtained and established between both the said kings, wherein the interest of both states and nations, with respect unto each of their secure and free commerce into the Baltic seas, may be fully and equally provided for.
It hath been very acceptable to the said lords the states general, to see, that this government had a good inclination to lay a firm foundation of a lasting peace and nearest union betwixt the commonwealth of England and the state of the United Provinces, and have not been wanting on their side to send hither sufficient orders and instructions to that purpose, which they hope will be of great efficacy to establish a true and confident amity, and to prevent and avoid all occasions of nukindness and finister and unfriendly encounters and dealings between the people and subjects of both.
Therefore doth the subscribed embassador seriously desire, that the said treaty may be speedily promoted and furthered here; and that the said treaty at the Hague being duly ratified, the plenipotentiaries of this commonwealth may, without further loss of time, endeavour such a treaty in the Eastern parts, by the joint concurrence and co-operation of the said extraordinary commissioners of the United Provinces in loco, as will be most satisfactory to the common and mutual interest of both.
This 15th of June, 1659. stylo Angliæ.
Read June 23. 1659.
By the committee appointed to treat with the Dutch embassador.
That in pursuance of the commands of the council, they did treat with the lord Nieupoort upon his paper, given in to the council, bearing date the fifteenth of June.
First, that there were some expressions in that paper, which seemed to be dark, and not full according to the intent of former resolutions; to which it was answered, that he had not as then full instructions.
Two things to be explained.
In the next it was desired, that he would explain some expressions, which had fallen from him, concerning given assistance to the king of Denmark, and what assistance was intended.
His own words to be explain'd. Relief always intended. What that relief should be; and may not be to the extreme on either side.
To which was answered, that it was always intended, that Copenhagen should be relieved, and that it was very just and honourable to assist a distressed king, &c.
To this replied, that indeed there was something of difficulty, and it was very necessary, in order to a full and good understanding betwixt the commonwealth, that the intention of this assistance should be, and that if it should be so wholly debarred the loss of Copenhagen, it might argue a difficulty upon the Dane and the Dutch, reduced to a condition of dependence upon the English.
Best to remain as they were.
And further, there might such an assistance be given, that might put the king of Denmark into a condition to refuse all terms of a reasonable peace; and therefore it was most requisite for both, that things should remain in the condition they were in.
4000 men on shipboard contract sickness.
To this it was replied, that the difficulty and danger of the 4000 men to remain on shipboard was great, for fear of sickness, and therefore used as an argument.
To this it was agreed, that a neutral place should be condescended to; and,
That we tendered the said third articles of the treaty at the Hague.
Urge 3d artic.
To which it was answered, that it was given in mandatis to the lord Opdam and ministers, that it should not be done but by consent of the general Montagu, &c.
If Montagu will not yield.
That Montagu should refuse and not give consent; to this was answered, that he did hope, that he did confidently hope to the contrary; but nothing could be drawn from him.
Next, a nearer unity.
Next, we answer you to the first proposal of a nearer, viz. plenipotentiaries shall be presently sent.
The answer of the council of state by acts of parliament to the lord Nicuport, embassador to the states general of the United Provinces, to his lordship's paper dated the fifteenth of June, 1656.
The council, in pursuance of their paper bearing date the twenty-sixth of May, 1659, for laying a firm foundation of a lasting peace and nearest union betwixt both commonwealths, have been, and are ready effectually to promote the same; and when it shall be desired, will appoint commissioners to treat with his said lordship thereupon.
And for what concerns the establishing a peace betwixt the two Northern kings and interest of both commonwealths, with respect unto their secure and free commerce into the Baltic seas, they have already appointed their plenipotentiaries, who shall be dispatched with all speed to the Sound, fully instructed and impowered to endeavour the same in their proceeding thereupon, to communicate councils in amity and confidence with the embassadors or ministers of the lords the states general of the United Provinces; and doubt not but that the said ministers of the lords the states general are impowered to exercise the like communication mutually.
And lastly, as to what concerns the ratification of the treaty at the Hague, they have already assured them of the readiness of the state to ratify the same, which they are still ready to effect, if it shall be insisted upon.
H. Cromwell's resignation of the government of Ireland to the parliament.
In the possession of the editor.
I AM soe unwilling to interrupt the peace of these nations, that I think it my duty to prevent even those feares and jealousies, which may give any occasion thereof; and in order thereunto to give you an accompt of your affaires in Ireland, and more especially of myselfe in relation to them, and other the late transactions.
It hath beene my unhappinesse of late to receive intelligence only from common fame, and very private hands, and to be forced rather to guesse what I had to doe upon all emergencies, then to bee intrusted with the cleere comands of my superiours. By reason whereof, when I first heard the generall rumour of the last parliament's dissolution, and of a likelyhood of discontinuing the government, under which it was called, I having noe light into the intrinsick causes of that action, and knowing in general, how busy the common enemy was in all the three nations, and in what variety of shapes they appeared to act their designes; and withall having the care of securing a more dangerous, numerous, and exasperated people, the Irish natives and Papists; I did forthwith, to answer all the severall ends of my trust, publish a declaration, requiring all officers, civill and military, to attend their respective comands, and not to hearken to any designe of inovation, how speciously soever the same might bee presented unto them. Soone after, I received a letter from the committee of safety, recommending the peace and security of Ireland in a more speciall manner to my care; which I answered with a reall promise of complying with their advice. I did withall communicate that letter to very many officers of the army, promising likewise to transmitt the result of their considerations upon itt; and accordingly I did send over, by three worthy persons of this nation, a particular of such things, as the granting thereof (as is conceived) would much settle the minds of people and army heere, whose case and concernments are very different from those of England or Scotland. All this while I expected directions from his highnes, (by whose authority I was placed heere) still having an eye to the common peace, by preventing all making of partyes and divisions, either among the people or army; but hearing nothing expressely from him, and yett having credible notice of his acquiescing in what providence had brought forth as to the future government of these nations, I now thinke itt tyme, (least a longer suspence should begett prejudiciall apprehensions in the minds of any) to give you this accompt, viz. that I acquiesse in the present way of government, although I cannot promise soe much affection to the late changes, as others very honestly may. For my owne part, I can say, that I beleive God was present in many of your adminstrations, before you were last interrupted, and may bee soe againe; to which end I hope, that those worthy persons, who have lately acknowledged such their interrupting you in the yeare 1653 to have beene their fault, will by that sence of their impatience bee henceforth engaged to doe soe noe more, but bee the instruments of your defence, whilst you quietly search out the ways of our peace; which stability and freedome, when the Lord shall restore unto you, will much subdue the hearts of all peaceably minded persons to your authority.
The fower yeares experience I have had of your army heere (even under those tryalls, which have provoked others) gives mee just ground to assure you of their concurrence with their brethren in England, in the way of obeying and defending, rather then of directing or awing you.
I say, for my owne part, I had an honourable opinion of the government you are now returned unto before itts discontinuance; and yett I must not deny, but that the free submission, which many worthy, wise, and consciencious persons yeilded to the late government under a single person (by severall wayes aswel reall as verball) satisfied mee alsoe in that forme. And whereas my father, (whom I hope you yett looke upon as noe inconsiderable instrument of these nations freedome and happines) and since him my brother, were conscituted cheise in those administrations, and that the returning to another forme hath beene looked upon as an indignity to those my neerest relations, I cannot but acknowledg my owne weaknes as to the suddain digesting thereof, and my owne unfitnes to serve you in the carryeing on your further superstructures upon that basis. And as I cannot promote any thing, which inferres the diminution of my late father's honour and meritt, soe I thanke the Lord, for that hee hath kept mee safe in the great temptation, wherewith I have beene assaulted to withdraw my affection from that cause, wherein hee lived and dyed.
I have a tendernes to peace, which (as I conceive depending rather upon the worthiness of governours then formes of government) renders me content to wait upon providence in the expectation of that mercy, being ready to yeeld up my charge to any, whom you shall send to receive itt; and beseeching the Lord to bee your mighty councellor and prince of peace, I remaine
Your humble servant,
Dublin, 15. June, 1659.
H. Cromwell, lord lieutenant of Ireland, to general Fleetwood.
In the possession of Will. Cromwell esquire.
I Received yours of the seventh instant, whereby, and by divers others letters, I take notice of the votes in parliament concerning my coming into England. That news has so many odd circumstances, and such animadversions are made upon it, as I think it much concerns me to know the meaning with all the speed I can. To which purpose I have sent this bearer [Dr. Petty] unto you as one, whom I can best trust, now my nearest concernments are at stake. Wherefore I desire you to shew your kindness to me in being free and plain with him, as to such advice as you think concerns my preservation, (for I am well contented to aim at nothing else) and especially how I shall behave myself in reference to the summons for my coming over, when I receive them. I have made so good use of my time, as I have not money to bring me. Pray give the bearer access to you, upon my account; he does not use to be tedious or impertinent. It concerns me to have one, that I can trust, to have such an access to you. I hope you will not look upon him, as to me, under the character and representation, that St. Hierom Sankey and some others may give of him; but rather as one, that hath been faithfull and affectionate unto me, and, I may say, unto yourselfe also, and one, who I think, notwithstanding all that is said, is a very honest man. I shall not trouble you with much more. He can best acquaint you with what concerns myself, upon which single account I have gotten him to come for England. As for the public differences, I never perceived him forward or busy in any. Dear brother, these are times of tryall, both as to our own hearts and our friends. I hope you will well consider of what you advise me as to myself, and let me have a speedy return of your opinion.
I desire the Lord to teach us his ways, and to fitt our hearts for that condition, wherewith we have not been enough acquainted.
I have sent the letter, which I intended to have sent the house, along with the army's address, before I received the news of my being sent for. You will see the reality of my heart therein. Let it be read, or the substance thereof more privately communicated, as you shall think fitt upon the place.
H. Cromwell, lord lieutenant of Ireland, to general Fleetwood.
In the possession of Will. Cromwell esq;
I Received yours of the seventh of June, and the advices therein, which being but generall, I have sent Dr. Petty to know more particularly what you would have me do. Upon the first rumor I sett out a proclamation to keep the peace, when I heard the parliament was sitting; and withall that their call was from some of the army; and that not many appeared; and that the committee of officers of severall interests kept up their meeting.
We dispatcht from hence some, that might acquaint you with the desires of those here. I have since his highness acquiescence called together the officers, to make such addresses as they should think fitt. For my own part, I know no harm in a commonwealth way of government; and beleive those now at helm to be very able and fitt for their work: yet you may think, I cannot but be troubled at what has so lately befallen my relations; and do acknowledge, that others may very honestly do what I cannot so handsomely. I have resisted great temptations, in respect to their authority. the late news of my being sent for has strange interpretations put on it by some; and I am distracted with the variety of mens opinions upon it. I desire you to let me know, how you would have me carry it, when the order itself comes to my hands. The officers are at worke about their address. I lett them take their own course, that the parliament may have the true knowledge of them. They are all well disposed to settlement. Lett me hear speedily from you. I am, &c.
Mr. John Barwick to king Charles II.
In the possession of Joseph Radeliffe, of the Inner Temple, esq;
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May it please your Majesty,
Since my last I humbly acknowledge the receipt of two from your sacred majesty of the second and twelfth instant; and I have been, and shall be allwayes most ready (to my utmost power) to observe and perform all your majesty's commands. 459 General 105 4 Venables is 196 at Chester 123 48 himself; and therefore I gave your majesty's letter to 185 the person, that first made the way to him, who is sister 52 123 48 to his wife, 16, and near kinswoman 191 289 to the lady (who is now in town); and by his direction they two opened 183 206 the letter, and have sent him a transcript of it 219 for more security. But the shortness of the time since will not yet permit the return of his answer. When occasion serves, I shall render your majesty a faithful account what he says 51 upon it, or will do 143 in order to it.
For the other two businesses, whereof I gave your majesty an account 73 by Mr. Palden, 80 36, they are both managed by one instrument, whom I believe to be both discreet and honest; one Mr. Otway 40 54 127 564 a councelor of Gray's inn 565 51 281 36, formerly in armes for his late majesty, and allwayes faythfull and true to his principles. He is very intimate with both of them, corresponds with them, and is imployed by them in all such affaires as concern their estate, 431, and is nearly allyed to both of them, the one having marryed his sister, 184 147, the other his wive's. The only inconvenience is, that his wive's sickness (who is very lately dead) hurryed him away to her into Yorkshire; 244 25 117; but it hath this advantage with it, that he is so 182 farr onward upon his journey for Scotland; whither he promised to go and treat 255 248 196 with Clobery, 138 118, if your majesty did require it. And I have acquainted him by letters with your majesty's command 102 36 10 in such a way as we agreed upon; and before this time I hope my letter is with him. What I wrote concerning 117 Redman 289 (his other brother-in-law) as only upon his report; for they were desirous to debate the matter between themselves alone. All that I can say, is, that I have known Redman for several years past, and have allwayes found him to be a civill and sober person, and not prodigall of his expressions; which gives me the better hopes of him. Note, there will be no need of pressing him with his promise; yet I have written to my freind to mynde him of it, when he writes to him, which he doth frequently on other occasions. All that troubles me is, that I hear he is still in town; 30 281 185 60 38 (and it is so lately I heard it, as I have not time to examine it): but he, that tells it me, thinks it is upon some publique account, as imployed by H. Cromwell to give him a true account how things stand here; and then his 75 being here may be as usefull as there.
The acquittances, which your majesty was pleased to signe, were fully satisfactory; and for other affaires I have given an account to lord chan. without any further imediat trouble to your majesty. I am
(May it please your Majesty) Your majesty's most dutifull and much obliged subject.
June 20. 1659.
The unexpected stay of the beafer hath given me time to enquir concerning Redman 289, and I find it true, that he is in town, and am confirmed in what I sayd concerning the reason of it, by one that knows him well; and find him in a resolution to take no command 102 36 10 under the parliament, though others should doe so.
June 21. 1659.
For his sacred majesty.
Mr. John Barwick to Sir Edward Hyde.
In the possession of Joseph Radcliffe, of the Inner Temple esq.
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The various reports of our affaires, which you meet with in letters from hence, proceed from a ground, which I hope will excuse both my former faylings, and present barreness in matter of newes. We are suffered to know nothing, that can be concealled on one side; and when it comes out, it gets such a tincture from the genius of the relater, as often distracts us with contrarieties, and makes us write what we hope or fear rather then what is true.
What the letters told you of H. Cromwell's desyance and submission, was not true in either particular. He hath hitherto stood in æquilibrio, taking no notice at all of the parliament, as the supreme authority, (as they call it) but proceeding on in his former course, as if his brother were still protector. He is neither so active as he might be, to play his own game, nor so plyable as they would have him here to comply with theires. And his dullness is the more inexcusable, because he has all the encouragement he can desire to shake it off. The common soldiers and inferior officers of his army are very great zealots against the Anabaptists. The people of Ireland generally are against his submitting to the parliament: the nobility and gentrie are willing to make up his army to 20,000; and the city of Dublin alone profer to pay 2000 of them. All this I am told by a very sober and discreet person, who heard it from 470 lord Meath, who was there the ninth instant; and yet, notwithstanding all this, he was then very pendulous, which way to take. It is true, indeed, he had not then heard of the rejecting of his message, nor of his being voted out of the government, nor of his being sent for hither. And how those may work upon him, this relater knowes not; but otherwise he suspected the worst as to his own inclination. But for all that, he is of opinion, a good game may thereby be played, if things be well managed, though he should doe as his brother did. The greatest obstruction is from some great officers in that army, who have got into estates there, and are promised from hence I know not what acts of parliament, to confirm their title; and by these they have constant intelligence here, how all things stand there. This is all I can safly relate as to that kingdom. If I should swallow the flying reports, I could tell you better newes thence; and it is certain, that H. Cromwell's last letter does not please them at Westminster. And the same may be sayd for the last letter from Monk. And that, which adds to the discontent, is, (as I am told) that both of them harp upon one string (which makes them suspected of some understanding each of other); they are both for having all the members received into the house, that sate in it in 48.
Another thing, that is here disliked in the Scottish army, is that they will take no more commissions, nor suffer any officers of it to be layd aside, though Talbot and Daniell were here designed for it. Monk is afrayd it will come up higher in time; and it is thought he would shew himself more sensible then he does of Fleetwood's being placed over him, if it were not for a great banck of money he hath here, which they know of, and in whos hand it is.
We hear nothing of certainty concerning Montague; but there is some reason to believe he carryes no affections towards the men of Westminster: for as they have eased him of his regiment of horse, so hath he lately given order for the selling of some very good horses, which he had here.
It is no great wonder things at this distance should be so uncertain, for they are not much clearer at home. If my conjecture were worth the hearing, I should not stick to say, there is still a mystery in working, which perhaps may appear in time. The grand faction is now driven between the republicans and fifth-monarchy-men; and the former have outvoted the latter, both in the house and councell of officers. These were the men, that first took their commissions from the parliament; which the other seing they would doe, used the common policy of swimming in the stream. Of late they receive in all the sublimated saints into the army, which Pride and some others cashiered; and there is talk of an underhand list of 7000 men upon the fifth-monarchy account. It is so reported by some of that party; whether in reality or vaunt, I know not. If the former, then all those persons, which flock so fast to London, under pretence of petitioning against tythes, may possibly have another errand. The truth will appear in time.
Guilt and gain have been the two cords, that have tyed them together a long time. The later is now come to saveing what they have got. They say, Fleetwood will be content with 40 s. a day, though this pay should be 10 l. to teach others the lesson of self-denyall, and to husband their money the better. Their witts are now all at work how to rayse money: there is no stone, which they turn not over; which makes them become odious even to their friends. The penalties voted against new honours granted by the king, are stretched to the mock-honours granted by the protector; and all salaries granted by him to any persons, that were not wont to receive such salaries out of the exchequer, must be refunded. The judges, perhaps, may escape; but they of his councell, &c. must be squeezed. Tichborn is mad at this, and the mayor not much better.
The members are so divided, as (one of them sayes) there are not six of one mynd; and the army is not much better united, if it were not for the common cause, that is, guilt. If they can get in all the members that sate in 48, it is thought there will be a great alteration; for then those, that were immediately guilty of the king's blood, will be much the lesser party; and I am told those, that are not so guilty, would be well content to bring in the rest to preserve themselves from that ruin, which they see their divisions and God's justice may possibly bring upon them. And this being the case, the wisest men, that I meet with here, are much reserved in their judgement, what would most advance his majesty's interest at this time. If his party can appear effectually, it is hoped the enemy will strive who shall first make their peace. If but slenderly, it is feared they will thereby be the more firmly united: if not at all, yet it is still conceived they will shatter of themselves by subdivisions. And indeed those, that pretend to a judgment in matters of that nature, say, that since the government was last thrown off the hinges, it received such a shatter, as nothing they can do can repair it, till it returns into the right channell, unless a faint opposition unite them in themselves. I beseech God direct his majesty what to doe in this case. June 21. 1659.
Mr. Ph. Meadowe to the council of state.
Vol. lxvi. p.117.
Since my last of the 14th instant by the ordinary post, I have received one from your honors of the second of the same, brought by Compton; whereby I am impowered to continue in my negotiation betwixt the two kings, as formerly. I return your honors most humble thanks for doeing me the right to judg of me, as in truth I am, faithful to the interests of the commonwealth; and shal make it my earnest endeavour, not onely to acquit myself faithful, but to render myself useful, in whatever trust shal be committed to me.
The time of the three weeks limited by the treatie at the Hague is expired; but no accomodement betwixt the two crownes effected, his majestie of Denmark having possitively refused to enter upon a particular treatie with Sweden; but insists upon comprehension of al his allies in a general peace; so that by the letter of the said treatie his majestie of Denmark is the refuser, and not to be assisted during the refuse. I have remonstrated as much to the Dutch ambassadors, who are at accord with me hereupon, and have wrot accordingly to their admirals. Whither they wil conform or no, I cannot say; for I perceive they act not by concert with their ambassadors. 'Tis feared De Ruyter will goe directly with his fleet for Copenhagen, to put ashoar his 4000 landmen. He and Opdam joined the fifteenth instant in the great Belt, which was five daies sooner then the time limited, according to the interpretation of their own ambassadors, accounting from the notification of the treaty to Opdam. Upon this junction Opdam is admiral, Jan Everrton vice-admiral, De Ruyter rere-admiral, according to the custome of the provinces; first a Hollander, then a Zalander, then a Hollander. Opdam has committed several contraventions to the treatie about five dayes since. He intercepted a smal barque laden from hence with powder and other munition, bound for Funene.
Rixadmiral Wrangel is very strong upon that isle, and in condition to receive the enemie, in case he attempts to land there. Fifteen Swedish men of war set sail lately for the little Belt, to carry the rixadmiral a reinfort of foot. About Eblen they rencontred two Hollanders, who presently upon fight of the Swedish fleet stranded themselves; and one of them set fire to himself. This may possibly beget some dispute, and yet the Swede, as I am certainly informed, never made shot at them, his majestie having given peremptorie orders, not to begin any hostility upon the Dutch.
I am privately informed from Copenhagen, that some overtures have beene made with the Dutch ambassadors there, of a stricter alliance with Denmark; and that the Dane has offered the Dutch Wensussel in the North of Jutland; 'tis thought also Gluckstadt upon the Elve, besides great priviledges in Copenhagen, as to trade and inhabitation, together with two suffrages in the senate. It much imports England to be well assured, whether the states mean and act sincerely in this propounded mediation of peace.
General Montagu is with the fleet about Callinburg, and was three daies since about a league and half from the Dutch fleete, which, accounting some merchant-men, amounted to eighty sail. I dispatched away Compton to him over land with his letters. I expect every day the plenipotentiarys, who, as I am informed, are to come from England, hoping their arrival will facilitate this difficult work. At present we are here at a grand pause upon his majesty of Denmark's refusal of a separate treaty. Here is as yet no French minister in this court; but Mons. de Terlon, who was formerly joint mediator with me on the part of France in the treaty of Roschield, is expected daily from Dantzick. It would not be amiss, that some instruction were given, whether the ministers of England shall yield him presedent.
I find his majesty very much troubled at the advice given him out of England by his ministers, as if some commissioners of the council, upon conference with them, should propound the cession of Drontheim and Bornholm to the Dane; which this king will never condescend to, as long as he has a sword by his side, and a soldier behind him.
No advancement is made in the intended treaty with Poland: the Swedish ambassadors are sitll at Stettin. They have been thses four montsh cal'd up, in expectation of safe conducts in due form; but the Pole still commits one wilfull mistake after another, only to protract time; by which it is easy to collect he has the same aim in his eye with the Dane, viz. A general peace, or a confederate war. 'Tis sayd in the last letter from those parts, that the treaty with the Cossaques is ratified by the dyet at Warsaw; which, if true, is very considerable; and we may expect to hear shortly of a great army in Pruss. This is al at present from
Your Honours most humble and faithful servant,
Elsinore, 21. June, 1659.
I have lately drawn upon Mr. Harrington, my correspondent at Hamburg, 250 l. sterling, and have given him for his reimcursement a bill of the first instant, upon the commissioners of the treasury. I humbly beseech your honours to give order for accepting and satisfying the said bill, it being moneys for the necessary service of my publick negotiation. I humbly begg also, that credits may be sent me, with orders upon whom to draw my bills for the future.
At the council of state at Whitehall,
Friday, June 24.1659.
Vol. lxiv. p. 239.
That the committee of the council, appointed to conser with the lord embassador of the United Provinces, do treat and confer with him,
1. Concerning the form of the ratification of the treaty at the Hague, which this state is both to give and receive from the states of the United Provinces.
2. Concerning the desisting from giving assistance by either commonwealth to the kings of Sweden or Denmark, for the three weeks after the expiration of the first three weeks mentioned in the said treaty at the Hague, whether the same will be strictly and punctually observed on the part of the lords the states general of the United Provinces, their fleets, and public ministers, according to the agreement here made by the said embassador.
3. Concerning the joint concurrence of these two states, to constrain the two Northern kings to a peace, upon the grounds of the treaty at Roscheild, and according to the former conferences with the said embassador, to ascertain the particular thereof here, as far as may be, to prevent differences, that may arise thereupon in the Sound.
To the right honourable the council of state, by authority of the parliament of the commonwealth of England.
Vol. lxiv. p.243.
1. The subscribed embassador of the lords the states general of the United Provinces, having perused the council's order, bearing date the 24th of this instant, St. Angl. doth on the first point, concerning the act of ratification, assure their honours, that as soon as the two acts of the said ratification will be presented at the Hague, this state will receive back again two other acts of ratification, or at the least that of the said lords the states general of the United Provinces.
2. To the second point the said embassador declareth, that the lords his superiors have given such orders to their public ministers and commanders in chief in the Sound, that it will appear, that they do act bona side, observing the treaty and agreement.
3. To the third, concerning the joint concurrence of the commonwealth of England, and the state of the United Provinces, to re-establish a peace betwixt the two Northern kings and kingdoms, the said embassador doth assure their honours, that the lords his superiors are of the same opinion, that it is necessary to ascertain the particulars, which are not determined by the said treaty made at the Hague on the 11/21th of May last past. And according to the orders and instructions sent over to the said embassador by the lords his superiors, he offers the following particulars in the name and on the behalf of the same:
On consideration of the inestimable losses suffered and sustained by the king of Denmark, first, by the delay of the evacuation of his territories, contrary to the agreement made at Roschield, and afterwards by the new and inconvenient breach of that treaty, and the continual devastations, oppressions, and almost a general destruction of the territories, which did remain by the said treaty in the possession of the said king of Denmark; the said lords the states general have all along in the conferences at the Hague, and by the said embassador here represented, that they did conceive, that it would be convenient, that endeavours were used on the behalf of the concurring and co-operating states, to settle the peace betwixt the two Northern kings, upon the grounds of the treaty made at Bromsebro, anno 1645, or as near it as would be practicable, that thereby the king of Denmark might in some measure be able to balance the great power of Sweden. And therein they do not only find a great deal of justice, but conceive, that it is also the true interest of England, as well as of the state of the United Provinces. However, the said lords the states general do hold it absolutely just and reasonable, that Drontheim with its appurtenances, as also the isle of Bornholm, (the subjects and inhabitants whereof have by a singular demonstration of affection and fidelity reduced themselves under the government and obedience of the king of Denmark) should remain in his possession; and that all other promises, which have been extorted since the said treaty of Roschield, as the 400,000 rixdollars, for some pretensions of losses sustained during the war in Guinea, and that the little isle of Ween should belong to Schonen, should be annulled and extinguished. If it please the supreme authority of the commonwealth of England to ascertain the same particulars, and to procure, that on the behalf of Sweden the treaty of Elbing, with the elucidations mentioned in the said treaty concluded at the Hague, be ratified and accomplished, (as well for the good and advantage of England and of the state of the United Provinces, as of the other included parties) there will remain no discrepancies betwixt the public ministers, in loco at least, not betwixt those of the commonwealth of England, and those of the United Provinces. And the said lords the states general are willing to oblige themselves, and to give sufficient orders and instructions, in pursuance of the aforesaid particulars, to their extraordinary commissioners sent to the kings of Sweden and Denmark, to agree with the commissioners and plenipotentiaries of the commonwealth of England there in loco, in such a manner, that they shall not only withdraw from the king, who shall refuse such a peace, their succours, and give and send him no other, but that they will powerfully assist the acceptant against the refusant, till he shall be brought to reason.
This 7 July/27 June. 1659.
The answer of the council of state appointed by authority of parliament, to a paper exhibited by his excellency the lord embassador of the lords the states general of the United Provinces, of the 7 July/27 June, 1659.
Vol. lxiv. p.249.
1. To the first particular mentioned in the said paper, that the form of the ratification of the treaty at the Hague, which this state is to give (being agreed unto) two acts of ratification thereof by the parliament, will be sent to the Hague, the one to be delivered to the embassador from the king of France, upon his delivery of an act of ratification of the said treaty from his majesty of France in like form to this state; and the other to be delivered to the lords the states general of the United Provinces, upon the said states general delivery of their act of ratification of the said treaty in like form to this state.
2. To the second particular, that the council do conceive the lord embassador's answer to intend a satisfaction to what was proposed in the second head of the council's last paper of the 24th of June instant, treated upon by their committee with the said embassador; and that by observing the treaty and agreement on the part of the lords the states general, their public ministers and commanders in the Sound, is intended, that the ships of the United Provinces do forbear to give any aid or assistance to, or use any act of hostility against either of the two Northern kings, not only for the three weeks mentioned in the treaty at the Hague, but also for other three weeks immediately following the expiration of the former three weeks, in like sort as the fleet of this commonwealth are directed to do, and as agreed between this council and his excellency. And the council do desire, if this be not the full meaning of his said excellency's answer, that it may be further explained.
3. To the third particular, That this state find no reason to depart from the treaty at Roschield (consented to by the treaty at the Hague) to be the ground of a peace between the two Northern kings; but do insist thereupon, and upon the ascertaining of such things here, in order to that peace, as may be matter of difference between the public ministers of these commonwealths upon the place, and may not be sufficiently provided for, or not fully determined by the treaty at the Hague: and do therefore propose, that as to any places gained, or loss sustained by either of the two kings, since the treaty at Roschield, these commonwealths do by their public ministers upon the place co-operate and intermediate for an agreement therein between the said kings, according to justice, and honour, and the interest of these commonwealths. But if it shall so happen, that the said kings shall not be brought to an agreement therein upon terms of accommodation between them, other than are provided for in the said treaty at Roschield, that then the public ministers and fleets of these commonwealths shall co-operate for the obtaining a peace between the said two Northern kings, upon the treaty at Roschield; and that all places gained by, or delivered or surrendered to either of the said kings from the other, since the said treaty at Roschield, be re-delivered, and remain in the right and possession of that king, in whose possession they were, or ought to be, according to the said treaty at Roschield; and that the public ministers of both these commonwealths do likewise co-operate for the obtaining of necessary, equal, and like advantages and security for these commonwealths, in point of navigation, trade, and commerce from the king of Denmark, and for the procuring from the king of Sweden, that the treaty of Elbing with the elucidations be ratified so as may be for the equal advantage of both these commonwealths, and for the benefit of the other included parties; and that the fleets and ships of both these commonwealths do withdraw their assistance and countenance from that king, that shall not consent to the aforesaid terms, and actually assist that king, that shall accept thereof. June 28th, 1659.
Sir Robert Honywood, and
Col. Berry, or any two of them, to deliver this answer to the Dutch embassador, and confer with him thereupon, and make report to the council.
Mr. Ph. Meadowe to the council of state.
Vol. lxiv. p. 251.
I continue to advise every weeke the state of things from these parts, allbeit I heare of none, that corresponds with me from England on the part of your honours. Le chevalier de Terlon, the French ambassador, he, who formerly signed and sealed together with me the late treaty of Roschield, is lately arrived here from Dantzick; so that now we are only in expectation of the commissioners from England, whose long stay, and my want of necessary orders in the mean time, has caused great retardment to the common affair. I know not, whether upon their arrival I am to be joined in the same commission with them; if not, I hope your honors, in consideration of my long service, wil grant me a favourable recal.
Gen. Mountagu has received the orders for the prolongation of the neutralitie for three weeks longer, but has had much to doe to bring general Opdam to a conformity thereto; yet at last he has engaged himself to observe the third article of their treaty at the Hague, according to the time agreed by M. Nieuport; onely with this restriction, provided he receive not in the mean time other orders from his master. But I feare he wil reckon the time from the notification of the treatie to gen. Mountagu; and according to that account, there are not above seven daies in being, before the last three weeks will be expired, which is a very short time for a very long worke. I have propounded a further prolongation to the Dutch ambassadors heer, for a week or fortnight longer; but I perceive they decline the proposition, and are willing to retain a freedome to act as they see occasion; so that I suppose the 4000 land-men upon the fleet wil be transported to Copenhagen, and some other assistances given before any entrie be made upon the treatie. And yet I find a very good disposition in this court, to give al reasonable content and satisfaction to the states general, not only in according them the Elbing treaty, but in reference also to a peace with Denmark, and the elector of Brandenburg. And because the king of Denmark insists upon the inclusion of his allies, and wil not hearken to a separate treatie, his majestie of Sweden, to demonstrate his readines to a peace, has declared himself willing, as heretofore to a particular treatie with Denmark, so now to an universal treaty, in order to a general peace. The original declaration I send herewith, enclosed as it was delivered me by his majestie's order under his seale.
Opdam with his and the Danish fleet are returned for Copenhagen. De Ruyter continues in the Belt. Gen. Mountagu is returned from before Callinburg to the Sound, and is at present at an anchor betwixt the isle of Huen and Copenhagen. I shal not willingly misrepresent any thing, but my intelligence from Copenhagen much failes me, if the Dutch doe not treat underhand for themselves with that king. This is all at present from
most humble and faithful servant,
Elsinore, June 28. 1659.
J. Hen. Kielman, the duke of Holstein's agent, to the parliament.
Serenissimæ atque inclytæ reipubl. Anglicanæ ejusque referentibus augustissimi bujus parlamenti proceribus, officia, amicitiam, & prolixam salutem defert serenissimus atque celsissimus princeps ac dominus, dominus Fridericus, bæres Norvegiæ, dux Slesvici & Holsatiæ, Stormariæ, & Dithmarsiæ, comes in Oldenburg & Delmenhorst, dominus meus clementissimus.
Vol. lxv. p. 411.
Illustrissimi & excellentissimi Viri,
Quanto conatu jam a multis seculis cum inclyta natione Anglicana pacem & amicitiam colere serenissima domus Holsatica studuerit, tum quod religionis promovendæ idem ambabus esset ardor, tum quod frequens inter vestros nostratesque commer cium non leviter arctam quandam animorum conjunctionem desiderare videretur, nemini ignotum esse poterit. Optatus successus eo modo animos nostros vestris combinavit, ut qualemcunque sortem five adversam five prosperam experiamini, nobis eandem aut communis luctus aut communis gaudii instrumentum esse permitteremus. Eadem ratio, illustrissimi viri, postulavit, ut cum de restituta patriæ vestræ aurea libertate nuntii ad nostras oras perveherentur, vosque in provincia hac durissima pariter ac gloriosissima constitutos esse constaret, serenissimus princeps ac dominus meus clementissimus sui duxerit esse officii, avita non fucatæ amicitiæ fœdera renovare, vobisque omnia felicia apprecari. Faxit Deus ter optimus maximus, qui regnorum unicus est arbiter, quod non solum in sui gloriam, sed etiam hujus inclytæ nationis omniumque bonorum emolumentum, vestrumque immortalem tandem vertat, ut divini numinis inspiratione secundas vestris placide præesse, consfœderatis prodesse, honestisque securum refugium contra turbulentissimorum ingeniorum horrendas tempestates præstare valeatis.
Cæterum, illustrissimi domini, quo pacto sub finem nuperi belli Sueco-Danici in perpessi damni restitutionem quædam terræ serenissimo principi Holsatiæ adjudicatæ sint, in quarum possessionem ab ipso rege Daniæ missus fuit, & quomodo nulla data causa eædem regiones serenitati suæ per vim a Danicis ministris sint subtractæ, sine dubio meæ, quæ submisso cultu ad illustrissimum vestrum collegium misi, duplices literæ pluribus manifestum reddiderunt. Ne itaque ulteriores moras nectam, inspicientibus accuratius negotium hoc in proclivi videre licebit, quomodo pacta servata, principisque nihil contra Daniam aut ullum alium molientis, ratio habita fuerit, nisi statuere velimus, toties principi Holsatiæ injurias inferre libere licitum esse, quoties inter potentissimos reges Sueciæ & Daniæ forsan bella orientur.
Vos igitur, illustrissimi domini, enixe clementissimus princeps meus rogatum venit, quo cum vestri jam ad reconciliandam pacem in fretum Sundanum abierint illustres domini legati, pro vestra benevolentia serenitas sua assistere, in delata sibi justa possessione tueri, eoque respicere pro vestra auctoritate velitis, ut ingentia illata damna sibi resarciantur, quique adhuc nuperis tractatibus restant pertractandi articuli, bonum exitum sortiantur. Sic justitiam, quam omnes magistratus exercere debent, administrabitis, reddetis principi quod vestra auctoritas serenitati suæ cum summa æquitate acquisivit, & quo se semper vobis potentissimæque huic reipublicæ obligatum & devinctum sentiet.
Quo magis hæc omnia veritate summa nituntur, eo etiam responsum votis conveniens tanto citius expecto, quanto major nunc temporis ratio habenda venit. Atque hac spe subnixus, gloriosissimæ hujus reipublicæ proceribus augustissimis, vobis dominis meis cultum & observantiam meam defero, tenuitatemque meam, qua par est, submissione, commendo,
Illustrissimarum atque excellentissimarum Dominationum
Jo. Hen. Kielman.