A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 7, March 1658 - May 1660. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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July (1 of 3)
Mr. Ph. Meadowes to the council of state.
The long stop, which hath been put to my negotiation, through defect of requisite orders, neither having commission nor creditives to the two kings, suitable to a mediation, has been a great obstruction to the intended peace; so that things remaining in silence and without action, I have little at present to communicate to your honors. Three daies since the French ambassador, myself, and the ambassadors of the states general, went from hence half the way to Copenhagen, with intention to meet the other ambassadors of the states residing in the court of Denmark, in order to concert business betwixt us in conformitie to the treatie at the Hague; but they failed to give us the meeting. Whereupon the next day we went to the camp before Copenhagen, with the same purpose; but they stil pretended supposed difficulties, whereby to excuse their not coming out to us: whereby 'tis easy to judg, they in Copenhagen doe not act in al things by concert with their collegues here; and I have reason to think they have received different orders from their superiors.
Notwithstanding his majestie of Denmark has absolutely refused to treat separately with this king, yet the assistance from the states general is nevertheles retarded. Opdam and Bielk the Danish admiral came into the rood before Copenhagen two daies since with 34 men of war. Several merchant-men laden with provisions came along with them. De Ruyter comes in this day with 46 more; so that the 4000 land-men will be speedily disembarqued; and if they have a sufficient number of mariners for manning and equipping some of his majesty of Denmark's great ships, which lie up in port, which I suppose they will have, they wil be in capacitie, being joined together, to put forth to sea, in case of need, with an hundred able men of war. Al that his majesty of Sweden can do, is to retire with his ships into several ports, and so put himself upon the defensive. Gen. Mountagu continues with his fleet in the former port betwixt Huen and Copenhagen.
His majestie of Denmark, when in a weak and low condition, refused a separate treatie with Sweden; which he wil much les consent to now, having received the supply of so considerable a strength. I have often urged upon the Dutch ambassadors the fourth article of the treatie at the Hague, by which they are obliged not to assist him, who shal refuse a just and reasonable peace. Now he, who refuses to treat, as the king of Denmark does, refuses a peace, upon what conditions soever. Al they have to reply upon me is, that that article supposes the three estates to have emploied their utmost diligence and endeavor for an accommodement; which they allege is not yet performed on the part of England and France. The French ambassador is going to Copenhagen within a day or two. I should long since have been there, had I received my creditives from the parlement.
The Austrians and Brandenburgers, about ten daies since, made an attempt upon Funen, but were repulsed with considerable loss. There is an eminent officer amongst them slain; who it is, is not yet certainly known, but supposed to be major-gen. Goltz. Probably the next thing they wil be upon, wil be to transport cavalrie for Copenhagen, and so dispute the campagne upon this isle with his majestie of Sweden, who wil find himself in difficult circumstances, singly to oppose a numerous enemy in so many places. As for a peace, I look upon it as a case almost desperate, the most advantagious opportunities for obtaining it being now past; and our fleet must shortly look homewards, unles timely supplies come out of England. The Hollanders in the mean time wil carry al before them in Denmark, and possibly at last force his majestie of Sweden too upon such conditions, as may be gainful to themselves, but prejudicial to England.
I have long expected the arrival of the commissioners plenipotentiaries. When arrived, I shall readily communicate with them at large the whole state of affairs heer; and then, unles I have power to act with them in the same commission, my longer stay heer wil be wholly useles; and therefore shal wait and hope your honors commands to be recalled to some other emploiment, wherein I may be in capacitie to render myself in some measure serviceable: which is the sole ambition of
To the count of Schombergh, lieutenant-general of the armies of his majesty, and governor of Bergh.
At my arrival from Dixmuyde I have received that letter you honoured me withal, and at night I have not failed of executing your orders in sending out a party all night, which hath taken nothing. I have also sent out a lieutenant in the enemy's army, who could learn nothing of their design: but there are arrived four or five regiments Irish of the troops of the king of England, and the guards and the equipage of the marquis of Caracena. Mons. de Marsin and many other principal officers are gone to Brussels. It is conjectured, that the king of England and Mons. de Caracena must join this army; one party whereof is yet in our Chattolome hard by Nieuport. Our horsemen have subsistance according to those of Ypres, as his highness of Turenne hath ordered it; that is, seven livres a day each captain; proportionally four sous a day for each trooper. I humbly intreat you to believe, that I will have all my life-time that obedience I owe to your commandments. I have the honour and advantage to be
The major being gone this morning for Dixmuyde, hath received of the express that letter you writ to him, who hath told me to be pressed for his return; which hath obliged me to open the said paquet, to know the subject of his voyage; and meeting with that letter you wrote to Mr. Fournier, I answered: and of me you shall have, Sir, that four regiments of foot are joined to Mons. de Marsin, which we believe are troops of the duke of York. I am assured this morning, that Mons. de Marsin is gone post haste to Brussels. You shall have advice of what I shall learn more; and we shall do here what you shall find fit. The master shall be here this night back; and I am with respects,
Being ready to take horse to go towards the strand, I have received those you have honoured me withal, and will not fail to-night to send a party, as you desire; of which I will not fail to advise you. One of the magistrates told me this morning, that the duke of York should come with his troops within a league of this place; but since we are of contrary belief. The lanthalster of this place came the other day from the army of Mons. Marsin, who saith, that there was expected some free company, amongst which the blue-cloaks, which are the company of the life-guards. If any thing worthy of your note passeth, we shall not omit to let you know, being
In Mons. de Marsin's absence, I have opened the answers you have written to him, that are sent to him from Brussels, by which word is sent him, that the troops are sent this way, to fortify the sea-coasts against the English, with whom we have wars; and that this in no manner derogates from the suspension of arms. If you find any thing to say to it, Sir, I assure myself, addressing yourself to his excellence the marquis of Caracena, who is governor of these Low-countries, you shall receive full satisfaction, knowing that Mons. Marsin had promised you to make you participant of what he should know. I would not defer to advise, and make use of this opportunity to let you know, that I am,
The commissioners at Dunkirk to the council of state.
Since our arrival at this place, we have applied ourselves to the discharge of the trust reposed in us; and having spoken both to officers and soldiers, we find their minds much settled by what we have told them concerning the parliament, and your honours resolution to take care of them and this place. We have viewed the fortifications of the town, and judge, that they are of good strength, being sufficiently manned to oppose any force, that can ordinarily be expected to come against them. There is some part of the outworks unfinished, which will require some time and money. We have also taken notice of the fort of Mardike, and it is our opinion, and the officers upon this place, that the fort, as it now is, will not be able to hold out, if an enemy should come against it; and therefore it is thought more convenient to slight it, than to let it fall into the hands of an enemy. The three regiments, that were in the French army, lie at present in tents, near the walls of this town. The French commissary doth as yet provide for them. The officers are very desirous to know the parliament's pleasure concerning them, in regard they are uncertain of their provision from France. And we humble desire, that a constant supply of money may be made for this place, which will be one great means to preserve it. We leave these things to your honours consideration, and remain,
The commissioners at Dunkirk to general Fleetwood.
May it please your Excellency,
We did, in our last, give you a brief account of our being arrived at this place, and of the state of things, as they then stood, which is not since worse, but better; officers and soldiers at least seemingly well setled, and nothing is like to distemper them but want: therefore, whatever you do with the forces in England, if you will keep this town, the garison must be well paid, and well stored with provisions necessary. We have given an account to the council touching Mardike, wherein we have offered it as our advice, that the sooner it be slighted, the better, it being impossible to keep it four days against an army; and the loss of that place will prove very dangerous, if not destructive, to this place. Here does want a person to command this garison, whose principle it is to encourage godliness in the power of it. We have cause to fear, that profaneness and wickedness (which do sadly abound in this place) will do more to the loss and prejudice thereof, than all other enemies. We wish the change of one of our honest English regiments for one of the worst of these here, and a good governor, as the best expedient. We humbly submit it to your excellency, craving pardon for giving you this trouble, commending you to the grace and guidance of the Lord, that you may comfortably be carried through that work he hath intrusted you with. This is, and shall be, the prayer of, &c.
From count Schomberg.
At the same instant I received yours, I was sending away my secretary to advise you from me of the things contained both in the letter of the enemies, as in that of the commander of Furnes, of which he will entertain you; and you may believe and give credit in every thing. But as your letter advises me of a sad accident, of which I am wholly sensible, I'll tell you, that I send a guard by express to Mons. d'Avignon, and to the commander of St. Croix, of which my secretary will shew the letters, that to-morrow they may send to fetch the trooper, that you have taken, and that you may exempt him and also of the consorts. I intreat you only to cause to be made a copy, as soon as can be possible, and that in French, of the informations, that the guard may carried with him, as I request of the particular justice. I desire, that the business may be ended as soon as may be, and that the sentence of the council of war should be made known before the execution, that you may send some officer to witness the execution, that shall be done. Intreating you to believe, that this business troubles me as much as you can be, and that you cannot have more care of the interest, than that glories to take,
A translation of a letter from Mons. Talon, intendant of the French king, unto the governors of Dunkirk, dated in Wenen, the 19th July, 1659. [N. S.]
I have received the two letters, which you have done me the honour to write unto me, and have sent to Mons. the marquis of Caracena for to know, whether he doth not understand, that the town of Dunkirk and Mardike are comprised in the cessation of arms, as other places; and I do expect the answer, for to let you know it. In the mean time I shall request you to send me the resolution, which you shall have from England, touching the war at sea.
You have done very well in having caused the king's English troops, which were at Bourbourg, to advance towards Dunkirk. If you need all those of his majesty for the preservation of Dunkirk, you shall always find them ready; and I had advanced towards you myself, had I not believed, that I should be more sesul to you here, in observing the enemy; but when you have need, spare me not. The advice, which I gave you, and which I had from England, is most true; and the enemy do cover their design with the name of the king of England, unto whom Mons. Marsin is lieutenant-general. I am, without any reserve, and on all trials,
The Dutch embassador to the council of state.
The lords the states general of the United Netherland Provinces, having seriously perused the answer to a paper exhibited by the subscribed embassador of the said United Provinces on the 7th/27th of July,/June, 1659. have sent over express order and instruction to their said embassador, that he should labour with all possible care and diligence, to the end that the supreme authority of the commonwealth of England (seeing how sincerely the said lords the states general do co-operate and concur with the said commonwealth of England for the obtaining of a peace between the two Northern kings and kingdoms) would be pleased to consider impartially, and without prejudice, the present constitution, and the case of the said kings and kingdoms; and then it will appear, that, in the year 1645. the Swedes have gotten from Denmark the whole maritime province of Holland, besides the two islands of Gothland and Oesell, the greatest and fruitfullest in the Baltic sea, and kept in their possession from the then prince, and now king, of Denmark, his two archbishopricks of Bremen and Verden, being very considerable countries in Germany, betwixt the rivers the Elve and the Weser: that the Swedes have since, in February, 1658. gotten from Denmark the provinces of Bleking and Schonen, with the country and the impregnable sortress of Balmys in the kingdom of Norway, besides Drontheim and the isle of Bornholm. By which great addition of power to the one, and the extraordinary of the other, the balance and the counterpoise between the Northern kings and kingdoms (which hath been very prudently always maintained by the states and princes interested in the preservation of the liberty and just freedom of the navigation and commerce in the Baltic sea, and the East countries) is quite brought down.
Therefore, and in consideration of many pregnant reasons and motives, have the said lords the states general always particularly propounded it in the conferences at the Hague between the two public ministers and their commissioners, that the last treaty of peace having been performed by the king of Denmark, and violated by the king of Sweden, that it would be just and equitable, that the peace should be made and re-established on the foundation of the treaty at Bromsbroo in the aforesaid year 1645. But finding that the oppressed king of Denmark was so unfortunate, that England and France could not be prevailed with to condescend thereunto, they insisted, that at least a just and reasonable medium and expedient might be agreed on, whereby the king of Denmark might be restored in a condition, that he might at least subsist as a king in some measure, and not remain altogether exposed to the mercy of his adversary. And after several debates in many conferences, it was at last agreed and concluded, that the three states should use their endeavours, that a sincere, firm peace might be settled between the said kings, upon the foundation and basis of the said treaty of Roschild, but with a reservatory clause in the latter part of the second article, that the losses sustained by reason of the renewing of the war should be taken into consideration; and that endeavours should be used for the composing of all differences between the said kings, and the bringing of them, as far as possible, into mutual amity. And truly it is not the office and duty of impartial mediators to endeavour, that the one party, especially assailing and oppressing, should carry all before him, and allow or make no satisfaction for the mischief and devastation unjustly by him committed, and that the other party assaulted and oppressed should be left in a sad and wholly broken state and condition. If not only the reason and equity, but the true aim and intrinsic intention of the said treaty at the Hague be well and truly considered, it is manifest, that the meaning hath been, that all the territories and places should be restored to the king of Denmark, according to the said treaty of Roschild; that is, in such a condition as they were at the time of the conclusion of the said treaty; which being impossible to perform in such a manner by the king of Sweden, (whose armies and forces have wasted, destroyed, burnt, and otherwise quite ruined the said territories and places of Denmark, to the utmost undoing of the king, gentry, and people of the said kingdom of Denmark, first by the continuing upon free-quarters in the said countries many months after the time of the evacuation agreed on by the said treaty, and afterwards, in a more intolerable manner by the unjust, new breach of that treaty, and the hostile invasion of Denmark) it is altogether just and reasonable, that the same should be made good and supplied by an equivalent; which equivalent cannot be found more conveniently, than by leaving or quitting to the king of Denmark Drontheim, with its appurtenances, and the isle of Bornholm, (which are both reduced, by the singular fidelity of the people thereof, under the power and obedience of the king of Denmark) and by remitting the payment of four hundred thousand rixdollars, which were pretended for some losses sustained by the Swedes on the coast of Guiney during the war; and the said promise was by force of arms extorted since the conclusion of the said treaty of Roschild, and since that, on the behalf of Denmark, all the articles of that treaty had been performed and accomplished; and that likewise the little isle of Ween might remain under Zeland, and not be annexed unto Schonen.
The said lords the states general cannot persuade themselves, that the present parliament of the commonwealth of England (so wonderfully restored to the government of the three united nations) will think it fit, that there should be a difference and discrepancy between them and the United Netherland Provinces about or concerning the said four particulars; or that they would endeavour to force and compel the said oppressed king of Denmark to surrender his faithful subjects in Drontheim and Bornholm aforesaid to that king, who doth look on the said fidelity as a crime committed against his majesty, which he would doubtless resent against the same. And how is it imaginable, that a Christian prince, having any conscience, or sense of honour and natural affection, can be induced to abandon his faithful people, who having, with the hazard of their lives and fortunes, cast off a foreign power, have reduced themselves under the obedience of their own and natural prince?
The lords the states general do no-ways doubt, but that the commonwealth of England, remembering how unreasonably the Swedes did raise the tolls at Drontheim the last year, when they were possessed thereof, will hold themselves as well concerned and interested in the commerce and navigation to Drontheim aforesaid, and the other ports of Norway, as the said United Provinces, the rates and proportion of the tolls being equally regulated there by treaties for both the states and nations.
The said lords the states general, to manifest and to shew abundantly on their behalf their sincere and hearty affection to promote and further the before-mentioned peace, have ordered, that he the said embassador should assure and declare in their name, and on their behalf, to the parliament, and council of state appointed by the authority of the same, that in case it be mutually agreed on to obtain the said four points, being so just and equitable, that the said lords the states general do uprightly and firmly bind and oblige themselves, not only to endeavour, that the king of Denmark do desist from his alleged exceptions, and do condescend to the treaty, but also to help effectually to bring his majesty to accept of the peace on the restitution and evacuation of his countries, according to the treaty of Roschild, leaving out of the same the third article, as it is agreed in the second article of the said treaty at the Hague; provided that the supreme authority of the commonwealth of England be likewise, in regard of Sweden, bound and obliged to proceed in the same manner with the said lords the states general, in case the king of Sweden cannot be prevailed upon to accept willingly the said conditions; provided also, that, on the behalf of Sweden, the treaty of Elbing, and the elucidations mentioned in the seventh article of the said treaty at the Hague between the three states, (as well for the good and advantage of England as of the United Provinces, and the other included parties) be condescended unto, and fully accomplished.
And by the aforesaid offer the said lords the states general believe, that they have acquitted themselves sufficiently. And the said embassador beseecheth the right honourable council of state, that such resolutions may be taken here, and such suitable orders given, that both states agreeing on the particulars here before-mentioned, may cordially and chearfully co-operate and concur together in establishing the said peace, and preserving their own mutual interests in those parts.
The answer of the council of state, appointed by the authority of parliament, to a paper exhibited by the lord embassador of the lords the states general of the United Provinces, of the 14/24th July, 1659.
1. In pursuance of what hath been already declared by the council concerning the form of the ratification of the treaty at the Hague of the 11/21. of May last being agreed upon, the said treaty is now ratified under the great seal of England, and shall forthwith be sent over to be delivered at the Hague to the public ministers of France and of the United Provinces of the Netherlands respectively, upon their interchanging the like with England.
2. The council having taken into consideration the third and fourth articles of the said treaty, together with the proceedings, that the public ministers and commanders of the fleets of both commonwealths in the Sound (lately made known to them) do earnestly recommend it to the said lord embassador, to represent to his superiors, that all care be taken for the due observation of the said articles on their part, as this state have given order to be done on the behalf of this commonwealth; so as not only during the first and second three weeks cessation, and such further prolongation thereof as is or shall be mutually consented unto, the assistance forbidden by the said third article be forborn, but also that there be a desisting, according to the fourth article, from the giving any kind of aid to the king of Denmark, so long as he continues (as hitherto he hath done) to refuse the jsut and equitable conditions of peace agreed to be tendered to him on the behalf of the three states, in pursuance of the said treaty.
3. The council do take notice, that the said lord embassador, in his paper of the 14/24th of July, adds very little in substance to his paper of the 7/17th of July, unless it be in expostulating the case of the king of Denmark, and in favour of the treaty of Bromsbroo; which matters were all brought to the settlement by consent of the three states, declared in the said treaty at the Hague, and are not therefore to be anew disputed over again. Nor doth the reservatory clause mentioned in the said paper to be in the latter part of the second article, more redound to the advantage of Denmark than of Sweden, but mutually and equally respect them both; by reason whereof the council saw cause to express themselves as they did in the third particular of their former answer of the 28th of June last, unto which they do still adhere and refer themselves, with this further declaration, that the council are ready forthwith (if the said lord embassador shall find himself authorized thereunto) to agree upon such particulars, (with the consent of the said three states, but especially of the said two commonwealths) whereby the mischiess feared, some differences yet undecided may be avoided, and the terms of the peace between the two kings brought to a certainty upon the grounds of the Roschild treaty, and they necessitated to accept the same, not only by the real execution of the fourth article of the said treaty at the Hague, but also by the positive employing the force of both commonwealths in those parts against the refuser or refusers, in such manner as the ministers of the three states (at least those of England and the United Provinces) shall judge the most speedy, sure and effectual.
And by the said offer the council do believe they have sufficiently acquitted themselves, and do desire, that the particulars, whereby this affair may be brought to a certainty, upon the grounds above-mentioned, be speedily condescended unto, and agreed upon.
To the right honourable the council of state, appointed by authority of parliament of the commonwealth of England.
The subscribed embassador of the lords the states general of the United Provinces in the Netherlands, having perused the answer of the said council of state to his paper exhibited the 14/24th of this instant, beseecheth, that he may confer with the right honourable committee of the council concerning that important work.
Admiral Lawson to the commissioners at Dunkirk.
Much honer'd Freinds,
I kindly salute you, wishing you all hapines inward and outward. Haveing this oppertunitie, I could doe noe lesse then tender my kind love and service to you, desireing, that my kind respects may bee presented to all the officers wheare you are. I should have beene glad to have wated on you att my comeing on to the coast; but I was comanded by speciall order to this place. For newes, I have litle from hence. I doe not heare of any preparation for shipping of any men from hence for England, as was reported; nor doe I beeleeve, there is any. Pray advise mee, if you heare off any forces draweing downe towards Dunkerke, or otherwise off any draweing together neare this place up in the country. If there should be any forces draweing towards Dunkerke, if I could do any good by countenance or otherwayes att Dunkerke, I should repaire thither. I have litle else, but once more deare respects and service to you. I remaine,
The English plenipotentiaries in the Sound to the president of the council of state.
Wee are now approaching the Scaw, having by lesse favourable windes bin deteyned these eight dayes att sea. By an Hamburgher, whom wee just now mett coming from the Sound, we receive intelligence, that our fleet, with some Swedes, lie at present betweene Cronenburgh and Copenhaguen; which city hath received some reliese from merchant-men and victuallers; but according to the information, (which he confidently in this particular gives us) hath as yet no souldiers putt into itt. Wee are (it seemes) lookt for att the Sound, where a certain number of commissioners besides are expected from Holland, till the comeing up whereof there is a cessation between the fleets. My lord, we could not omitt comunicateing this, being carefull of useing all opportunityes to approve ourselves
The bailiff of Dunkirk to Lockhart, governor of that town.
After my most humble respects, I shall tell you, that I have given myself the honour to write to your excellency the 18th of the last month, and given you advice of the arrival of the commissioners of England in this town, and what had passed till then. And now I shall tell you, that the said commissioners, and their assistants, busy themselves daily to inform themselves of the state and government of this town, as also of its magistracy, and what revenues they have, and wherein employ them; yet without speaking with the said magistracy to inform themselves of the truth, although I have given myself the honour to go to see them, and present my most humble service, as the deputies also of the said magistracy have done several times; to whom, as to me, they answered, that they thanked us for our civility, without saying any thing else to us, because, as we judge, they distrust us, and make more account of certain ill spirits, as of doctor Clerk, and others, who persuade them many things, as they please, though merely suggested, and that in hope of some reward; but at last they will find all is srivolous. Of which the magistrates being advertised, I went on their behalf to the assistants of the said commissioners, and offered them to confer of the said affairs, and the town revenues, and assured them, that those of the magistracy would give them clear information of all in writing, that they might after inform themselves therof; and not finding their declaration true, they might hold them as dishonest persons. Whereupon they answered me without any thing else, that they would consider, having only demanded the state of the town revenues, and wherein employed; which was all strait delivered them in general terms, they yet having hitherto said nothing to us thereupon; but as we have it from good hands, they have said, this place must be governed after the English manner, and the revenues and directions thereof be taken from the magistracy, and the right of custom, grant and excise be changed; which has caused a great alteration among the magistracy and townsmen, because that would totally ruin most of them, being engaged for the said town, and having disbursed for it most of their commodities, and engaged their credit besides; that this would be a breach of the capitulation, which I cannot believe, nor imagine, that your excellency will suffer it to be done. And in this confidence I have assured the magistracy, and greatest part of the townsmen, that your excellency will take so good care, and interpose your authority and credit with the parliament and council of state, that they will order this matter so, that there shall be no alteration therein, seeing there is no cause for it, and would be against the capitulation and faith given. This hath a little quieted their anxiety, confiding wholly in the goodness, prudence, and accustomed good discretion of your excellency, and that you will maintain us, and procure we may be maintained, in our antient privileges, and the disposal of the revenues of the town, as we have been hitherto. Wherefore, in the name of the people of this town, I cast myself at the feet of your excellency, beseeching you to have the goodness to continue us,and protect us, in the maintenance of our privileges and articles granted us upon capitulation, which you have had the goodness to do hitherto, and we shall be bound all the days of our lives to pray to the Almighty for the preservation and prosperity of your excellency, and all your family; beseeching you likewise to interpose your interest and credit with our lords of the parliament and council of state of England, that they would be so good as to maintain us in our antient privileges, and the direction of the town, and also to make the articles of capitulation be observed, as we doubt not, when they shall by your excellency be well informed of the truth of all things. Some of the magistracy, upon this alteration, propounded to send some of their deputies to our said lords of the parliament and council, to remonstrate to them the state of our affairs, and beseech them to continue us in our antient privileges and administrations, and to cause the articles of capitulation to be observed; which I prayed them to suspend, till advice given thereof to your excellency, to know if you approved it, we desiring to do nothing without the approbation and command of your excellency. Wherefore I most humbly beseech your execllency to be so good as send me for answer, what you desire we should do herein; and I will not fail to observe your orders, and cause them to be observed punctually; and if your excellency think fit, that some deputies be sent to the court, then to send me also the names of whom you desire should go. For myself, if your excellency think me capable, I would most willingly offer my service to be one; but, on the other side, I see, that I could difficultly absent myself from the town, while your excellency is away, yet shall rule myself in that, and all other things, by the order and good pleasure of your excellency though I believe, and have to assured those of the magistracy, that your excellency will do an hundred thousand times more by your letters, than our deputies. Nevertheless we shall expect your excellency's orders, it deserving consideration also, that if any alteration be made in the government, privileges, and capitulation of the town, and that they will take from the magistracy the direction and administration, it will be the total ruin and destruction of this town, it being to be feared, that all the rich and considerable townsmen, finding themselves frustrated of their privileges, will be gone, and so the town become desert without traffick, and so be wholly ruined; which truly would be lamentable, though I will believe, that, by God's assistance, and the good management of your excellency, we shall not come to such extremity. The commissioners sent for me, and coming to them, desired of me a copy of our capitulation; which I gave them translated in English, they also demanding of me a list of all the inhabitants, Fleming, French, and Wallons, of this town; which I did as exactly as I could, and found them a thousand and sixty, which list I delivered them; and, at my going away again, offered them my service, and asked, if they had any thing more to command me. They answered, No. Since that, we have intreated the commissioners to give us leave to have the honour to entertain them at a treatment in the town-house; which they accepted, and is to be at noon, where we have invited the commanders of the town, Sir Brice Cockram, colonel, all the lieutenantcolonels in the town, major Hinton, and three or four principal officers more, to keep them company, hoping your excellency will approve thereof; only sorry we cannot have the selicity of your excellency's presence, which also would free us from all anxious thoughts, on occasion of the discourses held here, since the arrival of these gentlemen, concerning the change. But seeing that cannot be, and that your excellency is in probability to do us a greater benefit, and give us the general peace, which we beseech the Almighty to give us, unto the contentment of your excellency and our superiors, whereof we hope shortly to understand the success, I shall pray God for the preservation of your excellency, as making profession to be, and to continue all my life long,