A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 7, March 1658 - May 1660. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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July (2 of 3)
1659. A note of the religious, magistrates, notables, merchants, and other inhabitants of this town of Dunkirk.
The first paper from the king of Denmark, brought to the commissioners by Peter Rytz, Aug. 1. 1659.
L'on croit, que pour avancer tant plus promptement la negotiation & l'achevement de la paix entre les deux couronnes Septentrionales, il soit necessaire, de declarer aux mediateurs le fondement & la vraye base des justes pretensions de la couronne de Dennemarc & Norvege; à sçavoir, qu'elle demande premierement restitution des provinces, tant de celles que le roy de Suede apres la rupture de la paix de Roeschilde possede à cette heure, que de celles, dont il a esté chassé, & il est tenu par le dit traitté de rendre. Secondement, satisfaction des despences & dommages inestimables causez aux estats de la dite couronne par l'irruption, que le roy de Swede y a faite. Et comme il n'y a rien de plus conforme à la justice que cela, & que c'est l'effence mesme de traitté de Roeschilde, sur le pied du quel les tres estats ont fondées la negotiation de la paix du Nort, la dite couronne se promet tant de l'equité & le candeur des messieurs les mediateurs, qu'en cela ils appuyeront vigoreusement la justice de sa cause; quant au changement, qu'on juge se devoir faire aux points du traitté de Roeschilde, du quel aussi messieurs les mediateurs desirent, qu'on leur donne part, un project s'en fera au plutost, estant une affaire, qui requiert quelques jours de temps.
Extraict du register des resolutions, &c. le premier d'Aoust, 1659, [N. S.]
Estant mis en deliberation, il a esté trouvé bon & entendu, que pour prevenir toutes sortes de difficultés, qui pourroient naistre au suject de l'isle de Ween, de declarer comme L. H. P. declarent par celle ci, qu'en cas que dans les quinze jours mentionnés dans la derniere convention du 24. du mois passé, relatif un traict de la Haye du 21. May de cette année, que la dite isle de Ween ne soit de franche volonté cedée par le roy de Suede au roy de Dennemarc, que la volonté & intention de L. H. P. est à ce sujet, selon la convention, comme elle est encore, que la dite isle demeure en propre à sa dite majesté de Suede; & de la dite resolution & declaration de L. H. P. sera envoyé extraict authentique aux seigneurs deputés, executeurs de cet estat pres les dits hauts & puissants roys, pour le mettre en execution, & pour se regler à l'advenant. Il sera aussi mis es mains de Monsieur l'ambassadeur de Thou, & du commissaire Downing, un extraict de la dite resolution, pour leur servir respectivement, où il sera de besoin, comme aussi aux seigneurs ambassadeurs Boreel & Nieuport, pour se regler à l'advenant; & ainsi estoit signés.
An intercepted letter.
I doe much wonder, you have not vouchsased me the favour of a letter these two last posts under this cover, because I humbly desire you would speak to Mr. Smyth, or captain Barker, (under whose cover it comes to him) that I might continue it, notwithstanding their remove, which were easye for the captain to doe by his wife, who lives in the same house with the resident; and I presume, unless that course bee taken, this will be last I can so send, expecting their speedy departure. By it I writt the first and eighth instant; the fifteenth I forboor, a general search of all paquets being then intended, and what perverse construction they might make of an inocent paper, I knew not. Our present affayres are very odd, the grandees and commonwealthsmen striving for superiority, Quakers and Anapabtists every-where arming; the Prestyterians, or a great part of them united with the cavileers; dayly alarums of Ch. St. landing, and universal confusion throughout the nation. Sir Hen. Vane and major Salway are deserted by many of their party, not having more than sixteen or seventeen, that can give concurrent votes. It is sayd, they desire the adjournment of the house, that the whole manage of affairs might pass by the councel, where they believe themselves more prevalent. Sir Ar. Hasl. did this morning very smartly oppose it, desiring rather a summons of all, that are absent, and a settlement of the nation. In Hartfordshire and many other places the commissioners refuse to sett the tax, till the parliament have declared the government, resolving to have a free comonwealth; but after what model, no two places, nay scarce two persons, agree. An anuall parliament, and a councell in the intervals, is in most vogue. Whether the members of one shall bee eligible againe till the third or fifth year, is controverted, the grandees hopeing to carry a voluntary election without such limitation, and by that means perpetuate their own interests in the government. Coll. Lambert (for that is now his most frequent appellation in the house) is so little in their good graces, that were hee to pass his regiments at this tyme, hee would not have ten votes. They find him aspire, and will shortly prevent that danger, unless it please God to bring a worse upon them by insurrections. Then indeed they will have occasion to use his courage and conduct, whereby he will undoubtedly merit the generalship, if victorious; outing Fleetewood, and attempting sovereignty. There is a list pretended by him of three hundred names, mutually ingaged to rise in armes; which indeed I cannot believe, since wee have always found it a usefull pollicy at all times, to give out confidently the discovery of all councels from abroad, and conspiracies at home, to fright rash undertakers from enterprizing any thing. And truly, supposing there were any such horrible intention, it were easye to make a list of three times three hundred noblemen and gentlemen, who would in all probability abett it: but alas! what can they do without common hands? this having been our great advantage, that the maine quarrel being against the gentry of the nation, between whom and the ordinary sort of people there is a natural animositye of late years infinitely increased, they have no power to debauch our soldiers, nor doe they condescend to those arts, by which they might be captivated. Hence comes it, that, since 1648, no mutiny hath been caused by them, no partye have been inveighed, much less a general defection (frequent in story). But these, as I told you, are a different race of men; nor can any precepts of policy, examples antient or modern, instruct any man to guess, what they will or will not doe. The militia not yet established in the countyes, two justices of peace next adjoining are every-where authorized to sieze suspected persons, horses, armes, &c. by which authority, with the assistance of the country troop, or those of the army neer them, several places in Surry, Essex, Bedfordshire, Worcestershire, &c. have been searched, and some gentlemen taken; but noe evill intentions being discovered, it is to be hoped wee shall enjoy a peaceable harvest. How farr Mr. Nieuport's papers may increase the jealousye, I cannot say, reports being various: but if it please God to send the sword once more amongst us, the scabbords of all, that rise, will be thrown away, no mercy being to be hoped after it. Our army is very little increased; nor can wee have any firm relyance on the city, who will bee freinds to the conquerors, foes to the conquered, which party soever prevayle. And truly from them ariseth our greatest fear; for should wee leave them to themselves, they themselves know not what they would doe, when free from the curb of the army: keeping that bridle, who should repress the enimy? This dilemma perplexes the wisest heads of the nation; nor doe I find a cheerefull man of all my generall acquaintance in the house and army, which makes us superstitiously to feare some more then ordinary turne of fate, though my owne share bee the least of ten thousand, and my interests so ballanced, that unless a conquest be made by Quakers, which can never last a month in settlement, or by Ch. St. which is improbable, I shall have the same quiet aboad amongst my books, and frank entertaynement by some of the formost men in power, that I now enjoy; and bless God for this singular felicity hee hath in these times of tryall afforded
A further agreement for dispatching of the affairs in the Sound.
Quo pax inter Sueciæ Daniæque reges instauranda promptius optatum sortiatur eventum, idque ex regula & præscripto eorum, de quibus Maii mensis nuper elapsi die 21°, 24° que Julii proxime sequentis convenit, consultum insuper visum, & consensum est, si præter spem ac expectationem fortassis acciderit, ut primus ex 15 diebus, quorum in conventis die 24. Julii mensis jam dicti chartæ consignatis mentio est facta, nondum fit exortus, cum ad oratores hoc conventum perferetur, tam dictis quindecim diebus initium, ut statuatur intra spatium horarum 24. ab exhibito oratoribus præsenti hoc conventu. Si vero paci inter duos jam dictos reges ineundæ suprema manus imposita non fuerit ante exitum horum 15 dierum, tunc trium statuum, Angliæ saltem ac Fœderati Belgii oratores pacis detrectatorem vel detrectatores illico illum illosve denuntiare tenebuntur, si regum alteruter vel uterque omnes & singulas conditiones ac clausulas, quarum in pactis conventis ad diem 24. Julii proximi scripto mandatis fit mentio, non admiserit, quive horum duorum regum pacem, quam lex & formulæ earundem conditionum præscribunt, non amplectetur, vel amplectentur. Præterea classes navesque Anglorum, tum etiam Fœderatorum Belgarum classes, naves, ac milites sine mora aut procrastinatione id agent efficientque, ut pacem tantopere desideratam detrectaturus vel detrectaturi, re ipsa compellatur aut compellantur ad eandem admittendam sub conditionibus, quæ die 24. Julii proxime elapsi scripto consignatæ sunt; idque eo prorsus modo, quem paci instaurandæ incumbentium statuum Angliæ saltem ac Fœderati Belgii oratores expeditissimum, maximeque tutum ac efficacem fore judicabunt, ad quam illi metam studiis non intermissis tenebuntur aspirare, nulla omnino facta temporis jactura, nec ulla de novo super hac re mandata aut expectaturi aut exacturi, ne detrimenta aut infortunia, quæ ex bello hoc funestissimo diutius protracto, aut dubio longe maxima sint redundatura, statibus jam dictis eorumve oratoribus ad pacem instaurandam de legatis imputari queant, si pax ipsa ante æstatem elapsam non adfulgeat.
Denique oratores jam dicti inter se deliberabunt, an consultum ex re communi sit, ut pars quotacunque classium, navium, vel militiæ tam Angliæ quam Fœderati Belgii domum mox revertatur, relicto illic eo numero, qui par sit conventis die 24. Julii proximi chartæ traditis ad optatum finem promovendis. Iidemque oratores, ex quo hujus conventi certiores fient, non dissensus solummodo ac cuncta infortunia, quæ offerri possent, prævenient pro virili, atque amovebunt, verum etiam conjunctis operis, ac consiliis communicatis, in id sincere fideliterque incumbent, ut tenor hujus conventi perstet illibatus, utque genuina ejus sententia ac vera mens sarta tecta conservetur. Actum Hagæ-Comitum, ad 4. mensis Augusti, anno 1659. [N. S.]
An accompt of publick moneys received for the use of [..] garrison since the seventh of May, 1659, to the first of July, 1659, together with the disposition thereof; as appeareth [from] Tho. Brown's account, receiver under my lord Lockhart; which is hereunto annexed, to find to be as followeth:
Sir Ph. Meadowe to the council of state.
My last to your honors was from Fredericsberg, of the 19th instant, sent by the post the day after the commissioners plenipotentiarie arrived heer in the Sound; upon advise whereof I immediately removed hither. They have not yet had audience, becaus his majestie of Sweden, being gone for Naskow in Laland before their arrival, returned but yesterday to Fridericsburg, whither the commissioners wil either goe to meet him, or els the king come hither; and I suppose the first audience wil be to-morrow.
I, not being in the same commission with the plenipotentiaries, shal, for the future, have nothing of importance to communicate to your honors; because whatever occurs in the transaction of this weighty busines, you wil have advertisement thereof from better hands. I crave leave therefore to make a humble address to your honors on my own behalf, which I am the more emboldned to doe, as having served the publique both at home and abroad these many years, and that with many hazards and suffrances, wherein my services have never had respect to the particular interests of any person, party, or faction, but have been immediately directed to the publique concernments of the commonwealth, whome I shal be stil ready to serve with my life and fortune to the utmost of my abilitie. That, which with all humble submission I beg of your honors, is the libertie to return for England; which I am induced to ask upon sundry considerations: not long since a small estate in lands besel me in England by the death of an uncle, upon which I have not yet made entry; besides that I am obliged by his will to grant over certain conveiences of annuities, which I am not in capacity to doe, by reason of my absence, and yet in the mean time am obnoxious in law to great penalties upon non-performance.
When I was in Portugal some years since upon publique emploiment, I received there a dangerous wound. The rigour of this clime in the winter-season renews the grief of it, and endangers the loss of one of my hands.
His majestie of Sweden, as he himself lately informed me, and as I advised in my last, intends to pass this winter in Sweden, being urgently recalled thither by his own affairs. It will scarce be possible, and perhaps impertinent or unuseful, for a publique minister to follow him thither. Upon these and other inducements, too long to rehearse, I in al dutiful humilitie refer myself to your honors favor, entreating, that letters revocatory may, at my instant supplication, be sent to the king, with whom I reside, to dispense with my discontinuance from this service, at least for the ensueing winter; and that I may have orders to embarque myself for England by the first opportunity of shipping, which presents from the fleet.
I have already freely and fully communicated with the plenipotentiaries the state of things, as they have passed heer, and as they are at present. And if in any thing I can be useful to the advancement of the publique service, I shall most willingly contribute my utmost thereto. I have already declared as much to them, who, I am confident, will not deny me their testimonies of my readines and integritie.
I hope, before this arrives, order will be given to Mr. Noel to accept of my bill of the 19th instant for 250 l. sterling, which I mentioned in my last. If the bil be protested, it wil be to my disreputation. Mr. Noel has been very backward of late; and yet never publique minister managed his expences with greater frugalitie then I have done. I remain
The English plenipotentiaries in the Sound to the president of the council.
Being arrived here the 21st of this month, we should, before this time, have given your lordship an account of ourselves, and so much as we could know of our business; but being promised every day, that the king of Sweden would be here either the same or the next, and that we might have audience the first hour after his coming, we did stay the dispatch of the ketch, until that were passed, that we might be more full in our relation. But we are yet kept in uncertainty; and though we sent a gentleman yesterday to Fredericsburgh with a copy of our credentials, to be shewed to the secretary of state, with our desire for a speedy audience, he is not yet returned. The most that we can at present say, is that having been on board your fleet, we find it in a good condition of strength; but sickness doth grow amongst them, and the victual doth grow short, which we do endeavour to supply by providing the particulars mentioned in the inclosed note, which amounting unto about fifteen hundred pounds, over and above what is already provided, or ordered to be paid, we desire your lordship to cause to be paid accordingly. We have received from Mr. Downing a copy of an agreement made at the Hague the 14/24th instant; and though it is not authentically signed, we do proceed upon it with the Holland ministers, without any dispute, finding it suitable unto our instructions; so that even without it we might have concluded with them the matter of it. There was some discourse between them and us of the quindecim dies continuos, and when they should begin; which is now agreed on all sides, that it shall be quindecim dies post tractatum initum; and that in the mean time we should apply ourselves to both the kings, to persuade them unto a cessation of arms for that time; and if that be refused, the Hollanders do engage themselves to compel the king of Denmark. And we have promised, that if the refuse be on the king of Sweden's side, we will give them full liberty to proceed against him, as they shall think fit, until he doth give his assent; which they like very well, knowing what power they have over him, in case we desist from assisting him. On the 24th of this month we had information, that Opdam and de Ruyter had left their station near Copenhagen, taken on board the 4000 men formerly brought out of Holland, joined themselves with Bielk the Danish admiral, gathered together about 100 barks and boats of several sorts, fit for the transportation of horse and foot, and set sail (as we thought) for Jutland or Holstein, to transport the Brandenburgers. Upon conference with the two Holland ministers (that are here) upon the same day, and discoursing of the last agreement at the Hague, Mr. Slingerland did propose a cessation for the 15 days of the treaty. We, by way of question, proposed, whether not only that was necessary, but that we, who were employed by the two commonwealths, ought not to take care to prevent any mischief, that might fall out between the two fleets, before such time as we could obtain the kings consent to the cessation, especially the Holland fleet having set sail so provided, that it was probable they went upon some great expedition? And whether it were not adviseable, that we should stop all such proceedings, by undertaking either of us for the fleet of our own nation, (they shewing, that they had sufficient power to engage their own) that they should not attempt any act of hostility during the time we were for preparing for the treaty ? They offered to undertake for de Ruyter and his fleet, only leaving Opdam free; which we not accepting, parted without any conclusion, and thought it most for the commonwealth's service to prepare our fleet to follow the Dutch and Danes, and observe their motions. The next day we had a message from the two Dutch ministers here, that they had received notice from their collegues at Copenhagen, that upon the receipt of the agreement at the Hague, they had stopped Opdam and de Ruyter's motions for the present; and that, if we would have a conference with all the ministers of their state, to conclude that business, they would go with us to a place half-way betwixt this and Copenhagen, and send to their collegues to meet us there; unto which we readily assented. And to avoid the dispute for place, which might happen with the French embassador, who was thought necessary to be there, we desired to entertain them in a frigat, that was brought to lie near that place; which they taking very well, we all met there; and agreeing unanimously to prevent all action, that might disturb the treaty, and undertaking each for the fleet belonging to their own commonwealth, and that they should attempt nothing against one another, or either of the two kings, whilst we were preparing for the treaty, the Dutch did immediately dispatch orders to their commanders to give them notice of it, and accordingly to cease from all acts of hostility. The Dutch ministers have very fully assured us, that if the king of Denmark will not assent to the cessation or the peace to be concluded, they will use their power to force him, according to the contents of the late agreement. And though our instructions are large enough to shew us in what manner we should proceed with the king of Sweden, in case he should refuse, as also in relation to the said agreement; yet we desire your lordship, that if this new state of things has given you any other thoughts than such as are expressed in our instructions, your lordship will be pleased to let us know them, that they may be a further guide unto us, and we may in all things conform ourselves unto them. We have also a further scruple, upon which we desire to know your lordship's pleasure, which is, in what manner we should proceed, in case neither of the kings will assent unto the peace; for we think, that probably will be the case, the king of Denmark not only insisting upon a general peace, and refusing any with the exclusion of the Brandenburgers and Imperialists, but, according to the best information we can have from Sir Philip Meadowe and others, we have reason to doubt the king of Sweden will be very unwilling to assent unto a peace, according to the said agreement at the Hague, unless his peace may be also made with the emperor, whose power he is not able to withstand, unless England and France join in assisting him; and Pomerania being so wasted, that there be no subsistence for his army there, he will be extremely streightened how to provide quarters for his army this winter; and sums up his desires in these few words, either that we should make a general peace, that he may disband his army, or suffer him to stay here, where he may maintain it; by which your lordship may see, how different the inclinations of that king are from what is ordinarily represented in England. We think, the relation of his force at land and sea is not more truly represented. Those troops of his, that we have seen, are extremely weak, ill armed, ill mounted, few in number, and in all respects in an ill condition; and we are informed, his others are not better; but yet the strength in Copenhagen consisting of the most part of burghers (who are only to defend walls) they well enough keep them in. His sea-force is not more considerable, and the state of it is so well known unto the Dutch, that they do not apprehend the English should receive any considerable assistance from them, which, we believe, doth increase their confidence. And we do humbly offer it unto your lordship, whether it would not be a great help to us in our treaty, and much advance the desired peace, if you would be pleased to send vice-admiral Lawson, with an addition of six or eight good ships, which we leave unto your lordship's consideration. We think ourselves obliged to represent unto your lordship, that Sir Philip Meadowe is not willing to continue here this winter, the condition of his health not at all agreeing with this climate in that season, especially being incommodated with a shot in his hand, which he received in Portugal, his own affairs also requiring his return into England after his long absence; upon which considerations only he doth desire your lordship to discharge him by that time, and in the mean he doth offer to serve the commonwealth to the utmost of his power, or to obey your lordship's command, if you find it for your service, after his return, to employ him in any other place. The gentleman we sent to Fredericsburg is now returned with his answer from the king, that lodgings are provided for us there, and that if we will come thither to-morrow, we shall have audience immediately on the next day, at our choice. We incline to the most speedy, and have therefore agreed with his majesty's officers here, that it shall be to-morrow in the afternoon. The manner of our reception will be, that two senators will meet us half a mile from the place, and bring us first to our own lodgings, and from thence to the king; which, before the making up of our paquet, we thought necessary to be signified unto your lordship by,
An account of what time the whole fleet is victualled for from the 22d of June, 1659.
An estimate of what the charges will be for providing the ensuing particulars.
These provisions, being provided as above-said, will last the fleet for one month at whole allowance, and six weeks at short allowance, which is ten weeks from the date above, this being the most, as is conceived, possible to be provided in three weeks or a month's time.
Towards the supply of this, there hath been already 1000 l. charged by general Montagu upon the treasurer of the navy in England, and bills received here by appointment of the council of state for 4000 l. sterling; so that the overplus will be to be provided, as also 1000 l. more for the defraying divers other occasions, and providing necessaries for the many sick men, which are daily kept on shore.
Col. Lillingston and col. Allsopp to the lord Warriston, president of the council of state.
We this morning received your honour's letter, dated the 22d July, containing an order to discharge all ships belonging to the United Provinces brought into this road or harbour by any subjects of our commonwealth, or inhabitants of this place, upon pretence of commissions from foreign princes, and to cause them, with their loading, to be restored; as also not to suffer any prizes to be brought in by foreigners, but to cause them immediately to depart, without breaking bulk; the which orders we shall to the utmost punctually observe: and in obedience thereunto, upon request of Mr. Payne, servant of the Dutch embassador, made inquiry forthwith touching two vessels in the road of Mardike, by him claimed, as belonging to the subjects of the said United Provinces, with their ladings, viz. the Black Raven laden with salt, Jacob Jansen master, of Amsterdam, and the Hope of Home, master Cornelis Arensen, laden with fish; which latter (as we understand) was already restored by the taker before the coming of your order; and the former hath been brought up hither above these three months, and upon the condemnation here inclosed (being of the Swedish embassador at London) the lading was sold by one Spalding, a Swede, who sojourns here; and the customs received here, being above 2000 l. and the king of Sweden's duties have (it seems) eaten up the proceed of the salt, which we could not then so effectually prevent, partly because we had not instructions from your honour, and partly in regard of our extreme necessities, the soldiers being in a mutinous temper for want of money; besides, that one Mr. Van Houten, a merchant of this town, by virtue of a procuration, maketh claim to her and her lading, or some part of them, as belonging to the French. But however, what the said Mr. Payne shall make appear to belong to the subjects of the Netherlands, and hath been taken by any English, shall be restored, where-ever we can find it; and we have charged the said Swedish gentleman not to set forth any men of war from hence, nor to employ any inhabitants more of this place in them, and shall to our utmost seek to prevent any attempts of others in that kind. As to the concernments of this place, we are, God be praised, in a quiet and peaceable condition. Our works go on very well; only we are in a very great streight for money for our weekly subsistence, and have this week been put to hard shifts, having engaged our own credit to the burgomasters, and have been forced to draw 500 l. on the late commissioners, having been forced to pay 1300 l. to the workmen, for the going on in the fortification since the commissioners departure. We are in hand with all we intend shall be done this year, as also so much of the same hills as we intend to have levelled this summer, which we shal endeavour to cover with dung. We have also bought 5000 palisadoes, and must buy more; and we must buy 100,000 bundles of reed, for a hedge round the works to keep off the sand: yet nothing is or shall be done, but what is of necessity for the perpetuating of this place to our nation. We humbly desire your honour to represent our want of moneys to the council, as also to move them for supplies thereof, and of coals and candles for the winter provision, with all speed, and those other neces saries, whereof we have given the particulars to the commissioners; as also for one month's provision more than what we have, to lie in store. All our works will, we hope, be finished within these three weeks, as also the sand-hills. We again humbly desire your instructions touching one Walker, a woman, and a 'prentice, in custody here about false money, whether your honour will have them tried here, or to be sent to England. We also desire your honour to inform us of whatever you shall think or know of conducing to the preservation of this place, and which you judge us fit to be informed of; as also of all other matters, wherein we may testify our zeal and readiness to be and remain,
Instructions for col. John Fagg.
You are forthwith to repair into Suffex, to preserve the peace of that county, and do your endeavour to suppress and subdue any of the enemies of the commonwealth, that shall be, or preparing to rise, in arms here, and to have an especial regard to the security of Chichester and Arundel.
You are to give orders to captain Souton in the militia company, or any other officers of the army or militia, that shall be in readiness, to march into Arundel castle, and remove those, that are at present inhabitant there. You are to give order to the county troop, that are at Arundel, to march to Chichester, or some other part of the county, as there be occasion.
You are to endeavour to get the commanders of the militia in Sussex to meet, and put in execution the powers therein given them for the raising of the militia; and in the mean time you are to raise in arms such well-affected persons, as shall be willing to list themselves under you, in any part of Sussex, either for horse or foot, as the service requires; and employ and command them for the safety of the county.
You are to hold correspondence with the forces of the army and militia, that are in Kent, and Surrey, and Hampshire, and Wilts, as there shall be occasion; and send to the council frequently an account of your proceedings.
The report of col. Ashfield, col. Packer, and lieutenant-colonel Pearson, concerning the affairs of Dunkirk.
May it please your Honours,
In obedience to your commands, we repaired to the town of Dunkirk, and, with the assistance of colonel Lillingston and colonel Allsopp, endeavoured to inform ourselves of all things given us in your honours instructions; and, as the return of our obedience therein, we humbly offer this as our report:
That having taken the best information we could of the state of that town and garison, we humbly refer our report of the garison to some following heads. And for the inhabitants, we find them wholly to be natives and Papists, except some few English of late come. The number of housekeepers, with the religious, amounts to about 1060, besides servants, women, children, each of which, in time of siege, are usually supplied out of the merchants stores, which will usually maintain the inhabitants with provisions for four months, or upwards. We find convenient magazines and storehouses in the garison, with a considerable quantity of ammunition, and other utensils of war, an account of which we have brought with us, together with the accounts of what is wanting for defences of the garison, which we do herewith humbly present.
Having viewed the fortifications, we find, that besides the ancient wall of the town, and a graft to it of 100 foot or more in breadth, there is a line carried round the town at some distance, which consists of a very substantial earthwork palisadoed, made as regular (and according to art) as the ground would admit. To some part of the said work there is a soffe-bay, and each bastion and curtain is defended with demy-lunes, and two grafts, each 60 foot in breadth, or thereabouts; and for the most part 8, 9, or 10 foot deep of water, and without this a very good counterscarp strongly palisadoed, together with half-moons, spurs, and ravelins without, in such places as are most approachable by an enemy.
That fort Oliver, situate upon the river Culme, one mile and ½ from Dunkirk, is a very good earth-work regular, consisting of four bastions double palisadoed, two large grafts, and betwixt them a sossebay pallisadoed; without all a good counterscarp; and for easy relief of this sort there is a small square fort built in the midway betwixt fort Oliver and Dunkirk.
And in regard of the distance of fort Oliver from the town of Dunkirk, we think it necessary, that lodgings should with all speed be built in the said fort for 5 or 600 men, and store-houses for their provisions; all which is wanting at present, the said fort being now kept by two companies, which are relieved every week.
For defence of the town of Dunkirk in this present posture of affairs we conceive, that there cannot be less than 3000 foot, and the present regiment of horse; the fortifications being of that extent, that they will require 1000 men a night to be upon the guards. The main guard must also be strong, considering the condition of the inhabitants.
For defence of fort Oliver, 300 men, and 50 men for the square fort, called Fort Manning. The town and forts in time of siege will require double the foresaid number, which will amount near to 7000 foot, and 1000 horse, which number, by God's blessing, and careful conduct, may be able to check the best armies of France and Flanders.
5. During the time of our abode at Dunkirk we used all diligence to find out the occasion of the late mutiny, and the only reason alleged to us was want of pay, and some pretences of their not being in the same capacity as to pay with the soldiery of England.
7. In obedience to your commands, in the 7th head of our instructions, we called the officers and soldiers together, and declared to them the care, that the parliament had and would have of that garison, to provide pay and all other things necessary for security and defence thereof; and promised to make their desires and wants known to the council, which gave them good satisfaction, and much settled their minds; and as a testimony of their affections to their old masters, both officers and soldiers unanimously signed an address (fn. 1), lately presented to the parliament.
8. We have taken an account of all officers and soldiers within the garison; and for the number of officers and soldiers, or what officers are unnecessary, we humbly refer to some papers, which we have to present.
9. We have taken inspection into the accounts of the garison, as to what money hath been sent by the parliament and council, what formerly, and what hath been received by customs, excise, contributions, and other public revenues, and what is in arrear; which we refer to an account to be delivered by us, and will be more particularly avouched by Mr. Brown, who hath been intrusted by colonel Lockhart with the accounts of the garison, and will be here in a few days.
10. We have had some inspection into the business of customs, and excise, and other public revenues; and, several things about it being intricate, we desire some few days respit before we give in an account thereof.
3. That care may be taken in the choice of such magistrates, as are annually to be chosen by the commonwealth of England, as it is lord of Dunkirk, which is a considerable part of the magistracy. Some there are in office for life, as will more plainly appear, when we come to give in the account of the revenue.
5. In regard, that provision of all sorts is much dearer in Dunkirk than in any part of England, we humbly propose, that the officers and soldiers in Dunkirk may be upon the same establishment for pay with the forces in England.
8. Memorandum, That there are in the town of Dunkirk certain buildings for officers and soldiers, lying together on the south side of the town, called the barracks, or Spanish quarters, which will conveniently lodge about 1500 men, to whom there must be an allowance of fire, and candle, and bedding; the particulars whereof shall be given in another paper.
In obedience to those commands we received from the council in their additional instructions.
1. We have taken an account of all the officers in the garison of Dunkirk, (according to the best intelligence we could get) how they stand affected to the present government, and what they are in life and conversation, which we shall be ready to give an account of, when the council shall please to call for it.
2. The persons sent to assist us in settling the excise, customs, and other public revenues, being unfree to stay at Dunkirk, or to take upon them the management of the said revenue, we were necessitated to leave the management thereof in the hands of Mr. Delavall, who hath formerly done it. A more full account thereof shall be given to your honour, with the account of the revenue, by