A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 7, March 1658 - May 1660. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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To the right honourable the council of state, appointed by authority of the parliament of England.
Vol. lxv. p. 379.
The lords the states generall of the United Netherlands have sent to their subscribed embassador an extract of their resolution bearing date the 14/24. of July last past, containing the nearer agreement or explanation of the treaty concluded at the Hague on the 11/21. of May last past, concerning the pacification of the kings of Sweden and Denmark, which resolution was forthwith, by several expresses by sea and land, dispatched to the lords their extraordinary commissioners being in Denmark on the behalf of the said lords the states general, with express and positive orders, that they should cause the said articles of the said nearer agreement to be precisely and exactly put in execution: that the said convention or nearer agreement was also sent to the lord of Wassenaer, lieutenant-admiral, for his information, and also with a command and charge, that he should punctually follow and observe the orders, which by the said lords extraordinary commissioners of the United Netherlands, in pursuance of the said nearer agreement, and the before-mentioned resolution, should be given and sent unto him. And as the said lords the states general have proceeded therein with all candour and integrity, so they do expect to hear from their said embassador, that the like orders, as aforesaid, have been sent on the behalf of the parliament of the commonwealth of England to the lords their extraordinary commissioners and plenipotentiaries in Denmark aforesaid, to the end that the said nearer agreement might by them also be punctually and precisely observed, and caused to be put in execution.
The said lords the states general of the United Netherlands have since, on the 20/30th of July aforesaid, also resolved and ordered, that it should be proposed on their behalf to the parliament of the commonwealth of England, that to remove fully the present obstruction of the trade and commerce in the Baltic sea and the east countries, that the public ministers of England, France, and the United Netherlands, might use with the kings of Sweden and Poland their joint endeavours, and labour or work officiously to move and to dispose both their majesties, that for the obtaining of a speedy and a sure peace they would refer or remit it to the arbitration or award of the said high renowned three states, to determine the sum of moneys, which should be given by the crown of Poland to the king or crown of Sweden for the evacuation of Prussia; and that thereupon a cessation of hostility should be introduced or established for a competent time, wherein the said award might be pronounced and declared, and the further remaining differences (by the Lord's blessing) might be finally and fully associated and accommodated. Which being of very great concernment for the commerce and navigation of England, and the United Netherlands, considering, that the summer season is already so far gone and elapsed, the said embassador beseecheth most instantly, that it may also be ordered on the behalf of the commonwealth of England, that all powerful endeavours may be used and employed with the two high renowned kings of Sweden and Poland to the ends aforesaid.
This 1/11th of August, 1659.
Read Aug. 2. 1659.
At the council of state at Whitehall.
Vol. lxv. p. 383.
Tuesday, 2d August, 1659.
That the paper given in to the council by the lord embassador Nieupoort, of the first of August instant, be humbly offered to the parliament; and that they be also acquainted with the proceedings lately at the Hague between Mr. Downing commissioner from the parliament, and the deputies of the states general, and with the agreement between them by way of explanation of the treaty at the Hague 11/12th of May last.
That the copy of the said agreement extracted out of the register of the states general, as it was signed by the said commissioners and deputies, and since agreed unto by the said commissioners, be also reported to the parliament for their approbation, and for the public ratification thereof in convenient season.
That the parliament will be pleased to injoin their members secrecy, as to the particulars of this agreement.
Ri. Deane, clerk of the council.
Colonel Lillingston and colonel Allsopp to the council of state.
Vol. lxv. p. 423.
Dunkirk, 4 August, 1659.
Having received a command from the commissioners, at their being here, for a draught of the fortifications of this place, fort Oliver, and the new fort, we have accordingly caused the same to be done at large in a figure, which shall be delivered to your honours by the hands of captain Atherton of this garison; wherein your honours may see, how your money hath been laid out in repairing so many decayed works, and in erecting so many new. The fortifications now on foot are therein also delineated, by all which your honours may the better consider the conveniency and consequence of this place as to trade, peace, or war. It hath been our endeavour to omit nothing absolutely necessary, and to add nothing in our judgment superfluous, that the commonwealth may be well satisfied as to our service, and their own charges. We humbly submit it all to your honours consideration and judgment. We assure your honours, the works now on foot are in a good way of perfecting, but through want of money the workmen sit down, and are wholly discouraged; as also the soldiers both horse and foot much troubled and discontented, because they perceive we have not a peny towards their weekly subsistence, but what we are fain to borrow in the town on our own credit, as we have been forced to do this fortnight; but indeed we know not where to be trusted any longer; and, to keep our soldiers from starving, have been forced now to begin to supply their wants with those small provisions, that are in the stores. Indeed our extreme want of money makes us amazed, and at our wits end; for we cannot perform those things, that are just, honest, and most necessary; so that we are a reproach both to friends and enemies. What the consequences thereof may be, your honours can well judge; however, we pay petitioners with good words, as having the like assurances from your honours, and whereon we rely (as we hope) successfully; only do request your honours to use what speed you can in supplying us with money, firing, candle, and winter necessaries, because the weather here begins to be very cold and variable already; likewise the other things, which the commissioners have an account of. We lately received some orders from your honours touching prizes brought in hither. We are busy in clearing what ships we can, and do take all possible care, that no ships or men be set out with commissions by any inhabitants here. We wish none might be brought into these roads; for they create to us nothing but trouble, being matters of great contention, and somewhat out of our element; but we shall in all things within our power readily follow your orders, as our instructions to guide us. We have no news here worth your knowledge, nor can we understand, that the enemy hath at present any design on foot against us. We daily send intelligencers into their quarters, where their present discourse is all on the peace, which they hope for betwixt the two crowns, whereof your honours, we conceive, have better knowledge than we. We have heard nothing from our governor these six posts, which is cause of trouble to us, fearing that his letters are intercepted; and do therefore request your honours, that if you have any thing of concernment, relating to the security of this place, to be pleased to communicate it to us with speed; and captain Attherton is by us ordered to attend your honours commands in that particular. It is our desire to you to be pleased to dispatch away the commissions of our officers, which will be some encouragement to them. Our three regiments, which lately came forth of the French king's service, lie yet encamped near the town. They seem to be much troubled, that no course is taken for them, by reason they are wholly forth of the French pay; and here is nothing to be got but for ready money, and that at a very dear rate. We most humbly intreat you to take all the particulars herein into serious consideration, that the forces here may be supplied with necessaries fit for them, that thereby, through the assistance of God, we may be enabled to give your honours and our nation a faithful and good account of this garison for your use. We have nothing further, but to crave and expect your comfortable answer, and to pray Almighty God to bless your counsels with good success; and we remain,
Your most obedient and
most faithful servants,
An intercepted letter of lord Inchiquin.
Paris, 14th of August, 1659. [N. S.].
In the possession of the right hon.Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great-Britain.
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I Have received yours of the 26th of August. I have reason to fear, that I shall not now hear frequently from you, being to begin my journey towards the place you advise me to go within three days; and I assure you, I carry with me as much sadness and despair of ever seeing my friends again as can be: yet expectations are given me of being employed by Mr. Hope/Ch. St. in Picardy/England, once within six months, Mr. Stoane and Mr. Harbert having promised to join with him for that purpose; but I know not, whether I may presume they will do it; for Mr. Howard, who hath the most power with them, I doubt, is not so well inclined to serve Mr. Hope as he was. Write no more, till I give you an address, which will not be till I arrive at my journey's end.
To the right honourable the council of state, appointed by authority of parliament of the commonwealth of England.
Vol. lxv. p. 391.
The subscribed embassador of the lords the states general of the United Netherlands, hath received last night their secret resolution, bearing date the fifth of August, 1659; whereby the articles agreed on at the Hague the day before (a copy whereof is hereunto annexed) are thereby approved and confirmed: and in pursuance thereof, express orders have forthwith been dispatched with all possible speed, to the extraordinary commissioners of the said United Netherlands, sent to the kings of Sweden and Denmark, that they are to cause the contents of the said articles, precisely according to the form and tenor thereof, to be put in execution. The same articles so agreed on have also been sent to the lord of Wassenaer lieutenant-admiral, and to colonel Puchler, requiring them to execute and to perform punctually the orders, which shall be given unto them by the said extraordinary commissioners. The said lords the states general have also written to the said subscribed embassador, that they do trust and expect, that the parliament of the commonwealth of England will forthwith also dispatch the like orders, and to the same effect, that the said last agreement may be observed and precisely executed by their commissioners and plenipotentiaries being in Denmark; and that he the said embassador should with all speed advertise the lords the states general thereof.
This 5/15. of August, 1659.
The second paper of Mons. Rytz.
Exhibitum & actum 6/16. mensis Augusti, Hassniæ, 1659. Scriptum manu D. Petri Rytz, senatoris.
Vol. lxv. p. 399.
Pour ne rien omettre de tout ce qui pourra servir à l'avancement de la paix entre les deux couronnes septentrionales, celle de Dennemarc a bien voulu, sans perdre aucus moment de temps, satisfaire au desir des Messieurs les mediateurs, en s'expliquant sur le point de la satisfaction, qu'elle pretend luy estre deüe, pour les despenses et dommages causez aux estats de la dite couronne, par l'irruption, que le roy de Suede y a faite, et pour la restitution, qui du dit roy n'a point esté faite conformement au traitté de Roechilde; à sçavoir, qu'elle demande la restitution des terres et provinces, tant celles qu'elle a cy-devant cedée à la couronne de Suede, que celles que le roy de Suede en occupe à present: et d'autant qu'il est fort raisonnable, que la satisfaction deüe à la couronne de Dennemarc, apres qu'elle a esté injustement assaillée du roy du Suede, ne soit pas moindre, mais au contraire plus grande que celle que la dite couronne a esté obligée de donner n'agueres à celle de Suede pour terminer une guerre, qu'elle luy avoit justement declarée et faite, la dite couronne de Dennemarc a tant de consiance en l'equité de Messieurs les mediateurs, qu'en un affaire si juste ils maintiendront ses intérests.
Col. Lillingston and col. Allsopp to the council of state.
Vol. lxv. p. 425.
We are humbly bold, as our bounden duty, to let you know the state of affairs here, that is, that, blessed be the Lord, all things are in a peaceable and quiet condition amongst us; only, as we hinted to you in our last, we are in exceeding want of money, as well for the soldiers weekly subsistence, as for the satisfying in some measure the workmen, who are employed in the fortifications, which are now near done, and the work-masters are much in arrears to those, whom they employ to work under them; so that we have much to do to keep them at the works to finish what is begun, without which doing it had been better we had not begun with our out-works: and besides we want, by the least, 20000 palisadoes to set about those works, which will also cost us a considerable sum of money; and that being completed, we question not (but by the assistance of our God) to give you and our nation a good account of this garison, you supplying us with men, and provisions of moneys and other things for their encouragement. Sir Bryce Cockram came hither last night about four of the clock, and gave orders to the drums of the three field regiments to beat, for to ship the men away for England; which was done, but in so much confusion, (notwithstanding that he carried it high, laying commands upon us to serve him much like unto servants) that this garison has suffered much prejudice thereby, by their carrying away near 200 of our soldiers, much to the weakening of our small number. We afforded him and the rest all the assistance imaginable. We spoke to the officers, desiring them, that they would be very cautious in carrying away any of our soldiers; and they promised us, that they would carry away none; but upon inquiry how many are missed out of each regiment and company, we find wanting near about the number aforesaid. Indeed it could not be well prevented by us, by reason of their being shipped by night; but by information of some of our officers we hear, that many of our soldiers were disguised (in their cloaths, &c. without red coats) by some officers of those regiments, on purpose to deceive us. Our number of foot here amounteth not to above 2500 fighting men, which is a very weak garison for this place with its forts. We made it our desires to the commissioners, that there might be a recruit for these three regiments, to complete them to the number of three thousand, which will be a good ordinary garison for this place; and with fewer we dare not promise you to keep it, if we should be besieged; but with that number, and the regiment of horse, we hope, through the assistance of the Lord, we shall be able to give you such an account thereof, as may become honest men, and persons fit to be intrusted with the charge of the garison. Here are four companies, (two of colonel Salmon's, and two of colonel Gibbons's regiments) who are in a very longing condition to be relieved from hence, their regiments being in England; and the truth is, they are but weak, and daily weaker by their soldiers dropping away for England. Sir Bryce Cockram told us, that he had some private instructions to acquaint us with, which was, that there were 10000 shipped somewhere, designed for this country; but he told it us so, that we want skill to understand what he said; so that we are bold to intreat you, that if you have any commands for us of consequence to this place, that you will be pleased to let us know it in writing, or by the hands of such as have not acted against you; and that you will be pleased not to believe every thing, that shall be said to you by those, who have been in actual arms against you: but if you desire to be acquainted with any thing of your concernment here, that you will receive it from such as you know have acted all along both with you and for you, and are not to be blemished by any imputation, that may be laid upon them by flatterers and designers, and such as put on a cloak of religion to cover their unworthiness. We make bold to send this express by the hands of captain Guy, deputy town-major of this garison, who will acquaint you more at large with all things of concernment to this place, as well of the money, which we have borrowed of the magistrates here, as that of fire, candle, provisions, and other necessaries, which we are in great want of. We believe this place to be of much concernment to the weal of our nation, which makes us to be so bold and urgent with you at this time for supplies. So praying God to give you wisdom to manage your affairs in these troublesome times, and to own you, and bring your work to perfection to his glory and the comfort of our nation, assuring your honours, that none shall be more ready than we to lay down out lives, and all that is dear to men. for the preservation of this place for your use, we humbly salute you, and remain,
Your honours most humble servants,
We have received about 1300 l. for the use of this garison, which we shall husband the best we can amongst the soldiers and workmen, and give your honours all humble thanks for your care and willingness to help us, though we owe to Mr. Delavall above ten thousand livres for the use of the garison, since the commissioners departure, which we were forced to borrow of him, particularly for the use of the garison, besides what we owe to the town's-people.
Tuesday the 9th of Aug. 1659.
Vol. lxiv. p. 407.
That the parliament doth approve of the further additional agreement to that made the 14/24th of July, approved by the lords the states general of the United Provinces, the fifth of August instant, new style; and that instructions be forthwith sent to the commissioners plenipotentiaries with the kings of Sweden and Denmark, precisely to observe the contents of the said further agreement, and cause the same to be put in execution, according to the true intent and meaning thereof.
That it be referred to the council of state, to take care the same be put in execution accordingly.
Tho. St. Nicholas, clerk of the parliament.
The English commissioners in the Sound to the king of Sweden.
Vol. lxv. p. 401.
Serenissime potentissimeque Rex,
Incertam valetudinem, qua etiamnum utitur vestra majestas, non fine dolore accepimus, sensuque eo graviore, quo majorem spem majestatem vestram de officiis studioque nostro certiorem faciendi animo præceperamus; quin & coram exponendi, quo in loco fint rationes illæ majestati vestræ cum republica communes. Muneri autem nostro ne qua deessemus, majestatem vestram rursus orandam duximus, ut renuntietur nobis, utrum (quo communius pax instauretur) fæderis Roeschidiani conditiones dignetur accipere, five id non videatur, quænam illa fint, quæ malit adjici, minui, aut mutari: chartam siquidem eo spectantem à rege Daniæ dudum impetravimus, quasi unicam rationem, qua inter majestates vestras orta dissidia brevi quindecim dierum spatio componantur (id quod non ita pridem majestatis vestræ commissariis fusius explicuimus): in tantillum temporis classis nostræ rationes nos compulerunt, quæ nequaquam poterit diutius isthic commorari. Quod si interea temporis seu opera mediatoria seu naves nostræ majestati vestræ ex usu esse possint, nos exhibebimus,
Serenissime ac potentissime Rex,
Majestati vestræ addictissimos, atque ejusdem obsequentissimos,
Fridericiburgi, 9/19. Augusti, 1659.
Serenissimo ac potentissimo Suecorum regi.
From the English commissioners in the Sound.
In the possession of the right honourable Philip ld. Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.
When we were ready to go to our audience from the king of Sweden, which, by our last dispatch of the twenty-ninth of July, we informed your lordship we expected the next day, we received a message from his majesty, whereby it was deferred until the thirtyfirst, with a promise we should be heard publicly in the morning, and privately in the afternoon.
The public audience passed in the ordinary ceremony, we speaking in English, and delivering what we had said in English in Latin, the king answered immediately in the Swedish language, and Mr. Berkman related in English what he had said. After the second or third speech of that king, the king did in French civilly excuse himself for the ill entertainment we had received, the disorders of the time and streightness of the place not admitting of better. Our answer was then in French; but nothing passed more than ordinary civilities. In the afternoon we were admitted to a private audience, wherein in the French we did express the cause of our coming, proposed a treaty between him and the king of Denmark, and the nomination of time, place, commissaries, and granting of safe conducts and a cessation during the time of, and our preparations unto the treaty. Unto which he answered in the same language, That he had by his several declarations sufficiently evidenced his desires of peace; and that he did leave it to the English to chuse whether it should be general or particular with Denmark. Then he made a very large narrative of all the streights, in which he had found himself ever since he came to the crown, the multitude of enemies wherewith he was oppressed, his own desires of peace, both for the necessity of his affairs, and infirmities of his body; but that he could not nominate commissaries, time, or place, nor grant safe conduct or cessation, until he knew whether the king of Denmark would treat: that he did not comprehend his allies. And concerning the cessation, he added, that the other things being once accorded, he would grant that also; but upon such conditions, as neither wood, victuals, or other necessaries, that they wanted in Copenhagen, should be brought into that town during that time. With this answer we returned to Elsinore the same day. The first of August we had a conference with the Holland embassadors there concerning our common affairs, and resolved all together to go to Copenhagen the second of August, to propose the same thing to the king of Denmark. Public audience was given to us on the third in the morning, which passed in the same manner as that of Sweden; only the king's answer was first made unto us by Peter Rytz (who was formerly embassador in England) in the Dutch tongue, and then in Latin. In the afternoon we had a private audience with the king, having with him the rix-hoffmaster Rytz, and three other senators. We proposed the same points concerning peace, treaty, and cessation. The answer was delivered by the rix-hossmaster in French, (as our discourse had been) that the peace of Roschild having been broken by the king of Sweden, contrary to his faith given, without any provocation, the countries wasted, king's houses pillaged, others destroyed, and the king forced to shut himself up in one city, which being unprovided of all things necessary for defence and unfortified, had been hitherto maintained by a particular blessing of God, protecting an oppressed king and an innocent people; and that the said king had ever been desirous of peace, and forced by so many urging necessities to call the emperor, king of Poland, and duke of Brandenburgh to his assistance, he did desire, that they might also be comprehended in the treaty, that being by us impossible to be effected in the short time, that was allotted to us, and that our fleet could stay here. We pressed him for a particular peace. Some discourses passed on the same subject on both sides, and so we parted, giving the king time to consider of it until the next day. We then returning, the rix-hostmaster told us, that the king, finding himself more nearly allied to the duke of Brandenburgh than any of his other allies, had dispatched a messenger unto him, to know whether he desired to be comprehended in the treaty or not; and that having done all that was in his power for him, and to persuade him, if he did refuse, he would proceed to treat with Sweden without him. Our business not admitting so much delay as the return of the messenger, we pressed for an immediate and particular treaty upon the grounds of that of Roschild. The hossmaster answered, That the treaty of Roschild did injoin the king of Sweden to deliver into the hands of the king of Denmark the provinces of Jutland and Holstein, which he did doubt would be hard for the Swede to do; and that if the Dane should treat without his allies, and peace should not ensue upon it, he should be deserted by them, and his condition made much worse than it is at present. We replied, that the treaty of Roschild could intend only, that the king of Sweden should not detain those provinces from the Dane, which he now easily performed, not having a man in them; and that they being in the hands of the king of Denmark's allies, we could not but judge them to be in his own, not doubting but that his majesty had chosen such to call to his assistance, as would consider his interest, and be guided by his directions.
And these difficulties being thus removed, we did desire to know of his majesty, whether he did like the conditions of the treaty of Roschild; and if he did not, he would nominate his commissioners, agree upon the preliminaries, and give them instructions upon those points, that he did desire should be added, diminished, or changed; and we would endeavour by our mediation to obtain for his majesty so much as should appear to be just. The king and senators scrupled much to enter into a treaty with the Suede, affirming positively, that as soon as that was known, all his allies would turn against him; but offered to treat with us, who might go between, hear the pretences of both parties, and terminate the differences between them. We finding this way suitable to our instructions, and the most probable to put a speedy end to the business, the disputes of titles, precedence, time, place, powers, persons, and great animosities between the parties (which were likely to take up much more time than was allotted to us for the conclusion of the whole) being thereby avoided, we readily accepted that proposition; and that we might bring it to effect, we desired to know, what the king desired should be altered of the Roschild treaty, which we promised the next day. And on the fifth in the morning, the rix-hossmaster, and five other senators, which were then in town, came to our lodgings, and made us a discourse, of which the subject is contained in the first of these inclosed papers; and in the afternoon Peter Rytz brought it us in writing. On the sixth we had another conference with the Holland embassadors, and they afterwards had one with the Danish senators; upon which Peter Rytz brought in this second paper, and in discourse told us much of the weakness of his master, the cruelty and unfaithfulness of the Swede, their dependence upon the mediators, principally upon the English, for making the peace, wherein he did desire us to consider, not only the just cause of an oppressed prince, but our own interest, which was nearly concerned in maintaining Denmark, to be a balance to the power of Sweden; which being once taken away, and he getting the intire mastery of the Sound and the Baltic sea, would prove troublesome to all his neighbours, which should have occasion to trade there. Unto which we returned no other answer, than that it was not our work to oppress the king of Denmark, but rather to make such a peace for him, as might consist with justice, and the present condition of the affairs of those states interested in this quarrel and the commerce in those seas; and that we would omit no care and diligence in using such means as were probable to effect it. The next day, being the seventh, we returned to Elsinore. The eighth in the morning, two of us, viz. Honywood and Sydney, went to Fredericsburg, and immediately desired audience of the king of Sweden, who excused himself for not giving a personal audience, by reason of an indisposition, into which he was lately fallen; but would immediately appoint two senators to hear whatsoever we had to propose; which we accepted, though we knew well enough, that that was only a seigned pretence, upon an ill humour, into which he was grown, upon a dislike of the agreement at the Hague, our communication with the Holland ministers, and his opinion, that we had an intention to oblige him to a peace, that he did not like. At the place appointed, we found two senators, two secretaries, and two other clerks; and whilst we were intent in discourse, not regarding them, writ all that we said, which (though we thought a very unhandsome way of proceeding) we did not complain of; but took care not to say any thing, that could give them an advantage. We proposed the treaty to be managed between both parties by the mediators, without losing time in frivolous disputes upon the preliminaries and other points subject to raise cavils; but that if the king of Sweden would deliver us in writing his acceptance of the Roschild treaty, or his exceptions unto it, we would communicate it with the other mediators, and endeavour to procure such a peace for his majesty, as was suitable to the rules of honour and justice, adding thereunto many expressions of civility to his majesty from the commonwealth, and from ourselves.
They argue much against this way of proceeding, and we for it, as the only one, that could possibly bring the business to effect in the time, that our fleet could stay here. They promised us to make report to his majesty, and bring us a speedy answer. In the evening a gentleman came from them, to know at what time the next day, being the ninth, they might bring an answer to what we had proposed: we named eight in the morning. The two senators and two secretaries came accordingly, and refused to treat otherwise than by commissaries: we knowing that to be only a trick to delay the peace, until the English and Holland fleets should be forced to retire, did not accept of that, but sent to desire again audience from the king. He returned the like answer as the day before, offering also to appoint commissaries to hear whatsoever we should impart; but we finding that ending in nothing but loss of time in vain talking, having communicated our instructions to the Holland embassadors, (who came with us, and had been used in the same manner) sent his majesty this inclosed letter, and immediately returned hither. This day we spend in making this dispatch, and framing a project of a treaty upon the grounds of the agreement made at the Hague, which we intend to offer unto the two kings, and to proceed according to our instructions against the refuser. To-morrow the Hollanders, and two of us, viz. Honywood and Sydney, intend to go to Copenhagen to begin with the Danish king, and then return to the Swede, hoping to find him in a better and more prudent temper than we left him. And though he did rage and storm horribly upon the news he heard from the Hague, (which was a little before we came unto him) he finds all his council against him; and that such courses are of little forces against those, who are not at all in his power. We hear, that he hath found reason to appease his choler; but the answer, which we have now received and sent inclosed to your lordship, doth not at all shew him to be much mended. We think it also our duty to inform your lordship, that upon consideration of the condition of our fleet, we find, that reserving one month's victuals for their return into England, they cannot stay here beyond the two or three-and-twentieth of August; and do doubt, that if the whole should return at that time, two great inconveniencies might follow; the one, that your lordship would be pressed to find money to pay them; and the other, that if no English force remain here to see the treaty executed, or to enforce the acceptance of what should be agreed by the mediators upon the refuser or refusers thereof, the whole fruition of the charge of this summer will be utterly lost, and the English will depend wholly upon the will of the Hollander and Dane, who will be able, as they please, to force the king of Sweden to an union with them, perhaps to our prejudice. We have therefore thought it the best expedient, that about fifteen of our ships do remain here, and a proportionable number of Hollanders, when all the rest return home; and do desire your lordship to give order, that a proportionable quantity of victuals be provided for that number of ships of the fourth or fifth rate for one month; and by the next, your lordships shall exactly know the number of men in every one of them; and that it may be here by the end of September to bring them back about that time, if the business can possibly be so soon settled; or that your lordships would be pleased to send so many others of the lately set out ships, as may serve here for that use. We should before now have agreed upon this course with the Holland ministers; but they had no power for that purpose, until within these two days. We do also humbly desire your lordship's order how to deal with the king of Swedes, if the refusal of the peace be on his side, as we believe it will, he having beside these inclosed papers, by message, desired us to mediate with the king of Denmark, that as a mark of his desiring peace, he would release the Swedish embassador, that he hath kept prisoner ever since the last breach, without which he would admit of no treaty. But, we hope, he will be better advised than every day to come with new propositions to put off the treaty, and doubt not but that will be effected, if the Hollanders do faithfully perform the commands of their superiors, which they do very freely communicate unto us, and in all things seem very heartily to join in procuring a peace here upon the grounds agreed at the Hague, without seeking for their own nation any advantage but what they desire should be granted to the English. We desire your lordships pardon for this long and tedious letter, which could not be avoided, but by omitting the particulars of all things, that had passed here between the several princes, and their ministers and us, which would have made our relation imperfect, and less easy to your lordships to send us such certain and positive orders, as we desire, and shall ever be punctually observed by,
Your lordship's most humble
and most obedient servants,
Elsinore, August 10. 1659.
Read August 24. 1659.
Sir. Ph. Meadowe to the council of state.
Vol. lxv. p. 427.
My last to your honors was of the twenty-eighth of the last moneth, sent expres by sea, in which I made it my humble supplication to have libertie to returne for some time into England in reference to my private occasions. I have nothing at present, but with al earnest and submissive instance to renew the same supplication, my longer stay heer being very much to my particular prejudice, and contributes nothing to the publick service. As soon as your honors shal graciously please to grant me leave, and I have advice thereof, which I beg may be by the soonest, I shall, God willing, embarque myself upon the first vessel, that shall be sent from the fleet to England. My lords the plenipotentiaries wil acquaint your honours fully with all publique transactions, to whom I crave leave to refer you, and remain
most humble and faithful servant,
Elsinore, August 11. 1659.
Draught of a letter, and instructions to general Montagu, &c.
11. Aug. 1659.
Vol. lxv. p. 437.
After consideration of the treaty of the Hague 11/21. of May instant, and after conference with the lord embassador of the United Provinces upon some proposals herewith sent, and upon assurance, that he will send the like directions to the commanders of the Dutch fleet, and advertisement to the public ministers of the United Provinces sent to the Sound upon that treaty, and procure from his superiors, that they shall also ratify and send the same with all possible speed from the Hague; the council have promised to the embassador, and do accordingly send to you, and to . . . . . . . these following instructions:
I. That you shall, in pursuance of the seventh article of the treaty at the Hague, contribute your utmost endeavours for the taking away of all misintelligences, which have arisen betwixt the king of Sweden and the United Provinces; and to that purpose, that you endeavour the treaty concluded at Elbing 1/11. September, 1659. together with its elucidations, as the commissioners of the said king agreed to them at Thorn, may be ratified, and perfectly and throughout fulfilled; and that you take care, that the benefit of the treaty at Elbing, and the elucidations at Thorn, be effectually and equally provided for in the behalf of this commonwealth as of the United Provinces.
II. You shall, in pursuance of the third article of the treaty at the Hague, forbear to join the fleet under your command to the navy of either of the kings of Sweden or Denmark, or to give any aid to either of them, or to use any act of hostility against either of them, not only for the three weeks mentioned in the said treaty, as immediately subsequent to the notification of the treaty at the Hague to you, but also for other three weeks immediately following the expiration of the former three weeks; and that during the last three weeks above-mentioned, you shall endeavour the peace between the two Northern kings upon the foundation of the treaty agreed at Roschild, and the keeping a good correspondence between the two fleets of the commonwealth of England and the United Provinces.
III. You shall co-operate with the commander in chief of the fleet, and other the public ministers of the United Provinces, in soliciting the two Northern kings, during all the time of the last three weeks afore-mentioned, to abstain from acts of hostility one against another by sea.
And if that cannot be obtained, yet you shall endeavour, that the king of Sweden abstain, during that time, from all acts of hostility against any of the ships belonging to the fleet of the United Provinces, or their merchant-ships.
IV. In case the instructions herein mentioned to be agreed to be sent from the embassador of the United Provinces to the commander in chief of the fleet, and other the public ministers of the United Provinces, (a copy whereof are herewith sent you) shall not be by them fully ratified, observed, and fulfilled, then you are at liberty to observe and prosecute such other instructions, as you have already received in that behalf, or shall receive from us.
Agreed, that this shall be matter of your letter and instructions to be sent to general Montagu, and the English commissioner Sir Philip Meadowe.
That the committees formerly appointed, or any two of them, do communicate the matter of these letters and instructions to the Dutch embassador, to the end, that the embassador may have the perusal thereof, and may in like manner communicate of these letters and instructions to the general of the Dutch fleet, and the public ministers there to the council, on monday, for their consideration.
That the committee of the council appointed to confer with the lord embassador of the United Provinces upon the propositions sent thither, or any two of them, do deliver to the said embassador a copy of what hath this day been agreed upon of the matter of their letter and instructions, to be sent to the . . . . . . and their commissioners in the Sound, and to confer with him thereof, to the end, that the said embassador may in like manner communicate to the council, on monday next, the matter of this letter and instructions to the commander in chief of the fleet, and the other public ministers of the United Provinces, for the council's consideration.
Col. Lillingston and col. Alsopp to colonel Pearson.
Dunkirk, 12. August, 1659.
Vol. lxv. p. 445.
Your first letter to us of the eighth of this current month we have received, whereby we understand the great care you have taken for us to the council; for which we acknowledge ourselves much bound to you. How the success thereof hath been obstructed by the present rebellion (fn. 1), the evil whereof we are made very sensible of through the love we bear to our country, and the wants of all necessaries, which we lie under, we hope the Lord will continue his favour towards his people, that the enemy may be suddenly extinguished, and bear the reward of their malice, that so the care of this place may be renewed, where, God be praised, all things are in a very quiet and peaceable condition, and the employments, that are chiefly for money, whereof the soldiers and officers stand in great need, as also the workmen, who having almost finished all the works, that you ordered to be done, cannot get their people to work any longer. The next want we begin to feel is of coals and firing. We shall also need store of oats, and all the other particulars, whereof we gave you account; also two months stores of provisions, we being now forced to pay the soldiery part of their weekly subsistence out of the stores through the great want of money. Indeed, unless we have these supplies suddenly, we nor any rational man can promise to serve this place, being always to stand merely on our own strength. The enemy, having been lately abroad, hath plundered the country about us; and how his designs now or hereafter may be laid, we must believe are for his own good and not ours. Wherefore we request you to use your utmost endeavour with all your friends in the council, that these supplies may be forthwith sent us, that so we may be enabled, by God's blessing, to give an honest and good account of this place to the parliament. So not doubting of your sensibility of all our wants and necessities, we commit you and your affairs to the blessing of the Almighty, and remain,
Your very humble servants and friends,
To the council of state.
Dunkerke, 15. August, 1659.
Vol. lxv. p. 451.
Since our last, the condition of this place is still (God be praised!) quiett and peaceable, and the only trouble upon our spirits is, that through the rebellion of the old enemy wee have hetherto been hindred of those supplyes, which the commissioners, at their being here, assured us of. We hope by this time the Lord hath put a hook into the nose of inveterate adversary, and that he will give them the reward of their malice; and that wee may here allso secure this place to your use against all attempts, wee humbly make bould (as wee have often formerly done) to desyre your honours for speedy supplyes of our extraordinary necessityes; viz. coales, candles, ammunition, fower demy-cannon, at least, to secure the harbour, (that being the place the enemy will first attempt) two months provisions of biskett, cheese, butter, &c. wee haveinge been forced some weeks to allow the soldiers their subsistance out of the provisions; not haveinge money to give them two thousand quarter of oates for the house, and to bee paid for by them out of their pay; 200 case of pistolls for the magazine to supply such as shall be broke or lost in service; 600 belts and swyvells for the carbynes, there being none here, nor any dellivered at first; five or six hundred pounds to buy horses for those, whose horses have dyed here; for we perceive, the horses of this country are not so subject to mortality, as those that come from England: and most especially, and above all, supplyes of moneys for the arreares of the soldiers, officers and workmen, to whom wee are in extreame debt for the fortifications of fort Ollyver, that new fort betwixt it and this towne, and the fortifications about this towne: besydes that wee must buy at least twenty thousand pallisadoes for all these fortifications; and for want of moneys there is soe great a murmering, that the workemen cannot be perswaded to end what is soe near finished, as indeed all the fortifications and the new fort are; as are also the three newe halfe-moones, and the three spurs on the east end of the towne. Wee humbly thank your honours for the 1300 l. sent to us lately; though wee assure you, wee had already borrowed as much here, since the commissioners went, for to supply our urgent necessityes. Wee do assure your honours, with these supplyes timely sent, wee shall be able to give a good account of this place for your use; but if wee have not these things, and the other necessarys, (whereof the particulars were delivered to the commissioners) wee cannot answere what you may perhaps expect of us, though wee perish in the defence of this place, which our ambition and desire is to perpetuate to our nation, as a goade in the sides of their enemyes, and to secure our footing in the continent of Europe, lost ever since queene Marye's days, and now regayned; and doubtless we ought to preserve that carefully, which the Lord hath given us soe graciously. Wee lykewise desire to prove your resolutions as to the forte of Mardyke, which must be slighted or repayred; and when three or four thousand pounds is disburst to repayre it, it cannot hold out above ten or twelve days against an enemy. Wee made bold to give you our opinion to have a stone fort erected instede thereof, which may be framed in the isle of Portland, where the stone growes, and may be brought over, and sett upp here, which wee judge will bee invincible, and will both bee made and kept at lesse charges. Lastly, wee cannot conceale the great regrett that wee have, to understand, that dyvers officers here, by some unworthy persons, have beene traduced to your honours, though wee know them to bee men, that have all along served you faithfully and cordially. Wee cannot believe, that your honours will bee ready to beleeve detractors, but rather to credit our testimony; for wee assure you, that if we did conceave or suspect any officer of this garrison not fitt for his command, either in respect of his fidelity or conversation, wee should bee most ready, according to our duty, to informe your honours: but truly we beleeve, there are not in all your armyes men, that have demeaned themselves with more fidelity, courage and modesty, both in England and here, wherein those, that backbite them, have been wanting too apparently. In a deepe sence of this grievance, our officers have desyred leave of us to petition the parliament; and wee should think ourselves much wanting in our duty to them and our nation, if wee should not beare testimony for them, whom the Lord hath owned and upheld from backflyding, against the fawning flatteryes of those, who, under a cloake of religious purity, are soe themselves, as to think, by such indirect wayes, to seduce your honours; whom, wee knowe, never will credit men, that have failed in their allegiance against those, that have to this day continued firme to you against all temptations of tymes and persons.
Wee have received an order, signed by your clerke, dated the tenth of this month, for the restoreing or secureing all ships and goods, belonging to the United Provinces, brought in hether by any subjects of this commonwealth, which is already done, as wee formerly advised your honours; and that wee shall suffer noe vessell, so brought in, to continnew in our harbour or roade, so far as wee can prevent it. Yesterday came in a hoy bound for the Sound, but taken by a Swede man of war, wherein are many letters sent by friends to their relations in the Dutch fleet in the Sound; wherein they signefye, that the fleete is to lye forth all the next winter, a perfect account whereof wee cannot yett give you, but hope to find some letters, which may tend to your advantage, whereof wee shall advise you by our next. Wee are certainly informed, that a ship, laden with pistolls, musketts, and other fyre-armes, sett sayle from Calais to some part of England; but whether, wee knowe not: wee also heare, that the duke of Yorke, Marsin lieutenant general to the prince of Condé, and some other gentlemen, were mett upon the roade, nere St. Omer's, on the way to Calais, about 4 days agoe. The prince of Condé's army hath exacted new and great contributions and taxes on the people hereabouts; and it is generally reported, that they intend for England, which new levyes of mony is against the articles of the cessation, as wee have seene them printed. Soe craveing pardon for this prolixity, and praying to God for a blessing on your counsells, and for peace to our nation, wee remayne,
Your most obedient servants,
Col. Lillingston and col. Alsopp to col. John Pearson.
Dunkirk, 18. August, 1659.
Vol. lxv. p. 467.
We received yours of the 13th current, wherein you are pleased to acquaint us, that we have received some wrong information concerning the reducing the six regiments into four; and truly, Sir, we are bold to let you know, that if the parliament, who have the immediate command of us, and that which is now in our charge, may not think fit to make further use of us, or many of those with us, we must and do confess with you, that that of the sword is no inheritance; and we shall as freely and willingly, at the pleasure of the parliament, lay down our swords and commands, as we accepted of them in the service of our country against the public enemy; and so, we do believe, will most of those now under under our commands. But we think it something hard, that the information of such should be taken against us, or any with us, who we know have been in actual arms against us, for and on behalf of that implacable enemy, the enemy of our nation. We ourselves are known to you, and to most of those in power in England, and those under our commands are as well known to us; and, as we acquainted you, when you were here, what we know of every individual person, so we again do acquaint you, that those, whom we have given in to you as persons fit to be employed in their country's service, are such as we believe will scarce be better'd by any that should be sent hither; but that we shall freely leave to the parliament, and those entrusted by them, who have the dispose of things here. We are in exceeding great want of moneys for the soldiers subsistence, and to pay the workmen in the fortifications, to whom we are very much in debt. We have made a shift to pay out of your 1300 l. which you sent us, above 4000 l. since you went from hence: in short, we have borrowed so much of Mr. Delaval chiefly, and others, that we know not where to borrow more. Our bill being protested, which we drew upon you, hath very much impaired our reputation. We are all in a peaceable condition, and our works almost finished; but we must again acquaint you, that we are ready to hide our heads in any hole for want. We are sorry to hear of the continuance of your troubles; but more glad to hear, that it is no higher, or spread no farther. So with our prayers to almighty God for you, do remain,
Your very humble servants,
De Lawerin to Mr. Isaac Johnson Merchant at London.
Vol. lxv. p. 525.
I wonder England at present cares so little to have the forraine intelligence: there is now here, but me, which hath given them from severall parts the intelligence; and yet I heare by your last letter, that they desire me not to continue therewith; and altho' there are severall armyes in these parts for to enter into great actions, whereof great newes may be expected, and their own interest concerned in, yet they send me no order about it, or that no other person is appointed to come hether. I suppose the great disorders in England are the chiefest causes of it. If you will write me the newes weekely out of England, I will doe the like to you, and so I rest
Your friend and servant,
Hamburgh, the 30th of
August, 1659. [N. S.]
Col. Algernon Sydney to the council of state.
Vol. lxv. p. 431.
General Mountaigue having thought fitt to returne into England with the wholle fleet, I esteeme it necessary for me, not only to testify unto your lordships, that I did in noe wayes assent unto that resolution, but to give you the reasons, why I did endeavour to hinder it.
First, Wee had noe positive order to send back the whole fleete untill forty dayes after our arrivall, of which about nine are yet wanting; nor implicite, untill the businesse is done, for which wee came, and the treaty of peace concluded and executed.
Secondly, Wee have an order, after the 15 dayes are expired, one or both kings refusing or accepting the peace, to enforce the acceptance, or see the execution, which now wee cannot doe.
Thirdly, By the retirement of the whole fleet, the agreement made at the Hague, ratified by parliament, is broken; the charge of this summer lost; the interest of the commonwealth in theis parts endangered; the Swede exposed to be destroyed by the Dutch, or compelled to joine with them in a league against the English; which they may conclude, without breaking faith with us, the first breach having bin one our side, whoe, instead of assisting them to make peace, leave them engaged in a warre.
Fourthly, That by continuing a fleet of about 16 ships victualled with a moneth's sea provisions, which, at short allowance, lasts six weeks; and three weeks of fresh provisions, which might be had heare for 1500 l. that a merchant heare did offer to lend upon a note from the generall, my collegues, and myself, wee might have accomplished the ends aforesaid, and continued here, as occasion should have required, or your lordships orders direct.
Lastly, The scruple being the danger of leaving 16 ships within the power of the Hollander, it is answeared, that the ministers heare have not yet receaved any orders to send back part of their fleete, but doe every day expect them. In the meane time they offer joine such a part of theire fleet with ours, as we shall thinke fit to enforce the peace under the command of our admirall; and that the rest shall continue in any part of all theis seas, that wee shall desire; attempt nothing, but with our consent; and, for making good of this, doe offer theire owne persons to be kept on board our ships as hostages, and to take away further scruples did yesterday agree with us, that the joint force should be used against either of the tow kings, only untill he assents unto the conditions of peace proposed; that nothing shall be attempted against either of them, but with the consent of the ministers of both commonwealths; and that neither of them should make peace with either of the kings without the consent of the other.
I could not satisfy myself without representing this unto your lordships. If I have given you an unnecessary trouble, I hope your lordships will be pleased to pardon me, my zeale for the commonwealth's service being the inducement, and my desire to obey your lordships commands, which shall ever be a rule not to be transgressed by
Your Lordships most humble, faithfull,
and most obedient servant,
the 21st, [1659.]
Col. Lillingston and col. Alsopp to col. Walton, one of the members of the council of state.
Dunkirk, 23. August, 1659.
Vol. lxv. p. 499.
This is to let you know, that captain Guy, deputy town-major of this garison, hath acquainted us, that your honour have been pleased to favour this garison, by acting for it becoming a person of honour, and one that is truly sensible of the consequence of such a place; and that were there noe more use in the keeping of it, than the honour and reputation of our country, it being the only footing, that the commonwealth hath upon the continent of Europe, we are therefore humbly bold to return your honour all humble and hearty thanks for your care of us; but without doubt this garison is of more than ordinary consequence to the republic of England, for your having and being able to maintain it against any enemy or enemies, it will prove to be, in our judgment, a great check upon any such as shall have a mind to quarrel with you. But you may be pleased to consider, that a garison of its consequence cannot be maintain'd and kept without such accommodation as must necessarily be had for the keeping thereof; and more especially, when you duly consider, that those, who now pretend to be our friends, will without doubt take their advantages against us, to possess themselves of this place; and you may also consider, that in the time of these broils and troubles in England, the enemy sleeps not in this place also, but we are afraid hath his agents here as well as in other places: and we are informed by our intelligencers, that the enemy (we mean Charles Stuart and his allies) hope to take their advantage by our soldiers not being paid; and we are truly afraid, that it is so indeed, by the effects of things here. It hath been frequently reported in this garison, that James Stuart, the titular duke of York, is raising forces at Brussels, and other parts of this country, and promiseth such as come in to him ten shillings a man advance, with five shillings a week, and ammunition bread. We find, that it hath in some measure taken with some of our rudest soldiers; for we have lost fourteen or sixteen within these two or three days, and we cannot find out, which way they should be gone, except it be to James Stuart. You may believe, that our soldiers are not so well principled, as becomes good men to be; but that many of them make money their cause. So having given your honour an account of our thoughts, and those things most material, we are humbly bold to be a little further troublesome to you; that is, in relation to Mr. Delaval, whom the council hath been pleased to send for. He is a person so useful in this place, that we cannot with our conveniency be without him long, in relation to his providing us money. We will acquaint you with all things of consequence in this place. We therefore intreat your honour to favour him, and to procure his speedy return to us; and that you will be pleased to remember the necessity of this place, which is great indeed; and to hasten those necessaries to us, which we gave the commissioners an account of, when they were here; that is, firing, candles, 3000 links, 2000 quarter of oats, and 4 demi-cannon, with a considerable proportion of powder, small shot and match, and two months provisions of victuals for the garison, without which it will be very hard for us, or men of more knowledge than we, to keep the place, if a powerful enemy should come before it. So craving your pardon for this prolixity, we are humbly bold to subscribe ourselves,
ever obedient servants,
Commissioners in the Sound to secretary Thurloe.
In the possesion of the right hon. Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.
As soon as we had made our last dispatch of the tenth of this month, two of us, (viz.) Honeywood and Sydney, came to Copenhagen, and press'd the king of Denmark and his senate upon the two points of declaring, that he would treat with the king of Sweden, and that by commissaries; from whom we did obtain such a declaration as we desired, two senators being therein named commissioners; the king also adding thereunto, that the matter of the treaty should be ripen'd by the mediators, unto whose judgment he did absolutely refer the determination of all differences between the king of Sweden and himself; which was delivered unto us upon this condition, that we should only shew it to the king of Sweden, but not suffer any copy to be taken of it; and in case the peace succeed not, that it should be returned again into his hand that gave it; which we promised to do. With this we returned to Elsinore, thinking our work well advanced; obtain'd an audience from the king of Sweden; shewed him the declaration, unto which he returned answer, Je vous reçois comme mediateurs, non pas comme arbitres; named two senators to be his commissaries, of whom the one call'd Bielk hath been employ'd by him as embassador in Copenhagen, and upon his last irruption into Zeland had been made a prisoner upon some pretence of practices contrary to the duty of a public minister, and detained until that time; adding many discourses of his apprehensions, that if the peace were made, the king of Denmark, being probably forced unto it, would never keep it; and that he must not omit his own security. This discourse sounding, as if he, concluding that peace upon disadvantageous conditions, was certainly forced, that which was forced would never be kept; the king of Denmark would never part with so large a proportion of his country, if not forced; therefore it was not to be expected he would keep it; and sometimes spoke, as if he would have no peace at all with Denmark. We used what arguments we could draw from the Danes weakness, and the mediating states readiness to interpose, to make good the treaty, to take away that groundless apprehension. But he continued the like discourses, and adding, that he must rely upon his own strength, not the assistance of his friends, for his security; and that having advantages in his hands, it were a great folly to leave them, and depend upon others: it was at last concluded, that his majesty should come to the camp, before this town, the next day, being the 16th of this month; where at a nearer distance he should be better able to discern, whether the Danes assent were voluntary or forced. We then press'd, that Bielk being a prisoner, he would not propose any thing that was likely to obstruct the treaty; that he would have his liberty within a few days upon the article for the general release of prisoners; and desired he would be pleased, whilst the safe conducts and other formalities of the treaty were preparing, to confer with us upon the principal points, that remained in difference between him and the Dane, which in that time we might ripen to be concluded by the commissioners on both sides at their meeting. His majesty insisted upon the nomination of Bielk, and refused to have any discourse with us upon the matter. Our journey was deferred until the 17th by his majesty; on which day he came to his camp, and we to this town, mediated with the king of Denmark for the release of Bielk; obtained it; and the 18th carried him with us to the camp, and there delivered him free unto his majesty. We hoped at the same time for an opportunity of conferring with him upon the business in hand, the ministers of the three mediating states being present; but we were received in a public room full of officers, courtiers, and servants, not at all sit for any discourse, that ought not to be as public as they could make it. But resolving to lose no opportunity, we did offer unto his majesty a paper, of which we send your lordship, here inclosed, a copy, telling him it was drawn by the ministers of the mediating states, and offered unto his consideration. He ask'd what it was, and what it did contain. We answer'd, it was a project of the treaty, which if his majesty would peruse, we hoped would ripen matters against the meeting of the commissioners, and much expedite the work of that so much desired peace. He answer'd, (directing his speech to us) that he did receive us comme mediateurs, non pas arbitres; that he would not receive the project of a treaty, nor treat with any but the king of Denmark: and then turning to the Holland ministers, he told them he look'd upon them as his enemies, and would in no hand admit of their mediation, and in great choler turned away, and went to the other side of the room; and soon after told us, that we made projects upon our fleets, and he, laying his hand upon his sword, had a project by his side. Soon after we took our leaves, and returned to the town, thinking that behaviour something extraordinary to be used to the public ministers of so considerable states; and that his majesty shew'd, he did not well remember, by whose help he hath been maintained all this summer, and enabled to make his conquests, which yet would have appeared more strange unto us, if we had not been accustomed to that, which is suitable unto it. After the first ceremonies of our reception were over, we have been forced to spend these eight days upon frivolous disputes in titles and forms of the safe conducts; which are now passed over, and the commissioners did meet this day. After the usual civilities passed on both sides, in a place midway between two tents, the Danes and the Swedes retired each into their own. Soon after, the Danes went, and offer'd this inclosed paper, consisting of five general propositions. The Swede desires to remove the treaty to Elsinore or Roscheild; unto which neither the Hollanders nor the Danes will consent. To-morrow we intend to offer unto the commisaries of both parties the project, which was first offer'd to the kings severally, and refused by the Swede: it was at first offer'd unto his consideration, but now his cosent will be required. The Dane (to avoid the tedious disputes of all the mutations desired by both parties in the treaty of Roscheild) resolve to agree unto them all, unto which one more is to be added for the time of the evacuation of the Swedish forces; and another of amnesty for the inhabitants of Bornholm, who having formerly slain all the Swedish garison, must expect nothing but destruction, if they are not saved by the treaty. On the 22d of this month general Montagu went from hence. This day we hear he is set sail for England with the whole fleet, excepting two frigates and one ketch. This day we received a letter from Sir Phil. Meadowe, wherein he expresseth an intention of going into England with the fleet, and desires our advice in it, which we could not give, having no orders, though for many reasons, too long now to relate, we thought he might without prejudice to the commonwealth retire himself out of this public service. None of Mr. Noel's bills of exchange are accepted by de la Bistrate, nor can we get a peny upon his credit. We desire your lordship to be pleased to send us a supply of money or credit, we being obliged to be at an exceeding great expence by making journeys perpetually in a wasted country, and living in a besieged town, where all things are excessively dear; and also that your lordship will let us have your order, how we shall dispose of ourselves, whether the treaty between the two kings can be perfected before winter or not. We are,
Your lordship's most humble
and most obedient servants,
Copenhagen, 24. August, 1659.
We desire your lordship to give order for the payment of 280 l. charged upon the treasurer of contingengencies, payable to Sir Philip Meadowe, or his order.
Indorsed, Received 16. September, 1659.
Boreel the Dutch embassador in France, to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
Vol. lxv. p. 515.
I have formerly advised your H. and M. lordships of a design here on foot, to prohibit, that none in this kingdom shall import from abroad any train oil, whale-bone oil, &c. than only those of that company now erected, which hath now obtained a patent for it from the court. The said patent or octroy hath been verified and registred in the parliament at Roan, and the business or prohibition hath been put into practice there, and in Normandy, upon certain condition and modification; but in regard it is my duty to take care of the service of your H. and M. lordships state, and the welfare of the good subjects thereof, I thought good to oppose this business underhand; and now I have brought it so far, that the lords of the parliament of Paris have annulled the said patent by arrest or a monopoly prejudicial to the kingdom, and the subjects thereof, and only tending to the advantage of some great persons, to the oppression of the poor commonalty, which do most of all use such commodities. They have forbidden the said farmers to proceed with their design, and have given liberty to all that will to import the said wares; so that now the said commerce is free again to all places and ports in France, except Normandy; whereof I thought it my duty to give your H. and M. lordships notice, to the end their subjects may regulate themselves accordingly.
Paris, 5. Sept. 1659. [N. S.]
Nieupoort the Dutch embassador in England, to the states general.
Vol. xlv. p. 517.
In regard the parliament hath thought good to authorize the council of state, first to examine the propositions of all foreign ministers, and to refer with their advice, I have proposed to them, as well by writing as by word of mouth, that which their H. and M. lordships have thought good to order me in their resolution of the 10th of August last, concerning themselves and hostilities committed by an English frigat called Portland, and I have delivered their letter writ to the parliament upon that subject; whereupon it was answered by Sir. H. Vane, that I might assure myself, that the council of state would give due order about it, and make appear their good and sincere inclination to the state of the United Netherlands. His lordship said, that by reason of the inland troubles, they had not time to confer further with me concerning the preventing of piracies and insolencies committed at sea by private men of war, but that they would be ready for me within a few days to resume that business. His honour said, that there were letters from their plenipotentiaries, dated the 10th and 11th of August, old style, which had been communicated to the parliament, who had ordered the council of state to provide with all speed provisions and ammunition for fifteen ships of war of this state, which are to stay in the Sound; that the plenipotentiaries were also fully instructed and ordered concerning the execution of the convention in the Hague; and that the parliament had resolved, that it should be referred to the council of state, to give such order and directions to the lords plenipotentiaries of this commonwealth in the Sound, that they do observe and effect the agreement made between this commonwealth and their H. and M. L. concerning the affairs therein mentioned, if so be the one or both the northern kings do refuse to accept of the same. The Swedish commissioners here are very much discontented, and do all what they can at least to hinder for a time the effect of the said resolution, and order given concerning the same; but, as I am informed, they are put by with this answer, That the parliament itself answered the letter of the king of Sweden; and I am told, that therein was writ with these words, that this present government is not obliged by any treaties or made promises, otherwise or further to the benefit of Sweden, than to use all good offices for the pacifying of that king with the king of Denmark, upon such terms as are proposed by the plenipotetiaries of this commonwealth; advising him, with several reasons, to accept of the presented conditions. So soon as these troubles are over, I will insist upon the sea affairs, and endeavour to make an end thereof.
Westminster, 5. September, 1659. [N. S.]
Extract out of the secret resolutions of the states of Holland.
Saturday, 6. Sept. 1659. [N. S.]
In the possession of the right hon. Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.
The raedt-pensionary hath reported to the assembly the considerations and advice of the lords commissioners for the affairs of Sweden and Denmark. Whereupon being debated, and consideration had, that the king of Denmark upon the twenty-fourth of the last month, concerning the making of the peace with Sweden, had declared himself in writing, to the content of the ministers of France, England, and this state; but that the said king of Sweden had yet in no wise satisfied the expectation of the three states, it is resolved, the business be referred to the generality, to the end the lords commissioners extraordinary of this state with the kings of Sweden and Denmark be writ unto. that their H. and M. L. trust and believe, that the king of Sweden by further delay or denial shall be forced to it, as well by the power of England as of this state, before the reception of the resolution to be taken by their H. and M. L. upon it, with order and command, that their lordships by continuation of the refusal of the said king do cause the fleet of this state to act vigorously against him, and to destroy his ships wheresoever they meet them.
Extract out of the secret resolutions of the lords states of Holland.
Wednesday, 10. Sept. 1659. [N. S.]
In the possession of the right hon. Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.
The raedt-pensionary hath reported to the assembly the considerations and advice of their noble great lordships, commissioners for the affairs of Sweden and Denmark. Whereupon being debated, it is resolved, that it be referred to the generality, to the end the lords commissioners extraordinary of this state with the kings of Sweden and Denmark, for a further confirming of the last clause of the convention of the fourth of the last month, may be authorized, in case instance be made by the English plenipotentiaries, for the sending home a part of their fleet; in such a case also, a part of the fleet by provision, not exceeding the number of twenty, shall be dismissed and sent home, in case it be judged, that the number kept there will be sufficient to help to execute the conventions; provided likewise, that the said twenty ships do come away at the same time with the English, or presently after, and not before then; and that they do not exceed the number or strength of the English ships, but equal to them, or less in number than the English ships, that shall be sent home; and that in regard of the long absence of the lord lieutenant-admiral in those parts, as also in regard of his declared inclination, he may be excused from his further stay there; and consequently, that he be ordered to return home with the vice-admirals Egbert, Meews, Cortenaer, and John Evertson.
A letter of intelligence.
Hague, 10. Sept. 1659. [N. S.]
In the possession of the right hon. Philp lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.
One of the lords commissioners of this state doth write the rencounter of the king of Sweden with the English lords Sydney and Honywood, and the Netherland lords Slingeland and Huybert (the lords Vogelsang and Haeren not being present) in this following manner: That the lord Sydney having presented to the king of Sweden the project of peace, made by the three states in a short and full harangue, his majesty did not accept of it, telling the English lords, I accept of you for my mediators, not for my arbitrators, forasmuch as you continue in the terms of good friends; and, for you, (turning himself to the lords Netherland commissioners) I refuse you for my mediators, since you are my enemies. Afterwards, speaking to them all together, he said, You make treaties upon your fleets, and I take my resolutions upon my sword. Afterwards turning from them, he spoke with some of the rix-council and chief officers, who were in great number in the tent. It is to be supposed, that now the fleets, as well the English as those of this state, will act at the expiration of the fifteen days.