A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 7, March 1658 - May 1660. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
March (1 of 5)
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Samedy, le 6. Mars, 1660. [N. S.]
Vol. lxvii. p. 94.
Encore & derechef on a esté dans le travail de former l'instruction pour l'ambassade de France, dans laquelle besoin aussi est assumé & prins le sieur ambassadeur Boreel. Et specialement est on dans la conformation d'un concept pour une nouvelle alliance, & pour encore, avec la France seule, au lieu que cy-devant on l'a voulu faire avec la France & l'Angleterre ensemble; mais, si l'Angleterre se remet en posture, on parlera aussi Anglois.
L'on a resolu d'escrire une lettre arraisonée an roy de France, en faveur de l'affaire d'Orange, pour laquelle place on est en peine, n'en ayant pas eu des lettres en deux ordinaires.
La besoigne pour l'instruction pour ambassade de l'Espagne, on n'a pas encore fait commencement.
Vander Honerd escript, que pour la paix en Prussie avec la Pologne il, ya grande apparence.
Le 8. dito.
Le sieur d'Ommeren a fait rapport d'avoir parle avec ceux du conseil d'stat, qu'on donnera ces 10,000 ryxdalers à ceux de Munster sur certaine obligation, dont le formulier contient, que la ville payera 4 par cent. 2. Qu'elle ne s'engagera par traité à aucun prince estranger: ce que demain seroit communiqué aux deputés.
L'on a derechef eu sur le tapis l'affaire d'Orange: on ecrira aussy une lettre à la princesse royale sur le même subject.
L'on a derechef besoigne sur l'instruction pour l'ambassade vers France. Incontinent après cela toutefois l'on formera aussy celle de vers Espagne. Après l'assemblée vint une lettre de l'ambassadeur Nieuport, contenant, que les membres seclus estoient rentrés dans le parlement, ayant choisy le sieur Monck pour general de l'armée, avec apparence que bien tost se pourroit faire plus grand changement.
Le 9. dito.
L'on a fait une halte dans l'affaire de l'instruction pour France, à cause que l'assemblée de Hollande commence. L'instruction pour l'ambassade vers Espagne sera mutatis mutan dis, & en effet complimentaire, au lieu qu'en France on tachera de faire une alliance. Et d'autant que le sieur Boreel inculque icy tant le dessein de la France de bastir des navires, & d'augmenter le commerce, l'on conçoit beaucoup de jalousie, & sur tout de ce lastgelt, & asseurement on tachera de rompre ce lastgelt par traité.
La Frise a proposée, que dans l'instruction influera, que les ambassadeurs seront justiciables de leurs actions devant la generalité, & renonceront le privilege de non evocando.
La Zelande a donnée à entendre, que cela leur plait aussy; mais la Hollande s'y oppose. Tant pour les 60,000 ryxdalers au Dennemarc, que pour les 10,000 ryxdalers à la ville de Munster, n'est encore rien de final fait; la Hollande l'ayant overgenoomen pour la proximité de leur assemblée.
De Prusse ni de Copenhagen n'est rien venu.
L'assemblée de Hollande demeure encore defectuense, car ceux de Nort-Hollande ne sont pas venus.
Et l'affaire de France ou de l'instruction de même attend cela; quoyque cependant le sieur Boreel & raet-pensionaire entre eux formeront & accommoderont quelques articles au present temps.
La nomination du personnage vers France dans l'affaire d'Orange fust proposé à ce matin. La Geldre proposa le sieur de Groot & Copes; la Hollande desiroit la surseoir jusque à l'assemblée de Hollande. L'Utrecht proposoit le sieur de Maasdam, & cela fust suivi par les autres provinces suivantes.
Le 11. dito.
Ceux de Munster, ayant fait difficulté & scrupule de s'obliger pour 10,000 ryxdalers, à ne pas pouvoir traiter avec aucun prince estranger, ont esté conseillé d'attendre, que l'estat declare la somme plus grande.
L'admirauté d'Amsterdam a escrit une lettre soigneuse touchant le payement, qui devra être promte à l'arrivement des navires, qui sont attendu du Sont; item pour le fournissement des vivres pour la flotte de Ruyter; item pour l'equipage nouveau. Cela attende l'assemblée de Hollande. La dite assemblée est aujourd'huy remise jusques à mardy prochain. La Hollande a excusée la deputation du sieur de Maasdam vers France sur l'affaire d'Orange, & au lieu de luy est nommé le sieur Copes pensionnaire de Boisleduc, qui ira.
Il y a une lettre de la compagnie de West-Inde, contenant pleinte, qu'un predateur François avec commission de Suede a prins un fort ou loge, & a pillé les Hollanders; sur quoy sera escrit au roy de France.
Le 12. Mars.
Le vice-admiral Egbert Meuwis, avec onze navires de guerre, & quantité des merchandises, est venu icy, a fait rapport en l'assemblée, que le 2. Mars il estoit sorti du Sont. Il n'apporte point de lettres, mais de bouche dit avoir de la bouche du sieur de Slingelant, que le roy de Suede seroit mort le 23/13. Feb. à Gottenborch d'une fievre chaude. Des ambassadeurs de Dennemarc en ont aussy quelque lettre du secretaire du roy; mais ils en ont rien communiqué, en signe qu'ils ne le croyent pas pour indubitable.
Le sieur Copes part demain avec la lettre au roy de France dans l'affaire d'Orange: il va avec un valet.
At the council of state at Whitehall.
Friday, March 2. 1659.
Vol. lxvii. p. 114.
That captain Vaux do forthwith take to provide convenient lodgings for Mr. secretary Thurloe in Whitehall.
Jo. Rushworth, clerk of the council.
From resident Downing.
Hague, 2/12, March, 1660.
Vol. lxvii. p. 115.
Monday last brought hither, by an express from London, the newes of the happy union of the parliament, and the return of the members of parliament to the discharge of their trust, the which did exceedingly, at the first, surprise most of this country; yet the most serious amongst them, upon further thoughts, do say, that they look upon it as that, which hath in it a very great tendency to the composing of the many differences and solid settlement of affairs in England; and that whatever should be imposed upon the people of England by force, without their free and full consent, could not last; but that what shall be done with it, will have both strength at home, and reputation abroad. And assuredly the people of England in parliament assembled are the best and only proper judges of what is best for England; and it shall be my prayer, that it would please God to give them that spirit of wisdom and moderation, as is necessary, with regard both to their work, and to the season and manner of the carrying on thereof, and the many difficulties, which they are like to meet with upon every hand.
In mine, by the last post, I sent a copy of the points, upon which this present assembly of the states of Holland was called. Their assembly will be compleat about tuesday next, and then we shall quickly see what they will doe about the affairs of the north. The Imperiall, Brandenburg, and Danish ministers here doe still vehemently press them to declare themselves against any seperate treaty between Sweden and Denmark. On the other hand, Monsieur Cojet, envoye extraordinary of Sweden, intends to-morrow to demand audience in their assembly, to press them to declare themselves, that they will not give the Dane any farther assistance; and otherwise, that they must not expect to have from his master the ratification of the treaty of Elbing with its elucidations; but that he will from henceforward look upon himself as free from what he did promise at Elsnour, this winter, concerning that matter.
The French ambassador hath also orders to demand another audience, to push them to an agreement of those affairs, and that with the granting of an equivalent to the king of Sweden, instead of Dronthem; but the truth is, this state doe very little consider France in this business, for that they know they have noe shipping; but their eye is wholly upon England, whether you will further intermeddle in any kinde therein; and if they could but any way perswade themselves, that you would not, I do assure you, that this state would forthwith declare itself against any seperate peace between Sweeden and Denmark, without the inclusion of the emperour, king of Poland, and eleclor of Brandenburg; whereby the enemies of the king of Sweden will be so considerable, (having made such a league among themselves) as that he would expect little less then being confined within the rocks of Sweden; the consequence whereof must be, in relation to matters of religion, the bereaving the Protestant cause of his support; and in relation to matters of trade, the giving this countrey the absolute monoply and soveraignty thereof in the Baltique sea; the which is indeed the mistery of this countrey, that which imploies the great number of their seamen and shiping, and indeede is the grand foundation of all their other trades.
And they are heere the more enclined to a generall peace, in regard, that they see, that the king of Poland having put them to it, and finding, that they had not declared themselves, that they will not consent to any peace betweene Sweden and Denmarke without his inclusion, is now upon the very point (as is beleived) of concluding a peace with Sweden; and if that peace should be concluded with the inclusion of the emperor and elector of Brandenburg, then this countrey is left alone to uphold the Dane against the Swede; of which they will find a very hard task. And certainly, whether warr or peace doe continue, the interest of England is very highly considerable; and I doubt not, but that very serious reflection will be made thereupon.
There are 11 Dutch men of warr, with a greate fleete of merchant-men, come to the Vlye from the Sound, who bring newes, that de Ruyter doth lye with 25 saile of men of warre before Landscronen; and that 6 or 8 more of his men of warr are gone to the Belt, to plye to and again there. And it is much doubted by the knowingest English merchants in this countrey, that they will trouble the trade of the English in those parts. Besides, they bring newes, that there are many capers about the Skage, whereof one hath above 30 guns, who lye there only to take English ships, that shall come that way upon the newes, that they have, that very great numbers of English shiping will be imployed that way this summer. I have also certayne newes from Ostend, that there are about 12 men of warr ready to set to sea from thence, intending towards the Sound, to katch English merchants going that way. And truly they will make a fearfull havock of them, unless you shall please forthwith to take care for a sufficient convoy to those parts. I have this weeke written from Amsterdam, that there are 13 sayle of English ships richly laden, and ready to sett sayle for the Sound; and the masters of them do earnestly desire, that in case any English men of warr should happen to come into this countrey, that I would order him to convoy them, and such other English ships, as are now ready in this countrey, into those parts. And however I have bin wont upon occasion to order such English men of warr, as come hither, to convoy such English ships as were ready; yet this being so far a voyage, I shall not adventure to do it without your particular order; onely give me leave to say, that the people of this countrey will be discouraged from hiring English shiping to those parts, upon the newes of the capers being gone that way, unless they can have assurance of their having convoy. And, on the other hand, if it were knowne, that I would, upon such occasions as this is, order them a convoy of such English men of warr, as do frequently arrive heere, there would hardly an English ship come into this countrey as long as their troubles shall continue in the Sound, but would forthwith have a freight thither proffered her; the which I thought it my duty to lay before you, it being now the first of the spring, and good time to give order therein; and that it hath been none of the least cares of all parliaments of England to encourage its shiping and navigation. And truly, (if I know any thing of this nature) that, which is the greatest foundation of the fishing trade of this countrey for herrings, is their trade in the Sound, where there is the greatest vent for them; and if England will ever get that trade to itself, it must be for encourageing, by all meanes possible, the merchants of England to trade to the Sound, which will as certainly begett and mainteyne to England a great fishing for salt herring, as its trade with Spayne principally begot and mainteyned its fishing for poor John in Newfoundland.
The letters this day from the north do farther confirm, that the present negotiation
between Sweden and Poland is upon the very point of being concluded; and that, however the emperor and the elector of Brandenburg do their utmost to hinder it, yet,
that if they cannot hinder it, they will consent to it, and be included in it; and if so,
what if this countrey, seeing themselves not able with the Dane only to resist the king of
Sweden, and considering that the king of Sweden hath consented to the treaty of Elbing
with its elucidations, whereby they have their traffique secured, and a treaty defensive
with him contra quoscunque, should forthwith declare their acquiescence in what the king
of Sweden hath graunted to them, and so make their own peace? And it will be in their
power to make the Dane in a moment submit to whatever they please; and so England,
which was lately left out in the treaties betweene France and Spayne, shall be the onely
countrey at a loss in those parts also. For what farther, I refer you to the enclosed, and
My Lord, Your lordship's most obedient and humble servant,
Since the writeing hereof, one vice-admiral Cortelis, who commanded the 11 men of warr of this state, which are come from the Sound, is come to this place, and hath been in the assembly of the states generall, and there made report, that Mons. Slinglant, one of the deputies of this state in Copenhagen, at his coming away, told him, that the French ambassador had just then given him notice, that the king of Sweden was dead at Gotenburg, but that he brings noe letters of it from any of the states deputies: which whether it came to pass in regard of any doubt they might have of the truth of the newes, or that they thought the post would bring it sooner, I know not; nor is there any other letter come of it, save onely one from some secretary at Copenhagen to the Daneish ambassador here. And this a newes of that moment, as is not to be given credit to, but upon very sure grounds.
A letter of intelligence.
De Paris, le 12. Mars, 1660. [N. S.]
In the possession of the right hon. Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great-Britain.
Les nouvelles, que nous avons de la cour, portent, que le roy partit d'Aix le 2. pour aller coucher à Marseille, d'ou sa majesté ne devoit retourner à Aix que le 6. & en partir le 10. pour s'en aller à Tolose passer les festes, après lesquelles toute la cour partira pour St. Jean de Lus. Le roy d'Espagne a dit à Monsieur de Chouppes pour le rapporter au roy, qu'il partiroit de Madrit le 1. d'Avril, pour se rendre le plustost qu'il pourroit à Fontarabie. Ce Monsieur de Chouppes est de retour de Portugal, ou il estoit allé faire des propositions d'accommodement, que les Portuguais ont rejettées. Il est repasé par Madrit, & il est arrivé à la cour le 29. de Fevrier.
La citadelle de Marseille se bastist en assez grand diligence. L'on y a pendu en execution de l'arrest donné par la chambre du parlement d'Aix, qui y avoit esté envoyée, un des principaux seditieux, & un autre a esté envoyé aux galeres: quatre ont esté pendus en effigie, & plusieurs ont esté bannis. Le commerce de cette ville-là est entierement ruiné.
Monsieur le prince fit le 2. le serment de fidelité entre les mains de se majesté pour le gouvernement de Languedoc; mais il n'aura aucune ville.
Monsieur le prince est tousjours icy, & il y passera les festes pour s'en aller après en Bourgogne; plusieurs personnes de condition l'ont magnifiquement traicté.
To the right honourable the council of state, appointed by authority of parliament.
Vol. lxvii. p. 112.
The lords the states general of the United Netherlands, perceiving that the king of Sweden doth still refuse to re-establish the peace with the king of Denmark, according to the respective treaties and agreements made and concluded at the Hague, on the 21st of May, the 24th of July, and the 4th of August, of the year 1659. last past, (all which treaties have been ratified and confirmed by the parliament of England) have ordered, that the subscribed embassador should desire, in their name, and on their behalfs, that, by the concurrence and co-operation of this commonwealth, the king of Sweden may be disposed to accommodate himself, on the conditions expressed in the said agreements, which have been tendered unto him by the public ministers of France, England, and the United Netherlands, in the said month of August last past; and that he, the renowned king of Sweden, having, since the time wherein it had been thought fit and convenient, that he should have admitted or accepted the said peace, when the king of Denmark had fully declared his acceptance thereof, according to the said agreements, connued still refusant, whereby the state of the United Netherlands hath been necessitated to support very great and extraordinary charges; the said lords the states general do conceive it just and reasonable, that the said costs and charges be refunded by the more high renowned king of Sweden; as also all further costs and expences, which shall be occasioned by his longer refusing of the said peace, on the conditions here before-mentioned, or, that lest, on the condition of the said vast sums of money expended since the said refusal, and the utter devastation of the kingdom of Denmark, more sure favourable and equitable conditions may be granted to the said high renowned king of Denmark.
The subscribed embassador beseecheth further, that he may have a positive and final answer concerning the articles for preventing of priacies.
He intreateth also, that it may please the council of state to give him answer in writeing, concerning the ship-money, or lastgelt, lately imposed in France on all foreign ships and vessels, that take in any lading in any of the ports of France.
And to the end, that he may communicate more circumstantially some particulars relateing to the said affairs, and others, which are in the present conjuncture of times very considerable; the said embassador beseecheth, that a committee may be authorized to confer with him thereupon. Given this 2/12. of March, 1659/60.
The princess royal to the king of France.
Vol. lxvii. p. 122.
Comme messieurs les estats generaux envoyent expres pour interceder auprès de vostre majesté en faveur des affaires en Orange, je n'ay peu m'empescher d'y joindre mes très-humbles priéres d'avoir esgard à ce, que le sieur Copes a ordre d'en dire plus particulierement suivant ses instructions, & à ce, que j'ay desja escrit à vostre majesté: sur quoy me confiant entierement aux justes reflections, que vostre majesté en fera pour l'avantage & bien de mon fils, je n' ay à ajouter, qu'à la supplier de croire, que je suis,
Vostre affectionnée cousine & servante.
A Breda, ce 15. Mars, 1660. [N. S.]
Copy of a letter from Brussels, of the 13/3. of March, 1660/59.
Vol. lxiii. p. 232.
I have received yours of the 24th of February, English style. To-morrow I am parting for Antwerp, whither the princess royal is going, being on her return for Breda. The king of Scots goes with her to Antwerp, and from thence returns speedily hither; but both the dukes go through with her to Breda. In my last I let you know, that the duke of York is made captain-general of all the king of Spain's land-forces at sea, and admiral of his fleets, commanding his cinque-ports. I told you likewise, that Montagu, Crofts, and Jermyn, were come from the French court with good news. Now, I can assure you, that there is an agreement and articles drawn up between Mazarin and Charles Stuart; and Charles Stuart is speedily to marry Manchini (his niece); only several of his privy council (amongst others the chancellor) are very stiff against the speedy doing of it, until they shall see what the late changes in England will produce; for they allege, that if the king should now not only marry a Catholick, but also bring in a foreign force into England, it would not only cement the present divisions, but many, that are now his friends, would become his enemies; and so he would give a very great advantage to the sectarian party, whom they look upon as implacable enemies to all that line. In fine, it was thought the best advice to make a little pause, rather than be over-hasty in a matter of so great concernment.
This last scout reported, that Dunkirk was streightened by some forces drawn towards them, and that the duke of York was at the head of the said forces; but it is not true, for the forces are all in winter quarters; and the duke hath not been out of this town these six weeks.
This afternoon I peep'd into a letter of Hyde's to a gentleman of great quality in the west of England, in which was this passage (amongst many others):
"I am extreme sorry to hear, that Thurloe is again alike to get into employment, who knows so well the way of doing mischief; and who is, I am afraid, without any remorse for what he has already done."
But in this, and all things of this nature, I pray have a care of me. My life is nearly concerned in your keeping of secrecy. And, in the next, let me know what you would have me to do. To think to continue here without money, is but a vain thing; and how you can promise to yourself, or me, any settlement, in so many changes, I know not. If I must live upon you, pray let me come away by all means. I rest, &c.
The death of Minheer Hemflet is very much regretted here, who died lately at the Hague. The peace is published here on Thursday next, and there are preparations made for fire-works; and the joy is to continue three days.
Monsieur De Thou's proposition to the states general.
Vol. lxvii. p. 123.
Three weeks since, being in this assembly, I delivered a letter from the king my master, whose intentions I unfolded to your lordships; and acquainted you with the special directions I had received. So having in my discourse represented the state of affairs, and the importance of the thing, I prayed your lordships to deliberate upon, and afterwards to let me know your resolutions.
But not having receiv'd any answer, either in general or particular, from you, although I know, that governments of your form and constitution must needs act slow, yet your silence, in a business of this nature, is the cause why I am come again, not only to renew all the instances contained in his majesty's letter, but likewise in this juncture and crisis of the northern affairs, to make others; and so much the rather, because of the approaching campaign, to the end, you may come speedily to a resolution, and signify to both the kings the necessity of making a peace, and to give over all thoughts of continuing a war, by which you must needs give occasion of jealousy to all the princes and states of Europe.
I judge this, my lords, to be the fittest time to press this business in respect of the first meeting of the states of Holland; whereof, if I mistake not, here are many deputies at present, who may, by their presence and discourse, contribute very much to the persuading your lordships to resolutions befitting so important an affair, which will settle the commerce of the Baltic sea, so many years interrupted, and cause your subjects to enjoy the profits and advantages of the treaty of Elbing, and its elucidations; and, which is the most considerable, make peace throughout all Europe, and thereby give means to the princes in it of sending convenient aid to that illustrious commonwealth of Venice, which has, by a prodigious resolution and courage, resisted so many years an enemy, that is so potent and formidable to all the princes and states of Christendom.
The greatest difficulty in this peace of Denmark lies in the security, that the two kings demand mutually. Methinks, all the provisions for it, that can be expected from men, have been made by guaranty, that France, England, and this state, have promised; and the king my master has again ordered me to make new assurances, that he will endeavour to make jointly the said guarantee in the most sure, authentic, and solemn form, that the two kings can desire or imagine.
But as to the treaty, whereas the continuation of this war is grounded upon nothing but the pretences of either king, that the treaty of Roschild was not executed, which was made by the assistance of monsieur de Terlon, his majesty's embassador, jointly with the embassador of England, his majesty cannot satisfy himself, till it be put in execution, and finished, according to the treaty, which was made here at the Hague, the 12th of last May following, which the two kings have agreed upon: the three considerable articles, which have respect to the interest of strangers, and the safety and freedom of commerce, so that there remains nothing but to consider, what satisfactions and exchanges may be made for the contentment of both kings; that the peace be more firm and safe for the future. But if they cannot agree, by referring themselves to the judgment of the mediation, or otherwise, his majesty resolves to insist upon the whole execution of the Roschild treaty, comprehending therein the three articles above-mentioned.
If, after all this, God, provoked by the crimes and sins of men, suffers not a conclusion of the peace upon this foundation, I have orders from the king my master to declare to your lordships, that he will not forsake the king of Sweden, and that crown, so long allied to him, but will relieve him with all his victorious forces, which are not lessened by one soldier, but are augmented by those, that his most serene highness the prince of Condé commanded; and will likewise assist him with all the treasures and revenues of his kingdom.
And his majesty finds himself obliged to make so high and advantageous a declaration, on behalf of his ally, out of principles of honour and generosity, and in acknowledgment of the constancy and fidelity of the alliance, that the crown of Sweden hath maintained with him, having never been shaken by fears and threats, neither moved by any promises, to quit his majesty in that difficult war of Germany, that it underwent faithfully and courageously with him, till the conclusion of the peace, that he jointly made with that crown at Munster and Osnabrug.
And they were the same principles of honour, generosity, and gratitude, that obliged his majesty to write to the ordinary deputation of the empire very effectually upon the infringement of the said treaties of Munster and Osnaburg, by the last invasion of Pomerania; upon which, I think, I ought to communicate to your lordships the letter, that the said deputation writ to the emperor, sending him his majesty's letter. By the letter of the deputation your lordships will easily understand, that the emperor will have an hard task to render ineffectual the instances of the princes of the empire, who invite him with so much respect and affection, and with so much equity, to put an end to the war in Pomerania, and to leave things in the same state they were before his forces invaded that country.
Wherefore, my lords, I intreat you, in the name of the king my master, to make a serious reflection, and to signify the consequences of it to the Danish embassadors, that, by your sage and good advice, they take not false measures in so ticklish a juncture as this; but prevent the infallible evils, that the continuation of this war must necessarily occasion, if they are not ended speedily by the expedients, that are prepared for them.
Before I conclude, I am, by command of his majesty, to make a grievous complaint in his name of the instances and solicitations you caused to be made some time since, with great importunity, in England, and at Lubeck, to excite that considerable and potent nation, friend, and ally of his majesty, and the Hans-towns, which are also in alliance with him, against a certain composition of 50 sols upon a ton of foreign vessels, that load in France; which imposition is of very great consequence to his majesty, but of little or no charge to your subjects, who make so great and considerable profits in France, that they may be said to have all the trade there, as likewise almost all the fruit and emoluments.
My lords, you know very well, that every sovereign reserves to himself the liberty to make at home such laws as he thinks fit, and judges most to conduce to the weal of his state, and benefit of his subjects. Neither does his majesty complain, that you make at home placarts upon this occasion, (though perhaps fault might have been found with the terms, in which they are drawn) but to solicit his neighbours and allies, with intent to beget differences, and dissolve the knot of amity between them, which he infinitely prizes, and looks upon as a rampart and out-bulwark to his kingdom. This is what he cannot bear, and therefore acquaints you of his high resentment thereof, and declares to you by my mouth, that if directly, or indirectly, you go on to solicit England and Lubeck, as aforesaid, he says, he must look upon it as done to combine against this state, and will make your state feel the effects of his resentment and indignation all he can. But on the contrary, if you give him reasonable satisfaction upon both the points of this proposition, you may expect the same advantages and testimonies, that your fathers have had under the reign of the late kings of glorious and triumphant memory, father and grandfather of his majesty. And I do not doubt, my lords, but when you consider and weigh the power and greatness, that at present God has visibly poured upon his majesty, adjoined with all the outward and most eminent qualities and endowments in the flower and spring of his age, and without enemies, by the means of a most glorious peace, that he lately concluded, cemented, and consolidated, by an illustrious alliance, the whole royal family united to him, never to be separated from him, who is arming not new, but old troops, commanded by the famous generals in the world, and by the most famous for their conduct and valour in Europe; who has, towards Spain, Italy, Germany, and the Low-countries, impregnable fortresses, and is also fortified with many alliances, that are very powerful and considerable; and that, which crowns the work, and which is the soul, and, as it were, the spirit, which gives motion and action to all those powers, he is assisted with so prudent, intelligent, and active counsel, that it gives his majesty power to make himself loved and fought after by all his allies and neighbours, and feared and dreaded by all those, that incline to be his enemies now, or at any time hereafter:
I say, my lords, that when you consider all these things, that might, doubtless, be much better depainted by one, that were more able and eloquent than I am; I am confident, that your lordships will have a care, for the time to come, of disgusting his majesty, as you have done some time since upon several occasions, that I will not particularize, it being neither suitable to the dignity of majesty, nor the discretion of his majesty, so to do; but on the contrary, that you will let ship no opportunity of giving him satisfaction and content; and that, by the like conduct, you will also instruct the extraordinary embassadors, that you are sending to him, that they may obtain handsomely, and without difficulty, all that may be advantageous, safe, and tend to the strengthening of your state, and the renewing of the alliances, that have been so glorious and profitable to you. Here I'll end, praying you, that I may have a speedy and favourable answer to his majesty's letters, to my memorial of the 20th of the last, and to my two propositions. Done at the Hague, 16. March, 1660. [N. S.]
Jaqes Auguste de Thou.
Copes, the Dutch envoy at Brussels, to the states general.
Brussels, 17. March, 1660. [N. S.]
Vol. lxvii. p. 136.
H. and M. Lords,
In pursuance of your H. and M. L. command and commission given to me, I departed from the Hague upon the 14th, and the next day got to Breda, where I delivered your H. and M. L. letter to the princess royal, who declared to be very well satisfied with your sending to the king of France in favour of the prince of Orange her son; and that his principality might be preserved to him and his successors, her highness shews great affection and resolution to assist your H. and M. L. in this their good intention, and to second me in my endeavours; giving me, to that end, a letter to the king of France, and another to the queen of Great Britain. Also it pleased her highness to recommend me to the lord Jermyn, who hath great knowledge of affairs, and may be serviceable to me in the court of France. Having received those letters that night, the next day I departed from Breda, and arrived here this day. Having spoken with the lord Jermyn, he hath undertaken to assist me in all that he is able in the court of France, whither I intend to go with all speed to effect your H. and M. L. orders, if it be possible.
Resolution of the states general.
Thursday, the 18th of March, 1660. [N. S.]
Vol. lxvii. p. 147.
The lord Bootsma, being president of the assembly, proposed to their H. and M. L. that the lords embassadors of the king of Denmark had been at his lordship's lodging, and had complained to his lordship, how that the lords, their H. and M. L. commissioners extraordinary with the said king, had not yet received their H. and M. L. resolution of the 30th of January last, concerning the vigorous acting of the fleet and forces of this state against that of the king of Sweden.
Likewise, that the said embassadors had desired, that their H. and M. L. would be pleased to resolve upon something concerning the moneys desired of this state by the said lords embassadors to be sent to the king of Denmark, to supply his urging occasions. Whereupon being debated, it was resolved, that the lord van Amerongen should be desired to take the pains to go to the said lords embassadors, and undeceive them; for that the said lords commissioners extraordinary in Denmark had signified, in their letter of the 15th instant, that they had received the said order or resolution of the 30th of January last.
To the second point, the provinces are desired to explain themselves.
To the right honourable the council of state.
Vol. lxvii. p. 143.
The humble remonstrance and petition of Elias Strauss, baron of
Trzebitch, and resident for the duke of Courland and Semigallia,
now a prisoner in the Upper Bench,
That your humble petitioner was sent into England in the quality of public minister and resident for the duke of Courland, in the time of Oliver lord protector, and was not only owned as such by the late protector and his son, but also yet lately had a commission and letter from the said prince to this renowned commonwealth, which were delivered to the committee of safety (then sitting) by the hands of the lord Whitelocke, a member of that committee, and then keeper of the great seal; though to this day your petitioner never had any account of, or answer to the said letter. But it having pleased God unexpectedly to lay a most heavy and deplorable affliction (long since manifest to the world) upon your petitioner's said gracious prince and master, by reason whereof his highness hath been rendered incapable of supplying your humble petitioner with such sums of money, as were requisite for his subsistence in this country, where he is a stranger, your petitioner was unavoidably constrained to contract some (inconsiderable) debts, not exceeding all the sum of one hundred pounds sterling; for which moneys (notwithstanding) he was arrested, cast in prison, and by the cruelty of his barbarous creditors hath been kept now full six months in this place; where he must unavoidably perish, if not by your honours assured charitable and powerful assistance speedily relieved; for God and his whole house know, that during the last three months of this his deplorable imprisonment he hath been in a more calamitous condition than is expressible, having lived upon and subsisted merely by the charity of his fellow-prisoners, (for the most part little less distressed than himself) who yet for conscience and the honour of their country's sake (understanding him not only to be a stranger, but a public minister) as good Christians shewed so much compassion, as to relieve him with a meal's meat at some times, thereby keeping him from perishing, and hitherto with much ado preserving some small remnant of life in him, which yet is not like to last many days, (by reason of his great indisposition of body, occasioned by the said disconsolate and penurious life, which of late he hath been forced to lead) if he be not speedily released out of this woeful place.
Your petitioner therefore doth humbly and instantly pray this most honourable council, that your honours will be pleased to take his most deplorable and perishing condition into your favourable and pious consideration, and out of your renowned nobleness and Christian charity take some speedy course to relieve and succour your distressed petitioner in this his incomparable and inexpressible extremity.
And your petitioner, as in duty bound, shall for ever pray, &c.
[8. March, 1659/60.]
The Danish agent to the council of state.
Vol. lxvii. p. 151.
Illustrissimi Ac Excellentissimi Domini,
Integer fere annus est, ex quo serenissimus rex Daniæ, dominus meus clementissimus, considerans quanta post hominum memoriam inter Daniam & Angliam viguerit amicitia, animoiumque reciproca necessitudo, quamque implicitum & inseparabile utriusque interesse invicem semper fuerit, necessarium duxit, me infrasciptum deputatum suum extraordinarium ad hujus reipublicæ parlamentum inter alios vicinos ac confœderatos regiæ suæ majestati longe charissimum mittere, ac speciali mandato instiuse, ut prævia studiorum suo um cæterorumque sinceri affectus ac officiorum oblatione, eidem inter alia afflictum regnoium suorum statum, summamque, in quam regis Sueciæ vicini sibi hostis insatiabilis ava itia, ambitio, ac nemini non nota dominandi, sibique universum maris Baltici dominium assendi libido, non modo ipsam Daniam, verum etiam totum fete Septentrionem pæcipitem dedere, miseriam indicarem, remediumque tot malis inguentibus, antequam majori totius Europæ detrimento invalescant, apud hanc rempublicam, quantum in me est, quærerem. Quibus etiam avertendis parlamentum pro solito ac nunquam satis deprædicando in pacem amore, amica sua interpositione ac sumptuosis in Daniam legationibus, addita insuper præterito anno valida illa classe sub ductu generosissimi ac excellentissimi domini Edwardi Montagu, hujus reipublicæ archithalassi, una cum cæreris vicinorum principum ac fœderatorum statuum legatis, omnem movit lapidem, nihilque intentatum reliquit pro reducendo rege Sueciæ ad saniora concilia, & pro sancienda in Septentrione stabili pace, adhibito hunc in finem, tanquam præsentissimo remedio, tractatu isto, de quo anno superiori Hagæ-Comitis inter trium statuum, Angliæ scilicet, Galliæ, & Fœderati Belgii ordinum legatos & ministros conventum. Quam frustra vero ac infeliciter hactenus in hoc pacis negotio sudatum, ac quam obstinato ac ab omni pace alieno animo rex Sueciæ dictam trium statuum conventionem repudiârit, ac denique quam regiæ suæ majestati Daniæ intutum, ac huic etiam reipublicæ perniciosum foret, si hæc in Septentrione pax nulli alii superstrueretur basi quam memorato tractatu Hagensi, ex annexis scriptis nuperrime tunc temporis concilio status exhibitis, satis superque constat. Quæ cum hic repetere supersiuum duco, enixe rogo, illustrissimis dominationibus vestris placeat, eadem cum attentione perlegere, atque pro summa sua prudentia ac probitate in componendis hisce inter Daniam & Sueciam dissidiis per hujus reipublicæ plenipotentiarios ac ministros Hasniæ Hagæque degentes rem ita gerere, ut juxta ipsius causæ æquitatem serenissimæ regiæ majestati Daniæ, domino meo clementissimo, ex ultimâ hac in Selandiam invasione, & totali regnorum suorum devastatione perpessa damna debita fiat satisfactio, majorque ipsi inposterum a Suecis de non amplius turbando detur securitas, quam vel ex hac ipsorum ad fretum Oresundicum vicinitate, ac nimia in Sconia ac Bleckingia potentia, vel ex ipso tractatu Hagensi sperari potest.
Hæc sunt, quæ serenissima sua majestas ab hujus reipublicæ parlamenti candore certo sibi promittit, præsertim mutata jam maximopere rerum facie ex tempestiva regis Sueciæ morte certis ac side dignis rumoribus firmata.
Illustrissimis Dominationibus vestris
Henr. Willemsen Rosenvinge.
Londini, 8. Martii, 1660.
To Boreel, at the Hague.
Paris, 19. March, [1660. N. S.]
Vol. lxvii. p. 160.
A ship from Tunis came to Marseilles, and reported, that both Tunis and Algier, having heard of the peace between France and Spain, and that at Toulon there were great preparations for sea, they offered the redemption of 6 or 7000 French slaves, that were in those two cities. They speak of two embassadors from Tunis, to treat of a peace with France.
Mons. Mancini, nephew of the cardinal, was arrived at the court, and very well received under the title of duke de Nevers.
At Marseilles there will be maintained twelve galleys; twelve at Toulon for protecting the seas against pirates.
At Brest in Bretagne all ships were arrested by the treasurer Colbert, who bought two Holland ships, which he hath sent to Conquernan, with many seamen, whence they will go with two more ships of 300 tons each to Rochelle.
The twenty Holland ships convoyed by two men of war were come safe to the gulph of Lyons, and going for Italy. Some report, that the king had sent considerable forces to besiege the castle of Orange.
Here is expected Mr. Blomendael, extraordinary embassador of the elector of Brandenburg for Spain; and by the way he is to speak with the cardinal.
There is a design to increase the impositions and customs upon all strangers commodities brought in here, but principally the cloth and says; so that under this pretence there are more than 2000 balls of commodities and manufactures in the custom-houses of France there stopped, to the great prejudice of traffick.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Samedy, le 13. Mars, 1660. [N. S.]
Vol. lxvii. p. 120.
Il y a eu une lettre de l'electeur de Brandenburg, contenant remerciement de ce que cest estat a si amiablement entreprins la defension de son pupille le prince d'Orange, avec admonition d'expedier au plus-tost celui, qu'on voudra envoyer, avec promesse, qu'il y envoyera aussi le sien. Le sieur Copes, destiné vers là, a desiré encore, & aura lettres à la princesse royale, qu'il verra en passant, & d'elle prendre d'autres lettres aussi, tant au roy qu' à la reyne.
Le sieur Cojet auroit aujourd'huy audience dans l'assemblée de Hollande sur les credentielles du roy son maistre; mais elle ne se trouve point in forma, si qu'il a donné sa proposition par escrit sans prendre audience, estant disputé de sa reception.
Il y a eu lettres de Gottenburg du 27/17. Fev. qui disent positivement, que le roy de Suede soit decedé le 13/23. Fev. ayant aucunement disposé aux affaires de royaume.
Le 15. dito.
Le sieur ambassadeur de France a eu audience, & a harangué touchant la guerre au Nort, fort persuadant la paix; qu'autrement le roy son maistre seroit obligé d'assister celui de Suede de tout son pouvoir. Puis a parlé du last-gelt, taxant cest estat d'inciter & piquer aussi l'Angleterre à s'opposer contre cela. On l'a prins de lui par escrit.
Ceux de Hollande ont derechef urgé l'equipage; mais la Zelande demande les præmia pour leurs cruissers; & d'autres ne sont pas encore prest.
Les ministres de Dennemarc n'ont rien donné par escrit; mais de bouche en leurs visites ont dit, le temps estre trop chargé, & que l'Angleterre est fort; & qu'ils ne sauroient pas faire paix sur les conventions de la Hague.
Le 16. dito.
Entre autres lettres venues de Sont, il y a, que la paix s'approche fort. La satisfaction demandée par S. M. de Dennemarc estoit mis en arbitrage des mediateurs.
Derechef est venu l'affaire de Munster, & sont les provinces admonestés à recevoir & resoudre.
L'affaire de passage-gelt à Maestricht est aussi mis sur le tapis.
Le sieur Cojet donne à connoître dans sa proposition toute forte de satisfaction touchant les elucidations des caperies, & tout, si avec lui on vient en conference; cela est mis es mains des commissaires.
Le 17. dito.
On a découvert un navire de Suede chargé de fer, venu avec le dernier convoy du Sont; mais il y a dispute entre ceux d'Amsterdam & de Nort-Hollande, à qui sera la judicature, estant fait quelque empechement de l'un à l'autre à main armées.
L'affaire de Munster, à sçavoir de ce dix mille rixd. est en omvrage; la plus part on consenti; mais Rotterdam & quelque ville ou deux en Nort Hollande ont opiné, que dix mille rixd. est peu de chose, mais que ce ne seroit qu'un engagement & introduction à plus grande somme, si qu'il faudra encore avoir patience jusques à mardi.
A Ostende est prins un navire de Rotterdam, & parcequ'il y a un homme Anglois dessus cela, ils croyent que c'est un navire Anglois; sur quoy sera escrit.
Le 18. dito.
Le college de l'admirauté d'Amsterdam a faite pleinte sur divers points, en quoi l'admirauté du Nort quartier lui fait tort, tant touchant la reception des convoys & licentes, que touchant la jurisdiction aquatique, & specialement le fer Suedois, qu'on croit avoir attrappé.
Les ambassadeurs de Dennemarc ont par le sieur president de bouche fait rememorer leur expedition, specialement touchant les 150,000 francs, sur quoi les provinces sont admonestés.
Touchant l'equipage de 48 navires, les provinces de même ne font pas encore d'accord.
Le 19. dito.
Il y a eu derechef debat sur l'equipage. Ceux de Hollande sont comparu en bon nombre dans l'assemblée, & ont specialement dit, que l'Angleterre equippoit soixante fregattes, que la France equippoit fort; que c'estoit une honté, que cest estat tardoit tant en cela; mais la Zelande parloit encore de leur cruissers. On verra demain.
Le sieur envoyé Downing a presenté memoire, & desire, que divers navires de sa nation estant en ce païs ici, non-obstant l'ordre general interdisant la sortie des navires vers Oost devant le 20. Avril; la Hollande l'a overgenoomen.
Les electeurs du Ryn ont escrit & requis ici, que les vins du Haut-Ryn ne soyent pas ici chargé plus haut que le vin de Moselle; ce que la Hollande a aussi overgenoomen.
Le comte de Flodrof a obtenu quelque sorte de repressaille contre l'electeur de Cologne sur le payement d'une rente.