A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Volume 7, March 1658 - May 1660. Originally published by Fletcher Gyles, London, 1742.
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March (2 of 5)
A letter of intelligence from Holland.
Il semble bien, qu'à present les affaires en Angleterre se forment & se façonnent à quelque plus d'ordre & de repos; ce sera le moyen de se rendre derechef un peu considerable en dehors; autrement ici l'on n'estime pas les Anglois pour froids ni pour chauds; hoc est, qu'ils ne pourront faire ni bien ni mal. Et pourtant les devoirs, que le sieur ambassadeur fait par de là contre la Suede & pour le Dennemarc, ils les font faire pro forma, non pro materia, comme présupposants, que d'Angleterre le Dennemarc ne doit attendre ni bien ni mal.
Mais la France est plus redoutable, & l'on ne digere pas bien la façon de parler, dont a use l'ambassadeur de Thou, estant une façon de menace; & l'on croit, que ce ne sont pas que des paroles; & que maintenant le roy de Suede estant mort, la France perdra le courage de beaucoup entreprendre en Allemagne; & au pis aller que l'on pourra opposer l'Espagne & l'Austriche à la France; & que on la contraballancera aisement, & qu'aussi l'insante d'Espagne (fort habile & bien instruite) avec la reigne de France pourront bien tant sur l'esprit du roy, qu'il l'induiront à s'abstenir du secours pour la Suede. Et cependant ils croyent, que l'ambassadeur parle fort clair, même avec aigreur; ce qu'ils peuvent mal digerer, & y a des pensionaires les plus habiles, qui travaillent à y respondre & à refuter le sieur ambassadeur; mais la refutation verbale profite de peu. L'execution de ce last-gelt est en la main du roy même; & que feront les Anglois, ayants la même maxime? Et si la France & l'Angleterre demeurent unis au Sond, & en ces traités du Nort, cest estat ne fera que s'espuiser & se ruiner fans aucun fruit: le fraiz, dommage, & perte de trafic est certain, l'evenement de la guerre incertaine.
The memorial of Mr. Downing the English envoy in Holland to the states general.
The under-written envoy extraordinary of England did not the last year trouble their lordships the states general of the United Provinces with any complaint, although many English ships were for a long time stopt in the ports of this country, to the great prejudice of the proprietors of them, for that there did appear something of a reason of state, which might give something of a shew of ground for the doing thereof; viz. the great want of mariners for the fleet then going out: but being now informed, that there are at this time again a great number of English ships, which are stopped and hindered under great penalties from pursuing their intended voyages towards the havens of the friends and allies of England in the Sound; and that this stop is to continue till the 20th of April next, in which time many of the said ships may possibly have made their voyage; and seeing that the laying on of embargoes upon the ships of the friends of this state, which are in their harbours, is a thing of a very nice nature, and not to be practised but upon very extraordinary and important necessity, and that for as little time as is possible, and no such appearing at this time.
And as to what may be alleged, that no more is done to the ships of the people of the United Provinces, if this state for the pulling down of the prizes of the commodities of any of those countries, and making their own commodities more dear, think fit for some time to stop the going of their ships thither; or if in this conjuncture of affairs, in regard to the danger of the seas, they do stop them for the providing of them with a good and sufficient convoy, that it is unjust and unwarrantable, for reasons of this nature to stop with them the ships of England.
The said envoy extraordinary doth therefore most earnestly demand, that the said embargo may forthwith be taken off the ships of England, and that they may be suffered to preserve their intended voyages towards the Baltic sea.
And the said extraordinary envoy cannot but also again make complaint to their lordships, that notwithstanding the many memorials, which he hath given, and the many resolutions, which he hath received thereupon, that yet to this day there is no satisfaction given to the proprietors of the goods of the ship called the Increase, or Bloompot of Hull, brought to Enchuysen by a Flanders caper; nor yet is the ship, called the Samuel of Burlington, restored to the proprietors by the admiralty at Rotterdam; nor satisfaction made for the ship called the Love and Friendship, brought with her lading into Delssiel, and there unladen and sold by a Flanders caper, although the matter of fact in all these cases hath been most clearly made out, as is confessed.
And if it be objected, that these cases were before the placart of this state of the 7th of November, 1658, their lordships may consider, that that placart did not enact any new thing, but did only declare what ought before by the laws of nations to have been done to their friends and allies in such cases, as is set down in a letter of their lordships to the respective colleges of the admiralty upon this subject; and that a great number of ships have of late been restored in England to the people of the provinces, upon the bare foot of the law of nations, there being to this day no particular placart concerning this matter.
The said extraordinary envoy doth therefore once more solemnly demand, that justice may be done in the foresaid cases; protesting, that is upon the account of their happening before the publishing of the said placart satisfaction be not made, that the people of the United Provinces will for the future be treated in like manner in England, who may hereafter, until the publishing of some such placart, happen to be brought thither by commission of some foreign prince; and that the state of England will have very little encouragement to come to any agreement in writing about matters of this nature, if so little be made of the law of nations, and so long as they shall still be referred to the admiralty of this country: whereas in England remedy is given immediately by the state; and that the admiralty do take to themselves so great a liberty, as hitherto they have done, of vexing the people of England with endless delays and charges, so few getting any relief from them, the relief, which any do get, being with so much loss of time and expence, as that the charge commonly equals, if not surmounts the profit. Given at the Hague, 19. March, 1660. [N. S.]
Mr. Downing, envoy in Holland, to secretary Thurloe.
This last post I received one from you, and therein the welcome newes of your being come again into publique imployement, the which I assure you did exceedingly revive and comfort me, not onely for my own sake, but for my countrey's sake; for that yourself, and none in England as yourself, doth know the scheme of our affaires abroad. I have heere inclosed myne to the president of the councill, and shall over and above the weekly account of the gross of publique affaires to him, give you a more particular account of what may not possibly be so fitt for a publique view. And thus I did this last yeare betweene the councill of state and Sir Henry Vane, giving the councill a general account of affairs, but writing to him that, which was matter of more secresye: and thus Nieupoort doth weekely betweene the states generall and de Witt.
As for the present state of the negotiation between this countrey and Portugal, I have herein inclosed to you a copy of the proposition, which hath bin made by the ambassador of Portugal, which is now heere; to which this state hath answered, that they cannot be satisfyed with, but do insist to have the lands in Brazil, which were taken from them, restored to them: nor do I see, that that peace is likely suddainly to be concluded, although they cannot deny, that Portugal is in great danger of being lost, and that the loss thereof may be of very ill consequence to this country.
The king of France his owning the affairs of Sweden doth at this moment something ballance the noyse of the death of the king of Sweden; and I understand, that M. Bordeaux hath also orders to the like effect with those of M. de Thou. But were it not for the feare of England, notwithstanding France, this countrey would forthwith declare itself for a general peace, and enter into a league with the emperor, &c. against the king of Sweden: but upon those grounds they think it their best to be as silent as they can, their fleete being already in the Sound, and the spring coming on, which will give them advantage enough, if they can keep England from intermeddling, especially if they can be able to keep off the peace between England, and Sweden, and Poland, or at least that the emperor and elector of Brandenburgh would not sufferr themselves to be comprehended therein. But the truth is, they have at this time very little credit in the court of Poland, and the Poles are very weary of that warr; so that unless the death of the king of Sweden make some alteration, that peace may probably by this time be concluded; and so far as I can gather, the emperor and elector doe the utmost to hinder it: yet if they cannot hinder it, they will be comprized in it; and then this state would have enough to do to uphold the Dane, and insensibly the traffique of those parts would fall into the hands of the English. I shall say no more of that business, because I doubt not but you will be particularly informed by the letters from col. Sidney and Sir Ro. Honywood: only give me leave to say, that I very much wonder, that they doe 395 150 not declare 355 132 43 468 537 the Dane refusant; 140 16 109 151; which being once done, England 219 is at liberty. 135 475.
I pray God send peace and settlement at home: men talk heere very strangely. I shold
be infinitely obliged to you, that you would a little let me know what things are like to
come to; and am,
Your most affectionate humble servant,
It is said, the king of Spayne hath made the duke of York commander in cheif of all his fleets, and of all his sea-port towns, where he shall come; and that he shall go to Spayn to command a fleete, on board whereof shall be many souldiers, who, it is said, shall be made use of against Portugal. If you please to direct the letter to me as envoye extraordinary. Althongh the king of France presse here the peace between Swede and Denmark; yet also he presseth in Poland, if possible, the making of that peace before it; and that with the inclusion of the emperor, so as that he restore what he hath taken from the king of Sweden in Pomerania.
At the council of state at Whitehall.
A Memorial, directed to the council from the deputy extraordinary from his majesty of Denmark, dated 8. March instant, was this day read. Ordered, That it be referred to the secretary of state, to state the case thereupon, and, as in the former papers concerning the Northern affairs, make a speedy report thereupon to the council.
A Memorial directed to the council from the Swedish pleni potentiaries, dated this day, was read. Ordered, that the same be referred to Mr. secretary Thurloe, who is desired to consider thereof, and speedily to report the whole case, both upon this and the papers formerly referred to him, for the council's further direction thereupon.
That a packet directed to the council from Mr. Downing, envoy extraordinary from the parliament of this commonwealth to the lords the states general, dated at the Hague the second March instant, and now read, be referred to Mr. secretary Thurloe, who is desired to consider of it, and to make a report thereof to the council speedily for the council's further order thereupon.
In pursuance of an order of the council of the first of March instant, made upon the humble petition of Richard Bradshaw esq; late resident at Hamburgh, whereby it is referred to this committee to examine the whole matter of fact concerning his employments, disbursements, and allowances, and to report their opinions to the council; this committee having perused the accounts of the said Mr. Bradshaw, as also a copy of a privy seal granted him by the late protector, bearing date the thirty-first day of January, 1658, wherein it appears, that there is due upon the said accounts, unto him the said Mr. Bradshaw, the sum of two thousand one hundred eighty-eight pounds eleven shillings and four-pence disbursed in the service of the commonwealth, over and above what moneys he hath already received:
That it be humbly reported to the council, as the opinion of this committee, that the case of the said Mr. Bradshaw be humbly offered to the parliament, to find out some way of satisfaction of the said sum of 2188 l. 11s. 4 d. yet due and owing unto him, as aforesaid.
To the right honourable the council of state, by authority of parliament,
That your petitioner upon his humble address to your honours, and the perusal of the accounts of your petitioner by the committee, to whom the same was referred by your honours, obtained your order, that the case of your petitioner should be humbly reported to the parliament, to direct the payment of the sum of 2188 l. 11s. 4 d. found by the said committee to be due and owing to your petitioner; which report, by reason of the want of time, and the many weighty affairs of state, could not be made before the parliament dissolved.
And forasmuch as your petitioner disbursed the said sum of 2188 l. 11s. 4d. at the request and by the special order of the then council of state, for the necessary services of the commonwealth, and to supply the navy in the Dutch war, with promise, that it should be duly repaid unto your petitioner; as also, that your petitioner suffered the loss of above 5000 l. in the late war in this nation, without any reparation for the same, and hath for above seventeen years freely exposed his life at home and abroad in the service of the state:
May it therefore please your honours, in consideration of your petitioner's singular condition, to order the payment of the said sum of 2188 l. 11s. 4d. to your petitioner, who otherwise must suffer greatly, if such a sum, and so disbursed out of his affection to his country, whilst he resided a public minister in foreign parts, be now at his return rent from his small estate, it being more than he hath got in the service of the commonwealth.
Mr. Downing to the president of the council of state.
Monday last the French ambassador had audience againe in the assembly of the states generall, and I have herein inclosed a copy of his proposition, relating principally to two things, viz. the present war between Sweden and Denmark, and the solicitation, which this state makes in England, and to les villes Hanseatiques, against the late imposition in France upon foraign vessells, at which they are heere not a little alarmed, that the king of France doth thus peremptorily and positively declare himself. But yet this people doe not use much to change their counsell for words, unless they see something else like to touch them. In the meane time an answer is preparing thereunto, the which, so far as I can yet perceive, is like but to be in generall; That they are on their part with all heartiness endeavouring a peace betweene Sweden and Denmark, with reflexion to the accords, which have bin made about that matter; and that as to the new impost, that it cannot seeme strange, if this state, who subsist mostly by traffique, be sensible of a matter of that nature. And being in discourse this weeke with Mr. Boreel, he told me, that there is a clause in an ancient treaty between France and the United Provinces, whereby the king of France obliged himself and his heires, not to burthen the subjects of this state above his owne; and that that treaty is still in force. Wednesday Mons. Cojet was to have had audience in the states of Holland; but there being some difference about matter of ceremonie, he refused to take his audience, and sent by his secretary his proposition, which he intended to have made by word of mouth; a copy whereof I have herein inclosed, by which your lordship will perceive and understand particularly what it is Sweden would be at.
There are now letters come to every one, of the death of the king of Sweden, the which although it was generally beleived, before the French ambassador had his audience, and Mons. Cojet delivered in his proposition; yet in regard there were then no authentique letters of it, they did not think fitt upon the report thereof to delay the doeing of what they had in charge. And however people heere doe express a very wonderfull joy for the death of the king of Sweden, yet I doe not find, that the wiser of them do think, that the affaires of Sweden are like to be much changed thereby; and the king of France his declaring so high for Sweden, and the newes from their ministers at Copenhagen, that the ministers of England there do threaten to declare the king of Denmarke resusant; theis things do a little ballance their counsells. But truly, whatever France should say, were it not for fear of England, that in case they should quitt the conventions made at the Hague, they would assist Sweden; and that by the continuance of that warr the traffique of the Baltique sea would by little and little fall into the hands of the English; this state would certainly comply with the Imperialists, Poles, and Brandenburg, in declaring themselves for a general peace, of which if the Poles could in time have any assurance, they would certainly make no peace with Sweden. And indeed the not doing thereof hath very much alienated the minds of the Poles from the state, so as that I am confident, is this opportunity be not lost, very good conditions in point of trade may be had for the English in Prusse and Poland, the which this countrey hath many years together injoyed entirely to itself, to their wonderful profit. And the Pole being at this time displeased with this state, and knowing how necessary it is for him, in regard of his posts upon the Baltick sea, to have the friendship of some state, which is powerfull in shiping, would, I am confident, very heartily embrace any overture, which should be made him from England. And for Sweden, it is known, that they rather desire peace with Poland than with Denmark, and could not but be well pleased therewith, as they are with France their intermeddling in the affaire between them and Poland, as well as between them and Denmark.
I have herein inclosed a copy of a memoriall, which I presented this day to the states general. The truth is, the lord Nieupoort continually plyes you with complaints of ships of this country brought into the harbours of England by Swedish commissions; and hath had restitution forthwith by immediate order of the councell, without a referring them to the ordinary course of the admiralty; and would have your lordship to beleeve, that this state hath bin much more carefull in righting the subjects of England in this nature, then the government of England to the people of this country; whereas the truth is, it hath been quite otherwise. And as to the present stop, whereby the ships of England are hindered from pursuing their voyages to the Sound, (of which I also make complaint in my said memoriall) the matter of fact lyes thus: That this state, in regard of the present troubles in the Baltique sea, about a fortnight agoe gave order, that no ship of this country should go to those ports till the 20th of April, that so a good and sufficient convoy might be provided for them. And seeing that in the meane time a greate number of English ships were hired, and ladeing in the ports of this countrey with such commodities, as this countrey hath to goe to those parts, and would in a great measure have supplyed the markett before the coming of the ships of this countrey, they have also hindered the going out of the English ships untill that time, to the very great detriment of the proprietors of them; and divers merchants and masters of ships, in the name of themselves and the rest, making a heavy complaint to me of this great injury, I thought it my duty to lay it before the state, and shall humbly expect your orders, how I shall carry myself therein.
The estates of Holland are now fully assembled, and the instructions are making ready for him, who is to be sent ambassador extraordinary into France; and it's probable, that they will next week nominate the person, whome they would have to be sent thither; for that the king of France his so peremptorily declaring himself in relation to the business between Sweeden and Denmarke, and that of the new impost, do very much touch them; and they hope by this ambassey to be able to work something, as also in relation to the principality of Orange, or at least to be able to keep matters in suspence, which is all that this state needs or desired, as their affairs now stand; for that they having a force in the Sound, if nothing of a counter-ballance be opposed, they will be able to bring Sweden to what terms they please; and England shall not at all be considered neither by Dane nor Swede. And if this country shall bring that affair to their mind, and have the force at liberty, which they are forced at this time to imploy in those parts, I need not say what will be the consequences thereof.
The states of Holland are also now in deliberation about lending a some of money to the king of Denmark upon security, as I have given notice in some of my former, and shall wait your lordship's orders about it. They are also now in deliberation about the hastening of the equipping of forty-eight men of warr, over and above those which they have already in the Sound, and which are fitting for convoys. I have this day an account from Rotterdam, that a Yarmouth ship of about 140 tons, and a ship belonging to Burlington, (as I take it) of about 300 ton, were this last weeke taken and carryed to Ostend; and the English merchants in this countrey do earnestly desire, that they might have a convoy from hence for the Sound; the which if they had, I know would be the occasion of imploying of a very great number of English shiping; but without a convoy they say plainly, that they dare not stir, in regard of the danger of the seas.
From Nieupoort the Dutch embassador in England.
I again pressed a new conference with the commissioners of state. I was told, that Sir John Holland and the other commissioners for foreign affairs had order to confer with me; and that Mr. Thurloe should search the records, to be better informed; but afterwards Mr. Thurloe sent me word, that the letters newly received from the Sound were to be read and examined in the council; so that the commissioners could not come to the conference. Since which I understood, that the officers of the army were assembled, and that there had been a conference between the said officers and some members of parliament before general Monck. The said officers, fearing, that the parliament had a design to re-establish the king, assembled at St. James's, and resolved to present a declaration to the parliament: but this morning I hear they have been pacified by the promise, that the parliament would pass such acts before their separation, that they should be therewith satisfied. This morning there have been again great debates touching the writs; and by reason of the difference of opinions, the parliament assembled in the afternoon a great committee. And because this debate is of great importance, the most of the council of state came thither. To-morrow I shall press again to have a conference with the commissioners of the council, and render an account thereof to your H. M.
An intercepted letter.
Yours to Mr. Bissiter are received by him. I wish my nephew much prosperity in his
traffique, which he is gone. Your friends here are much comforted with the good news
of a hopefull happy settlement of the government, that trade may be more secure then
formerly. As concerning 344's intentions, I doubt our friends there may, as you say, be
too confident of his good meaning to the king, considering his unstable resolutions: but
certainly, if he duly consider his countrie's or his own interest, he cannot do any thing,
that will be of more advantage to both, then heartily to endeavour his majestie's establishment; and my hope in God is, that if he shall decline that course, that the nations and
countries, when the militia shall be put into the hands of good and sober men, will
compell to it, or do it without him: for if our intelligence here be true, the whole kingdom in generall is well disposed to establish the king, without which it is evident the
nation can never be safe or happy. I do not imagin what the phanatique sectaries can
do to hinder his majestie's restoration; and surely they, that look to settle a commonwealth, will in time find it so much against the genius of the nation, as they will discerne
it to be an extreme difficulty, if not impossible work, to be accomplished. I wish you
should be well advised, and see the affairs and government in England in better hands,
before you begin any sut for recovery of your estate. For though you were never in
armes against the parliament, yet having been so for the king, I doubt till better times
you will find little favour or justice; for very many of the most powerfull partie-men of
the counsel of state are yet violent against the king, if I am rightly informed. But when
this parliament shall be dissolved, and a new and free parliament shall fit, I am persuaded
they will soon take such resolutions, as honest men may be the better for it; and possibly you
may have better measures, whereby to make a judgment, what course will be better for you
to take to recover your right. And I hope it will not now be many months, before we shall
see a happy revolution and change in the affairs and government in England, which I wish
you would attend. I am very glad, you have made acquaintance with Mr. 48. 274, who
is an able and honest man, and who can best advise you. And if you think fit, you may
let him know from me, that the king takes particular notice of his good affections to
his majestie's and his country's good interest. If 244 continues to be ruled by 199, and
they of his gang, I shall dispair of much good from him; for he that is so censorious, as
that he cannot forgive himself, will not believe, that the king will forgive him; though
all men will find, that his majesty is far more gracious and reddy to pardon any, that shall
manifest his penitence by his endeavouring to restore his majestie, then they can possibly
imagine; for his majestie is far from a vindicative nature. If your friend 785 728 . . .
a Wiltshire gentleman. I am glad, he gives good hopes, that you shall find store of friends
there, to assist you. If this letter come safe, I shall write to you more frequently; and
I pray favour me with your occurrences as oft as you have opportunity. I am glad to hear,
that 198 and 495 is well inclined to the king's interest, which is indeed the true interest
of the nation. All my family are very much your servants, as I am constantly,
Your most faithfull and humble servant,
Resident van Sasburgh, to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
I have received your H. and M. lordships letter of the 15th, and precisely observed all your commands mentioned therein, and have done therein more nor less than other foreign ministers, that reside here. About the publishing of the peace no extraordinary solemnities have been used here, only the discharging of some great guns, sounding of trumpets, beating of drums, and the like, but no men in arms.
Here is little or no news to advise your H. and M. lordships from hence at this time: only I find amongst the followers of his majesty of England, that they have great hopes of his majesty's restoration.
A letter of intelligence.
Although I have not written to you since that of mine, which you say was without a date; yet I have desired a friend of mine to impart to you, what I thought might concern you to know from hence, and particularly the going of the Eastern merchants / Jermyn and Montagu, with their books and accounts, without so much as opening of them here; nor do I know, what their cargasoon amounted unto. You may perhaps have the sum from your son; for there it is they intend to expose the sale of their commodities. Nor can I in truth tell you, what price that merchandize bears here. I think the prime dealer / cardinal Mazarin in these parts is unwilling to meddle, unless he may have a very profitable and secure bargain. When I do know and can say more, that is anything to purpose, you shall be sure to have it in wider lines.
I know not what public news to send you from hence. The success of the duke of Brandenburgh's, and states of Holland, their mediation concerning Orange, is yet doubtful. The marriage holds in design for the twentieth of April, and the court is expected here towards the latter end of May; and I hope (if better occasion hinder not) you will be there to see the triumphs, and to see the stately structures at both ends of the Louvre. Thus (by different fates) some kings are busy about ornaments, whilst other sovereigns are troubled to recover their lost kingdoms.
The council to the English commissioners in the Sound.
By yours of the 25. Feb. received by your secretary Mr. Henry Sterry, wee understand how farre the negotiation for reconcileinge the two Northern kings is brought; and findinge thereby the difficulty of the peace to lye on the Danes side, wee thought it necessary to conferr with the ambassador of the United Provinces resideinge here upon that subject; and further to inforce the same desire in effect, which you had made to the publique ministers of the same state now in Dennemarke, as you will see by the paper exhibited to the sayd ambassador, a coppy whereof is herewith sent you. At the delivery of this paper, the ambassador did much presse, that consideration might be had of the damages susteyned by the Dane, since the refusal of the Suede to accept the conditions of the peace, conformable to what is insisted upon by the Danish minister here. But it beinge opened to hym, that this demand was not only contrary to the treaties of the Hague, but was of that nature, that if it were insisted upon, must necessarily render all endeavours for the peace ineffectuall, and keep those parts still imbroyled in warre, he at last summed up all in this, and much insisted thereupon, that the 400000 ryx-dollars be released by the Suede to the Dane; which gave occasion to examine, how that stood upon the treatyes at the Hague, which beinge looked into, the state thereof appeared to be this: That by the third article of the treaty of the 14/24. July, the seignory of Dronthain in Norway was to remayne to the Dane, contrary to the treaty of Roschild; but as to all other things, the treaty of Roschild was to be exactly observed, and nothinge to be aded to it, or taken from it; yet soe as that by these conditions the liberty of treatinge with the kinge of Sueden, touching the remittinge to the Dane the 400000 ryx-dollars, be not taken away. Upon which it was urged, that the intention of these two states in penning this article in this manner, appears plainly enough to be, that this of 400000 ryx-dollars might be treated upon with the Suede for the remittinge thereof; but if the Swede should refuse to doe it, yet it was not to hinder the peace. Whereto the ambassador answered, that he acknowledged the words to carry that sense and meaning; but did assert the article was so penned at the earnest desire of Mr. Downinge, who at the tyme of makinge this agreement at the Hague did undertake, that in case the states generall would sufferr it to passe in those termes, that instructions should notwithstandinge be given to the English plenipotentiarys in the Sound, to insist upon the releasinge of that money, as a necessary condition of the peace; as alsoe, that the commissioners, which were sent to the said ambassador by the then councel of state, to conferre with hym upon these affaires, did assure him as much; and upon these assurances (he sayd) the states generall did depend, and thereupon were willing to agree to that article in this manner, which otherwise they had never done. He further alledged, that this agreement touchinge the 400000 ryx-dollars was noe part of the Roschild treaty, but was extorted from the king of Denmark long after that treaty concluded, by quarteringe the Swedish forces upon his dominions, which the Swede refused to remove, till the payment of this money was secured to him; addinge many other reasons in equity for remittinge of it, and concluded with this, that it was not possible for the king of Denmarke, his countrys beinge soe ruined and wasted as they are, ever to satisfy soe great a summe of money; and therefore noe peace could be made. If it were still insisted upon, or if the king of Denmark should be compelled by force to agree a peace upon that condition, this demand alone must necessarily prove the seed of a new warr. Our commissioners did then demand of him, whether, if the king of Sweden were induced to release this point of his money, there would remayne noe other difficulty on the Danes side; but that the peace would be made upon the conditions propounded. To which the ambassador answered, that he had no proper instructions therein; but did assure, that so farre as he knew the intentions of his superiors, (and believed he did fully know them in this particular) that if this might be graunted, neither damages nor ought else would be further insisted upon by the states general; but that they would doe all that lay in their power to compell the Dane to accept the conditions of the peace agreed upon by the former treatyes of the Hague.
Wee have alsoe by commissioners conferred with the French ambassador, upon his own desire, touching these affaires; who in the French king's name expressed a great desire to have this peace concluded upon the terms agreed upon at the Hague, offerring with much warmth to joine with England in givinge a reall and effectuall assistance to the crowne of Sweden, in case the peace can't be made, and to manadge all things by joynt counsells, haveinge powers and authoritys to send the same instructions both to the French ambassador in Denmarke, and to Mr. de Thou at the Hague; which wee shall send to you and the English envoye in Holland.
Upon consideration therefore of this whole case, all the directions, which will be needfull for us to give you, will be, that you pursue your former instructions, and endeavour to make the peace between the two Northerne kings on the same grounds, which you have hitherto proceeded upon, as the likelyest meanes (as things now stand) to compose the troubles in those parts. And as to what is insisted upon touching the 400000 ryx-dollars, it beinge urged as a thing already agreed betweene these two states; and being informed by one of our own number, that the former counsell of state did order their commissioners to declare to the Dutch ambassador, they would give instructions to their plenipotentiarys in the Sound to insist upon the remittinge of it, as a necessary condition of the peace; and we judging it of no such consequence to the Swede, as that a warre of soe much danger to all Europe should be continued upon that ground; in case you can agree all other things betweene them, and that the Dane upon remittinge of his money to him will lay aside his pretences of damages, (the consideration whereof is in noe fort to be admitted, no more than is the generall treaty, which the Dane mentions) and quitt the other pretences he makes inconsistent with the said treatyes, soe that the peace will ensue thereupon; you shall then both by yourselves, as also in conjunction with the publique ministers of the other mediating states, as you shall find it necessary, insist upon the releasinge of the said 400000 ryx-dollars by Sweden to Denmark; and so to accommodate that business with them, that the peace may not be hindred or retarded thereby. And this, upon the reasons aforesaid, we doe not think to be any change of the conditions already agreed upon.
That, which you write touchinge the demand of the states generall of security to be given them by the Dane for all charges, which they have been at, as well for their fleets as the 6000 foot, is very considerable; and we have had notice from the Hague, that there is a treaty between them and the Danes for the seigneurie of Drontheim; upon which the Dutch ambassador here hath been spoke with, who denyes to have any knowledge thereof.
But wee looke upon any negotiations of this kind to be of soe great consequence to England, that all meanes should be used to prevent the effecting of any thing therein. And therefore you are to use your utmost diligence to inform yourselves of what counsells or treatyes may be on foot in reference thereto; and, as you finde it necessary, to represent both to the king of Denmark and to the publique ministers of the states generall in very serious terms, that the puttinge of any parte of the king of Denmarke's dominions into the hands or power of the states generall for satisfaction of charges, or upon any other pretences, must needs administer great grounds of jealousy to England, and is that, which this state can by noe means sufferr; and therefore to desire, that nothing of this kind may be done, nor that point of charges treated of, but in the same manner, in which this whole business hath been hitherto managed, that is, by joynt counsells, England havinge alsoe an equall interest in that, as in any parts of the peace. And wee desire you will carefully from time to time communicate to us, what you shall be informed of upon this subject, to the end wee may alsoe give all necessary direction in it to Mr. Downinge at the Hague.
Wee have read the coppy of that authority, which the states generall have sent to their commissioners in Denmark for the warrantinge of this peace, in case it shall be made; and according to your desire, have sent you an authority for the same purpose in the same forme, as also another in referrence to the peace between Sweden and Poland. And as to what you write touchinge that peace, wee understand by letters from those parts and from the Hague, that the treatye between those two crownes is soe farre advanced, that the peace is as good as made, altho' the same is very much opposed by the emperor and some other states, who endeavour to breake the treatyes at Denmark and Dantzick, and instead of these to set on foot a treaty for a generall peace, thinkinge that to be the best meanes to continue the warre, wherein they tooke their advantage to lye. But you will be able, where you are, to knowe the true state of those affaires; and therefore as to your goinge to Dantzick to prosecute that peace, wherein you have already offered the mediation of this state, wee leave it wholly to yourselves to doe therein, as you shall find the reason of affaires to require, soe as neither the peace between Sweden and Denmark, nor the ratification thereof, be deferred thereby, or made to depend thereupon, which we do not think advisable at this time to be done; it beinge certain, that the peace in Poland will follow this in Denmark; but whether it be true e contra, that we much doubt.
You will also receive herewith new powers and letters credentialls to the king of Sweden, as alsoe to the kings of Sweden and Denmark joyntly. Your other authorityes to Denmark and Poland are still in force, and will not be necessary to be renewed.
At the council of state at Whitehall.
It being reported to the council this day by a committee, to whom the same was referred, that upon perusal of the accounts of Richard Bradshaw esquire, late resident of this commonwealth at Hamburgh, as also of a copy of a privy-seal granted by the late protector, dated the thirty-first of January, 1658, there appears due to him the said Mr. Bradshaw, upon the said account, the sum of 21881. 11 s. 4 d. in which accounts are comprehended the charges of his negotiation to Denmark, disbursements to Mr. Rolt in his negotiation to Sweden, the charges of his negotiation to Muscovy, his own salary as resident at Hamburgh, and the provision of powder and masts there for the parliament's service, during the late Dutch war, and other services of intelligence, &c.
That the case of the said Mr. Bradshaw be humbly reported to the parliament for their directing such ways, as they shall think fit, for the satisfying of the said sum due and owing to him as aforesaid.
Memorial of Mr. Downing, the English envoy in Holland, to the states general.
The underwritten extraordinary envoy of England being informed, that a certain ship of Newcastle, called the William and Thomas, was in the month of July, 1657, taken near the same place by one captain Peter de Ruyter of Dunkirk; and that Edward Boulmer, master of her, being taken out of her and carried to Ostend, knew not what was become of her; but coming this winter to Amsterdam, about other occasions, found there his said ship; and that after her being taken, she was brought directly thither, and there unladen, and both ship and goods sold; and that the said ship from that time to this hath never been from Amsterdam; and that thereupon he said an arrest upon the said ship, no ways, doubting according to justice and the law of nations, to have had her forthwith restored to him; but on the contrary, the ordinary judge of that town hath taken off the said arrest, under pretence of a certain sentence given against the said ship and goods at Dunkirk, although the said ship was never carried thither, or to any port of the dominions of the king of Spain:
The said extraordinary envoy desires, that it would please their lordships the states general of the United Provinces seriously to reflect of the premises, and what will be the consequence in relation to their own subjects, if private men of war may bring in their prizes into a harbour of a state, that is neuter, and there unlade, sell, and dispose of them; and that a sentence given in any part of the dominions of that prince, from whom they have their commissions, without bringing their prizes thither, be admitted for good and valid; and doth demand, that the said ship, as also its lading, (in case the persons, that bought it, can be found) may be forthwith restored to the said master for the use of the proprietors.
And the said extraordinary envoy represents further to their lordships, that having by his memorial of the thirty-first of October last, at the instances of the plenipotentiaries of England in the Sound, made known to their lordships, that a certain ship of Lubeck, called the Sun, laden with rye, by Thomas Bawtry merchant of London, upon his own proper and sole account, and bound for Newcastle, was the eighth of July last, about the island of Borneholme, seized by a Danish man of war, who alleging, that his master had great necessity of corn, said, that he must carry her to Copenhagen, where the said corn should be forthwith paid for; but in the way, being met by a Swedish man of war, the said ship was taken from the Dane; and he, alleging, that his master had great necessity for corn for his garisons in Pomerland, said he must carry her thither, where also the said corn should be paid for; but before she arrived there, she was met with by some men of war of this place, under the command of the lord admiral Opdam, who took both her and the said Swede, and sent her to Amsterdam, where she now is. That yet to this day no answer hath been vouchsased to be given thereunto; and instead of reparation of the damages suffered by the proprietors by the long detention of his corn, the admiralty of Amsterdam (after above 2000 gilders in pursuit of the business) have consiscated.
And seeing the said corn was never out of the possession of the proprietor, neither as being in the hands of the Dane, neither as being in the hands of the Swede; and moreover, that no war being declared against Sweden, although the proprietor of the said corn had of his own accord sent it to any part of Sweden; yet that it was not consiscable by this state, it being lawful for the people of England to carry any fort of commodities to any haven belonging to any friend of England, against which it was not declared by this state.
The said extraordinary envoy doth therefore again demand, that the said corn may be forthwith returned; that otherwise their lordships will have no reason to think it strange, if in case of so great and notorious injustice, recourse may be had to such means as may be sufficient, and which are warrantable for the obtaining of right for the people of England, where it shall have been so notoriously denied in the ordinary way of justice.
An intercepted letter.
My obligation increaseth for your undeserved civilities. I wish matters were more clear there, that our resolutions might be sooner determined. Without doubt, in judgment and reason all things tend to a noble end: yet the enigmatical general doth render some doubts among us. Sir, be pleased to continue your constant correspondence: your account hitherto hath been very ingenious and perfect, and the best approved of by persons of a higher sphere than any other. It hath appeared still the most exact, and you have thereby gained much reputation.
Extract of the resolutions of the states general.
Was once more produced in the assembly the letter of the lords commissioners extraordinary of this state with the kings of Sweden and Denmark, writ at Copenhagen the thirteenth of December last, with the inclosed papers, containing the desired elucidations about the treaty of Elbing, with a certain act of redintegration of amity; and also a third act, containing the time and the conditions, when and upon which the said act shall be obligatory; all concluded and signed between commissioners of the king of Sweden on the one side, and the lords commissioners extraordinary of this state on the other side, upon the 29 Nov./1. Decem. 1659.
Whereupon debate being had, their high and mighty lordships have approved of and ratified all the said acts in omnibus & per omnia, so and in such manner, as they are expressed, as they do approve and ratify the same by these presents. Wherefore a due act of ratification in the usual form shall be dispatched according.
Yesterday the lords states of Holland adjourned till the thirteenth of April. Their H. and M. L. have agreed to the two hundredth peny for the service of the extraordinary equipage of forty-eight ships of war, which are making ready by the admiralty. And concerning the peace in the North, it is resolved to stick to the conventions made at the Hague between the three states; and thereupon to further the peace between Denmark and Sweden, as also that in Poland. Furthermore, that 60000 rix-dollars shall be paid to the lords embassadors extraordinary of Denmark for the paying of the garison of Copenhagen, provided they give security to repay it. Also they have consented to accommodate the city of Munster with 100000 rix-dollars, by way of loan, provided they make no accommodation or treaty with any other kingdom or state: and likewise, that the embassador of Portugal shall be desired to restore Brazil; and if he refuse to grant it, then to have no further treaty with him. The lord Beuningen is appointed to go embassador for France; and the lord of Merode to Spain. The embassy is to begin in the month of May.
Mons. de Thou hath not yet received any answer to his proposition made upon the twenty-third of February, and the sixteenth instant, to their H. and M. L. about the peace in the North. The states have debated about it all this week, and an answer is drawn up, but not yet sent to him. The states remonstrate in the said answer, that they have from time to time used their utmost endeavours for the making of peace between Denmark and Sweden; but the like endeavours had not been used by France, otherwise the peace had long since been concluded. And concerning the new imposts upon the ships, that the same was contrary to the alliance made between France and this state. And this was writ in answer to the king's letter of the fourth of the last month. The lord embassador Boreel goeth before to acquaint this court with the intention of this state sending the extraordinary embassy to renew the old alliance.