A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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A TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF ENGLAND.
SABDEN, a hamlet, in the township of Pendleton, parish of Whalley, union and parliamentary borough of Clitheroe, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4 miles (N. W.) from Burnley; containing 1160 inhabitants. It is situated in the eastern extremity of the township, on the bank of a tributary of the river Calder, which is here crossed by a bridge, and flows through a district exceedingly hilly. The old Hall of Sabden is in the adjoining township of Goldshaw-Booth, and about a mile and a half east of the village of Sabden.
Sacomb (St. Mary),
SACOMB (St. Mary), a parish, in the hundred of Broadwater, union and county of Hertford, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Ware; containing 325 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1510a. 1r. 6p. The surface is varied, and the scenery enriched with wood. Sacomb Park, the seat of John Abel Smith, Esq., is supposed to have been one of the first parks inclosed in England, and the appearance of the oaks bespeaks great antiquity; the mansion was built about the year 1800. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 3. 4., and in the gift of Samuel Smyth, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £335. 15., and the glebe comprises 12 acres. The church is situated upon an eminence, on the north side of the Ware and Wotton road; it has a tower on the south side of the nave, formerly embattled, and the chancel contains two stone stalls, and a piscina under trefoil arches, with some memorials of the Rolt family. A school is partly supported by Mr. Smith.
SADBERGE, a chapelry, in the parish of Haughtonle-Skerne, union of Darlington, S. W. division of Stockton ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 4¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Darlington, on the road to Stockton; containing 372 inhabitants. This was formerly a place of great importance, and the capital of a district or county of the same name, having its gaol, sheriff, coroner, and other civil officers. It also conferred the title of Earl on the bishops of Durham. The Stockton and Darlington railway passes in the vicinity. The village is pleasantly situated on a fine eminence, which rises with a gradual ascent on every side to such an elevation as to command an extensive view over the south-eastern part of the county, and up Teesdale as far as the high grounds beyond Barnard-Castle. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £229. 2. 4., and there is a glebe of 42 acres. The chapel is dedicated to St. Andrew.
Saddington (St. Helen)
SADDINGTON (St. Helen), a parish, in the union of Harborough, hundred of Gartree, S. division of the county of Leicester, 6 miles (N. W. by W.) from Harborough; containing 279 inhabitants. It comprises 1674a. 3r. 27p., of which 271 acres are arable. The surface is undulated, and the scenery considerably varied; the soil is clay, alternated with gravel, and the prevailing wood is ash growing in the hedges. The reservoir of the Leicester and Northampton canal covers about fiftytwo acres here. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 2. 6., and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £280: the tithes were commuted in 1770 for an allotment of land, which, including 29 acres of glebe, comprises 230 acres. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style. A school is supported by subscription; and some bequests, with the produce of a piece of land, in the whole amounting to £16 per annum, are distributed among the poor.
Saddlewood, Gloucester.—See Killcott.
Saddleworth cum Quick
SADDLEWORTH cum Quick, a parochial chapelry, in the parish of Rochdale, wapentake of Agbrigg and Morley, W. riding of York, 12 miles (N. E. by E.) from Manchester, and 12 (S. W. by W.) from Huddersfield; containing, in the year 1841, 16,829 inhabitants. This district, which is 7 miles in length and about 5 in breadth, is of considerable historical interest. During the occupation of Britain by the Romans, that people had a camp at Castleshaw, in the chapelry, which formed the first station from Manchester, on the road to York. It is said, though on doubtful authority, that this camp was superseded by a fortress which, with its ramparts and outworks, occupied an area of some acres, and which, from its situation at the foot of Stanedge, a lofty range of hills, continued for many generations to be a baronial residence of some importance. At the time of the Conquest, Saddleworth was constituted a manor; and in the year 1200, William de Stapleton, to whom it then belonged, founded a chapel here for his tenants, which he made subordinate to the church of St. Chad, Rochdale. From the Stapletons the portion of the manor called Friermere or Friar-Mere, which is in extent one-half of the chapelry, descended to the Warrens, of Scargill, who, by deed of gift dated at Rupe (Roche Abbey) in 1314, granted the whole of Friermere, then called Hill-bright-hope, to the monks of Rupe, who held it till the Dissolution. Henry VIII., in the 35th of his reign, gave Friermere to Arthur Assheton, of Rochdale, on his rendering to the king the "service of one soldier or knight, and 40s. 1d. in lieu of tenths." By deed dated 27th May, 1551, it was divided equally between the above Arthur Assheton and Roger Gartside, the moieties being called, respectively, the "Light Side" and the "Dark Side" of the Mere. Since that time the lands of Friermere have passed into other families, with the exception of the estate of Woodbrow, in the possession of Captain Gartside. The remaining portion of the manor or chapelry was purchased by the Ramsden family, and is now divided into small freeholds.
The district comprises an area of more than 20,000 acres, which for a long period formed one entire tract of forest land; and though the introduction of the woollen and cotton manufactures has tended materially to the cultivation and improvement of the soil, there are still upwards of 6000 acres uninclosed. The surface is mountainous, but by the great industry of the inhabitants cultivation is carried almost to the summits of the hills. The valleys, of which Greenfield is remarkable for the romantic beauty of its scenery, are watered by the river Tame and many rivulets, and abound with rich grazing land; the declivities of the hills also afford good pasture. The chapelry is divided into four constablewicks, Frier Mere to the north-east, Lords Mere to the south-east, Quick Mere to the west, and Shaw Mere to the south-west, comprising numerous villages and hamlets, the inhabitants of which are actively employed in the various factories. On the banks of the river and its tributary streams are no less than 100 mills; and for the more regular supply of water to the works, a spacious reservoir of 250,000 square yards has been constructed. The proprietors of nearly all the factories are also merchants, trading largely with America and the continent. In the township of Quick are the Royal George mills, for the manufacture of cotton, linen, and woollen cloths, and every description of texture in which those materials are employed, either separately or in combination, in any species of machinery connected with the paper, cotton, and flax trades. Among the articles of ingenious contrivance produced at these works, are, woollen-rope for Brockeden's patent corks and bottlestoppers; the woollen driving-belt, used as a substitute for leather, and for which the proprietors have obtained a patent; and also the patent hydraulic belt. Messrs. John and R. H. Buckley's cotton-mill, for spinning and weaving, employs 500 hands. A mill for the manufacture of coarse paper has been established. There are quarries of freestone, and mines of coal.
The Huddersfield canal runs through the district from north-east to south-west, passing under Stanedge Hill by a tunnel 3 miles in length, and affording every facility for the conveyance of heavy goods to Manchester, Leeds, and other places. The Manchester and Huddersfield railway is of great advantage to Saddleworth; it passes Upper Mill, and crosses the valley at Dobcross by a large viaduct: a branch line proceeds from Dobcross to Delph. The chapelry is also intersected by the main road between Manchester and Huddersfield. The principal villages are Delph, Dobcross, and Upper Mill, all well calculated, by their position and other local advantages, for extensive trade. The justices of the peace hold special and petty sessions here. Several public institutions have been formed: at Old Delph is a subscription library of more than 1000 volumes; gas-works have also been erected, by a body of £10 shareholders, at an expense of £2000. At Dobcross are the Saddleworth Joint-Stock Bank, and the Saddleworth Savings' Bank. The powers of the county debt-court of Saddleworth, established in 1847, extend over the registrationdistrict of Saddleworth. Post-offices have been established at Delph, Dobcross, and Upper Mill. Fairs for cattle, and various kinds of merchandise, are held at Delph, on the 24th April, 9th July, and 24th September; at Dobcross, on the 2nd Thursday in March, and the last Thursday in July; at Upper Mill, on the Wednesday in Whitsun-week, and the first Wednesday in October; and at Bentfield on the Tuesday before Easter.
In the latter part of the 17th century, Saddleworth is described in several deeds and public documents as the parish of Saddleworth cum Quick, and for all civil purposes it is now considered a distinct parish; but in ecclesiastical matters it is subject to the Vicar of Rochdale, in whose patronage the living, a perpetual curacy, is vested: net income, £150. The chapel is dedicated to St. Chad; the tower was rebuilt in 1746, and the body of the edifice was enlarged and almost rebuilt in 1833, by subscription and church-rates, aided by a grant of £400 from the Incorporated Society. It is a neat specimen of the later English style, and contains 1104 sittings, of which 872 are free. In the north aisle is a tablet to the memory of John Winterbottom, paymaster of the 52nd regiment, born at Saddleworth in 1781, and who died at Barbadoes in November 1838: the tablet was erected by 130 officers of his regiment and other military friends, to commemorate his bravery and worth. Chapels have been erected at Dobcross, Lydgate, and Friermere, the livings of which are perpetual curacies, in the patronage of the Vicar. There are places of worship for Independents at Delph, Upper Mill, and Spring-head; and for Wesleyans at Delph, Upper Mill, and Bagulay. A free school was founded in 1729, by Ralph Hawkyard, who endowed it with £280; and in augmentation of the master's salary, John Walker, in 1755, bequeathed £200. National schools are supported at Castleshaw, Deanshaw, Kilgreen, and other places. At Greenfield are some interesting natural curiosities, consisting of huge caverns and rocks; also many Druidical remains.—See Delph, Dobcross, Friermere, and Lydgate.
Saffron-Walden.—See Walden, Saffron.
Saham-Toney (St. George)
SAHAM-TONEY (St. George), a parish, in the union of Swaffham, hundred of Wayland, W. division of Norfolk, 1½ mile (N. W.) from Watton; containing 1217 inhabitants, and comprising about 4000 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £21. 19. 4½.; net income, £796; patrons, the Warden and Fellows of New College, Oxford: there is a glebe of about 50 acres, with a handsome parsonage-house. The church is chiefly in the decorated English style, with a lofty embattled tower. Here are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists; and a free school endowed with £42 per annum. At the inclosure in 1800, about 54 acres were allotted to the poor. Humphry Prideaux, author of the Connexion of the Old and New Testament, was rector of the parish.
SAIGHTON, a township, in the chapelry of Churton-Heath, parish of St. Oswald, Chester, union of Great Boughton, Lower division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 4½ miles (S. E.) from Chester; containing 313 inhabitants. The township comprises 1675 acres, of which the soil is clay, with some light land. The Chester and Crewe railway passes through it. A rent-charge of £90 has been awarded as a commutation for the vicarial tithes, and there is a glebe of 19¼ acres.
Saintbury (St. Nicholas)
SAINTBURY (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Evesham, Upper division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 2¼ miles (W.) from Chipping-Campden; containing 133 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1336a. 22p. The surface is diversified with hills: the soil in the lower grounds is a strong clay, and in the upper of lighter quality; in the valleys are some good meadows. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 9. 4½.; net income, £415; patron, J. R. West, Esq. The church has undergone various alterations; a Norman doorway is still remaining. Castle Bank, an ancient camp in the parish, is ascribed to the Danes, and supposed to have been dependent upon a larger one upon the summit of the same hill, in the adjoining parish of Willersey.
SALCOMBE, a chapelry, in the parish of Malborough, union of Kingsbridge, hundred of Stanborough, Stanborough and Coleridge, and S. divisions of Devon, 5 miles (S.) from Kingsbridge; containing 972 inhabitants. This place, which, from the mild temperature of its climate, has been termed the Montpelier of England, is much visited for the beauty of its scenery, and as a resort for consumptive patients. The village is pleasantly situated on the western side of the entrance to Kingsbridge harbour; the houses in general are well built, and the neighbourhood contains several handsome villas and marine residences. There are 50 vessels belonging to the place, of which 30 are schooners of the first class, employed principally in the fruit and coasting trades. Ship-building is carried on to some extent. A peculiar kind of beer called white ale is brewed here. The chapel, originally erected prior to the year 1401, was rebuilt in 1801, by subscription, and is now a district church: the living is in the gift of the Vicar of West Alvington. There are also places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. Some remains of an ancient castle may be traced.
Salcombe-Regis (St. Peter and St. Mary)
SALCOMBE-REGIS (St. Peter and St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Honiton, hundred of East Budleigh, Woodbury and S. divisions of Devon, 2 miles (E. N. E.) from Sidmouth; containing 525 inhabitants. This place was anciently held in royal demesne. The parish comprises about 2700 acres, and is diversified with hills: the soil is sand, alternated with chalk, and the substratum mostly of the old red-sandstone formation; gypsum and chalk-lime are found. Several of the females are employed in making lace. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 12. 8., and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, the appropriators: the great tithes have been commuted for £135, and the vicarial for £150; the glebe comprises 9 acres. The church is an ancient structure partly in the early English style, with some Norman details, and a handsome embattled tower having a circular turret. There was formerly a chapel dedicated to St. Clement and St. Mary Magdalene.
Salcott (St. Mary)
SALCOTT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Lexden and Winstree, hundred of Winstree, N. division of Essex, 8½ miles (S. S. W.) from Colchester; containing 181 inhabitants. This parish, called also Salcott-Verley, comprises about 2000 acres of marshy ground: the village is situated on the south bank of the Verley channel. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of Mrs. Clive: the tithes have been commuted for £75. The church is a small ancient edifice.
SALE, a township, in the union of Altrincham, parish of Ashton-upon-Mersey, though locally in that of Great Budworth, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 2 miles (E.) from Ashton; containing 1309 inhabitants. The township comprises 1639 acres. A large portion of it was waste and uninclosed within the present century, when the landowners entered into an arrangement for its inclosure, which was, perhaps, hastened by the growing importance of Manchester. The soil is sandy, and good; and more than the usual proportion of land in Cheshire is cultivated for produce to supply the Manchester market. The surface is flat, but dry. The Duke of Bridgewater's canal passes through the township.
Saleby (St. Margaret)
SALEBY (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Louth, Wold division of the hundred of Calceworth, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, l½ mile (N. by E.) from Alford; containing, with the hamlet of Thoresthorpe, 233 inhabitants. It comprises about 1740 acres. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4; net income, £227; patrons, the Trustees of Alford grammar school. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1803; the glebe comprises 230 acres. The church is ancient.
Salehurst (St. Mary)
SALEHURST (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Ticehurst, hundred of Henhurst, rape of Hastings, E. division of Sussex, 6 miles (N.) from Battle; containing 2099 inhabitants. A Cistercian abbey was founded here in 1176, by Alured de St. Martin and Queen Adeliza, and flourished till the Dissolution, when its revenue was returned at £248. 10. 6.: there are some remains of the buildings. The parish comprises 6480a. 3r. 30p., of which 4759 acres are arable and pasture, and 1649 woodland; the surface is irregular, rising in some parts to a considerable elevation, and commanding extensive views over a fertile and richly-wooded country. The district abounds with ironstone and sandstone, and the former was once wrought. The river Rother flows through the parish; and the road to Hastings passes by the villages of Robert's-Bridge and HurstGreen: at the latter beautiful place, petty-sessions are held monthly. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14; net income, £503; patron, John Hardy, Esq.; impropriator, Sir S. B. P. Micklethwait, Bart. The church is a handsome structure in the early and later English styles, with a square embattled tower, and contains some remains of stained glass. There are places of worship for Wesleyans; and a school supported partly by an endowment of £16. 17. per annum. John Freeland, Esq., in 1803 bequeathed the sum of £1200 to the poor.
SALESBURY, a chapelry, in the parish, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 4½ miles (N.) from Blackburn; containing 399 inhabitants. In the reign of Edward II. a charter for free warren in this manor was granted to Sir Robert de Cliderhou, whose daughter occurs as owner of the manor in 1406. Isabella, her daughter, conveyed the manor in marriage to John Talbot, of Bashall. Their son was instrumental to the betrayal of Henry VI., whose apprehension is said to have occurred here, though Leland fixes the scene in Cletherwoode. However this may be, letters-patent were granted to him by Edward IV. for a pension of twenty marks out of the duchy revenues. In this odious service, Sir James Haryngton was the principal actor, and the Talbots his subordinate agents. John Talbot, the last male heir of the family, left a daughter, married to Edward Warren of Poynton, from whose family the manor passed by marriage: it now belongs to Lord de Tabley. The Hall of Salesbury is at present a ruin. The township, which lies in the valley of the Ribble, is interspersed with woods and copses: the road from Preston to Clitheroe passes through. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Blackburn; net income, £120 per annum. The chapel, dedicated to St. Peter, was repaired in 1844.
Salford (St. Mary)
SALFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Woburn, hundred of Manshead, county of Bedford, 4½ miles (N. by W.) from Woburn; containing 325 inhabitants. This place, which lies on the borders of Buckinghamshire, was formerly the property of a family who took their name from it, and was afterwards possessed by the Drakelows, and the Charnocks, from whom it passed by marriage to the Herveys. The living is a discharged vicarage, united in 1750 to the rectory of Holcutt, and valued in the king's books at £7. 16. 3.: the tithes were commuted for land in 1807. The church contains some ancient monuments. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Salford, Lancaster.—See Manchester.
Salford (St. Mary)
SALFORD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Chipping-Norton, hundred of Chadlington, county of Oxford, 2 miles (W. N. W.) from Chipping-Norton; containing 330 inhabitants. It comprises 1520 acres, of which 932 are arable, 516 meadow and pasture, and 12 coppice; the surface is hilly, the soil various, and the arable land produces good crops. The substratum abounds with stone of good quality for building. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 11. 3.; net income, £251; patron, Nash Skillicorne, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land in 1769. The church is an ancient structure, and there are the remains of two ancient crosses.
Salford (St. Matthew)
SALFORD (St. Matthew), a parish, in the union of Alcester, Stratford division of the hundred of Barlichway, S. division of the county of Warwick, 5¾ miles (S. by W.) from Alcester; containing 865 inhabitants, and comprising 4608 acres. The river Avon, and its tributary stream the Arrow, run through the parish. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9; net income, £111; patron and impropriator, Sir Grey Skipwith, Bart. William Perkins, in 1656, gave £232 for the support of a free school; the income of the school is now upwards of £40. An ancient mansion here, the property of Mr. Berkeley, is occupied as a nunnery, the society consisting of an abbess, sixteen professed nuns, and a school for young ladies, noviciates.
Salhouse (All Saints)
SALHOUSE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of St. Faith, hundred of Taverham, E. division of Norfolk, 6 miles (N. E. by E.) from Norwich; containing 642 inhabitants. It comprises 2033 acres of land, chiefly arable; the surface is enlivened with several sheets of water, and the navigable river Bure forms the eastern boundary of the parish. The Hall, a handsome mansion, the seat of R. Ward, Esq., was the property of Lord Chief Justice Holt. The living is a discharged vicarage, united to that of Wroxham. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style, with a square embattled tower; it has been recently repaired, and several of the windows have been embellished with stained glass by Mr. Ward. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. Land now producing £25 per annum was allotted to the poor on the inclosure of the parish. They have also a yearly rent-charge of 50s., left by Edward Metyers; 5s. a year from Edmund Topcliffe's charity at Wroxham, for the purchase of bread; and 10s. a year from an acre of land on Mousehold Heath, pursuant to the plantation act of the 29th of George II.
Saling, Great (St. James)
SALING, GREAT (St. James), a parish, in the union of Braintree, hundred of Hinckford, N. division of Essex, 5 miles (N. W. by W.) from the town of Braintree; containing 349 inhabitants. It comprises 1651a. 11p. of land, chiefly arable, and is intersected by a rivulet which rises in the parish of Great Bardfield, and falls into the Blackwater; the soil is various, but generally fertile. The village is pleasantly situated on a green of triangular form, comprising about five acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7, and in the gift of the Rev. Bartlet Goodrich: the tithes have been commuted for £34 to Guy's Hospital, £55 to the impropriator, £35 to the vicar of Felstead, and £141 to the incumbent of Great Saling. The church is supposed to have been erected in the reign of Henry II., and contains monuments to the Yeldham, Goodrich, and Sheddon families. Formerly, the two parishes of Great Saling and Little or Bardfield Saling were one district; and at the time of the Domesday survey they belonged to the same lord: Saling had also been held undivided in the reign of Edward the Confessor.