A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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SAMBOURN, a hamlet, in the parish of Coughton, union of Alcester, Alcester division of the hundred of Barlichway, S. division of the county of Warwick, 3¾ miles (N. W. by N.) from Alcester; containing 662 inhabitants. A few persons are employed in making needles. The hamlet comprises 2200 acres.
SAMLESBURY, a chapelry, in the parish, and Lower division of the hundred, of Blackburn, union of Preston, N. division of Lancashire, 3 miles (E. by N.) from Preston, on the road to Blackburn; containing 1728 inhabitants. It consists of 4256 acres, whereof 450 are arable, 327 woodland, and the remainder meadow and pasture; the soil is various, the surface undulated, and the scenery beautiful. The river Ribble passes on the north-west, and the Darwen flows through. The first known lord of the manor was Gospatrick de Samsbury, who was living at the close of Henry II.'s reign. His descendant William left three co-heiresses, who by their marriages conveyed the estate into the families of Haunton, D'Ewyas, and de Holland: an heiress of Sir John D'Ewyas brought her portion to Sir Gilbert de Sotheworth, and it continued in that family upwards of three centuries and a half. Part of it was sold by them, in the reign of James I., to the Walmesleys; and part, in 1677, to the Braddyls. A portion of the manor became in 1847 the property, by purchase, of John Cooper, Esq., of the Oaks, near Preston, who is now joint lord with the Petre family, of Dunkelhalgh. The purchase included Samlesbury Hall, the ancient mansion of the Southworths, a black and white building, now a publichouse, standing on the road side. The house exhibits the remains of a magnificent manorial seat, and is remarkable for the immense quantity of timber employed in its construction, so much as to "almost have laid a forest prostrate:" the interior abounds with rich and curious carved oak panelling. Roach spinning-mill here, belonging to Messrs. J. W. Dall and Son, and two other mills, one of them the property of Mr. Cooper, employ 500 persons. Spring Cottage is the residence of Charles Dall, Esq. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Blackburn, with a net income of £150, and a house. The chapel is dedicated to St. Leonard. On an eminence commanding a fine view of the Ribble, is a Roman Catholic chapel, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin; it was built in 1818, and is a neat structure with a beautiful and chaste interior. A school adjoining it is supported by the parents of the pupils, aided by the priest, the Rev. William Carter: a school at Turner Green has an endowment of £18 per annum. The sum of £27 yearly, derived from a farm in Whittlele-Woods, is appropriated to the benefit of the poor.
Sampford-Arundel (Holy Cross)
SAMPFORD-ARUNDEL (Holy Cross), a parish, in the union of Wellington, hundred of Milverton, W. division of Somerset, 2¾ miles (S. W.) from Wellington; containing 448 inhabitants. It comprises 1144 acres, of which 35 are common or waste land. The road from Bath and Bristol to Exeter passes through the village. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 3. 1½.; patron and impropriator, the Rev. Charles B. Sweet: the great tithes have been commuted for £150, and the vicarial for £125; the glebe contains two acres. The church has been enlarged.
Sampford-Brett (St. George)
SAMPFORD-BRETT (St. George), a parish, in the union of Williton, hundred of Williton and Freemanners, W. division of Somerset, 15 miles (N. W.) from Taunton; containing 238 inhabitants. This place derived the adjunct to its name from the family of De Brett, to whom it anciently belonged, and to one of whom the effigy of a cross-legged knight among the monuments in the church is traditionally assigned. At Aller are the remains of a manor-house supposed to have been the residence of one of the Wyndham family, to whose memory there is a marble monument in the church, with an elegant inscription in Latin. The Taunton and Minehead road passes through the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 19. 7., and in the gift of the Rev. Charles Tripp, D.D.: the tithes have been commuted for £300, and the glebe comprises 36½ acres. The church, in addition to the monuments above named, contains several to the memory of deceased rectors.
Sampford-Courtenay (St. Andrew)
SAMPFORD-COURTENAY (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Oakhampton, hundred of Black Torrington, Black Torrington and Shebbear, and N. divisions of Devon, 5¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Oakhampton; containing 1239 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 6082 acres, of which 3160 are arable, 790 pasture and orchard, 100 wood, and about 2000 moor chiefly covered with furze. The surface is undulated; the low grounds are watered by the river Taw, which forms the south-western boundary of the parish, and by several rivulets. The Forest of Dartmoor, on the south, is the most interesting feature in the scenery. The soil of the lands is partly a red loam, alternated with stiff clay. At Sticklepath, which in the reign of Henry V. was a distinct parish, is a chapel in which divine service is occasionally performed; a copper-mine was opened in that vicinity some years since, but the produce was insufficient to remunerate the adventurers. At Brightley was a monastery of Cistercians, founded in 1136 by Richard Fitz-Baldwin de Brioniis, Baron of Oakhampton, and which was afterwards removed to Ford; the ruins of a chapel, supposed to have belonged to it, are still remaining. A serious commotion broke out in the parish in 1549, in consequence of some alteration in the church service. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £47. 12. 1.; net income, £510; patrons, the Provost and Fellows of King's College, Cambridge. The church is an ancient structure with a lofty tower, in the later English style.
Sampford, Great (St. Michael)
SAMPFORD, GREAT (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Saffron-Walden, hundred of Freshwell, N. division of Essex, 3¾ miles (N. E. by E.) from Thaxted; containing 877 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2247a. 2r. 29p., of which 1620 acres are arable, 426 meadow and pasture, and 104 woodland. The surface is pleasingly undulated, and the scenery enriched with ornamental wood; the soil is luxuriantly fertile, and along the borders of the Freshwell rivulet are fine tracts of meadow and pasture land. The village contains some good houses. The straw-plat manufacture has been lately introduced, and affords employment to several of the inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, with that of Hempstead annexed, valued in the king's books at £18, and in the patronage of Sir William Eustace, K.C.H.; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. The great tithes for both parishes have been commuted for £1185. 3. 2., and those of the vicar for £360; the appropriators have 206½ acres, and the vicar 16½ acres, of glebe. The church, situated on an eminence, is a handsome structure in the decorated English style, with a square embattled tower strengthened by buttresses; the interior is rich in details, and contains some stone stalls of beautiful design. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Sampford, Little (St. Mary)
SAMPFORD, LITTLE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Saffron-Walden, hundred of Freshwell, N. division of Essex, 14 miles (N. W. by N.) from Braintree; containing 470 inhabitants. It comprises 2779a. 3r. 7p., of which 500 acres are meadow and pasture, 130 woodland, and the remainder chiefly arable; the surface is varied, and the lower grounds are watered by a stream which in its course forms the river Pant. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11, and in the patronage of New College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £700, and there are 52 acres of glebe. The church is a plain edifice of stone, with a lofty tower surmounted by a spire, and contains several interesting monuments. Near the manor-house of Friers are the foundations of an ancient chapel of the Knights Hospitallers, from whom, as its possessors, the manor derived its name.
Sampford-Peverell (St. John the Baptist)
SAMPFORD-PEVERELL (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Tiverton, hundred of Halberton, Collumpton and N. divisions of Devon, 5 miles (E. by N.) from Tiverton; containing 857 inhabitants. This place is distinguished as having been the residence of Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII. The house in which she lived, subsequently belonged to Sir Amias Poulett, who had the custody of Mary, Queen of Scots, at the time of her execution; it was a castellated building, erected in 1337, and taken down in 1775. The woollen trade was formerly carried on extensively at this place, which is said to have been anciently a borough. The district abounds with excellent limestone, and there are several kilns for burning it. The Grand Western canal, and the Bristol and Exeter railway, pass through the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £23. 8. 11½.; net income, £270; patrons and impropriators, the Pidsley family. The church, of which one aisle is said to have been built by the Countess of Richmond, contains some interesting monuments. From the churchyard a fine view is obtained of the adjacent country, and of Sidmouth Gap, about twenty-five miles distant.
SAMPFORD-SPINEY, a parish, in the union of Tavistock, hundred of Roborough, Tavistock and S. divisions of Devon, 4¼ miles (E. by S.) from Tavistock; containing 443 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the verge of Dartmoor, and intersected by the Plymouth and Dartmoor railway; it comprises 1475 acres, of which 285 are common or waste land. Here is a mine where cobalt and silver have been found. The living is a perpetual curacy, with that of Shaugh annexed; net income of Shaugh £107, and of Sampford-Spiney £54; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Windsor.
SAMPSON'S, ST., a parish, in the union of St. Austell, E. division of the hundred of Powder and of the county of Cornwall, 4 miles (S. S. E.) from Lostwithiel; containing 311 inhabitants. The navigable river Fowey flows on the east of the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £53; patron and impropriator, W. Rashleigh, Esq., whose tithes have been commuted for £205. Here was a castle belonging to the earls of Salisbury, the site of which is called Castle-Dore.
Sancreed (St. Creed)
SANCREED (St. Creed), a parish, in the union of Penzance, W. division of the hundred of Penwith and of the county of Cornwall, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Penzance; containing 1248 inhabitants. The parish comprises 4600 acres, of which 1700 are common or waste. Granite of excellent quality is found, though not regularly quarried; there are some old tin-works on Beacon Hill, and a stream-work on Trevenyan Moor, which is nearly exhausted. The road from Penzance to the Land's End passes on the south, and that to St. Just on the north side of the parish. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8, and in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter. The tithes have been commuted for £509. 10. 7., of which £344 are payable to the vicar; the glebe comprises 152 acres, of which 50 are arable and pasture, and the remainder common. Besides the church, were formerly three chapels, of which some remains still exist. The Baptists, Bryanites, and Wesleyans have places of worship; and a national school is supported by subscription. In the churchyard is a fine cross; at Drift are two rude upright stones, and there are some other antiquities in the parish.
Sancton (All Saints)
SANCTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Pocklington, Hunsley-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York; containing 505 inhabitants, of whom 431 are in the township of Sancton with Houghton, 1½ mile (S. E.) from MarketWeighton. The parish includes the township of North Cliffe, and comprises about 4890 acres; the surface is hilly, the soil sand and chalk, and the scenery varied. The village is situated on the road from Market-Weighton to South Cave, in a deep valley and on its acclivities. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 1. 10½.; net income, £49; patron and impropriator, the Hon. Charles Langdale: the great tithes were commuted for land in 1769. The church is a handsome structure, with an octagonal tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a Roman Catholic chapel at Houghton Hall. A free school is endowed with a rent-charge of £20; and another school, for Roman Catholics, is supported by the Hon. C. Langdale.
Sandall, Great (St. Helen)
SANDALL, GREAT (St. Helen), a parish, in the union of Wakefield, Lower division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York; comprising the townships of Crigglestone, Sandall, Walton, and part of West Bretton; and containing 3482 inhabitants, of whom 1273 are in the township of Sandall, 2 miles (S. by E.) from Wakefield. This place is of high antiquity, and was long the baronial seat of the lords of Wakefield, of whom John Plantagenet, the last Earl of Warren, erected a strong castle here about the year 1320, which in the reign of Edward III. was occupied by Edward Balliol, one of the competitors for the throne of Scotland. The castle became the property of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, who fell in the battle of Wakefield, in 1460; and was subsequently the residence of his son, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III. During the war in the reign of Charles I., it was held for the king, but was ultimately surrendered to the republican forces in 1645, and in the following year was demolished by order of parliament; the remains are very inconsiderable, scarcely serving to point out the site. The township comprises by computation nearly 1700 acres. The district abounds with coal, of which some mines are wrought; and there are quarries of good freestone. Facilities for conveyance are afforded by the Barnsley canal, the river Calder, and the Midland railway, which all pass through the parish. The village is pleasantly situated on the south side of the Vale of Calder, and on the road from Wakefield to Barnsley. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 7. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £157; impropriators, Sir William Pilkington and others. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles. Alderman Scholey, of London, who was a native of the parish, in 1839 bequeathed £5000 for the establishment and endowment of a school, and £5000 to the poor who attend the parish church, or Chapel-Thorpe chapel, which is in the parish. The Rev. Dr. Zouch, prebendary of Durham, was born here during the incumbency of his father.
Sandall, Kirk or Little (St. Oswald)
SANDALL, KIRK or LITTLE (St. Oswald), a parish, in the union of Doncaster, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 4¼ miles (N. E. by N.) from Doncaster; containing 187 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1550 acres; the surface is varied, and the scenery enriched with wood. The village is on the east bank of the river Don, and the Don canal passes through the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 0. 2½., and in the gift of the Crown; net income, £393. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1806. The church contains a curious monument to the memory of John Rokeby, a native of this place, and Archbishop of Dublin, who directed his body to be buried here, and his heart and bowels at Halifax. A free school was founded in 1626, by the Rev. George Wood, who endowed it with thirty acres of land and two houses, now producing an income of £75.
Sandall, Long, with Wheatley
SANDALL, LONG, with Wheatley, a township, in the parish, union, and soke of Doncaster, W. riding of York, 3½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Doncaster; containing 279 inhabitants. The township is situated upon the eastern bank of the Don, and comprises 2500 acres, of which more than 200 are wood and plantations. The corporation of Doncaster are lords of the manor, and have expended considerable sums on the inclosure and improvement of the lands. Wheatley Hall, the seat of Sir William Bryan Cooke, Bart., is a handsome mansion, with a tastefully embellished demesne. A school, and some almshouses for twelve aged persons, were erected, and are liberally supported, by the family of Cooke.
Sandbach (St. Mary)
SANDBACH (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, partly in the union of Northwich, but chiefly in the union of Congleton, hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester; containing 9299 inhabitants, of whom 4587 are in the township of Sandbach, 26 miles (E. by S.) from Chester, and 162 (N. W.) from London. The town occupies a. pleasant eminence near the small river Wheelock, a tributary of the Dane, and is in the midst of a fertile tract commanding, from certain points, extensive views of a rich landscape embracing the Vale Royal, the hills of Staffordshire and Derbyshire, and the distant mountains of Wales. The worsted trade formerly prevailed, but has been superseded by the throwing and manufacture of silk, by which the place has considerably advanced in importance and prosperity within the last forty years: the malt-trade was also largely carried on. Here are some brine-springs. The Grand Trunk canal passes through the parish, and also the Manchester and Birmingham railway. A market obtained in the seventeenth century is held on Thursday; fairs occur on Easter Tuesday and Wednesday, and the first Thursday after September 11th, and a statute and pleasure fair on December 27th. In the market-place are some ancient crosses, which were repaired in 1816. A court is held occasionally by the lord of the manor; and two constables are appointed at the petty-sessions of the county magistrates.
The parish comprises the chapelries of Church-Hulme, and Goostrey with Barnshaw, and the townships of Arclid, Betchton, Blackden, Bradwall, Cotton, Cranage, Hassall, Sandbach, Twemlow, Wheelock, and part of Leese. It contains by measurement 15,777 acres, of which about one-fifth part is in tillage, one-tenth is wood, and the remainder pasture and meadow. In Sandbach township are 2326 acres, whereof sand is the prevailing soil. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £15. 10. 2½.; net income, £1200; patron and incumbent, the Rev. John Armitstead; impropriator, Lord Crewe. The great tithes of Sandbach township have been commuted for £217, and the small for £187: the vicar has a glebe of 4 acres. The church is principally in the later English style. At Elworth, near the Sandbach station of the Manchester and Birmingham railway, is a church for portions of Sandbach and Warmingham parishes; it was consecrated in June 1846, and is dedicated to St. Peter: the site was given by the University of Cambridge, and the endowment provided by the incumbents of the two parishes. At Church-Hulme, Goostrey, and Wheelock are other incumbencies. There are places of worship for Independents, Primitive Methodists, Methodists of the New Connexion, and Wesleyans. Some benefactions have been made at different periods for instruction, the principal of which are, a school-house erected in 1694 at the expense of Francis Wells; and a bequest of £200 for teaching three boys, and preparing them for the university. The school-house has been pulled down by the Trustees, who are allowing the rents of the estate belonging to the charity to accumulate, in order to erect a more commodious building. There are also some very extensive charities originating in benefactions to the amount of £420, laid out in 1790, in the purchase of land in the neighbourhood of Burslem, under which some valuable strata of coal have been discovered, and which produces about £1200 per annum.
Sanderingham (St. Mary Magdalene)
SANDERINGHAM (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union and hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, 3¼ miles (N. E) from CastleRising; containing 53 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1172a. 1r. 23p., of which 413 acres are arable, 174 meadow and pasture, 71 woodland, and 490 heath and rabbit-warren; the surface is varied, and the scenery enriched with wood. The Hall, the seat of the late John Motteux, Esq., lord of the manor, is now the property of the Hon. C. S. Cowper, to whom it was left with the whole of his Norfolk estates, by Mr. Motteux. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Babingley annexed, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8., and in the gift of the Hon. C. S. Cowper: the tithes have been commuted for £90, and the glebe comprises 15 acres, with a handsome house erected by the Rev. J. B. Muxon. The church is an ancient structure in the early and later English styles, and contains some remains of stained glass.
Sanderstead (All Saints)
SANDERSTEAD (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Croydon, First division of the hundred of Wallington, E. division of Surrey, 3 miles (S. S. E.) from Croydon; containing 264 inhabitants. The parish is pleasantly situated, and is intersected by the London and Brighton railway. It comprises by measurement 2195 acres, of which 310 are meadow and pasture, 270 woodland, and the remainder arable. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7; patron, A. D. Wigsell, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £456, and the glebe consists of 19 acres. The church is an ancient edifice, with a low tower surmounted by a spire, and contains some interesting details; the chancel was nearly rebuilt in 1832, at the expense of the Rev. J. Courtney. Purley House, here, was the residence of John Home Tooke, author of the treatise on English Grammar, called from that circumstance The Diversions of Purley.
SANDFORD, a chapelry, in the parish of St. Helen, Abingdon, union of Abingdon, hundred of Hormer, county of Berks, 3 miles (N. W. by N.) from the town of Abingdon; containing 123 inhabitants, and comprising 730a. 3r. 3p. of land.
Sandford, with Woodley.—See Woodley.
Sandford (St. Swithin)
SANDFORD (St. Swithin), a parish, in the union and hundred of Crediton, Crediton and N. divisions of Devon, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Crediton; containing 1998 inhabitants. It is bounded by the small river Creedy, and comprises 6605 acres, whereof 422 are common or waste land; the surface is varied. There are some quarries of stone of good quality for building. The village is situated on the road from Exeter to South Molton; a fair for bullocks and sheep is held in it on the Monday after St. Swithin's day. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £205; the patronage and impropriation belong to the Governors of the Crediton Charity, whose tithes have been commuted for £1150. The church, formerly a chapel of ease to the church of Crediton, is a neat structure in the early English style, with a low square tower.
Sandford (St. Andrew)
SANDFORD (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Abingdon, hundred of Bullingdon, county of Oxford, 3 miles (S. S. E.) from Oxford; containing 304 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the east bank of the river Isis, and on the road from Oxford, through Henley, to London; and is a favourite place of resort in the aquatic excursions of the collegians. On the Isis is a paper-mill affording employment to fifteen men and thirty women. The living is a donative, in the patronage of the Duke of Marlborough, with a net income of £15. The church was built in the twelfth century, and is in various styles. Some years since, a stone which had been used as a common flagstone, was dug up; and on the reverse was found a rich carving, representing the Assumption, surrounded by a wreath of angels: it is now erected over the north end of the chancel of the church, near the altar. Here was a preceptory of Knights Templars, the brethren of which had the management of most of the estates belonging to that order in the neighbouring counties.
Sandford (St. Martin)
SANDFORD (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Woodstock, hundred of Wootton, county of Oxford, 3¾ miles (E. N. E.) from Neat-Enstone; containing 515 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1850 acres; the surface is diversified with hills of no great elevation, and the soil is a strong clay, alternated with sand. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 0. 5.; net income, £180; patrons, the Duke of Marlborough and the Rev. Edward Marshall; impropriators, various proprietors of land. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1767.
SANDFORD, a hamlet, in the parish of Warcop, East ward and union, county of Westmorland, 4¼ miles (W. N. W.) from Brough. There are several intrenchments and tumuli in the vicinity; the largest of the latter was opened in 1766, and found to contain calcined human bones and some military weapons.
Sandford-Orcas (St. Nicholas)
SANDFORD-ORCAS (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Sherborne, hundred of Horethorne, E. division of Somerset, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from Sherborne; containing 370 inhabitants. It comprises 1100 acres of land, in the south-eastern part of the county, on the border of Dorsetshire. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 9. 9½., and in the gift of John Hutchins, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £260, and the glebe comprises 45 acres. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
SANDGATE, a chapelry, partly within the liberty of the town of Folkestone, and partly in the parish of Cheriton, union of Elham, hundred of Folkestone, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 1¼ mile (W. by S.) from Folkestone, and 8 miles (W. S. W.) from Dovor; containing 979 inhabitants. The name of the village is derived from its situation in one of those openings to the sea formerly called gates, and from the sandy nature of the soil on which it stands: it emerged from obscurity about 70 years since, when two yards were established for ship-building, and six 28-gun frigates were built, of about 800 tons each. A castle similar to those at Deal and Walmer, was erected by Henry VIII., in 1539, on the site, it is supposed, of a more ancient one which stood here in the reign of Richard II. It was formerly an object of much curiosity, but has undergone considerable alterations of late years, the large circular tower in the centre having been converted into a martello tower. During the late war with France there was a summer camp on Shorncliff, a hill at the north side of the village; where, also, some extensive barracks were erected about 50 years since. At the bottom of the hill commences the Military canal, cut in a zigzag line along the coast, and following the course of the hills for 23 miles, terminating at Cliff End, in Sussex. The village is situated on the shore, with hills immediately behind it, and is in the highest degree salubrious and pleasant. It consists principally of irregularly-built houses, forming one long street, and has machines, and every requisite for hot and cold bathing, with a library and readingrooms. Sandgate is rising into estimation as a wateringplace; there are some elegant villas, and the SouthEastern railway passes within a short distance. A fair for toys is held on July 23rd. The fourth Earl of Darnley, in 1822, erected a neat cruciform chapel, which was enlarged after his decease, by subscription, aided by a grant of £200 from the Incorporated Society: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £192; patron, the Hon. J. D. Bligh. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. On the summit of a hill in the neighbourhood is an ancient camp of elliptic shape, comprising nearly two acres, the formation of which is attributed to King Ethelbert.