A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Babcary (Holy Cross)
BABCARY (Holy Cross), a parish, in the union of Langport, hundred of Catsash, E. division of Somerset, 4¾ miles (E.) from Somerton; containing 465 inhabitants, and comprising by computation 2500 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 10. 5., and in the gift and incumbency of the Rev. W. H. Twemlow. The rector's tithes have been commuted for £400, besides which a sum of £8. 15. is payable to an impropriator; the glebe comprises 45 acres. The Wesleyans have a place of worship.
Babingley (St. Felix)
BABINGLEY (St. Felix), a parish, in the union and hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, 8½ miles (N. N. E.) from Lynn; containing 54 inhabitants. It is intersected by the road from Lynn to Wells, and comprises 849a. 3r. 25p., of which 214 acres are arable, 390 pasture and meadow, 98 woodland, and 139 heath; the surface is low and flat, and the soil in some parts light and gravelly, and in others good meadow earth. The living is a discharged rectory, annexed to that of Sanderingham, and valued in the king's books at £4. 13. 4.: the tithes have been commuted for £102. The church is supposed to be the oldest in the county, and is said to have been originally erected by Felix, the apostle of the East Angles, to whom it was afterwards dedicated.
Babington (St. Margaret)
BABINGTON (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Frome, hundred of Kilmersdon, E. division of Somerset, 5½ miles (W. N. W.) from Frome; containing 163 inhabitants. It comprises 800 acres; and contains abundance of limestone, and some coal, of which a mine is in full operation. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the gift of Col. Jolliffe: the tithes have been commuted for £116, and the glebe consists of about 7 acres. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; also a school endowed with £20 per annum, bequeathed in 1758 by Elizabeth Long.
Babraham (St. Peter)
BABRAHAM (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Linton, hundred of Chilford, county of Cambridge, 4½ miles (N. W.) from Linton; containing 217 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 2500 acres; and is intersected by the Cambridge and Colchester road, and bounded on the south-west by the road from London to Newmarket. A splendid mansion in the Elizabethan style has lately been erected, which, with the park, gardens, and pleasure-grounds, contributes greatly to the ornamental scenery of the locality. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 5. 10.; patron and impropriator, R. J. Adeane, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £28, and the small for £125; the glebe consists of 4 acres. The church is an ancient building in the decorated style, situated in the pleasure-grounds of the patron, to the memory of several branches of whose family it contains some handsome monuments. There is a free school, supported from bequests by Levinus and James Bush, Esqrs., and Judith Bennett, who also left an endowment for an almshouse for six women, and £25 per annum for apprenticing poor boys; the income is now £134.
Babur, county of Norfolk.—See Bawburgh.
Babworth (All Saints)
BABWORTH (All Saints), a parish, in the union of East Retford, Hatfield division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 1¼ mile (W.) from East Retford; containing 577 inhabitants. It comprises 5882a. 3r. 38p., of which about 5028 acres are arable, 370 meadow and pasture, and 479 woodland; the surface is undulated, and the scenery enriched with wood. The Chesterfield canal bounds the parish on the north. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 19. 2., and in the gift of the Hon. J. B. Simpson: the tithes have been commuted for £815, and the glebe consists of 20 acres. The church is a small neat edifice in the later English style, with a square embattled tower crowned with pinnacles, and has been recently repewed and beautified. Lindley Simpson, Esq., in 1781, bequeathed the profits of a share in the Chesterfield canal for the support of a school, to which also the gentry of the neighbourhood contribute. A schoolroom was built in 1836, at the expense of J. Rogers, Esq., and has been licensed for the celebration of divine service.
BACHE, a township, in the parish of St. Oswald, Chester union of Great Boughton, Lower division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester; containing 18 inhabitants. It comprises 93 acres, of a loamy soil. Bache Hall was garrisoned for the parliament in the early part of the civil war, and destroyed during the siege of Chester, in 1645.
Backford (St. Oswald)
BACKFORD (St. Oswald), a parish, in the union of Great Boughton, partly in the Higher division of the hundred of Wirrall, and partly in the Lower division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester; comprising the townships of Backford, Caughall, Chorlton, Lea, and Mollington-Tarrant; and containing 556 inhabitants, of whom about 200 are in the township of Backford, 4 miles (N.) from Chester, on the road to Birkenhead. During a great part of the 13th and 14th centuries, the manor was held by the Masseys, of Timperley; about the year 1580 it was sold to Thomas Aldersey, by whom it was soon afterwards alienated to the Birkenheads, who resided at Backford Hall until the family became extinct in the male line in 1724. The parish comprises 3006 acres, whereof 687 are in Backford township, and of a sandy and clayey soil. The Ellesmere canal skirts the parish on the south; and at Mollington is a station of the Chester and Birkenhead railway. The vicinity of the place to the city of Chester renders it cheerful and desirable for residence. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 0. 5.; net income, £230; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Chester: the tithes of Backford township have been commuted for £64 and £46. 3., payable respectively to the bishop and the vicar. The church was rebuilt in the reign of Anne, with the exception of the tower and chancel, built in that of Henry VI. A school is partly supported by subscription; and an excellent school-house was erected in 1844, under the auspices of the vicar, the Rev. Francis Bryans, at a cost of £345, raised by subscription, aided by public grants.
Backwell (St. Andrew)
BACKWELL (St. Andrew), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Bedminster, hundred of Hartcliffe with Bedminster, E. division of Somerset, 7¼ miles (S. W. by W.) from Bristol; containing, with the hamlets of Churchtown, Downside, Farley, Moorside, and West-town, 1161 inhabitants. It includes some extensive collieries, and some quarries producing a kind of calcareous stone of a reddish colour, variegated with blue and white veins, and which is susceptible of a very high polish. The weekly market, granted by Edward II. has been long discontinued; but a fair for cattle and pedlery is held on the 21st of September. The living consists of a sinecure rectory and a discharged vicarage; the rectory valued in the king's books at £11. 16. 3., with a net income of £253; the vicarage valued at £6. 19. 9½., with a net income of £144; patron of both, the Marquess of Bath.
BACKWORTH, a township, in the parish of Earsdon, union of Tynemouth, E. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 7 miles (N. E. by N.) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne; containing 413 inhabitants. This place formerly belonged to Tynemouth priory, and afterwards to the Grey family, by whom it was sold to the late Duke of Northumberland, for £95,000. The soil is fertile, and favourable to the growth of wheat; the district abounds in coal, and an extensive colliery is in operation, the produce of which is of a superior quality, and known as "Northumberland Wallsend." The great tithes have been commuted for £107. Sir Charles Grey, Knt., the governor of Barbadoes, was born at Backworth House.
Baconsthorpe (St. Mary)
BACONSTHORPE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Erpingham, hundred of South Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 3½ miles (E. S. E.) from Holt; containing 326 inhabitants, and comprising 1332a. 3r. 38p. The manor was long held by the Bacons, one of whom was the learned John Bacon, who died in 1346. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9, and in the gift of John Thurston Mott, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £340, and there are 33 acres of glebe, with a handsome house. The church was partly destroyed by the fall of the steeple in 1729, but was thoroughly repaired, chiefly at the expense of the Rev. Mr. Hewitt, in 1779.
BACTON, a parish, in the union of Dore, hundred of Webtree, county of Hereford, 11½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Hereford; containing 140 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1177 acres, and is bounded on the east by the river Dore: the land is fertile in corn and apples, and a considerable quantity of cider is made; there is a large supply of excellent limestone. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £3. 13. 4., and in the patronage of Francis Hamp, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £122. 9. The church contains, in the north side of the chancel, a monument of the Corinthian order, with a curious inscription, to the memory of Mrs. Blanche Parry, of Newcourt, in the parish, and for many years maid of honour to Queen Elizabeth. Mrs. Blanche Parry, in 1589, bequeathed as much land as would produce 140 bushels of wheat and rye, to be divided among the poor of Bacton and the hamlet of Newton; and there are other bequests to the poor, recorded on a stone slab in the church. Some chalybeate springs have been discovered within the last few years.
Bacton (St. Andrew)
BACTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the Tunstead and Happing incorporation, hundred of Tunstead, E. division of Norfolk, 4¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from North Walsham; containing 513 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1629a. 14p., of which 1327 acres are arable, and 275 pasture and meadow. Bacton-green is a fishingvillage on the coast, having three curing-houses; six large and several small boats employed in the herring, crab, and lobster fishery; and many vessels engaged in the coal-trade. A fair is held on the first Monday in August. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £5. 3. 1½.; net income, £263; patrons, and impropriators of the remainder of the great tithes, the family of Wodehouse. The glebe consists of 28 acres, with a house. The church, situated on an eminence, is chiefly in the decorated style, and contains a handsome and elaborately sculptured font. There is a place of worship for Particular Baptists. At Bromeholme are the remains of a priory for Cluniac monks, founded by W. De Glanvill in 1113.—See Bromeholme.
Bacton (St. Mary)
BACTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Hartismere, W. division of Suffolk, 6½ miles (N.) from Stow-Market; containing 800 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2226 acres, of which 91 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 12. 3½.; and in the patronage of H. D. Hemsworth, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £736, and there are nearly 52 acres of glebe. The church is chiefly in the decorated style, and consists of a nave, chancel, and aisles, with an embattled tower surmounted by a shingled spire.
BACUP, a consolidated chapelry, in the townships of Newchurch and Spotland, parishes of Whalley and Rochdale, union of Haslingden, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of Lancashire, 7 miles (N. by W.) from Rochdale; containing 7279 inhabitants. The village or town is situated in a beautiful valley, from which the ground ascends on both sides to high moorland, abounding in game. The soil is alluvial, inclined to clay; and coal, and excellent stone for building, are in great plenty: at Dulesgate is a bed of hard coal similar to that of Halifax. The river Erewell or Irwell, which takes its rise at Cliviger, two miles and a half to the north, runs through the village, where a tributary stream joins it; and the roads from Rochdale to Burnley, and from Todmorden to Haslingden, cross each other in the middle of the village. The population is chiefly employed in cotton factories. A cattle-fair is held on the first Tuesday in every month; and fairs are also held on the Tuesday and Wednesday before Good-Friday, the first Friday and Saturday in June, and the 25th and 26th of October. An act was passed in 1846, for constructing a branch line connecting Bacup with the Leeds and Manchester railway; and another act has been obtained, for a branch in connexion with the East Lancashire railway. Fern Hill, a mansion situated on an eminence overlooking the valley, is the seat of George Ormerod, Esq.; and at Broadclough, about half a mile up the vale, is the seat of James Whitaker, Esq.
The consolidated chapelry was allotted in 1843. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Hulme Trustees, with a net income of £150, and a house; the chapel, dedicated to St. John, was consecrated in 1788. There are two places of worship for Particular Baptists, and two for Wesleyans. A mechanics' institution and a British school stand on the site of the original Baptist meeting-house, which was erected in 1692, and was for a considerable number of years the only place of worship in the village. A national school is supported in connexion with St. John's chapel. At Broadclough are the remains of an intrenchment, called the "Dykes," respecting the antiquity of which no tradition exists. It is cut out from the gentle slope of an eminence, and in one direction is nearly parallel to the horizon for more than 600 yards: a part of the line, for about 100 yards, appears to have been levelled; and more than 400 yards present a trench 54 feet in breadth at the bottom, and of proportionate depth. So gigantic and singular a work could only have been intended for some military purpose: it was probably one side of a vast British camp, designed to have been carried round the eminence, but left unfinished. Bacup is included in the forest of Rossendale, of which the first portion inclosed was Brandwood, in this district, granted about the year 1200, by Roger de Lacy, to an ecclesiastical establishment; the remainder was disforested in the reign of Henry VII.
Badby (St. Mary)
BADBY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Daventry, hundred of Fawsley, S. division of the county of Northampton, 2¼ miles (S. S. W.) from Daventry; containing 624 inhabitants. It is intersected by the road from Daventry to Banbury, and consists of 2147a. 30p., in equal portions of arable and pasture. The village is situated on the declivity of a hill. There are quarries of hard blue ragstone in the neighbourhood. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the living of Newnham annexed, valued in the king's books at £14; net income, £306; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. A Sunday school is endowed with the interest of £191. 17. three per cent. annuities. On a lofty eminence called Arbury hill, is an intrenchment, supposed to be Roman.
Baddesley-Clinton (St. Michael)
BADDESLEY-CLINTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Solihull, Solihull division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick, 7 miles (N. W.) from Warwick; containing 115 inhabitants. The parish is intersected by the Warwick and Birmingham canal, and skirted by the road between those two places: it comprises 1310 acres. The living is a donative, valued in the king's books at £4. 6. 8., and is in the patronage of the family of Ferrers, to whom also the impropriation belongs; net income, £27. There is a Roman Catholic chapel.
Baddesley-Ensor (St. Michael)
BADDESLEY-ENSOR (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Atherstone, Atherstone division of the hundred of Hemlingford, N. division of the county of Warwick, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Atherstone; containing 579 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from the Watling-street to the Bentley turnpikeroad; and comprises by computation 1125 acres, in about equal portions of arable and pasture, with small interspersions of wood. The land is very elevated, commanding a panoramic view of the surrounding country, including Bromsgrove-Lickey, Barr-Beacon hill, and, beyond, Lichfield, Cannock Chase, &c.; the prevailing soil is a stiff clay. A coal-mine is in operation. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Inhabitants, with the approval of the vicar of Polesworth; net income, £66, with a parsonage of picturesque appearance. The present church, erected by W. S. Dugdale, Esq., in the style of the 13th century, was consecrated in September 1846. There is a Sunday school; and at Bentley is a day school supported by Mr. Dugdale, to which the children of this parish go.
BADDESLEY, NORTH, a parish, in the union of Hursley, hundred of Mansbridge, Romsey and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (E. by S.) from Romsey; containing 302 inhabitants. It comprises about 2000 acres, of which 1500 are under cultivation, and a considerable quantity common. Here was anciently a preceptory of Knights Templars. The living is a donative; net income, £100; patron and impropriator, T. Chamberlayne, Esq. The glebe-house is a cottage residence, with 2 acres of land attached. The church is very ancient.
BADDESLEY, SOUTH, a chapelry, in the parish of Boldre, union of Lymington, partly in the E. division of the New Forest, and partly in the hundred of Christchurch, Lymington and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 2 miles (E. N. E.) from Lymington; containing 1238 inhabitants. The living is a donative, endowed with £12 per annum rent-charge on the estate of Pylewell, the proprietor of which is patron. The chapel is a neat edifice, capable of accommodating 200 persons.
Baddiley (St. Michael)
BADDILEY (St. Michael), a parish, in the union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 3 miles (W. S. W.) from Nantwich; containing 275 inhabitants. The manor belonged, as early as the time of William I., to the family of Praers; and in the reign of Edward III. passed, by marriage with the coheiresses of William Praers, to the Bromleys, Hondfords, and Mainwarings, in which last family it ultimately became solely vested. The parish comprises 2300 acres of land, the soil of which is clay and sand: the Ellesmere canal passes through. Baddiley Hall, once the noble residence of the Mainwarings, is now a farmhouse. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £24. 3. 6., and in the gift of John Tollemache, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £195; the glebe consists of nine acres, and a house built in 1844. The church is of oak, and of great antiquity; the upright timbers, being much decayed, were cased with brick in 1811, but the roof and ceiling are still in fine preservation. About £50, obtained from 39 acres of land, are yearly distributed among the poor.
BADDINGTON, a township, in the parish of Acton, union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 1½ mile (S. S. W) from Nantwich; containing 137 inhabitants. It comprises 1102 acres of land, whereof clay is the prevailing soil. The Liverpool and Birmingham Junction canal passes near. A rentcharge of £134 has been awarded as a commutation for the impropriate tithes, and one of £28. 18. for the vicarial.
Baddow, Great (St. Mary)
BADDOW, GREAT (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Chelmsford; S. division of Essex, 1 mile (S. E.) from Chelmsford; containing 2022 inhabitants. It comprises 3620a. 1r. 27p., of which 150 acres are common or waste: the village is very pleasantly situated, and inhabited by several highly respectable families. A large brewery was established about seventy years since. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £18. 6. 8., and in the patronage of Mrs. Bullen; impropriator, J. A. Houblon, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £636, and the vicarial for one of £495. 15.: the glebe belonging to the impropriator comprises about 22 acres, and the vicar's glebe one acre. The church contains some ancient monuments, one of which, in the south aisle, is very beautiful, representing the figure of a child, in a mournful attitude supporting the bust of a female. A free school was founded in 1731, by Jasper Jefferey, of London, and endowed with property invested in the purchase of estates now producing an annual income of about £168.
Baddow, Little (St. Mary)
BADDOW, LITTLE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Chelmsford, S. division of Essex, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from Chelmsford; containing, with the hamlet of Middle Mead, 592 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north by the navigable river Chelmer, on which are two large flour-mills with convenient quays. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 2. 2.; patron and impropriator, Col. Strutt, who is also patron of the rectory, which is a sinecure valued at £7. 13. 4. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £358, the vicarial for £197. 5. 6., and the rectorial for £126. 17.: the rectorial glebe comprises 40, and the vicarial 5, acres. The church is an ancient edifice, with a tower at the west end, and consists of a nave and chancel, in which latter is a stately monument of marble to Henry Mildmay, of Graces. Here is a place of worship for Independents. In 1717, Edmund Butler bequeathed 160 acres of land and 36 acres of woodland, for the clothing and education of children of this parish and that of Boreham; the whole is now let for £130 per annum; and to this income are added £11, the rent of two cottages, and £15. 1., annual dividends on three and a half per cent. stock.
Badger, or Bagsore (St. Giles)
BADGER, or Bagsore (St. Giles), a parish, within the liberties of the borough of Wenlock, union of Shiffnall, locally in the hundred of Brimstree, S. division of Salop, 5 miles (S.) from Shiffnall; containing 137 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 920 acres: red sandstone of good quality is obtained, and from the quarries was raised the stone for the erection of the church. The neighbourhood also abounds with stately timber, and from one oak alone was procured wood for the pulpit, pews, and all the other interior fitting-up of the church. Here is a narrow rocky dingle, richly wooded, through which flows a small river; walks have been tastefully formed, and the spot is much resorted to in the summer. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 13. 4., and in the gift of R. H. Cheney, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £254. 10. 6., and the glebe comprises 25 acres. The church was erected about 1835, at the expense of the patron, and is in the later English style, and embellished with stained glass.
Badgeworth (St. Mary)
BADGEWORTH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Cheltenham, Upper division of the hundred of Dudstone and King's Barton, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 4 miles (S. W. by W.) from Cheltenham; containing, with the hamlets of Bentham, Little Shurdington, and Little Witcombe, 903 inhabitants, of whom 210 are in the hamlet of Badgeworth. The living is a vicarage, with the living of Great Shurdington annexed, valued in the king's books at £20. 11. 3.; net income, £295; patron, Joseph Ellis Viner, Esq.; impropriators, the Principal and Fellows of Jesus College, Oxford, in whom the great tithes are vested for the support of a school at Abergavenny, subject to a deduction of £16 per annum paid to Christ-Church College, Cambridge. The church is in the early English style, with some later portions, and has a very handsome tower. On an estate called Cold Pool is a mineral spring, the water of which is similar to that of Cheltenham.