A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Badgington, or Bagendon (St. Margaret)
BADGINGTON, or Bagendon (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Cirencester, hundred of Crowthorne and Minety, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 3¼ miles (N.) from Cirencester; containing 172 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 1100 acres of land in good cultivation: stone of inferior quality is raised for road-making and rough building. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 4. 4½., and in the gift of Jesus College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £200, and the glebe consists of about 78 acres.
Badgworth (St. Congar)
BADGWORTH (St. Congar), a parish, in the union of Axbridge, hundred of Winterstoke, E. division of Somerset, 2½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Axbridge; containing 321 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £25. 15., and in the gift of Sir J. Mordaunt, Bart.: the tithes have been commuted for £432. 9., and the glebe comprises 85½ acres.
Badingham (St. John the Baptist)
BADINGHAM (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union and hundred of Hoxne, E. division of Suffolk, 14 miles (N. by E.) from Woodbridge; containing 864 inhabitants, and comprising 3172a. 26p. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22. 16. 8., and in the gift of the Gorton family: the tithes have been commuted for £875, and there are 25 acres of glebe. The church has a nave and chancel, and an embattled tower.
Badlesmere (St. Leonard)
BADLESMERE (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union and hundred of Faversham, Upper division of the lathe of Scray, E. division of Kent, 4¼ miles (S.) from Faversham; containing 122 inhabitants. It comprises 1150 acres, of which 118 are in wood; the surface is hilly, and the soil clay and chalk. A fair is held on Nov. 5th. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Leaveland united, valued in the king's books at £5. 2., and in the patronage of Lord Sondes: the tithes have been commuted for £400, and the glebe consists of 13 acres. A parsonage-house was built in 1836.
Badley (St. Mary)
BADLEY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Bosmere and Claydon, E. division of Suffolk, 2 miles (W. N. W.) from Needham; containing 83 inhabitants. This parish comprises about 1200 acres. It is situated on the navigable river Gipping, by which it is bounded on the north-east; and is traversed by the road from Ipswich to Bury-St. Edmund's. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £40; patron and impropriator, the Earl of Ashburnham. The church is an ancient structure, containing many memorials of the Poleys.
Badminton, Great (St. Michael)
BADMINTON, GREAT (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Chipping, Upper division of the hundred of Grumbald's-Ash, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 6½ miles (E. by N.) from Chipping-Sodbury; containing 552 inhabitants. This parish, together with Little Badminton, is nearly all included within the boundary wall of Badminton Park, the seat of the Duke of Beaufort, whose ancestor, the first duke, built a princely mansion in the reign of Charles II., on the site of an ancient house belonging to the Boteler family. The roads from Cheltenham and Cirencester to Bath unite here. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 5. 7½.; net income, £7; patron, the Duke of Beaufort, by whose family the church was rebuilt in 1785. Mary, Duchess Dowager, in 1705 gave a rent-charge of £94 for the endowment of an almshouse for three men and three women, and a school for poor children.
BADMINTON, LITTLE, a tything, in the parish of Hawkesbury, union of Chipping-Sodbury, Upper division of the hundred of Grumbald's Ash, W. division of the county of Gloucester; containing 127 inhabitants. Here was a chapel to the vicarage of Great Badminton, now in ruins.
Badsey (St. James)
BADSEY (St. James), a parish, in the union of Evesham, Upper division of the hundred of Blackenhurst, Pershore and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 2¼ miles (E. by S.) from Evesham; containing, with the hamlet of Aldington, 497 inhabitants. This place belonged to the abbey of Evesham, even before the Conquest; and in the reign of Edward III. the abbot provided a garden and buildings here, for the retirement of sick and convalescent monks from the establishment. The parish comprises 1795 acres, and is bordered on the west by the navigable river Avon, which here receives a small brook, which in its course turns several mills, including a silk-mill. It is crossed from west to east by the road from Evesham to Chipping-Campden. The village consists of an airy street, with some substantial dwellings. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8.; net income, £150; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The church stands in an open burial-ground rising gently from the street, whence its remarkably pretty tower and ancient yew-tree are seen with good effect.
Badsworth (St. Mary)
BADSWORTH (St. Mary), a parish, in the Upper division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York; containing 750 inhabitants, of whom 200 are in the township of Badsworth, 5 miles (S.) from Pontefract. This parish, which is on the road from Wakefield to Doncaster, comprises the townships of Badsworth, Thorp-Audlin, and Upton, and consists of about 4320 acres of productive land, of which 1750 are in the first-named township, the property of the Earl Fitzwilliam, and the centre of a sporting district called the Badsworth Hunt. The place was the residence of Col. Bright, an eminent officer in the parliamentarian army, who was created a baronet soon after the restoration, and was buried in the church. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £32. 5. 10., and in the patronage of the Earl: the tithes have been commuted for £500, and the glebe comprises 168 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the decorated English style, with later insertions, and was thoroughly repaired in 1826, at an expense of £500. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Badwell-Ash (St. Mary)
BADWELL-ASH (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Stow, hundred of Blackbourn, W. division of Suffolk, 5 miles (E.) from Ixworth; containing 458 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £69, and is in the patronage of Miss R. Clough, to whom the impropriation belongs, and whose tithes have been commuted for £357. The church is in the decorated style, and consists of a nave, chancel, and south aisle, with an embattled tower.
Bagborough, West (Holy Trinity)
BAGBOROUGH, WEST (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Taunton, hundred of Taunton and Taunton-Dean, W. division of Somerset, 8 miles (N. W. by W.) from Taunton; containing 449 inhabitants. The parish is situated in a fertile district, watered by numerous streams from the hills in the vicinity, and abounds with pleasingly diversified scenery; it comprises by measurement 1972 acres, of which 762 are arable, 742 meadow, 150 woodland, and 120 common. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 10. 10.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. J. B. B. Clarke, whose tithes have been commuted for £295. 4., and who has a glebe of 63 acres.
BAGBY, a township, in the parish of KirbyKnowle, union of Thirsk, wapentake of Birdforth, N. riding of York, 2¼ miles (E. S. E.) from Thirsk; containing, with the hamlet of Islebeck, 317 inhabitants. This township is separated from the main part of the parish by intervening portions of other parishes, and is situated near Thirkleby, about 4 miles distant from the parochial church. It is intersected by the York and Newcastle railway. There is a chapel of ease here; also a place of worship for Wesleyans.
BAGGRAVE, a liberty, in that part of the parish of Hungerton which is in the hundred of Gartree, union of Billesdon, N. division of the county of Leicester, 8½ miles (E. N. E.) from Leicester, containing 27 inhabitants.
Bagington (St. John the Baptist)
BAGINGTON (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Warwick, Kenilworth division of the hundred of Knightlow, S. division of the county of Warwick, 3½ miles (S. by E.) from Coventry; containing 245 inhabitants. It is situated between the rivers Avon and Sow, the former bounding it on the east, and the latter on the west; and consists of 1650 acres, of which a considerable portion is attached to Bagington Hall. The Duke of Hereford, afterwards Henry IV., previously to the day appointed for the combat between him and the Duke of Norfolk at Coventry, in the reign of Richard II., took up his residence in an ancient castle in the parish, of which there are now no remains. The hall was built in 1706 (the old manor-house having in that year been destroyed by fire) by William Bromley, Esq., speaker of the house of commons, and subsequently one of the principal secretaries of state. The London and Birmingham railway passes in the vicinity, and here is a station on the line. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 1. 8., and in the patronage of the Rev. W. D. Bromley: the tithes have been commuted for £355, and there is a glebe of 19 acres. A school conducted on the national plan is supported by an endowment.
BAGLEY-WOOD, an extra-parochial liberty, in the hundred of Hormer, county of Berks, 3¼ miles (N. by E.) from Abingdon; containing 21 inhabitants, and comprising 390 acres. A monastery was founded here by Cissa, viceroy of Centwine, ninth king of Wessex; which was removed to Abingdon in 680, that town and its appendages having been assigned to it by Ceadwalla.
BAGNALL, a township, in the parish of Bucknall, union of Stoke-upon-Trent, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 3¾ miles (N. E.) from Hanley; containing 347 inhabitants. This is an agricultural township, formerly included in the extensive parish of Stoke, from which it was separated in 1807. Here is a chapel, rebuilt in 1834, at a cost of £520.
BAGSHOT, a chapelry, in the parish of Windlesham, union of Chertsey, First division of the hundred of Woking, W. division of Surrey, 12 miles (N. N. W.) from Guildford, and 26 (W. S. W.) from London, on the great western road; containing 1071 inhabitants. This place, formerly called Holy Hall, gives name to a tract of heath land, which was anciently more extensive, a great part having been inclosed and cultivated. It was once a residence of the kings of England, who had a mansion here, and a park, which was laid open after the civil war in the reign of Charles I.: the house was occupied by the late Duke of Gloucester. On the borders of Bagshot Heath are some handsome villas. The chapel was built in 1819 by subscription, aided by a grant of £200 from the Incorporated Society, in consideration of which 225 sittings are free. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Baptists; and an almshouse for six men and women, built in 1761, by James Butler, Esq.
Bagthorpe (St. Mary)
BAGTHORPE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Docking, hundred of Gallow, W. division of Norfolk, 2 miles (E.) from Great Bircham; containing 78 inhabitants. It comprises 750a. 2r. 26p., of which about 600 acres are arable, 72 pasture and meadow, and 70 woodland. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 10., and in the gift of the Chad family: the tithes have been commuted for £140, and there are eight acres of glebe. The church is in the early English style.
BAGTHORPE, a hamlet, in the parish of Selston, union of Basford, N. division of the wapentake of Broxtow and of the county of Nottingham, 3 miles (S. E.) from Selston; containing 566 inhabitants. It is the central division of the parish, and lies on the road from Greasley to Selston. Here is Wansley Hall, anciently the seat of Sir Ranulph de Wandesley; near which, in 1830, an urn full of silver coins was found.
BAGULEY, a township, in the parish of Bowdon, union of Altrincham, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 6¼ miles (W. by S.) from Stockport; containing 505 inhabitants. This was at an early period the property of the Baguleys, whose heiress brought it to the Leghs; the latter sold it, and in 1722 it belonged to Viscount Allen, of whom it was purchased by the Jacksons, of Rostherne. The township comprises 1769 acres, of which 114 are common or waste; the soil is clay, loam, and moss. The tithes have been commuted for £153 payable to the Bishop of Chester, £34 to the vicar of Bowden, and £27 to the rector of Northen.
BAGWORTH, a chapelry, in the parish of Thornton, union of Market-Bosworth, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 10 miles (W. by N.) from Leicester; containing, with the liberty of Bagworth-Park, 569 inhabitants. The chapelry comprises 2101 acres, one-third arable, and the remainder nearly all pasture; the surface is rather hilly, the soil alluvial, and the scenery plain. The Leicester and Swannington railway passes through. The chapel, dedicated to the Holy Rood, has a Saxon door, and the walls bear the date 1637. There is a place of worship for General Baptists. A school, with a house and garden, was founded by Lord Maynard in 1761, and endowed with £8 per annum; and £20 per annum, the produce of various bequests, are distributed among the poor.
BAILDON, a chapelry, under Gilbert's act, in the parish of Otley, Upper division of the wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 4½ miles (N. by W.) from Bradford; containing 3280 inhabitants. This chapelry, which is divided into Upper and Lower Baildon, and includes the hamlets of Moorside, Charlestown, Gill's-Mills, Trench, and the Green, comprises 1378a. 2r. 37p., whereof 546 acres are inclosed, 700 common, and the remainder wood. The lands are chiefly arable, with a due proportion of meadow and pasture. The substratum abounds with coal, of which a mine, now in operation, is supposed to have been one of the first opened in this part of the country; and with stone of good quality, which is quarried for building purposes and for flags. The surface is boldly varied, and the scenery in many parts strikingly picturesque. The village of Baildon is situated on an eminence, overlooking the valley of the Aire, in which is a waterfall; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the worsted manufacture. In the centre of the village is an ancient cross; and fairs are held on the 2nd of March, and the 4th of November. The Leeds and Liverpool canal borders on the chapelry. The chapel, dedicated to St. John, is a very ancient structure, and from the similarity of some of its details, is supposed to be coeval with the foundation of Kirkstall Abbey: it contains 500 sittings, and has an old font, curiously sculptured. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Otley; net income, £148, arising from a glebe of 110 acres allotted at the inclosure. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists, Moravians, and Wesleyans.
BAILEY, with Aighton and Chaigley, a township, in the parish of Mitton, union of Clitheroe, Lower division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 8 miles (N.) from Blackburn; containing 1798 inhabitants. Bailey is a separate manor, which was purchased of Cardinal Weld some years since, by Joseph Fenton, Esq.; and lies on the south declination of Longridge Fell, sloping down to the Ribble. The hall is of the date 51st Edward III.—See Aighton and Chaigley.
BAILIE, a township, in the parish of Bewcastle, union of Longtown, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from Longtown; containing 431 inhabitants. The scenery is of a romantic description, and there is a long range of lofty crags, which extends to the point where the kingdom of Scotland and the counties of Cumberland and Northumberland meet.
BAINBRIDGE, a township, in the parish of Aysgarth, wapentake of Hang-West, N. riding of York, 1½ mile (S. W.) from Askrigg; containing 786 inhabitants. This township comprises by computation 14,210 acres, and takes its name from its situation on the river Bain, which is here crossed by a good stone bridge on the Aysgarth road, and is a considerable stream tributary to the neighbouring Ure, over which is also a bridge on the Askrigg road, about half a mile from the former. The Bain is supplied from the lake SeamerWater, which is of considerable extent and has its source among the mountains of Raydale-side, a secluded valley within the township; the lake has two beautiful cataracts on its north-western side, and is a favourite resort of several kinds of waterfowl. Overlooking the mouth of the lake stands the beautiful rural hamlet of Counter-side, opposite the Roman station on Addlebrough mountain. The station, with the camp beneath, commanded an important and extensive district, now comprised, with its various ramifications, under the name of Wensley dale, and varying from the wildest mountain to the richest vale scenery in England, though but imperfectly known to tourists. Near the camp have been found divers Roman relics, including a statue of the Emperor Commodus. At Stalling-Busk, in Raydale-side, is a church, the living of which is in the gift of the Vicar of Aysgarth: at Bainbridge the Wesleyans and Society of Friends have places of worship; and the Friends have also a meeting-house at Counterside. The celebrated Dr. John Fothergill was born at Carr-End, in the district.
Bainton (St. Mary)
BAINTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Stamford, soke of Peterborough, N. division of the county of Northampton, 4½ miles (S. E.) from Stamford; containing 161 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from London to Stamford, and near the river Welland, which is navigable to Boston; it comprises 993a. 1r. 31p. of fertile land, and contains some quarries of stone chiefly used for rough building and road-making. The living is united to the rectory of Ufford; the tithes were commuted for corn-rents in 1796. The church exhibits some interesting specimens of early English architecture. On the east of the parish are remains of the Roman road to Lincoln.
BAINTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Stoke-Lyne, union of Bicester, hundred of Ploughley, county of Oxford, 3 miles (N.) from Bicester. The great tithes have been commuted for £233, and the vicarial for £57.
Bainton (St. Andrew)
BAINTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Driffield, Bainton-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 5¾ miles (S. W.) from Great Driffield; containing 452 inhabitants. This place, in which a beacon was anciently erected on an eminence near the village, to warn of approaching danger, gives the name to this division of the wapentake. The parish comprises 3280 acres, which include Neswick, and of which two-thirds are arable, and the remainder meadow and pasture with a small portion of woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £35. 14. 9½.; net income, £757; patrons, the President and Fellows of St. John's College, Oxford. The land attached comprises about 602 acres, the tithes of Bainton having been commuted for land in 1774. The church is an ancient structure, the tower of which exhibits a part only of its octagonal spire, the other part having fallen down about the middle of the last century: the interior, which was repaired in 1842, contains several interesting antiquities. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans. The petty-sessions for the Bainton-Beacon division are held here once a month.
Baithley, county of Norfolk.—See Bale.
Bakewell (All Saints)
BAKEWELL (All Saints), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union (exclusively of a portion which is in the union of Chapel-en-le-Frith), in the hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby; comprising the townships of Ashford, Baslow with Bubnell, Beeley, Blackwell, Brushfield, Buxton, Calver, Chelmorton, Curbar, Flagg, Froggatt, Harthill, Hassop, Great Longstone with Holme, Little Longstone, Monyash, Over and Nether Haddon, Rowland, Great Rowsley, Sheldon, Taddington with Priestcliffe, and part of Wardlow; and containing 10,363 inhabitants, of whom 1976 are in the town, 26 miles (N. W.) from Derby, and 152 (N. W. by N.) from London. The Saxon name of this place, Baderanwylla, or Badde cum Well, of which its present appellation is a contraction, is derived from a chalybeate spring, which was in great repute prior to the year 924, when Edward the Elder is said to have built a castle, or fort, in the vicinity. The town is in an improving state: it is situated on the river Wye, in a beautiful and picturesque vale, about four miles from the confluence of the Wye and Derwent, and at nearly an equal distance from Buxton and Matlock, between which places is an excellent road, leading by Bakewell through a district replete with pleasingly diversified scenery. Two miles south of the town is Haddon Hall, the property of the Duke of Rutland, one of the largest and most perfect baronial mansions in the kingdom: about three miles towards the northeast is Chatsworth House, the princely seat of the Duke of Devonshire; and two miles and a half to the north is Hassop Hall, the seat of the Earl of Newburgh. The chalybeate baths have been lately re-established by the Duke of Rutland; the principal bath is 33 feet long, 16 wide, and of proportionate depth, and is constantly supplied with fresh water, which, on its influx, emits a considerable quantity of carbonic acid gas, and possesses a temperature of 60° of Fahrenheit. There are also shower-baths and a private warm-bath, with suitable accommodations; and a news-room has been added to the establishment. An agricultural society has been formed, the members of which hold their meetings at Bakewell and Chesterfield alternately, generally in October.
Near the entrance into the town from Ashford stands a cotton-mill, erected by the late Sir Richard Arkwright, in which about 300 persons are employed; and in the immediate vicinity are extensive lead-mines, and quarries of black and grey marble, and of chertz, which last is used in the Staffordshire potteries, in manufacturing earthenware. The market is on Friday: on every alternate Monday there is a cattle-market, which is now extremely well supplied with store and fat cattle and sheep; and fairs are held on Easter-Monday, WhitMonday, Aug. 26th, the Monday next after Oct. 10th, and the Monday after Nov. 11th, for horses and hornedcattle. One of the quarter-sessions for the county was formerly, and a petty-session for the hundred of High Peak on the first and third Friday in every month, is still, held here. A mineral court is also held for the manor, according to the local articles and customs of the lead-mines within it, which have prevailed from time immemorial. The powers of the county debt-court of Bakewell, established in 1847, extend over the greater part of the registration-district of Bakewell.
The parish comprises about 70,000 acres, chiefly hilly ground affording excellent pasture for sheep and cattle, and of which the Dukes of Rutland and Devonshire are the principal proprietors. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £40; net income, £350; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield. The tithes for the townships of Bakewell and Over Haddon were commuted, with some exceptions, for land and a money payment, in 1806. The church is a spacious cruciform structure, partly Norman, and partly in the early English style: the central tower, which was surmounted by a lofty spire, becoming dangerous from the failure of the pillars that supported it, has been taken down. Within are several magnificent altar-tombs of alabaster, with recumbent figures, and a stone font of great antiquity; in the churchyard is a cross, decorated with rude sculpture. At Baslow, Beeley, and Buxton, are churches, the livings of which are in the gift of the Duke of Devonshire; and at Ashford, Chelmorton, Great Longstone, Monyash, Sheldon, and Taddington, are others the livings of which are in the gift of the Vicar. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and others. A free school was founded by Lady Grace Manners in 1636, and endowed with £15 per annum, which has been augmented with £35 per annum by the Duke of Rutland. St. John's hospital, for six aged men, was founded and endowed in 1602, by Sir John Manners Sutton and his brother; the income amounts to £40. A dispensary and a lying-in institution have been established. The poor law union of Bakewell comprises above 50 parishes and places, and contains a population of 31,319. Dr. Thomas Denman, an eminent physician, and father of Lord Denman, chief justice of the queen's bench, was born here in 1733.